Gutbrod and Standard

German manufacturer of cars, motorcycles and small agricultural machinery, founded in Ludwigsburg by Wilhelm Gutbrod in 1926. In 1933 the company relocated to the nearby Stuttgart suburb of Feuerbach, and from 1933 to 1935. The new Gutbrod car was developed at the company’s small factory at Plochingen am Neckar by Technical Director Dr. Hans Scherenberg during the time of Walter Gutbrod who had taken over the firm in 1948 on the death of his father, Wilhelm Gutbrod (26 February 1890 – 9 August 1948). Scherenberg arrived at Gutbrod from Mercedes where the victorious war-time allies had enforced a pause in engine fuel-injection development, and in 1952 he would return to that firm.


 Gutbrod Superior

 Gutbrod Superior 1951

Gutbrod was a German manufacturer of cars, motorcycles and small agricultural machinery. The firm was founded in Ludwigsburg by Wilhelm Gutbrod in 1926. It originally built “Standard” branded motorcycles. In 1933 the company relocated to the nearby Stuttgart suburb of Feuerbach, and from 1933 to 1935, Standard Superior cars were built with rear-mounted engines.

An updated version of the Gutbrod Superior introduced in 1953 benefited from developments towards fuel injection undertaken by Mercedes-Benz dating initially from 1935: this Gutbrod was the first car in the world to be offered with fuel injection, some three years before fuel injection appeared in a production engine offered by Mercedes themselves.

The small Gutbrod Superior model was produced from 1950 to 1954 using the company’s own, front-mounted twin-cylinder two-stroke engines initially of 593cc. In April 1953 the engine size was increased to 663 cc for more expensive ‘Luxus 700’ versions of the car, while the standard model continued to be offered with the original smaller engine. Claimed power output was 20 hp (15 kW) for the base version, while for the larger engine 26 hp (19 kW) or 30 hp (22 kW) was claimed according to whether fuel feed came via a carburettor or a form of fuel injection. Press reports commended the speed and secure handling of the cars but indicated that the sporty handling came in return for sacrificing some comfort. It was also noted that normal conversation became impossible at speeds above about 80 km/h (50 mph) due to the noise.

7726 cars were produced before the factory was forced to close. The car was developed at the company’s small factory at Plochingen am Neckar by Technical Director Dr. Hans Scherenberg during the time of Walter Gutbrod who had taken over the firm in 1948 on the death of his father, Wilhelm Gutbrod (26 February 1890 – 9 August 1948). Scherenberg arrived at Gutbrod from Mercedes where the victorious war-time allies had enforced a pause in engine fuel-injection development, and in 1952 he would return to that firm.

A Gutbrod injection engine can still be seen in the Deutsches Museum in Munich.

It was a small two seater car, the overall length was 3.5 m (11 ft), width 1.4 m (4.6 ft) and the total weight 650 kg (1,433 lb), max speed 90 km/h (56 mph). The car was offered as standard version for a price of DM 3990, and as Superior Luxus for DM 4380. Recently, a restoration project of an injection model was sold in Geneva for CHF 3000.

In 1956,1956-the-troll-was-a-small-car-made-by-troll-plastik-bilindustri-of-lunde-norway-from-1956-to-1958-it-was-one-of-few-attempts-at-car-production-in-norway-but-only-five-cars-were-ever-bthe Norwegian Troll car was built on a Gutbrod chassis. pioneering the use of fibreglass in automobile coachwork along with the Chevrolet Corvette as well as some other small scale car manufacturers.

Ernst Günther Burggaller1930-prospekt_bs_5001931-preisliste19311932-modelle32-1-a1932-modelle32-2-b1932-modelle32-3-c1932-modelle32-4-d1932-modelle32-5-e1932-modelle32-6-f1932-motorbike-standard-bs-500-497-cm%c2%b3-onezylinder-viertakt-motor-12-hp-4-500-u-min-90-km-h1933-model-standard-superior-newspaper-ad-from-january-19331935-motorbike-standard-rex-sport-491cc-22hp-130km-u1949-gutbrod-504-04-051949-gutbrod-atlas-800-datenblatt1949-gutbrod-atlas-800-datenblatt-021949-gutbrot1950-gutbrod-atlas-600-brochure-prospekt-1950-a1950-gutbrod-atlas-600-brochure-prospekt-1950-b1950-gutbrod-atlas-600-brochure-prospekt-1950-c1950-gutbrod-atlas-800-a1950-gutbrod-atlas-8001950-gutbrod-atlas-800-011950-gutbrod-atlas-800-03-21950-gutbrod-atlas-800-031950-gutbrod-atlas-800-03-011950-gutbrod-louwman-parqui1950-gutbrod-superior-kleinwagen-catalog1950-gutbrod-superior-stationcar-body-by-westfalia1950-gutbrod-superior1950-gutbrod-superior1950-54-gutbrod-superior-700e1951-gutbrod-600a1951-gutbrod-atlas1951-gutbrod-superior-21951-gutbrod-superior-600-luxus-achterzijde-d1951-gutbrod-superior-600-luxus1951-gutbrod-superior-bl1951-gutbrod-superior1951-gutbrod-superiorkombi1952-chromo-photo-1952-cigarettes-kosmos-sieg-uber-raum-zeit-gutbrod-atlas-800-b1952-chromo-photo-1952-cigarettes-kosmos-sieg-uber-raum-zeit-gutbrod-atlas-800-c1952-chromo-photo-1952-cigarettes-kosmos-sieg-uber-raum-zeit-gutbrod-superior-cabrio-a1952-chromo-photo-1952-cigarettes-kosmos-sieg-uber-raum-zeit-gutbrod-superior-cabrio1952-gutbrod-superior-6001952-gutbrod-superior-brochure-prospekt-19521952-gutbrod-superior-brochure-prospekt-1952a1952-gutbrod-superior-brochure-prospekt-1952b1952-gutbrod-superior-limousine1952-gutbrod-superior-red1952-gutbrod-superior1952-gutbrod-superiorkombi-21952-gutbrod1952-gutbrod-superior-sport-erste-serienauto-745701952-mhv-gutbrod-6001952-mhv-gutbrod-600a1952-54-gutbrod-superior-700-luxus1952gutbrod-superior-germanyup-to1liter1953-gutbrod-superior1954-gutbrod-superior-1953-54-original-german-sales-brochure-viersitzer-600-7001954-gutbrod-superior1955-gutbrod-motoculteur-a-54-vasall-19551956-the-troll-was-a-small-car-made-by-troll-plastik-bilindustri-of-lunde-norway-from-1956-to-1958-it-was-one-of-few-attempts-at-car-production-in-norway-but-only-five-cars-were-ever-b1958-gutbrod-atlas1967-gutbrod-1031-mit-frase1967-gutbrod-kleintraktor-1031-mit-frase2012-05-08-gutbrod-embleem2012-05-08-gutbrod_12012-05-08-gutbrod_22012-05-08-gutbrod_32012-05-08-gutbrod_42012-05-08-gutbrod_5asien-steyr-fahrzeuge-6agutbrod-600gutbrod-800-brochure-screen4-01gutbrod-1000gutbrod-a17-centra-lucifersmatchbox-labels-gutbrod-vehicle-cargutbrod-atlas-800gutbrod-atlas-800agutbrod-atlas-800-kombinationswagen-01gutbrod-atlas-800-milchverkaufswagen-01gutbrod-atlas-1000-privatbus-01gutbrod-atlasgutbrod-atlas-1000-01gutbrod-bilder-kleintransporter-der-fuenfziger-jahregutbrod-emblemgutbrod-geschikt-als-minicampergutbrod-iigutbrod-logo-1gutbrod-motorbouw-duitsland-model-farmax-typegutbrod-superior-blgutbrod-superior-grungutbrod-superior-interior-truly-superiorgutbrod-superior-roadster-count-von-schulenburg-at-a-rallygutbrod-tracteur-superior-1032gutbrod-typ-3000-tondeuse-a-gazon-agutbrod-typ-3000-tondeuse-a-gazon-bgutbrod-typ-3000-tondeuse-a-gazon-cgutbrod-typ-3000-tondeuse-a-gazonkickstarternf-58-58-gutbrod-atlasprospekt_gloria_etcprospekt_rex1prospekt_rex2prospekt_rex3prospekt_rex4prospekt_standard_sup1prospektflblock1prospektflblock2prospekthermesdrei_1tprospektidealtouren1prospektidealtouren2prospektstandard_kobold2prospektstandardcs500350standard-gutbrodstandard-motorcyclestandard_at_500_typenschein_2_kopiestandard-logo1tankschriftzugvw-gutbrod-goliath


