BUGATTI Automobiles

Bugatti

Bugatti
Private
Industry Automotive
Fate Sold to Hispano-Suiza (1963)
Sold to Volkswagen Group (July 1998)
Successor Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S.
Founded 1909
Founder Ettore Bugatti
Defunct 1963
Headquarters Molsheim, Alsace, France
Key people
Products Automobiles
Website www.bugatti.com

Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti. Bugatti cars were known for their design beauty (Ettore Bugatti was from a family of artists and considered himself to be both an artist and constructor) and for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 “Royale”, the Type 57 “Atlantic” and the Type 55 sports car.

The death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, and the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made. The company struggled financially, and released one last model in the 1950s, before eventually being purchased for its airplane parts business in the 1960s. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by German automobile manufacturing group Volkswagen.

Under Ettore Bugatti

Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan, Italy, and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region which was part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919. The company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, and for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettore’s family (his father, Carlo Bugatti (1856–1940), was an important Art Nouveau furniture and jewelry designer).

World War I and its aftermath

During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away, initially to Milan and later to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had been concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim. Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty formalised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France, Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the 15th Paris motor show in October 1919. He exhibited three light cars, all of them closely based on their pre-war equivalents, and each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per cylinder. Smallest of the three was a “Type 13” with a racing body (constructed by Bugatti themselves) and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm (78.7 in) wheelbase. The others were a “Type 22” and a “Type 23” with wheelbases of 2,250 and 2,400 mm (88.6 and 94.5 in) respectively.

Racing successes

The company also enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a privately entered Bugatti won the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice (in 1937 with Robert Benoist and 1939 with Pierre Veyron).

Bugatti cars were extremely successful in racing. The little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is probably the most successful racing car of all time, with over 2,000 wins. The Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who also drove it in the car’s first ever Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon. Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, and the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing success at Le Mans that is most remembered-Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car and meagre resources.

Aeroplane racing

In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize. This would be the Bugatti 100P, which never flew. It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had already applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his “Type 7.5” lifting body.

Railcar

Ettore Bugatti also designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail (Autorail Bugatti).

Family tragedy

The death of Ettore Bugatti’s son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company’s fortunes. Jean died while testing a Type 57 tank-bodied race car near the Molsheim factory.

After World War II

World War II left the Molsheim factory in ruins and the company lost control of the property. During the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at Levallois, a northwestern suburb of Paris. After the war, Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars, including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car, but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars.

Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947. Following Ettore Bugatti’s death, the business declined further and made its last appearance as a business in its own right at a Paris Motor Show in October 1952.

After a long decline, the original incarnation of Bugatti ceased operations in 1952.

Design

Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing, many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured guilloché (engine turned) finishes on them, and safety wires had been threaded through almost every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did, Bugatti’s axles were forged such that the spring passed though a carefully sized opening in the axle, a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts. He famously described his arch competitor Bentley‘s cars as “the world’s fastest lorries” for focusing on durability. According to Bugatti, “weight was the enemy”.

Important models built

Prototypes Racing cars Road cars

Gallery

Notable finds in the modern era

Relatives of Harold Carr found a rare 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante when cataloguing the doctor’s belongings after his death in 2009. Carr’s Type 57S is notable because it was originally owned by British race car driver Earl Howe. Because much of the car’s original equipment is intact, it can be restored without relying on replacement parts.

On 10 July 2009, a 1925 Bugatti Brescia Type 22 which had lain at the bottom of Lake Maggiore on the border of Switzerland and Italy for 75 years was recovered from the lake. The Mullin Museum in Oxnard, California bought it at auction for $351,343 at Bonham’s Rétromobile sale in Paris in 2010.

Attempts at revival

The company attempted a comeback under Roland Bugatti in the mid-1950s with the mid-enginedType 251 race car. Designed with help from Gioacchino Colombo, the car failed to perform to expectations and the company’s attempts at automobile production were halted.

In the 1960s, Virgil Exner designed a Bugatti as part of his “Revival Cars” project. A show version of this car was actually built by Ghia using the last Bugatti Type 101 chassis, and was shown at the 1965 Turin Motor Show. Finance was not forthcoming, and Exner then turned his attention to a revival of Stutz.

Bugatti continued manufacturing airplane parts and was sold to Hispano-Suiza, also a former auto maker turned aircraft supplier, in 1963. Snecma took over Hispano-Suiza in 1968. After acquiring Messier, Snecma merged Messier and Bugatti into Messier-Bugatti in 1977.

Modern revivals

Bugatti Automobili S.p.A. (1987–1995)

bugatti-automobili-factory-in-campogallianoView of the assembly line building of the Bugatti Automobili factory in Campogalliano

2007-06-15-18-bugatti-eb-110-bearb-klBugatti EB110 (1996)

Italian entrepreneur Romano Artioli acquired the Bugatti brand in 1987, and established Bugatti Automobili S.p.A.. Artioli commissioned architect Giampaolo Benedini to design the factory which was built in Campogalliano, Modena, Italy. Construction of the plant began in 1988, alongside the development of the first model, and it was inaugurated two years later-in 1990.

By 1989 the plans for the new Bugatti revival were presented by Paolo Stanzani and Marcello Gandini, designers of the Lamborghini Miura and Lamborghini Countach. The first production vehicle was the Bugatti EB110 GT. It used a carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer chassis, a 3.5-litre, 5-valve per cylinder, quad-turbocharged 60° V12 engine, a six-speed gearbox, and four-wheel drive.

Famed racing car designer Mauro Forghieri served as Bugatti’s technical director from 1992 through 1994.

On 27 August 1993, through his holding company, ACBN Holdings S.A. of Luxembourg, Romano Artioli purchased Lotus Cars from General Motors. Plans were made to list Bugatti shares on international stock exchanges.

Bugatti presented a prototype large saloon called the EB112 in 1993.

Perhaps the most famous Bugatti EB110 owner was seven-time Formula One World Champion racing driver Michael Schumacher who purchased an EB110 in 1994. Schumacher sold his EB110, which had been repaired after a severe 1994 crash, to Modena Motorsport, a Ferrari service and race preparation garage in Germany.

By the time the EB110 came to market, the North American and European economies were in recession. Poor economic conditions forced the company to fail and operations ceased in September 1995. A model specific to the US market called the “Bugatti America” was in the preparatory stages when the company ceased operations.

Bugatti’s liquidators sold Lotus Cars to Proton of Malaysia. German firm Dauer Racing purchased the EB110 licence and remaining parts stock in 1997 in order to produce five more EB110 SS vehicles. These five SS versions of the EB110 were greatly refined by Dauer. The Campogalliano factory was sold to a furniture-making company, which subsequently collapsed before moving in, leaving the building unoccupied. After Dauer stopped producing cars in 2011, Toscana-Motors GmbH of Germany purchased the remaining parts stock from Dauer.

Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. (1998–present)

Main article: Bugatti Automobiles

Pre-Veyron

Volkswagen AG acquired the Bugatti brand in 1998. Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. commissioned Giorgetto Giugiaro of ItalDesign to produce Bugatti Automobiles’s first concept vehicle, the EB118, a coupé that debuted at the 1998 Paris Auto Show. The EB118 concept featured a 408-kilowatt (555 PS; 547 bhp), W-18 engine. After its Paris debut, the EB118 concept was shown again in 1999 at the Geneva Auto Show and the Tokyo Motor Show. Bugatti introduced its next concepts, the EB 218 at the 1999 Geneva Motor Show and the 18/3 Chiron at the 1999 Frankfurt Motor Show (IAA).