  1. Jump up^ Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, volume 4 (in German). Motorbuch Verlag. p. 478. ISBN 3-613-02131-5.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b “Hans Scherenberg 90 Jahre”. Auto Motor u. Sport. Heft 23 2000: Seite 14. November 2000.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Vor 20 Jahren: Test Gutbrod Superior (ie a page of extracts from the same magazine’s edition of exactly twenty years earlier”. Auto Motor u. Sport. Heft 8 1973: Seite 90. 14 April 1973.
  4. Jump up^ “Errinern Sie Sich? Entwurf von Meisterhad: Gutbrod Superior”. Auto Motor u. Sport. Heft 19 1976: Seite 72–75. 15 September 1976.



Buses, Coaches, Trucks and Vans

VW Argentina, VW Australia, VW Brazil, VW Mexico.

Volkswagen Type 2
Volkswagen Type2 T2b Ambulance. Late 1970s Volkswagen Type 2 Ambulance
Manufacturer Volkswagen
Also called Volkswagen Bus
Volkswagen Camper
Volkswagen Delivery Van
Volkswagen Kombi
Volkswagen Microbus
Volkswagen Pick-up
Volkswagen Transporter
Production Nov 1949–Dec 2013
Body and chassis
Class Van (Minibus)
Body style 4-door panel van
4-door minibus
2-door pickup (regular cab)
3-door pickup (crew cab)
Layout Longitudinal rear engine,
rear-wheel drive
Platform Volkswagen Group T platform
Successor Volkswagen Type 2 (T3)
VWcampervan A “Camper” at The Henry Ford
VW Bus_T1_in_Hippie_Colors
 Custom-painted art bus
 T1 Panel Van
1964 VW_T1_Kastenwagen
 1964 T1 Panel Van

The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially (depending on body type) as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus (US) or Camper (UK), is a panel van introduced in 1950 by the German automaker Volkswagen as its second car model. Following – and initially deriving from Volkswagen’s first model, the Type 1 (Beetle) – it was given the factory designation Type 2.

As one of the forerunners of the modern cargo and passenger vans, the Type 2 gave rise to forward control competitors in the United States in the 1960s, including the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A100, and the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the latter adopting the Type 2’s rear-engine configuration. European competition included the 1960s FF layout Renault Estafette and the FR layout Ford Transit.

Like the Beetle, the van has received numerous nicknames worldwide, including the “microbus”, “minibus”, and, because of its popularity during the counterculture movement of the 1960s, “Hippie van”.

Brazil contained the last factory in the world that produced the T2. Production in Brazil ceased on December 31, 2013, due to the introduction of more stringent safety regulations in the country. This marks the end of an era with the rear-engine Volkswagens manufactured (after the 2002 termination of its T3 successor in South Africa), which first originated in 1935 with their Type 1 prototypes.


The concept for the Type 2 is credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. (It has similarities in concept to the 1920s Rumpler Tropfenwagen and 1930s Dymaxion car by Buckminster Fuller, neither of which reached production.) Pon visited Wolfsburg in 1946, intending to purchase Type 1s for import to the Netherlands, where he saw an improvised parts-mover and realized something better was possible using the stock Type 1 pan. He first sketched the van in a doodle dated April 23, 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg (1,520 lb) and placing the driver at the very front. Production would have to wait, however, as the factory was at capacity producing the Type 1.

When capacity freed up, a prototype known internally as the Type 29 was produced in a short three months. The stock Type 1 pan proved to be too weak so the prototype used a ladder chassis with unit body construction. Coincidentally the wheelbase was the same as the Type 1’s. Engineers reused the reduction gear from the Type 81, enabling the 1.5 ton van to use a 25 hp (19 kW) flat four engine.

Although the aerodynamics of the first prototypes were poor (with an initial drag coefficient of Cd=0.75), engineers used the wind tunnel at the Technical University of Braunschweig to optimize the design. Simple changes such as splitting the windshield and roofline into a “vee” helped the production Type 2 achieve Cd=0.44, exceeding the Type 1’s Cd=0.48. Volkswagen’s new chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff (appointed 1 January 1948) approved the van for production on 19 May 1949 and the first production model, now designated Type 2, rolled off the assembly line to debut 12 November. Only two models were offered: the Kombi (with two side windows and middle and rear seats that were easily removable by one person), and the Commercial. The Microbus was added in May 1950, joined by the Deluxe Microbus in June 1951. In all 9,541 Type 2s were produced in their first year of production.

An ambulance model was added in December 1951 which repositioned the fuel tank in front of the transaxle, put the spare tire behind the front seat, and added a “tailgate“-style rear door. These features became standard on the Type 2 from 1955 to 1967. 11,805 Type 2s were built in the 1951 model year. These were joined by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, and it changed the least of the Type 2s until all were heavily modified in 1968.

Unlike other rear engine Volkswagens, which evolved constantly over time but never saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not only evolved, but was completely revised periodically with variations retrospectively referred to as versions “T1” to “T5” (a nomenclature only invented after the introduction of the front-drive T4 which replaced the T25). However only generations T1 to T3 (or T25 as it is still called in Ireland and Great Britain) can be seen as directly related to the Beetle (see below for details).