Veyron era (2005-2015)

Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. began assembling its first regular-production vehicle, the Bugatti Veyron 16.4 (the 1001 BHP super car with an 8-litre W-16 engine with four turbochargers) in September 2005 at the Bugatti Molsheim, France assembly “studio”. On 23 February 2015, Bugatti sold its last Veyron Grand Sport Vitesse, which was named La Finale.

Chiron era (2016-present)

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GangloffBugatti Rembrandtbugattiveyronpolitiekleuren1Bugatti Veyron Super Sport Saphir BleuBugatti Veyron VinceroBugatti Veyron VitesseBugatti Veyron Viverebugatti-7bugatti-boot-e-3000000bugatti-chiron-mulebugatti-gangloff-concept-interiorbugatti-royale-type-41bugatti-t50-modelbugatti-veyron-super-sportGold Bugatti Veyronjean-bugattis-masterpieceMansory Bugatti Veyron Linea Vincero d'Oromichel-vaillant-de-zaak-bugattired-on-chrome-bugattirl-1938-bugatti-57sc-atlantic-34-2RRR Bugatti Veyron

See also

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e “Automobilia”. Toutes les voitures françaises 1920 (salon [Oct] 1919). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 31: 63. 2004.
  2. Jump up^ L’Automobiliste, 1971 P. 7
  3. Jump up^ “Bugatti Model 100 at the EAA Museum”. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  4. Jump up^ “Bugatti Aircraft Association – 100P Airplane”. Bugattiaircraft.com. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  5. Jump up^ “Streamlined Auto-Rail Car Used in France”. Popular Mechanics. Books.google.com. December 1934. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  6. Jump up^ “Automobilia”. Toutes les voitures françaises 1953 (salon Paris oct 1952). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 14: Pages 6 & 10. 2000.
  7. Jump up^ Georgano, G.N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  8. Jump up^ “1937 Bugatti Atalante Supercar, One of 17, Found in English Garage, Associated Press, January 2, 2009”. The Huffington Post. 2009-01-02. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  9. Jump up^ AISA (2011), p. 28.
  10. Jump up^ Copyright. Est February 2003. “Bugatti on TradeTwentyfourSeven website”. Trade-247.com. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  11. Jump up^ “Bugatti: 1,001 horsepower, $1.24 million”. CNN. 2005-09-16. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  12. Jump up^ “Manufacturing the Veyron”. Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. 2011-11-30. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  13. Jump up^ Sorokanich, Robert (23 February 2015). “The very last Bugatti Veyron has been sold”. Road and Track. Retrieved 23 February 2015.

External links

Škoda Auto

 laurin-klement-logo

(Laurin & Klement and) Škoda Auto

Škoda Auto
Private company
Industry Automotive
Predecessor Laurin & Klement
Founded 18 December 1895; 120 years ago (as Laurin & Klement)
Founder Václav Laurin and Václav Klement
Headquarters Mladá Boleslav, Czech Republic
Number of locations
Manufacturing facilities in Czech Republic, India, China, Russia and Slovakia.
Contract partners in Kazakhstan and Ukraine. (2013)
Area served
Worldwide (except North America)
Key people
Bernhard Maier (Chairman of the Board of Directors)
Christian Klingler (Chairman of the Supervisory Board)
Products Automobiles
Production output
Increase 1,055,500 units (2015)
Revenue Increase CZK 299.318 billion (2014)
(USD 12.37 billion)
Increase CZK 21.598 billion (2014)
(USD 892 million)
Profit Increase CZK 18.421 billion (2014)
(USD 761 million)
Number of employees
over 25,889 (2015)
Parent Volkswagen Group
Divisions Škoda Motorsport
Subsidiaries Škoda Auto Deutschland GmbH
Skoda Auto India Private Ltd.
Škoda Auto Slovensko s.r.o.
Website skoda-auto.com

Škoda Auto (Czech pronunciation: [ˈʃkoda]), more commonly known as Škoda, is a Czech automobile manufacturer founded in 1895 as Laurin & Klement. It is headquartered in Mladá Boleslav, Czech Republic.

In 1925 Laurin & Klement was acquired by Škoda Works which itself became state owned during the communist regime. After 1991 it was gradually privatized and in 2000 Škoda became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group.

Initially, the company was meant to serve the role of the VW Group’s entry brand. Over time, however, the Škoda brand has shifted progressively more upmarket, with most models overlapping with their Volkswagen counterparts on price and features, while eclipsing them on space. Its total global sales reached 1.06 million cars in 2015 and had risen annually by 1.8 percent, profit had risen by 6,5%. In 2015, a corporate strategy was launched to produce an all-electric car by 2020 or 2021 with a range of over 300 miles (480 km), 15-minute charging time, and a cost below comparative combustion-engine vehicles.

History

The Škoda Works were established as an arms manufacturing plant in 1859. Škoda Auto (and its predecessors) is one of the five oldest companies producing cars and has an unbroken history alongside Daimler, Opel, Peugeot and Tatra.

Laurin & Klement

1885-laurin-klement-foundersFounders Václav Klement (left) and Václav Laurin (1895)

1905-laurin-klement-type-aLaurin & Klement Type A (1905)

The origins of what became Škoda Auto go back to the early 1890s when, like many long-established car manufacturers, a company started manufacturing bicycles. Škoda (then Laurin & Klement) factories were founded in 1896 as a velocipede manufacturer.

In 1894, 26-year-old Václav Klement, who was a bookseller in Mladá Boleslav, Kingdom of Bohemia (today’s Czech Republic, then part of Austria-Hungary), was unable to obtain spare parts to repair his German bicycle. Klement returned his bicycle to the manufacturers, Seidel and Naumann, with a letter, in Czech, asking them to carry out repairs, only to receive a reply, in German, stating: “If you would like an answer to your inquiry, you should try writing in a language we can understand”. Not satisfied with the reply and realising the business potential, Klement, despite having no technical experience, decided to start a bicycle repair shop, which he and Václav Laurin opened in 1896 in Mladá Boleslav. Before going into partnership with Klement, Laurin was an established bicycle manufacturer in the nearby town of Turnov.

In 1898, after moving to their newly built factory, the pair bought a Werner “Motocyclette”Laurin & Klement‘s first motorcyclette, powered by an engine mounted on the handlebars driving the front wheels, proved dangerous and unreliable—an early accident on it cost Laurin a front tooth. To design a safer machine with its structure around the engine, the pair wrote to German ignition specialist Robert Bosch for advice on a different electromagnetic system.

Their new Slavia motorcycle made its debut in 1899 and the company became the first motorcycle factory in the Central Europe. In 1900, with a company workforce of 32, Slavia exports began and 150 machines were shipped to London for the Hewtson firm. Shortly afterwards, the press credited them as makers of the first motorcycle.

By 1905 the firm was manufacturing automobiles, making it the second-oldest car manufacturer in the Czech lands after Tatra. The company, with an area of 7800 m2, had a workforce of 320 and used 170 special machine-tools, power-driven by 100 hp of steam power. The first model, Voiturette A, was a success and the company was established both within Austria-Hungary and internationally.

Škoda

1929-skoda-422-pragueŠkoda 422 (1929)

After World War I the Laurin & Klement company began producing trucks, but in 1924, after running into problems and being affected by a fire on their premises, the company sought a new partner.

Meanwhile, “Akciová společnost, dříve Škodovy závody” (Limited Company, formerly the Škoda Works), an arms manufacturer and multi-sector concern which had become one of the largest industrial enterprises in Europe and the largest in Czechoslovakia, sought to enlarge its non-arms manufacturing base and acquired Laurin & Klement in 1925. It also started manufacturing cars in cooperation with Hispano-Suiza. Most of the later production took place under Škoda’s name.

emil-skodaEngineer and industrialist Emil Škoda
skoda-sign-on-skoda-rapidŠkoda logo in 1930s

An assembly line was used for production from 1930 onwards. In the same year a formal spin-off of the car manufacture into a new company, Akciová společnost pro automobilový průmysl or abbreviated ASAP, took place. ASAP remained a wholly owned subsidiary of the Škoda Works and continued to sell cars under the Škoda marque. Apart from the factory in Mladá Boleslav it included also the firm’s representation, sales offices and services, as well as a central workshop in Prague. At the time, the car factory in Mladá Boleslav covered an area of 215,000 m2 and employed 3,750 blue-collar and 500 white-collar workers.

After a decline caused by the economic depression, Škoda introduced a new line of cars in the 1930s which significantly differed from its previous products. A new design of chassis with backbone tube and all-around independent suspension was developed under the leadership of chief engineer Vladimír Matouš and modelled on the one first introduced by Hans Ledwinka in Tatra. First used on model Škoda 420 Standard in 1933, it aimed at solving insufficient torsional stiffness of the ladder frame.

The new design of chassis became the basis for models

1934-44-skoda-420-popular1934-44 Škoda 420 Popular Popular (845-1,089 cc),1934-skoda-popular-kupe1934 Škoda Popular Kupé  Rapid (1165–1766 cc),1936-41-skoda-favorit-typ-904-limousine1936-41 Škoda Favorit (typ 904) limousine Favorit (1802–2091 cc) and the1939-skoda-superb-ohv1939 Škoda Superb OHV Superb(2.5–4 l). While in 1933 Škoda had a 14% share of the Czechoslovak car market and occupied third place behind Praga and Tatra, the new line made it a market leader by 1936, with a 39% share in 1938.

World War II

During the occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II the Škoda Works were turned into part of the Reichswerke Hermann Göring serving the German war effort by producing components for military terrain vehicles, military planes, other weapon components and cartridge cases. Vehicle output decreased from 7,052 in 1939 to 683 in 1944, of which only 35 were passenger cars. A total of 316 trucks were produced between January and May 1945. The UK and US air forces bombed the Škoda works repeatedly between 1940 and 1945. The final massive air raid took place on 25 April 1945 and resulted in almost the complete destruction of the Škoda armament works and approximately 1,000 dead and injured.

Post World War II

1938-skoda-tudor-cabrio-938Škoda 1101 Tudor Roadster (1949)

When, by July 1945, the Mladá Boleslav factory had been reconstructed, production of Škoda’s first post-World War II car, the 1101 series began. It was essentially an updated version of the pre-World War II Škoda Popular. In the autumn of 1948, Škoda (along with all other large manufacturers) became part of the communist planned economy, which meant it was separated from the parent company, Škoda Works. In spite of unfavourable political conditions and losing contact with technical development in non-communist countries, Škoda retained a good reputation until the 1960s, producing models such as the Škoda 440 Spartak, 445 Octavia, Felicia and Škoda 1000 MB.

skoda-octavia-superŠkoda Octavia Super (1960)

In late 1959, the Škoda Felicia, a compact four-cylinder convertible coupe, was imported into the United States for model year 1960. Its retail price was around US$2,700, for which one could purchase a nicely-equipped V8 domestic car that was larger, more comfortable, and had more luxury and convenience features (gasoline retailed for less than 30 cents per gallon, so fuel economy was not of primary importance in America at that time). Those Felicias that made it to American ownership soon experienced a number of reliability problems, further damaging the car’s reputation. The Felicia was therefore a poor seller in the States and leftover cars ended up being hied off at a fraction of the original retail list. Since that time, Škoda automobiles have not been imported into the U.S. for retail sale.

1966-skoda-mb-1000Škoda MB 1000 (1966)

In the late 1980s, Škoda (then named Automobilové závody, národní podnik or abbreviated AZNP) was still manufacturing cars that conceptually dated back to the 1960s. Rear-engined models such as the Škoda 105/120, Estelle and Rapid sold steadily and performed well against more modern makes in races such as the RAC Rally in the 1970s and 1980s. They won their class in the RAC rally for 17 years running. They were powered by a 130 brake horsepower (97 kW), 1,289 cubic centimetres (78.7 cu in) engine. In spite of its dated image and becoming the subject of negative jokes, Škodas remained a common sight on the roads of UK and Western Europe throughout the 1970s and 1980s.

Sport versions of the Estelle and earlier models were produced, using the name “Rapid”. Soft-top versions were also available. The Rapid was once described as the “poor man’s Porsche”, and had significant sales success in the UK during the 1980s.

“Of course, that the Škoda became such a figure of fun was in part due to its ubiquity on Britain’s roads. The company must have been doing something right.”(from a BBC report on Škoda sales in 1980s)

In 1987 the1989-skoda-favorit-bertone1989 Skoda Favorit Bertone Favorit was introduced, and was one of a triumvirate of compact Western-influenced front-wheel drive hatchbacks from the three main Eastern Bloc manufacturers around that time, the others being VAZ‘s1993-lada-samara-15001993 Lada Samara 1500 Lada Samara and Zastava‘s1990-yugo-sana-uk-right-hand-drive-modelYugo Sana. The Favorit’s appearance was the work of the Italian design company Bertone. With some motor technology licensed from western Europe, but still using the Škoda-designed 1289 cc engine, Škoda engineers designed a car comparable to western production. The technological gap was still there, but began closing rapidly. The Favorit was very popular in Czechoslovakia and other Eastern Bloc countries. It also sold well in Western Europe, especially in the UK and Denmark due to its low price and was regarded as solid and reliable. However, it was perceived as having poor value compared with contemporary Western European designs. The Favorit’s trim levels were improved and it continued to be sold until the introduction of the Felicia in 1994.

Volkswagen Group subsidiary

Skoda Superb II2015 Skoda Superb II

Škoda Auto is one of the largest car manufacturers in Central Europe. In 2014, 1.037.200 cars were sold worldwide, a record for the company

The fall of communism with the Velvet Revolution brought great changes to Czechoslovakia and most industries were subject to privatization. In the case of Škoda Automobile, the state authorities brought in a strong foreign partner. Volkswagen was chosen by the Czech government on 9 December 1990, and, as a result, on 28 March 1991 a joint-venture partnership agreement with Volkswagen took place, marked by the transfer of a 30% share to the Volkswagen Group on 16 April 1991. By this stage, Škoda was still making its outdated range of rear engine saloons, although it had started production of the Favorit front-wheel drive hatchback in 1988 as an eventual replacement.

In the following years, Škoda became the fourth brand of the German group, as the Volkswagen Group raised its equity share first on 19 December 1994, to 60.3%, followed on 11 December 1995, to 70%.