The Type 2, along with the 1947 Citroën H Van, are among the first ‘forward control’ vans in which the driver was placed above the front roadwheels. They started a trend in Europe, where the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, and 1960 Commer FC also used the concept. In the United States, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van went so far as to copy the Type 2’s rear-engine layout, using the Corvair’s horizontally opposed, air-cooled engine for power. Except for the Greenbrier and various 1950s–70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 remained unique in being rear-engined. This was a disadvantage for the early “barndoor” Panel Vans, which could not easily be loaded from the rear because the engine cover intruded on interior space, but generally advantageous in traction and interior noise.


Volkswagen Samba(1)Volkswagen Samba bus

1961 Volkswagen Type II flatbed pickup truckElectrician-TucsonExample of a 1961 Volkswagen Type II flatbed pickup truck.

VW_T1-BD_20-5031Rail-going draisine

The Type 2 was available as a:

  • Panel van, a delivery van without side windows or rear seats.
  • Double-door Panel Van, a delivery van without side windows or rear seats and cargo doors on both sides.
  • High Roof Panel Van (German: Hochdach), a delivery van with raised roof.
  • Kombi, from German: Kombinationskraftwagen (combination motor vehicle), with side windows and removable rear seats, both a passenger and a cargo vehicle combined.
  • Bus, also called a Volkswagen Caravelle, a van with more comfortable interior reminiscent of passenger cars since the third generation.
  • Samba-Bus, a van with skylight windows and cloth sunroof, first generation only, also known as a Deluxe Microbus. They were marketed for touring theAlps.
  • Flatbed pickup truck, or Single Cab, also available with wider load bed.
  • Crew cab pick-up, a flatbed truck with extended cab and two rows of seats, also called a Doka, from German: Doppelkabine.
  • Westfalia camping van, “Westy”, with Westfalia roof and interior. Included optional “pop up” top.
  • Adventurewagen camping van, with high roof and camping units from Adventurewagen.
  • Semi-camping van that can also still be used as a passenger car and transporter, sacrificing some camping comforts. “Multivan” or “Weekender”, available from the third generation on.

Apart from these factory variants, there were a multitude of third-party conversions available, some of which were offered through Volkswagen dealers. They included, but were not limited to, refrigerated vans, hearses, ambulances, police vans, fire engines and ladder trucks, and camping van conversions by companies other than Westfalia. There were even 30 Klv 20 rail-going draisines built for Deutsche Bundesbahn in 1955.

In South Africa, it is known as a well-loved variation of the ice cream van (first, second and third generations). The mere sight of one (in South Africa) sparks the familiar rhyme: I scream, We scream, We all scream for Ice-Cream!

First generation (T1; 1950–1967)

Volkswagen Type 2 (T1)
1966 VW_Type2_T1c_Kombi
Production 1950–1967 (Europe and US)
1950–1975 (Brazil)
Assembly Wolfsburg, Germany
Hanover, Germany
São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Melbourne, Australia
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group T1 platform
Engine 1.1 L B4 (petrol)
1.2 L B4 (petrol)
1.5 L B4 (petrol)
Wheelbase 2,400 mm (94.5 in)
Length 4,280 mm (168.5 in)
Width 1,720 mm (67.7 in)
Height 1,940 mm (76.4 in)

The first generation of the Volkswagen Type 2 with the split windshield, informally called the Microbus, Splitscreen, or Splittie among modern fans, was produced from 8 March 1950 through the end of the 1967 model year. From 1950 to 1956, the T1 (not called that at the time) was built in Wolfsburg; from 1956, it was built at the completely new Transporter factory in Hanover. Like the Beetle, the first Transporters used the 1100 Volkswagen air-cooled engine, an 1,131 cc (69.0 cu in),DIN-rated 18 kW (24 PS; 24 bhp), air-cooled flat-four-cylinder ‘boxer’ engine mounted in the rear. This was upgraded to the 1200 – an 1,192 cc (72.7 cu in) 22 kW (30 PS; 30 bhp) in 1953. A higher compression ratio became standard in 1955; while an unusual early version of the 30 kW (41 PS; 40 bhp) engine debuted exclusively on the Type 2 in 1959. This engine proved to be so uncharacteristically troublesome that Volkswagen recalled all 1959 Transporters and replaced the engines with an updated version of the 30 kW engine. Any 1959 models that retain that early engine today are true survivors. Since the engine was totally discontinued at the outset, no parts were ever made available.

The early versions of the T1 until 1955 were often called the “Barndoor” (retrospectively called T1a since the 1990s), owing to the enormous rear engine cover, while the later versions with a slightly modified body (the roofline above the windshield is extended), smaller engine bay, and 15″ roadwheels instead of the original 16″ ones are nowadays called the T1b (again, only called this since the 1990s, based on VW’s restrospective T1,2,3,4 etc. naming system.). From the 1963 model year, when the rear door was made wider (same as on the bay-window or T2), the vehicle could be referred to as the T1c. 1964 also saw the introduction of an optional sliding door for the passenger/cargo area instead of the outwardly hinged doors typical of cargo vans.

In 1962, a heavy-duty Transporter was introduced as a factory option. It featured a cargo capacity of 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) instead of the previous 750 kg (1,653 lb), smaller but wider 14″ roadwheels, and a 1.5 Le, 31 kW (42 PS; 42 bhp) DIN engine. This was so successful that only a year later, the 750 kg, 1.2 L Transporter was discontinued. The 1963 model year introduced the 1500 engine – 1,493 cc (91.1 cu in) as standard equipment to the US market at 38 kW (52 PS; 51 bhp) DIN with an 83 mm (3.27 in) bore, 69 mm (2.72 in) stroke, and 7.8:1 compression ratio. When the Beetle received the 1.5 L engine for the 1967 model year, its power was increased to 40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) DIN.

1966 Volkswagen Kombi1966 Volkswagen Kombi (North America)

German production stopped after the 1967 model year; however, the T1 still was made in Brazil until 1975, when it was modified with a 1968–79 T2-style front end, and big 1972-vintage taillights into the so-called “T1.5” and produced until 1996. The Brazilian T1s were not identical to the last German models (the T1.5 was locally produced in Brazil using the 1950s and 1960s-era stamping dies to cut down on retooling, alongside the Beetle/Fusca, where the pre-1965 body style was retained), though they sported some characteristic features of the T1a, such as the cargo doors and five-stud 205 mm (8.1 in) PCD rims. Wheel tracks varied between German and Brazilian production and with 14″,15″ and 16″ wheel variants but commonly front track varied from 1290mm to 1310mm and rear track from 1370mm to 1390mm.