In the competition for Škoda, Volkswagen was pitted against French car-maker Renault, which lost out because its strategic plan did not include producing high-value models in the Czech factories; Renault proposed to manufacture the Renault Twingo city car in the Škoda factories.

At the time the decision was made, privatization to a major German company was somewhat controversial, since there was still anti-German sentiment lingering in the Czech Republic from WW2 and its aftermath. However, it could be argued that the subsequent fortunes of other Eastern-Bloc automobile manufacturers such as Lada, AutoVAZ, and of Škoda Works itself – once Škoda Auto’s parent company – suggested that Volkswagen’s involvement was not necessarily a result of poor judgement.

Backed by Volkswagen Group expertise and investments, the design — both style and engineering — has improved greatly. The 1994 model1994-01-skoda-feliciaFelicia was effectively a reskin of the Favorit, but quality and equipment improvements helped, and in the Czech Republic the car was perceived as good value for money and became popular. Sales improved across Europe, including the United Kingdom, where the Felicia was one of the best-ranking cars in customer satisfaction surveys.

Volkswagen AG chairman Ferdinand Piëch personally chose Dirk van Braeckel as head of design, and the subsequent Octavia and Fabia models made their way to the demanding European Union markets. They are built on common Volkswagen Group floorpans. The Fabia, launched at the end of 1999, formed the basis for later versions of the Volkswagen Polo and SEAT Ibiza, while the Octavia, launched in 1996, has shared its floorpan with a host of cars, the most popular of which is the Volkswagen Golf.

2014-skoda-octavia-combi-rs-iii2014 Skoda Octavia Combi RS (III) Octavia is the best selling Škoda

The perception of Škoda in Western Europe has completely changed since the takeover by VW, in stark comparison with the reputation of the cars throughout the 1980s—often described as “the laughing stock” of the automotive world. As technical development progressed and attractive new models were marketed, Škoda’s image was initially slow to improve. In the UK, a major turnabout was achieved with the ironic “It is a Škoda, honest” campaign, which began in 2000 when the Fabia launched. In a 2003 advertisement on British television, a new employee on the production line is fitting Škoda badges on the car bonnets. When some attractive looking cars come along he stands back, not fitting the badge, since they look so good they cannot be Škodas. This market campaign worked by confronting Škoda’s image problem head-on — a tactic which marketing professionals regarded as high risk. By 2005 Škoda was selling over 30,000 cars a year in the UK, a market share of over 1%. For the first time in its UK history, a waiting list developed for deliveries from Škoda. UK owners have consistently ranked the brand at or near the top of customer satisfaction surveys since the late 1990s.

Growth strategy

skoda-auto-mlada-boleslavŠkoda Auto plant in Mladá Boleslav

2010 was a year of important changes for Škoda Auto, in terms of both products and management. On 1 September 2010, Prof. Dr. h.c. Winfried Vahland assumed responsibility for the management of the company, becoming the CEO of Škoda Auto. Under Vahland’s leadership, Škoda set forth plans to double the company’s annual sales to at least 1.5 million by 2018 (later known as the ‘Growth Strategy’, Czech: ‘Růstová strategie’).

At the 2010 Paris Motor Show in September 2010, the company unveiled the Octavia Green E Line. This e-car concept was the forerunner to the e-car test fleet that Škoda released in 2012. The final 1st-generation Octavia (Tour) was produced at the Mladá Boleslav plant in November 2010. The worldwide production of this model exceeded 1.4 million units since its release in 1996. In 2010 for the first time in history, China overtook German sales to become Škoda’s largest individual market.

In 2011, Škoda Auto celebrated its 20-year partnership with the Volkswagen Group. More than 75,000 visitors attended an open-house event held in Mladá Boleslav in the April. Earlier that year, the company provided details on its 2018 Growth Strategy: for at least one new or completely revised model to be released every six months. With this in mind, the company redesigned its logo and CI, which was presented at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show. Škoda’s main attraction at the event was the VisionD design concept; a forerunner to the future 3rd generation Octavia. Škoda presented the MissionL design study at the IAA in Frankfurt am Main in September, which was to become the basis of the company’s forthcoming compact model the2013-present-skoda-rapid-1598ccEuropean Rapid.

In the same year, the company started production of the new Rapid model in Pune, India (October 2011), and launched the Citigo at Volkswagen’s Bratislava plant (November 2011).

In 2012 Škoda introduced two new mass production models. The European version of the Rapid premiered at the Paris Motor Show. This car was a successor to the 1st-generation Octavia in terms of its price bracket. The second model was the 3rd-generation Octavia, which premiered In December 2012. In the same month, local production of the Yeti was launched at the Nizhny Novgorod GAZ factory.

In 2012 Škoda introduced an emission-free fleet of Octavia Green E Line e-cars on Czech roads to be used by external partners. Since internal tests on the fleet in late 2011, the e-fleet had driven more than 250,000 km. During the same year, Škoda celebrated several milestones, including fourteen million Škoda cars being produced since 1905 (January), three million Fabias (May), 500,000 Superbs at the Kvasiny plant (June ) and 5 years of Škoda operations in China.

Massive rejuvenation of the model range was a major tune for 2013 at Škoda: The Czech car maker launched the third-generation Octavia Combi and Octavia RS (both liftback and estate) as well as facelifted Superb and Superb Combi. They were accompanied by brand new members of the Rapid family as the Rapid Spaceback, the first Škoda hatchback car in the compact segment, and the Chinese version of the Rapid. The Yeti also faced significant changes. With the facelift, two design variants of Škoda’s compact SUV are now available: city-like Yeti and rugged Yeti Outdoor. Chinese customers were also given a Yeti with an extended wheelbase.

In 2015, Volkswagen admitted that it had installed pollution-cheating software in many of its cars to fool regulators that its cars met emissions standards when in fact they polluted at much higher-levels than government standards. 1.2 million Skoda cars worldwide were fitted with this emissions-cheating device. Skoda stated that Volkswagen would recall and cover refitting costs for all of the cars affected by the Volkswagen emissions testing scandal.

In 2015 Škoda was voted the most dependable car brand in the UK. Škoda Auto is planning to manufacture a large, seven-seatskoda-snowman-renderings-1SUV Škoda Kodiaq, which should be a true off-roader and will be introduced at the Paris Motor Show in October 2016.

As of August 2016, Skoda was being sold in 102 countries with planned expansions to South Korea, Singapore and Iran within a year. The decision whether to expand into the North American market is planned to be made in 2017.

Electrification strategy

In 2015, new Škoda chairman Bernhard Maier stated that the Volkswagen Group “is working on a modular, new electric platform and we are in the team”, and that “there is no alternative to electrification.”The target of Škoda is to produce an electric car with a range of over 300 miles (480 km), 15-minute charging time and a cost below a comparative combustion-engine vehicle. New Škoda corporate “Strategy 2025”, which replaces the previous “Strategy 2018”, aims to start production of a fully electric vehicle in 2020 or 2021, after a plug-in hybrid Superb in 2019.

Financial results

ŠKODA has maintained sound financial stability over recent years. In 2013 the brand achieved sales revenues totalling €10.3 billion (2012: €10.4 billion). Due to the weak economic situation in many European countries and the expansion of the ŠKODA model range, operating profit reached a modest 522 million euros (2012: €712 million). ŠKODA achieved a successful start to 2014: As well as recording the highest number of deliveries to customers in a first quarter ever (247,200; up 12.1%), ŠKODA recorded a significant increase in sales revenue (23.7%) to almost 3 billion euros. Operating profit increased 65.2% to 185 million Euros over the previous year.

Production

Škoda cars are now produced in production facilities in the Czech Republic, China, Russia, India and Slovakia. A smaller number of Škoda models are additionally manufactured in Öskemen, Kazakhstan and Solomonovo, Ukraine through local partners. The following table lists the factories and their production models in 2015.

Manufacturing plant Production models Location
Mladá Boleslav (Czech Republic) Fabia, Octavia, Rapid 50.421111°N 14.930556°E
Kvasiny (Czech Republic) Superb, Yeti 50.204722°N 16.257778°E
Vrchlabí (Czech Republic) transmissions 50.610972°N 15.624444°E
Bratislava (Slovakia) Citigo 48.234135°N 16.98791°E
Pune (India) Rapid (India) 18.74228667°N 73.81853167°E
Aurangabad (India) Octavia, Superb, Yeti 19.873056°N 75.488333°E
Kaluga (Russia) Fabia, Rapid 54.574444°N 36.344444°E
Nizhny Novgorod (Russia) Yeti, Octavia 56.242235°N 43.887655°E
Anting (China) Fabia, Octavia, Yeti 31.295833°N 121.177778°E
Yizheng (China) Rapid (China) 32.28959667°N 119.2043183°E
Ningbo (China) Octavia, Superb 29.870681°N 121.5464325°E

Motorsport

fotothek_df_roe-neg_0006300_014_stadtparkrennen_-rund_um_das_scheibenholz

 Škoda Supersport (1951)

Škoda MotorsportWith Škoda Fabia R5, Škoda Motorsport team won the 2015 World Rally Championship-2, which focuses on production-based cars

Main article: Škoda Motorsport

World Rally Championship

Following a long history of class victories in lower levels of motorsport, Škoda became a participant in the FIA World Rally Championship in the 1999 season, with World Rally Car models of the Škoda Octavia. Škoda’s best result with the Octavia WRC was Armin Schwarz‘s third place at the 2001 Safari Rally. From mid 2003, the Octavia was replaced by the smaller Škoda Fabia. Škoda used the 2004 season to develop the car further, but did not achieve much success the following season. However, at the season-ending Rally Australia, 1995 world champion Colin McRae was running second before retiring. Škoda then withdrew from the series, and the 2006 season saw Škoda represented by the semi-privateer Red Bull Škoda Team. Jan Kopecký drove the Fabia WRC to fifth place at the Rally Catalunya, and as late as the 2007 Rallye Deutschland the Fabia still achieved a fifth-place result, again in the hands of Kopecký. Former works Ford and Citroen driver François Duval also drove a Fabia WRC in 2006 for the privateer First Motorsport team, achieving a sixth-place finish in Catalunya.

World Rally Championship-2

In 2009, Škoda entered the Intercontinental Rally Challenge (IRC) for the first time, using the Fabia S2000, winning three rallies and finishing second in both the drivers and manufacturers championship. In 2010, Škoda won a total of seven IRC events winning both the manufacturers and driver championship for Juho Hänninen. These achievements were repeated in the following two seasons, with Andreas Mikkelsen as the drivers’ champion. In 2013, the Intercontinental Rally Challenge was merged with the European Rally Championship (ERC) and the team gained the drivers’ championship title once again for Jan Kopecký. The car was also raced by privateers in several championships, including Red Bull, Barwa, Rene Georges and Rufa in the 2010 Super 2000 World Rally Championship.

Bonneville Speedway

In August 2011, a special Škoda Octavia vRS set the world record at the Bonneville Speedway and became the fastest car in the world with an engine up to two litres, when it hit 227 mph (365 km/h). The current fastest production Škoda car is the Škoda Superb III, with a top speed of 250 km/h (160 mph) and an acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) in 5.8 seconds.

Models

Current models

2009-present-skoda-yeti-exterior-frontŠkoda YetiMini SUV (2009–present)2015-skoda-superb-aŠkoda Superb III – Executive car (2015–present)2013-skoda-octavia-combi-1-6-tdi-ambition-iii-frontansicht-11-august-2013-essenŠkoda Octavia III – Large family car (2013–present)2013-skoda-rapid-1598ccŠkoda RapidSmall family car (2012–present)2016-skoda-fabiaŠkoda Fabia III – Supermini (2014–present)2012-skoda%e2%80%85citigoŠkoda CitigoCity car (2011–present)

Historic models

1900s

ralfr-097Laurin & Klement G1905-laurin-klement-a

1905-laurin-klement-typ-a-in-wolfsburg1905-laurin-klement-typ-a-in-wolfsburg Laurin & Klement A (1905–1907)1907-laurin-klement-b2-10-12-hp-rakousko-uhersko-cechy1907 Laurin & Klement B2 10-12 HP, Rakousko-Uhersko (Čechy) Laurin & Klement B (1906–1908)

1907-laurin-klement-typ-c-2278ccmLaurin & Klement C (1906–1908)

1907-laurin-klement-typ-d-3391ccm1907 Laurin & Klement typ D 3391ccm Laurin & Klement D (1906–1907)

1907-laurin-klement-typ-e-4562ccmLaurin & Klement E (1906–1909)

1907-laurin-klement-typ-b2-1595ccmLaurin & Klement B2 (1907–1908)1907-laurin-klement-c2Laurin & Klement C2 (1907–1908)

1907-09-laurin-klement-fLaurin & Klement F (1907–1909)1907-laurin-klement-ffLaurin & Klement FF (1907)1907-laurin-klement-fcLaurin & Klement FC (1907–1909)1910-laurin-klement-typ-hl-7359ccm1910 Laurin & Klement typ HL 7359ccm1912-laurin-klement-typ-hlb-7964ccm1912 Laurin & Klement typ HLB 7964ccm Laurin & Klement HO/ HL/HLb (1907–1913)1910-skoda-laurin-klement-bs1910 Škoda Laurin & Klement BS Laurin & Klement BS (1908–1909)1908-laurin-klement-fcs-rakousko-uhersko-c48dechy-1908Laurin & Klement FCS (1908–1909)1908-09-laurin-klement-g-gr4-v-muzeu-skodaLaurin & Klement G (1908–1911)1909-12-laurin-klement-do-dlLaurin & Klement DO/DL (1909–1912)1906-16-laurin-klement-fdlLaurin & Klement FDO/FDL (1909–1915)

? Laurin & Klement EN (1909–1910)1909-13-laurin-klement-fn-gdv-rc-skodaLaurin & Klement FN/GDV/RC (1909–1913)laurin-klement-fcr-01Laurin & Klement FCR (1909)

  • Laurin & Klement L/LO (1909–1911)

1910

1920-laurin-klement-300-makina1920 Laurin & Klement 300 ‚Makina’ Laurin & Klement 300

1911-laurin-klement-sg-landaulet1913 Laurin & Klement S1909-laurin-klement-en-ens-enm-5692ccm1909 Laurin & Klement EN, ENS, ENM 5692ccmlaurin-klement-ensLaurin & Klement ENS Laurin & Klement ENS (1910–1911)1911-laurin-klement-k-kb-lokb-a

  • 1911-laurin-klement-k-kb-lokb
  • Laurin & Klement K/Kb/LOKb (1911–1915)