Be_Your_Own_Goddess_art_bus_(1967_VW_Kombi)_IMG_0136VW Bus Type 2 (T1),hippie colors

Among American enthusiasts, it is common to refer to the different models by the number of their windows. The basic Kombi or Bus is the 11-window(a.k.a. three-window bus because of three side windows) with a split windshield, two front cabin door windows, six rear side windows, and one rear window. The DeLuxe model featured eight rear side windows and two rear corner windows, making it the 15-window (not available in Europe). Meanwhile, the sunroof DeLuxe with its additional eight small skylight windows is, accordingly, the 23-window. From the 1964 model year, with its wider rear door, the rear corner windows were discontinued, making the latter two the 13-window and 21-window respectively. The 23- and later 21-window variants each carry the nickname ‘Samba’, or in Australia, officially ‘Alpine’.

US Chicken Tax

Main article: Chicken tax
 U.S. sales of Volkswagen vans in pickup and commercial configurations were curtailed by the Chicken tax

Certain models of the Volkswagen Type 2 played a role in a historic episode during the early 1960s, known as theChicken War. France and West Germany had placed tariffs on imports of U.S. chicken. Diplomacy failed, and in January 1964, two months after taking office, President Johnson imposed a 25% tax (almost ten times the average U.S. tariff) on potato starch, dextrin, brandy, and light trucks. Officially, the tax targeted items imported from Europe as approximating the value of lost American chicken sales to Europe.

In retrospect, audio tapes from the Johnson White House, revealed a quid pro quo unrelated to chicken. In January 1964, President Johnson attempted to convince United Auto Workers‘ president Walter Reuther not to initiate a strike just before the 1964 election, and to support the president’s civil rights platform. Reuther, in turn, wanted Johnson to respond to Volkswagen‘s increased shipments to the United States.

The Chicken Tax directly curtailed importation of German-built Type 2s in configurations that qualified them as light trucks – that is, commercial vans (panel vans) and pickups. In 1964, U.S. imports of automobile trucks from West Germany declined to a value of $5.7 million – about one-third the value imported in the previous year. After 1971, Volkswagen cargo vans and pickup trucks, the intended targets, “practically disappeared from the U.S. market”. While post-1971 Type 2 commercial vans and single-cab and double-cab pickups can be found in the United States today, they are exceedingly rare. Any post-1971 specimen found ostensibly has had its import tariff paid. As of 2013, the “chicken tax” remains in effect.

Second generation (T2; 1967–1979)

Volkswagen Type 2 (T2)
1973-1980 Volkswagen_Kombi_(T2)_van_01
Production Aug 1967–Jul 1979 (Europe and US)
1971–1996 (Mexico)
1976–Dec 2013 (Brazil)
1981–1986 (Argentina)
Assembly Hanover, Germany
Emden, Germany
General Pacheco, Argentina
São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Puebla, Puebla, Mexico
Melbourne, Australia
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group T2 platform
Engine 1.6 L B4 (petrol)
1.7 L B4 (petrol)
1.8 L B4 (petrol)
1.8 L I4 (petrol)
2.0 L B4 (petrol)
Transmission 4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Wheelbase 2,400 mm (94.5 in)
Length 4,505 mm (177.4 in)
Width 1,720 mm (67.7 in)
Height 1,940 mm (76.4 in)

In late 1967, the second generation of the Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) was introduced. It was built in Germany until 1979. In Mexico, the Volkswagen Kombi and Panel were produced from 1970 to 1994. Models before 1971 are often called the T2a (or “Early Bay”), while models after 1972 are called the T2b (or “Late Bay”).

1978 Volkswagen_Transporter_Pickup_(T2)1978 Volkswagen Transporter Pickup (The Netherlands)

1973-1980 Volkswagen_Kombi_(T2)_van_021973–1980 Volkswagen Kombi (T2) van (Australia)

Volkswagen_T2_AmbulanceT2 used as an ambulance in Brazil

This second-generation Type 2 lost its distinctive split front windshield, and was slightly larger and considerably heavier than its predecessor. Its common nicknames are Breadloaf and Bay-window, orLoaf and Bay for short. At 1.6 L and 35 kW (48 PS; 47 bhp) DIN, the engine was also slightly larger. The new model also did away with the swing axle rear suspension and transfer boxes previously used to raise ride height. Instead, half-shaft axles fitted with constant velocity joints raised ride height without the wild changes in camber of the Beetle-based swing axle suspension. The updated Bus transaxle is usually sought after by off-road racers using air-cooled Volkswagen components.

The T2b was introduced by way of gradual change over three years. The first models featured rounded bumpers incorporating a step for use when the door was open (replaced by indented bumpers without steps on later models), front doors that opened to 90° from the body, no lip on the front guards, unique engine hatches, and crescent air intakes in the D-pillars (later models after the Type 4 engine option was offered, have squared off intakes). The 1971 Type 2 featured a new, 1.6 L engine with dual intake ports on each cylinder head and was DIN-rated at 37 kW (50 PS; 50 bhp). An important change came with the introduction of front disc brakes and new roadwheels with brake ventilation holes and flatter hubcaps. Up until 1972, front indicators are set low on the nose rather than high on either side of the fresh air grille – giving rise to their being nicknamed “Low Lights”. 1972’s most prominent change was a bigger engine compartment to fit the larger 1.7- to 2.0-litre engines from the Volkswagen Type 4, and a redesigned rear end which eliminated the removable rear apron and introduced the larger late tail lights. The air inlets were also enlarged to accommodate the increased cooling air needs of the larger engines.

In 1971 the 1600cc Type 1 engine as used in the Beetle, was supplemented with the 1700cc Type 4 engine – as it was originally designed for the Type 4 (411 and 412) models. European vans kept the option of upright fan Type 1 1600 engine but the 1700 Type 4 became standard for US spec models.

1968 1973 and 1973-1980 Volkswagen Kombi (T2) vansPre-facelift (left) and facelifted (right)Volkswagen Kombi (T2) vans (Australia)

In the Type 2, the Type 4 engine was an option for the 1972 model year onward. This engine was standard in models destined for the US and Canada. Only with the Type 4 engine did an automatic transmission become available for the first time in the 1973 model year. Both engines displaced 1.7 L, DIN-rated at 49 kW (67 PS; 66 bhp) with the manual transmission and 46 kW (63 PS; 62 bhp) with the automatic. The Type 4 engine was enlarged to 1.8 L and 50 kW (68 PS; 67 bhp) DIN for the 1974 model year and again to 2.0 L and 52 kW (71 PS; 70 bhp) DIN for the 1976 model year. The 1978 2.0 L now featured hydraulic valve lifters, eliminating the need to periodically adjust the valve clearances as on earlier models. The 1975 and later U.S. model years received Bosch L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection as standard equipment; 1978 was the first year for electronic ignition, utilizing a hall effect sensor and digital controller, eliminating maintenance-requiring contact-breaker points. As with all Transporter engines, the focus in development was not on power, but on low-end torque. The Type 4 engines were considerably more robust and durable than the Type 1 engines, particularly in Transporter service.