? Laurin & Klement LK (1911–1912)1911-24-laurin-klement-sLaurin & Klement S/Sa (1911–1916)laurin-klement-dnLaurin & Klement DN (1912–1915)1916-laurin-klement-rk-18-50ps-1912-1916Laurin & Klement RK (1912–1916)1921-laurin-klement-s200Laurin & Klement Sb/Sc (1912–1915)1920-laurin-klement-typ-mh-4712ccm1920 Laurin & Klement typ Mh 4712ccm

? Laurin & Klement M/Mb/MO (1913–1915)

? Laurin & Klement MK/400 (1913–1924)

?  Laurin & Klement O/OK (1913–1916)

?  Laurin & Klement Sd/Se/Sg/Sk (1913–1917)

?  Laurin & Klement Ms (1914–1920)

?   Laurin & Klement Sh/Sk (1914–1917)

?   Laurin & Klement T/Ta (1914–1921)

?   Laurin & Klement Si/Sl/Sm/So/200/205 (1916–1924)

?     Laurin & Klement Md/Me/Mf/Mg/Mh/Mi/Ml/300/305 (1917–1923)

1920s

1925-laurin%e2%80%85%e2%80%85klement%e2%80%85110Laurin & Klement – Škoda 110 (1925)1920-23-laurin-klement-ms-540-545Laurin & Klement MS/540/545 (1920–1923)1925-laurin-klement-545Laurin & Klement Škoda 545 (1924–1927)

1929-skoda-422-pragueŠkoda 422 (1929–1932)

1929-laurin-and-klement-430-convertible 1929-skoda-430-w-wersji-coupe 1929-32-skoda-430-coupe 1930-skoda-430-w-wersji-sedan-z-1930-rokuŠkoda 430 (1929–1936)

1930s

1933-skoda-633Skoda 633 (1933)

1934-44-skoda-popularŠkoda Popular (1934–1944)1931-33-skoda-633-cabrioletŠkoda 633 (1931–1934)1932-skoda-637-sedan-ceskoslovensko-1932-1933Škoda 637 (1932–1935)skoda-420-popularŠkoda 420 Standard/Rapid/Popular (1933–1938)1935-skoda-rapid-saloon-type-9011935 Škoda Rapid Saloon type 901 Škoda Rapid (1935–1947)1939-skoda-favoritŠkoda Favorit (1936–1941)1939-skoda-superb-ohv-type-924Škoda Superb (1934–1943)

1940s

1940-skoda-superbŠkoda Superb (1940)

1940-skoda-rapidŠkoda Rapid (1940)1946-skoda-superb-3000-ohv-front 1946-skoda-superb-3000-ohvŠkoda Superb OHV (1946–1949)skoda-1101-tudorŠkoda 1101 Tudor (1946–1949)1949-skoda-1102-roadster-typ-938-roadsterŠkoda 1102 (1948–1952)1950-skoda-vos-p1Škoda VOS (1949–1952)

1950s

1957-skoda-1201-sedanŠkoda 1201 Sedan (1957)

Škoda 450, 1959
ŠŠkoda 450 (1957)

1955-skoda-1200Škoda 1200 (1952–1955)skoda-440-445-450Škoda 440/445/450 (1955–1959)1959-skoda-1201-stationsvagnŠkoda 1201 (1955–1962)1959-64-skoda-feliciaŠkoda Felicia (1959–1964)

Samsung
1959-71 Škoda Octavia Škoda Octavia (1959–1964)

1960s

skoda-1202-stw-de-luxeŠkoda 1202 (1961–1973)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Škoda Octavia Combi Škoda Octavia Combi (1964–1971)

1966-skoda-mb-1000Škoda 1000 MB (1964–1969)skoda-1203-skoda-1203-m-taz-s-1203-and-taz-1500Škoda 1203 (1968–1999)1972-skoda-100-l1972 Škoda 100 Lskoda-110lsŠkoda 110LS Škoda 100/110 (1969–1977)

1970s

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
1977 Škoda 110R Coupé Škoda 110 R (1970–1980)

1982-skoda-105-s-model1982 Škoda 105 S model1978-skoda-120-gls-model1978 Škoda 120 GLS modelskoda-120-turnov-alofokŠkoda 120 Turnov Alofok1989-skoda-125-l-typ-742

skoda-125-l-rear-viewŠkoda 105/120/125 (1976–1990)

1980s

1982-skoda-garde-coupe-22-1174ccm-42kw-by-5200rpm-top-speed-153-km-h1982 Skoda Garde Coupé 2+2, 1174ccm, 42kW by 5200rpm, top speed 153 km-h Škoda Garde (1981–1984)skoda-130-estelleŠkoda 130 estelle1985-skoda-rapid-1301985 Škoda Rapid 1301985-skoda-rapid-135-ric1985 Škoda Rapid 135 RiCskoda-rapid-136-ldd-estelle-cabrioŠkoda Rapid 136 LDD Estelle Cabrio Škoda 130/135/136 (1984–1990)skoda-rapid-135-museumŠkoda Rapid (1984) (1984–1990)1989-skoda-favorit1989 Škoda Favoritskoda-formanŠkoda Formanskoda-pick-up-brno-czech-republicŠkoda Pick-up, Brno, Czech Republic Škoda Favorit/Forman/Pick-up (1987–1995)

1990s

1994-skoda-feliciaŠkoda Felicia (1994–2001)skoda-octavia-1-generationŠkoda Octavia first generation (1996–2004,2013-skoda-octavia-combi-1-6-tdi-ambition-iiiTour 2004–2010)1999-skoda-fabia-mk1-6yŠkoda Fabia first generation (1999–2007)

2000s

skoda-superb-b5-3uŠkoda Superb first generation (2001–2008)skoda-octavia-mk2-1zŠkoda Octavia second generation {2004-2013}skoda-roomster-5jŠkoda Roomster/PraktikLAV (2006–2015)skoda-superb-b6-3tŠkoda Superb second generation (2008–2015)

Concept cars

vw-cross-blue-coupe-concept-at-auto-shanghai-2013Škoda SUV model (2016)

  • Vision C (2013)
  • MissionL (2011)
  • Vision D (2011)
  • Fabia Super (2007)
  • Joyster (2006)
  • Yeti II (2006)
  • Roomster (2003)
  • Tudor (2002)
  • Fabia Paris Edition (2002)
  • Ahoj (2002)
  • Felicia Golden Prague (1998)
  • 783 Favorit Coupé (1987)
  • Škoda 110 Super Sport Ferat (1971)

1970-skoda-1100-gt1970-skoda-1100-gt-backŠkoda 1100 GT (1968)

  • Škoda 720 (1967–1972)
  • Škoda F3 (1964)
  • Škoda 1100 Type 968 (1958)
  • Škoda 973 Babeta (1949)

In 1923, two different trademarks were registered at the Office for Innovation and Model Registration in Plzeň. The first depicted a winged arrow pointing to the right with five feathers in a circle and the second was a winged arrow with three feathers. The famous winged arrow with three feathers still forms the Škoda logo today. The ŠKODA text was added to the logo in 1936. The arrow represents speed, the wings progress and freedom, the eye precision and the circle unity, completeness, world and harmony.

See also

Bibliography

  • Margolius, Ivan & Meisl, Charles (1992). Škoda Laurin & Klement. London: Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-237-4.

Notes

  1. Jump up^ More information about the Werner motor bicycles: Twycross, Tony (April 2005). “Auto Cycling, 1890s Style”. The Moped Archive.
  2. Jump up^ Includes sales of the Škoda Favorit, produced until 1995.

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Record-breaking 2015: ŠKODA Delivers 1.06 Million Cars to Customers”. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c ŠKODA Annual Report 2014 (PDF) (Report). Mladá Boleslav, Czech Republic: ŠKODA AUTO a.s. 10 March 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  3. Jump up^ Škoda history Official website
  4. Jump up^ “Alle VW-Konzernmodelle Teil 3: Seat und Skoda” (in German). Autozeitung.de. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  5. Jump up^ “Volkswagen mulls emerging markets brand to take on Dacia”. GoAutoMedia. 2 November 2010.
  6. Jump up^ Skoda Auto with profit up 6.5 pct to record EUR708m in 2015
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c Julian Rendell. Skoda electric vehicle under development. Autocar. Published on March 16, 2016.
  8. Jump up^ “Digitální továrna společnosti Škoda Auto” (in Czech). Automa. December 2012.
  9. Jump up^ Piotr S. Wandycz, ‘The Price of Freedom: A History of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to The Present’, (London, 1992), p. 171
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Český průmyslový svět – 1905”. Digital library of the National Library ČR.
  11. Jump up^ “Skoda Works”. classiccar4you.
  12. Jump up^ “Skoda Company History”. CarAutoPortal.com. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b c Králík, Jan (2008), V soukolí okřídleného šípu, Grada Publishing a.s., pp. 19–22
  14. Jump up^ Pavlínek, Petr (2008). A Successful Transformation? Restructuring of the Czech Automobile Industry. Physica-Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-7908-2040-9. ISBN 978-3-7908-2039-3.
  15. Jump up^ HELL FROM HEAVEN – Chapter 35 – Mission 31 – Pilsen, Czechoslovakia – Our Last Combat Mission – April 25, 1945 – By Leonard Streitfeld, Bombardier, 600th Squadron. 398th.org (1945-04-25). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  16. Jump up^ Paul Burrows (13 March 2008). “Czech-in time for Skoda”. AVHub.
  17. Jump up^ “Skoda has last laugh”. BBC News. 24 February 2000.
  18. Jump up^ Mladá Boleslav (6 October 2004). “ŠKODA AUTO a.s.” (PDF). Volkswagen Group.
  19. Jump up^ “Skoda’s Marketing Success Goes From Strength To Strength”. Carpages. 17 December 2002.
  20. Jump up^ Kevin Massy (28 January 2008). “Skoda flagship to get VW’s premium nav system”. CNET Reviews. Retrieved 6 February2010.
  21. Jump up^ Jez Spinks (15 October 2007). “Skoda Octavia: first drive of the ‘budget’ VW”. Drive.com.au.
  22. Jump up^ Steve Kealy (16 February 2010). “Skoda Octavia Scout 4×4”. Carsales.com.au.
  23. Jump up^ “4. BRAND STRATEGY” (PDF). The Chartered Institute of Marketing. 7 April 2003. pp. 22–23. Archived from the original(PDF) on 29 October 2008.
  24. Jump up^ Paul McVeigh (2 November 2010). “Automotive News Europe”. Automotive News Europe.
  25. Jump up^ “Automotive News Europe”. Automotive News Europe. 12 February 2012.
  26. Jump up^ “The Prague Post”. The Prague Post. 2 March 2011.
  27. Jump up^ Matt Prior. “Autocar”. Autocar.
  28. Jump up^ “RT”. RT. 14 June 2011.
  29. ^ Jump up to:a b Alexander Rogan (6 December 2012). “Russia Suppy Chain”. Russia Suppy Chain.
  30. Jump up^ “Volkswagen”. Volkswagen. 21 November 2013.
  31. Jump up^ Tim Harrup (11 May 2012). “FleetEurope”. FleetEurope.
  32. Jump up^ Karthik H (30 December 2013). “Indian Autos Blog”.
  33. Jump up^ “VW scandal: German prosecutors probe Winterkorn as Volkswagen emissions-rigging crisis spreads to 2.1 million Audi cars and Skoda models”. Retrieved 2015-09-28.
  34. Jump up^ Skoda wins top JD Power honours for dependability
  35. Jump up^ Auto Express, Skoda’s large SUV spied testing again
  36. Jump up^ “Kodiaq moment: snapshots of Skoda’s 7-seat SUV”. CAR magazine. 29 July 2016.
  37. Jump up^ Václav Lavička. Nenápadná Škoda je ziskovější než hrdá Audi. Ostatním v koncernu může sloužit za vzor, tvrdí německý tisk. Hospodářské noviny. Published on August 1, 2016.
  38. Jump up^ “Case study: Skoda”. Tcworld.info. December 2008. Archived from the original on 10 February 2011.
  39. Jump up^ “GENERAL PRESENTATION ŠKODA 2008” (PDF). Institute for Industrial and Financial Management. p. 15. Retrieved 28 August2011.
  40. Jump up^ “ŠKODA AUTO a.s.” (PDF). Prague: Volkswagen Group. 21 June 2004.
  41. Jump up^ vwagfy2012 (PDF). 15 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  42. Jump up^ “ŠKODA 2013: Success with new models”. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  43. Jump up^ “Škoda Annual Report 2015” (PDF). Škoda.
  44. Jump up^ “Škoda Octavia vRS je nejrychlejším dvoulitrem světa” [Skoda Octavia VRS is the fastest two-liter in the world] (in Czech). IHNED.cz. 28 August 2011.
  45. Jump up^ Plzeňská Škodovka změnila logo
  46. Jump up^ Na šumperském Parsu se skví legendární logo s okřídleným šípem a nápis Škoda

BUGATTI VEYRON Automobiles Molsheim, Alsace, France

Bugatti

Bugatti
Private
Industry Automotive
Fate Sold to Hispano-Suiza (1963)
Sold to Volkswagen Group(July 1998)
Successor Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S.
Founded 1909
Founder Ettore Bugatti
Defunct 1963
Headquarters Molsheim, Alsace, France
Key people
Products Automobiles
120 million (2008 est.)
Website www.bugatti.com

Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti. Bugatti cars were known for their design beauty (Ettore Bugatti was from a family of artists and considered himself to be both an artist and constructor) and for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 “Royale”, the Type 57 “Atlantic” and the Type 55 sports car.

The death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, and the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made. The company struggled financially, and released one last model in the 1950s, before eventually being purchased for its airplane parts business in the 1960s. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by German automobile manufacturing group Volkswagen.

Under Ettore Bugatti

Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan, Italy, and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region which was part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919. The company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, and for the artistic way in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettore’s family (his father, Carlo Bugatti (1856–1940), was an important Art Nouveau furniture and jewelry designer).

World War I and its aftermath

During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away, initially to Milan and later to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had been concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim. Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty formalised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France, Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the 15th Paris motor show in October 1919. He exhibited three light cars, all of them closely based on their pre-war equivalents, and each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per cylinder. Smallest of the three was a “Type 13” with a racing body (constructed by Bugatti themselves) and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm (78.7 in) wheelbase. The others were a “Type 22” and a “Type 23” with wheelbases of 2,250 and 2,400 mm (88.6 and 94.5 in) respectively.

Racing successes

The company also enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a privately entered Bugatti won the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice (in 1937 with Robert Benoist and 1939 with Pierre Veyron).