In 1972, for the 1973 model year, exterior revisions included relocated front turn indicators, squared off and set higher in the valance, above the headlights. Also, square-profiled bumpers, which became standard until the end of the T2 in 1979, were introduced in 1973. Crash safety improved with this change because of a compressible structure behind the front bumper. This meant that the T2b was capable of meeting US safety standards for passenger cars of the time, though not required of vans. The “VW” emblem on the front valance became slightly smaller.

Later model changes were primarily mechanical. By 1974, the T2 had gained its final shape. Very late in the T2’s design life, during the late 1970s, the first prototypes of Type 2 vans with four-wheel drive (4WD) were built and tested.

1979 Vw silverfish

1979 Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) “Silverfish” last-edition bus. These were a limited edition model to mark the final production of T2 models in Europe

1968 VW Volk_bus_1968a1968 Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) Hard-Top Westfalia “Cream” bus

2005 VW_Kombi_Silver_Limited_Edition Brazil

Brazilian Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) – 2005 Limited Edition


Brazilian water-cooled Volkswagen Type 2 (T2)




 T2c in Brazil

The T2c, which has a slightly raised roof – by about 10 cm (3.9 in) – in the early 1990s, is built for the South American and Central American markets. It can be imported into other countries, such as the United Kingdom.

Since 1991, the T2c has been built in México with the water-cooled 1.8 L inline four-cylinder 53 kW (72 PS; 71 bhp) carbureted engine, easily identified by their large, black-coloured, front-mounted radiators, and since 1995 with the 1.6 L air-cooled engines for the Brazilian market.

Since production of the original Beetle was halted in late 2003 as a 2004 model, the T2 remained the only Volkswagen model with the traditional air-cooled, rear-mounted boxer engine until the Brazilian model shifted to a water-cooled engine on 23 December 2005. There was a 1.6 L 50 hp (37 kW; 51 PS) water-cooled diesel engined version of the T2, which was manufactured from 1981 to 1985 in Brazil. This version was very economical – values from 15 km/l to 18 km/l are reported – but it suffered from low performance and an insufficiently capable cooling system, which led to short engine life.

The end of the Volkswagen air-cooled engine on a worldwide basis was marked by a Special Edition Kombi. An exclusive Silver paint job, and limited edition emblems were applied to only 200 units in late 2005, and were sold as 2006 models.

Brazilian_Kombi_pair water and air cooled

An aircooled and a watercooled VW Kombi (T2), made in Brazil. Model years 2005 and 2006.

More onerous emissions laws introduced by the Brazilian government for 2006 forced a shift to water-cooled engines. The new “Flex Fuel” water-cooled engine will run on petrol as well as alcohol. Borrowed from the Volkswagen Fox, the engine is a rear-mounted EA-111 1.4 L 8v Total Flex1,390 cc (84.8 cu in), 58 kW (79 PS; 78 bhp) on petrol, and 60 kW (82 PS; 80 bhp) when run on ethanol, and 124 N·m (91 lbf·ft) torque. This version has been very successful, despite the minor changes made to the overall T2-bodied vehicle. It still includes the four-speed transmission, but with a new final drive ratio it can cruise at 120 km/h (75 mph) at 4,100 rpm. Top speed is 130 km/h (81 mph). 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) is achieved in 22.7 seconds (vs. 29.5 seconds for the last air-cooled version). Improvements were made with 6.6% better fuel economy, and nearly 2 decibel (dB) less noise (again vs. the air-cooled version).

The Volkswagen Type T2 is by far the longest model run in Brazil, having been introduced in September 1950 as the Volkswagen “Kombi”, a name it has kept throughout production. The fierce competition from European front-wheel drive newer generation vans still cannot match the Kombi’s unparalleled cost-benefit equation. Only produced in two versions, bus (nine-seater or 12-seater – a fourth row is added for metro transportation or school bus market) or panel van, it offers only one factory option: the rear window defog. As of June 2009, the T2 is built at the Volkswagen Group’s São Bernardo do Campo plant at a rate of 97 per day.

The production of the Brazilian Volkswagen Kombi ended in 2013 with a production run of 600 Last Edition vehicles. The phaseout of the T2c marks the end of an era which lasted since 1945 (when started the second generation of Volkswagen Type-1 – it will be the final production of metal-made bumper cars after 68 years. A short movie called “Kombi’s last wishes” was made by VW Brazil.

Post-Type 2 generations

Third generation (T3; 1979–1992)


 Volkswagen Type 2 (T3/Vanagon/T25)

The Volkswagen Type 2 (T3) also known as the T25, (or Vanagon in the United States), the T3 platform was introduced in 1980, and was one of the last new Volkswagen platforms to use an air-cooled engine. The Volkswagen air-cooled engine was phased out for a water-cooled boxer engine (still rear-mounted) in 1984. Compared to its predecessor the T2, the T3 was larger and heavier, with square corners replacing the rounded edges of the older models. The T3 is sometimes called “the wedge” by enthusiasts to differentiate it from earlier Kombis.

Fourth generation (T4; 1990–2003)

Early 1990s Multivan Allstar T4

Since 1990, the Transporter in most world markets has been front-engined and water-cooled, similar to other contemporary Volkswagens, almost two decades later than it did for the passenger cars. T4s are marketed as Transporter in Europe. In the United States, Volkswagen Eurovan is the brand name.

Fifth generation (T5; 2003–present)

2004 VW_Eurovan_T5_Multivan
 2004 Volkswagen Transporter T5

The Volkswagen Transporter T5 range is the fifth generation of Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles medium-sized light commercial vehicle and people movers. Launched 6 January 2003, the T5 went into full production in April 2003, replacing the fourth generation range.

Key markets for the T5 are Germany, the United Kingdom, Russia, France and Turkey. It is not sold in the US market because it is classed as a light truck, accruing the 25% chicken tax on importation. The T5 has a more aerodynamic design. The angle of the windshield and A-pillar is less; this makes for a large dashboard and small bonnet.

In June 2009, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles announced the one-millionth T5 rolled off the production line in Hanover.

Additional developments

2006 BSB_Flex_cars_118_09_2008_VW_Kombi_Total_Flex_with_logo_blur

Brazilian Air Force 2006 Kombi Total Flex is a flexible-fuel vehicle

In 2001, a Volkswagen Microbus Concept was created, with design cues from the T1 generation in a spirit similar to the New Beetle nostalgia movement. Volkswagen planned to start selling it in the United States market in 2007, but it was scrapped in May 2004 and replaced with a more cost-effective design to be sold worldwide.

Names and nicknames

Like the Beetle, from the beginning, the Type 2 earned many nicknames from its fans. Among the most popular, at least in Germany, are VW-Bus and Bulli (or Bully) or Hippie-van or the bus. The Type 2 was meant to be officially named the Bully, but Heinrich Lanz, producer of the Lanz Bulldog farm tractor, intervened. The model was then presented as the Volkswagen Transporter and Volkswagen Kleinbus, but the Bully nickname still caught on.

The official German-language model names Transporter and Kombi (Kombinationskraftwagen, combined-use vehicle) have also caught on as nicknames. Kombi is not only the name of the passenger variant, but is also the Australasian and Brazilian term for the whole Type 2 family; in much the same way that they are all called VW-Bus in Germany, even the pickup truck variations. In Mexico, the German Kombi was translated as Combi, and became a household word thanks to the vehicle’s popularity in Mexico City‘s public transportation system. In Peru, where the term Combi was similarly adopted, the term Combi Asesina (Murdering Combi) is often used for buses of similar size, because of the notorious recklessness and competition of bus drivers in Lima to get passengers. In Portugal it is known as Pão-de-Forma (Breadloaf) because its design resembles a bread baked in a mold. Similarly, in Denmark, the Type 2 is referred to as Rugbrød (Rye bread). Finns dubbed it Kleinbus (mini-bus), as many taxicab companies adopted it for group transportation; the name Kleinbus has become an appellative for all passenger vans. The vehicle is also known as Kleinbus in Chile.

In the US, however, it is a VW bus, a “vee-dub”, a minibus, a hippie-mobile, hippie bus, or hippie van, “combie”, Microbus or a Transporter to aficionados. The early versions produced before 1967 used a split front windshield (giving rise to the nickname “Splitty”), and their comparative rarity has led to their becoming sought after by collectors and enthusiasts. The next version, sold in the US market from 1968 to 1979, is characterised by a large, curved windshield and is commonly called a “bay-window”. It was replaced by the Vanagon, of which only the Westfalia camper version has a common nickname, “Westy”.

It was called Volksie Bus in South Africa, notable in a series of that country’s TV commercials. Kombi is also a generic nickname for vans and minibuses in South Africa and Swaziland, often used as a means of public transportation. In Nigeria it was called Danfo.

In the UK, it is known as a “Campervan”. In France, it was called a “camping-car” (usually hyphenated) though this has been expanded to include other, often more specialized vehicles in more recent times.

Mexican production

T2 production began in 1970 at the Puebla assembly factory.

Offered initially only as a nine-passenger version called the Volkswagen Kombi, and from 1973 also its cargo van version called the Volkswagen Panel, both variants were fitted with the 1.5 L air-cooled boxer engine and four-speed manual gearbox. In 1974, the 1.6 L 44 bhp (33 kW; 45 PS) boxer engine replaced the 1.5 previous one, and production continued this way up to 1987. In 1987, the water-cooled 1.8 L 85 bhp (63 kW; 86 PS) inline four-cylinder engine replaced the air-cooled 1.6 L. This new model is recognisable by its black grille (for its engine coolant radiator), bumpers and moldings.

In 1975, Volkswagen de Mexico ordered two specially-made pickups from Germany, one single cab and one double cab, for the Puebla plant. These were evaluated for the possibility of building pickups in Mexico, and were outfitted with every option except the Arctic package, including front and rear fog lights, intermittent wipers, trip odometer, clock, bumper rubber, PVC tilt, and dual doors on the single cab storage compartment. VW de Mexico was interested in having the lights, wiring, brake systems and other parts manufactured in Mexico. Ultimately, VW de Mexico declined to produce pickups, and the pickups were sold to an Autohaus, a Volkswagen dealer in San Antonio, Texas, since they could not be sold in Mexico. By law, no German-made Volkswagens were to be sold in Mexico. These are probably the only pickups that were produced in Germany for Mexican import, and have the “ME” export code on the M-code plate. The green double cab was sold to a new owner in New York, and has been lost track of. The light gray (L345, licht grau) single cab still exists. Pickups were not manufactured in Mexico, nor were they imported into Mexico from Germany, save for these two examples.

In 1988, a luxury variant – the Volkswagen Caravelle – made its debut in the Mexican market to compete with the Nissan Ichi Van, which was available in cargo, passenger and luxury versions.

The main differences between the two are that the Caravelle was sold as an eight-passenger version, while the Combi was available as a nine-passenger version, the Caravelle was only painted in metallic colors, while the Combi was only available in non-metallic colors, and the Caravelle was fitted with an AM/FM stereo cassette sound system, tinted windows, velour upholstery, reading lights, mid and rear headrests, and wheel covers from the European T25 model.

In 1991, the 10 cm (3.9 in) higher roof made its debut in all variants, and the Combi began to be offered in eight- or nine-passenger variants. In 1991, since Mexican anti-pollution regulations required a three-way catalytic converter, a Digifant fuel injection system replaced the previous carburetor. The three variants continued without change until 1994.

In 1994, production ended in Mexico, with models being imported from Brazil. The Caravelle was discontinued, and both the Combi and the Panel were only offered in white color and finally in 2002, replaced by the T4 EuroVan Pasajeros and EuroVan Carga, passenger and cargo van in long wheelbase version, inline five-cylinder 2.5 L 115 bhp and five-speed manual gearbox imported from Germany.