Bugatti cars were extremely successful in racing. The little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is probably the most successful racing car of all time, with over 2,000 wins. The Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who also drove it in the car’s first ever Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon. Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, and the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing success at Le Mans that is most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car and meagre resources.

Aeroplane racing

In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize. This would be the Bugatti 100P, which never flew. It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had already applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his “Type 7.5” lifting body.

Railcar

Ettore Bugatti also designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail (Autorail Bugatti).

Autorail Bugatti

 Autorail Bugatti
Autorail Bugatti, conservé à Mulhouse

Présidentiel conservé à Mulhouse.

Identification
Exploitant(s) État, AL, PLM
SNCF
Désignation Wagon Rapide (WR)
Type autorail
Constructeur(s) Ettore Bugatti
Nombre 88 (1 préservé)
Service commercial de 1933 à 1958
Caractéristiques techniques
Disposition des essieux DD
Moteur 4 à essence
 Cylindres 8 cyl. en ligne
 Distribution 1 a.c. en tête
 Puissance 147 kW
(200 ch)
à 2000 tr/min
 Transmission hydromécanique
Diamètre roues motrices 710 mm
Masse en service 38 t
Dimensions
 Longueur 21,08 m
Vitesse maximale 172 km/h
Vue du poste de conduite de l’autorail Bugatti

C’est en 1932, que l’autorail Bugatti (le Wagon Rapide WR, d’après la dénomination du constructeur) est conçu par le bureau d’études d’Ettore Bugatti. En 9 mois, cet automoteur est construit avec des techniques issues de l’automobile, pour écouler les moteurs de la Bugatti Type 41 «Royale», voiture de prestige qui était un échec commercial.

Technique

La motorisation de l’autorail est assurée par 4 moteurs à essence, 8 cylindres en ligne de 12 750 cm3, un arbre à cames en tête, alimenté par 2 carburateurs Zenith : la puissance de chaque moteur est de 200 ch à2 000 tr/min pour le ferroviaire.

Les moteurs sont accouplés par paire, en prise directe avec une transmission hydromécanique sur des bogies à 4 essieux à roues « élastiques ». La caisse est légère et aérodynamique, les freins sont à tambour. La cabine de conduite est disposée en kiosque (dépassant de la toiture), au centre de l’élément, juste au-dessus des 4 moteurs.

Historique

Bugatti Affiche Paris-Lyon 4h50 Automotrice rapide Bugatti

Affiche du PLM.

1935 Affiche Bugatti Record

Record du monde de vitesse en 1935.

Cet autorail est l’un des premiers trains rapides modernes au monde. Le premier prototype construit en Alsace, fut prêt au printemps 1933 et les performances furent spectaculaires : 172 kilomètres à l’heure en essai.

Le premier modèle (mono caisse pour 48 voyageurs) est mis en service par le réseau de l’État sur ParisDeauville en mai 1933 qu’il assure à la moyenne de 116 kilomètres à l’heure. En février 1934 le 2e autorail est livré. Entre ces deux dates le réseau de l’État, par l’intermédiaire de son directeur Raoul Dautry, avait passé commande de deux autres autorails qui seront livrés en juillet et octobre 1934. Le 24 octobre 1934, l’un des deux premiers autorails atteint 192 kilomètres à l’heure entre Le Mans et Connerré. En mai 1934 l’État commanda une nouvelle série de 5 exemplaires.

Ils furent utilisés par les réseaux de l’État, du PLM, d’Alsace-Lorraine (AL) puis par la SNCF. Néanmoins l’exploitation est considérée rapidement comme trop coûteuse compte tenu de la très forte consommation, de la hausse du prix du carburant et d’une fiabilité imparfaite.

La fin du retrait du service commercial a eu lieu en 1958.

Au total, 88 autorails ont été construits en différents modèles :

  • 9 WR simples « Présidentiel » pour l’État,
  • 3 WR doubles pour le PLM,
  • 7 WR triples (2 État, 2 AL et 3 SNCF),
  • 13 WL[*] courts (5 État, 2 AL et 6 PLM),
  • 28 WL allongés (18 PLM et 10 État),
  • 28 WL surallongés (15 État, 1 AL, 10 PLM et 2 SNCF),
  • 5 remorques pour WR simple pour l’État.

[*] Le WL (Wagon Léger) n’était équipé que de deux moteurs Royal-41 soit 400 ch.

Particularités

Bugatti ZZA K 1

WR double ZZA K 1 du PLM.

  • Les 13 WL courts seront tous transformés en remorques après 1945.
  • Les WL et WR doubles et triples étaient équipés de boîtes Cotal à deux vitesses pour faciliter le démarrage qui était laborieux en prise directe.
  • Les freins bien qu’efficaces, avaient l’inconvénient d’user très rapidement les garnitures des tambours.
  • La visibilité depuis le poste de conduite surélevé était médiocre (surtout sur les WR doubles et triples).
  • On peut voir un autorail Bugatti à la fin du film La Bête humaine.

Patrimoine préservé

Un exemplaire du Bugatti dit « Présidentiel » (car utilisé par le Président Albert Lebrun pour son déplacement à l’inauguration de la gare maritime de Cherbourg) est conservé à la Cité du train de Mulhouse. Cet autorail immatriculé ZZy 24408 à l’État puis XB 1008 à la SNCF est un ancien véhicule du parc de service où il assurait le contrôle du fonctionnement des signaux jusqu’en 1970, date de sa radiation. Profondément modifié, il accueille un véritable petit laboratoire : trois alternateurs produisent du courant alternatif pour envoyer dans les voies, diverses batteries, voltmètres, ampèremètres, oscilloscopes… et quatre couchettes pour permettre l’hébergement du personnel lors des arrêts prolongés dans les petites localités1.

Un deuxième Bugatti a longtemps été garé à Bédarieux puis Lodève. Oublié par la SNCF sur une voie de service, il avait été racheté par une association en vue de la création d’un petit musée ferroviaire. Il fut finalement ferraillé, et non enseveli sous le terrassement du nouveau tracé de Route Nationale 9 comme on peut le lire trop souvent.

Bugatti ZZ K 201-218-plan

Plan du WL allongé ZZ K 201 à 218 du PLM.

Family tragedy

The death of Ettore Bugatti’s son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company’s fortunes. Jean died while testing a Type 57 tank-bodied race car near the Molsheim factory.

1936 Bugatti Type 57G Tank fvr3

1936 Bugatti Type 57G Tank fvr3

Bugatti Type 32 Tank

Type 57 tank-bodied race car

After World War II

World War II left the Molsheim factory in ruins and the company lost control of the property. During the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at Levallois, a northwestern suburb of Paris. After the war, Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars, including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car, but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars.

Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947. Following Ettore Bugatti’s death, the business declined further and made its last appearance as a business in its own right at a Paris Motor Show in October 1952.

After a long decline, the original incarnation of Bugatti ceased operations in 1952.

Design

Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing, many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured guilloché (engine turned) finishes on them, and safety wires had been threaded through almost every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did, Bugatti’s axles were forged such that the spring passed though a carefully sized opening in the axle, a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts. He famously described his arch competitor Bentley‘s cars as “the world’s fastest lorries” for focusing on durability. According to Bugatti, “weight was the enemy”.

Important models built

Prototypes Racing cars Road cars