1945 Volkswagen-83 (KdF-83), 4x4 1950-67 Volkswagen Kombi Type 2 Mark T1 also called Transporter Originally with an engine of 1131cc. 1950-67 Volkswagen T2 Type T1 1952_VW_Barndoor_brown_back 1952_VW_Barndoor_brown_back2 1953 Volkswagen Samba 1953 Volkswagenbus 1953 VW Samba_21_windows 1955 Volkswagen Microbus 1956 Volkswagen T1 2-26 sform W 385 1350857323 1956 Volkswagen Transporter-1-221 1956 VW Deluxe_front Berlin, Friedrich-Ebert-Straße, Ruine 1957 Volkswagen T1 - Lelystad 2009 1957 1957 VW Bus Brandweer - Fire engine 1959 Volkswagen T1 1961 Volkswagen Type II flatbed pickup truckElectrician-Tucson 1961-VW-Bus-Brochure 1964 VOLKSWAGEN BUS 1964 VW BUS AMBULANCE VINTAGE 1964 Rio de Janeiro Brasil 1964 VW_T1_Kastenwagen 1966 Volkswagen Kombi 1966 VW Transporter T1 Pickup BE-44-99 1966 VW_Type2_T1c_Kombi 1967 Volkswagen T1 1967 VW Blue-Samba 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer a 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer b 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer brochure 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer c 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer d 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer e Limo 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer f metro 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer 1967 VW T1b Samba-Bus 1967-79 Volkswagen Type 2 T2b Camper (Europe) 1968 1973 and 1973-1980 Volkswagen Kombi (T2) vans 1968 VW Volk_bus_1968a 1969 VW T1 Auwärter Carlux 1972 Volkswagen German Volkswagen ambulance D 1972-79 volkwsagen-bus-16 1973 VW Bus + aanhanger 1973-1980 Volkswagen_Kombi_(T2)_van_01 1973-1980 Volkswagen_Kombi_(T2)_van_02 1974 VOLKSWAGEN (391 119 503 33-1-1974) 1977 Volkswagen_Kombi_Westfalia_(Auto_classique_Salaberry-De-Valleyfield_'11) 1978 Volkswagen camperbus 1978 Volkswagen Transporter 1970's Minibus Rome Colosseum 1978 Volkswagen_Transporter_Pickup_(T2) 1978 VW LT 28 Kasten - Hochdach 1979 Volkswagen -183 Iltis, 4x4, 1979 1979 Vw silverfish 1979-84 VW-LT31 1981 Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus Ltda (VWC) 1981- Brazilië 1982 Volkswagen Transporter-3-255 1983 Ikarus-MAN-Volkswagen 1988 Volkswagen T2 combi autobus 02-EJ-17 1988 Volkswagen Transporter-3-247 Syncro, 4x4 1988-98 VW LT31 1989 Volkswagen Omnibus I, type 2, Caravelle CL 1990 VOLKSWAGEN T4 A MULTIVAN ALLSTAR 1990 VW T3 Bus 1990-03 VW Trans Caravelle GLA T4 Engine 2461cc Petrol 1991-03 Volkswagen T4 Multivan Allstar 1992 VW minibus-eignet-sich-durch-78598 1992 VW_Eurovan_T4a_Multivan_Allstar 1993 Volkswagen LT35 1996 VW Transporter 1999 VOLKSWAGEN LT 46 TDI 1999 Volkswagen Volksbus-Rosmo Bus Honduras 2000 Volkswagen 16.210 CO-Marcopolo Torino GV Bus Ecuador 2000 VW mauri montisola 2001 Volkswagen LT35 Litouwen 2001 Volkswagen Microbus Concept. 2002 Volkswagen -Kutsenits City III Non-Step Bus Tokio OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2004 VW_Eurovan_T5_Multivan 2005 VW Bus 2005 VW T5 Transporter 2005 VW_Kombi_Silver_Limited_Edition Brazil 2006 BSB_Flex_cars_118_09_2008_VW_Kombi_Total_Flex_with_logo_blur 2007 Volkswagen Crafter 50 Litouwen 2007 Volkswagen Crafter UK 2009 Volkswagen Constellation de 2009 (Brésil) 2009 volkwsagen-bus-33 2010 Comil_Versatile_Volkswagen_-_Buses_Schuftan___Ago_2010 2011 Volkswagen Bulli rear 2011 Tokyo Motor Show 2012 VW Bulli concept 2013 Volkswagen Craftfter 2013 Be_Your_Own_Goddess_art_bus_(1967_VW_Kombi)_IMG_0136 Brazilian_Kombi_pair water and air cooled Brazilian_Watercooled_Kombi Brazilian_Watercooled_Kombi_Engine Brazilian_Watercooled_Kombi_Interior BusscarVisstaBussHiVolkswagenBusesBioBio132 CaioGiro3400VolkswagenBusesInterbus_2 DoubleBack-VW-campervan-07 IKARUS 521 op VW LT55TD Ikarus 526-os, az Ikarus 405-ös VW Kombi_Pick_Up_Aço Marcopolo_Senior_-__Volkswagen_Buses_Landeros_Reg._Metrop_____Jun_2009 MarcopoloSeniorVolkswagenBusesDhinos modern_reinterpretation_of_the_classic_vw_westfalia_camper_van-2 Neobus_Spectrum_-_Volkswagen_Buses_Serena_Mar_IV_Reg______Oct_2008 Party_VW_Type_2 Porsche_Diesel_Bus_blau Satélite 15851 - Busscar Urbanuss Ecoss VW 17-230 EOD VETTER-VW Volkswagen - Den Oudsten en zn., Woerden Volkswagen 9.150 ECE Armored Truck 1 VOLKSWAGEN 40 300 Volkswagen 250 AutoBomba Volkswagen Brazilië Tanker Volkswagen Brazilië Volkswagen buses KRESPOL Sokółka Volkswagen Chascomus VOLKSWAGEN CONSTELLATION Volkswagen Crafter tamlans pegabus ambulance Volkswagen D Volkswagen en Magirus Volkswagen HAP UTRECHT 9-871 Volkswagen ingwhite1 Volkswagen L80 1994–2000 (Brazilian built) Volkswagen LT 40 D Volkswagen LT 40a D Volkswagen LT NL Volkswagen LT Rosenbauer Volkswagen Portugal Volkswagen Samba(1) Volkswagen T1 LEGO Volkswagen T1 type2 Crew Cabin (1950-67 Europe 1950-75 Brazil) Engines 1193 cc, 1200 cc and 1493 cc. Volkswagen T5 ambulance Nikola Tesla Airport Servië Volkswagen Type2 T2b Ambulance. Late 1970s Volkswagen Type 2 Ambulance VOLKSWAGEN USINE SUD-AMERICAINE Volkswagen Volksbus 17.230 EOD with a Marcopolo body on a Brazilian street Volkswagen Volksbus 17.240 with a CAIO body on a Brazilian street. Volkswagen Volkswagen_Kombi_(Auto_classique_Laval_'11) Volkswagen_LT_Camper_Karmann_Mobil Volkswagen_T2_Ambulance Volkswagen_T2_in_Brazil volkswagen8 Volkswagen-Bus-Inspired-Dub-Box-Camper-Trailer-9 VOLKSWAGEN-DEN OUDSTEN (RSP690 601) Volkswagon AF02FTa Volkswagon PortMacquaireDay3001 Volkswagon YVD358a volkwagen LT Enhabo Volswagen Volksbus 17.240 with a Marcopolo body on a Brazilian street Volswagen Volksbus 18.310 OT with a Marcopolo body on a Colombian way OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA VW Australië VW Bolletje reclame VW Bruneï VW Bus zestiger jaren VW Bus_T1_in_Hippie_Colors VW Cabriolet bus VW Camper Super VW Camper verhoogd VW Constellation Argentina mercado-externo3 VW Constellation BRA VW Crafter ambulance Digital StillCamera VW Doorzicht bus VW Feuerwehr VW Golf bestel PTT VW Hout bus VW IJsbus VW Italië VW Kleinbus von Bernhuber-Österreich VW Krankenwagen VW L80 VW Limo Bus VW LIMO VW Lublijana VW MAN-VW G90 (eerste jaren MT-serie genoemd), de MAN L2000... VW Monstruositeit VW Paris F VW Post Nutzfahrzeug VW T1 bus ned PTT VW T1 Clinomobil VW T1bus Deutsche PTT VW T2b HS RK VW Touran Chweiz VW Transporter SN54KHDa VW Transporter VW v VW vanagontrailer VW Westfalia_Campingbox_7 VW Yorkshire Ambulance GB VW Zdravotnická.jpg VW_LT28_Behindertenfahrdienst_2 VW_T1_Doka VW_T1_Porschetransporter_r VW_T1-BD_20-5031 VW_T2_Airport Vw_transporter_t3_luft_v_sst vw-bus-brochure-5 vw-bus-concept vw-bus-limo-3 VWcampervan VW-L80-Pritschen-Lkw-rot vw-lt ad

UAZ – УАЗ Ulyanovsk, Russia SUVs off road vehicles Buses + Trucks since 1942

Ulyanovskiy Avtomobilnyi Zavod logo.jpg

(Ulyanovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, Ульяновский Автомобильный Завод, Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant)

Ulyanovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (UAZ)
Type Subsidiary of Sollers JSC
Industry Automotive
Founded 1941
Headquarters Ulyanovsk, Russia
Products SUVs
off-road vehicles

UAZ-469 stella at UAZ plant in UlyanovskUAZ-469 stella at UAZ plant in Ulyanovsk

UAZ (УАЗ) (Ulyanovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, Ульяновский Автомобильный Завод, Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant) is an automobile manufacturer based in Ulyanovsk, Russia which manufactures off-road vehicles, buses and trucks. It is best known for the UAZ-469 utility vehicle, which has seen wide use as a military vehicle in the Eastern bloc and around the world. The UAZ factory started production in 1941 as part of the Soviet war effort.


War and postwar

The Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant was founded in 1941 as a direct result of the German invasion of the Soviet Union. In response to this threat, the government of Joseph Stalin ordered the evacuation of strategically crucial industrial centers to the East. By October 1941, the rapid German drive to Moscow, triggered the decision to relocate the Moscow automotive manufacturer ZIS to the Volga town of Ulyanovsk. The town, already a nascent industrial center with a sufficiently developed infrastructure and a good supply of skilled workers, would be an ideal location for the reconstituted factory. It was also safely out of reach of the German army. At that time of its founding, the plant was considered a subsidiary of ZIS. By 1942, the plant began production of artillery shells and automobiles. The first vehicle produced at the plant was the ZIS-5 three-ton truck.

In 1943, when the prospect of a German victory had become far less likely, it was decided the relocated plant would remain in Ulyanovsk and be separated administratively from ZIS, which would be rebuilt in Moscow from scratch. This was in line with the Soviet post-war policy regarding various relocated industrial operations. It was considered more efficient to leave the newly built plants as is, while the original plants, provided they survived the war were outfitted anew, frequently with captured German machinery. At the end of 1944, the production of the ZIS-5 was transferred to The Ural Automotive Plant in Miass, while the Ulyanovsk plant began producing the smaller GAZ-AA in 1947. UAZ developed a prototype 1.5-tonne truck in 1948, using the ubiquitous 50 hp (37 kW; 51 PS) 2,112 cc (129 cu in) inline four of the Pobeda; this, the UAZ-300, was never built, due to a lack of production capacity. In 1954, production was expanded to include the GAZ-69, and the first batches were assembled from GAZ parts. Two years later, the factory was not just assembling GAZ-69s from parts delivered elsewhere, but manufacturing them in their entirety.

The connection with GAZ led UAZ to be the top Soviet manufacturer of four-wheel drive vehicles.

Ulyanovskiy Avtozavod UAZ main entrance aUlyanovskiy Avtozavod (UAZ) main entrance

The Golden Age

UAZ began its growth away from being a mere assembler in 1954, with the creation of its own design office. It was this office, responding to a request from the Red Army, that in 1955 created a forward control van project, codenamed “Forty” (resembling the contemporary Austin J2), on the GAZ 69 chassis. This became the UAZ-450, the first Soviet “cabover” truck. The prototype appeared in 1956, and was tested in both the Caucasus Mountains and Crimea. Its loaded weight was 2.7 tonnes, and it, like all the 450 series vehicles, was powered by a 62 hp (46 kW; 63 PS) low-compression 2,432 cc (148.4 cu in) inline four (based on the ubiquitous Pobeda ’​s, but with an 88 mm (3.5 in) bore, rather than 82 mm (3.2 in)), and the Pobeda ’​s three-speed transmission, while the transfer case, drive axles, leaf springs, and drum brakes came from the GAZ 69.

In 1958, UAZ began production of the UAZ-450 family of trucks and vans. The first model was the 450A ambulance; with room for two stretchers andfour-wheel drive, it was arguably the best in the world for use in remote areas. It was followed by the 450D drop-side pickup, which had an 800 kg (1,800 lb) payload; the 450 van, with a 750 kg (1,650 lb) payload; and the 11-seat 450V microbus. All the 450 series were capable of disconnecting the front drive axle and of reaching 56 mph (90 km/h), achieving fuel economy of 14 L/100 km (17 mpg-US; 20 mpg-imp), and of towing an 850 kg (1,870 lb) trailer.

A two-wheel drive variant of the 450 was announced on 12 December 1961, with the 450’s 2,300 mm (91 in) wheelbase and engine, as the 451 (van), 451D (drop-side pickup), 451A (ambulance), and 451B (minibus). The ambulance spawned a prototype UAZ-452GP with hydropneumatic suspension, to enable it to cross rough ground at high speed, following on the work done by Citröen on the DS19. The system proved very successful on trials, but it was rejected by the Red Army as too complicated, and so never entered production.

In 1966, the 451s were updated with a 70 hp (52 kW; 71 PS) 2,432 cc (148.4 cu in) inline four (still based on the ubiquitous Pobeda ’​s), four-speed gearbox, and minor detail changes, plus a stronger chassis (and so higher payload). The models were redisignated 451M (van, with an 800 kg (1,800 lb) payload) and 451DM (pickup, with a 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) payload). Maximum speed was 59 miles per hour (95 km/h).

In 1966, the four-wheel drives were renumbered UAZ-452 (van), 452D (pickup), 452V (minibus), 452A and 452G (both ambulances, with different patient capacity). There was also the 452S ambulance, specially designed for Arctic conditions, with more heating capacity, double-glazed windows, and insulation; they proved able to keep a 30 °C interior temperature in -60 °C outside conditions. The 452 was able to cross 50 cm (20 in) snow and carry an 800 kg (1,800 lb) load. The 452s would go on to become a workhorse of Soviet agriculture and police, with the pickup proving a popular commercial vehicle. Export versions of the 452D were called Trekmaster when sold in Britain, but never in large numbers; there was also a version with a British-built dump body, the Tipmaster.

The 451S was a snow-crossing variant with front skis and rear tracks; it was never produced in quantity, nor was the 451S2, which had tracks at front and rear. The 452 also served as the basis for an articulated model, the 452P, that was never put into production.

In 1972 the well-regarded, but outdated, GAZ-69 was replaced by the more modern UAZ-469. This was developed from the UAZ-471 of 1958 (with four-wheel independent suspension, which proved too complex) and the UAZ 460. The UAZ-469 was a sturdy, but not-so-comfortable vehicle with the ability to overcome virtually any terrain, while also providing ease of maintenance. The 469 reached legendary status, thanks to its reliability and impressive off-road capability, even though it was not made available to the civilian market until the late 1980s, before which time it was built exclusively for police and military use, as well as heads of agricultural enterprises (kolhozes and sovhozes). A commercially-available variant was produced by the Lutzk Automotive Works.

The UAZ-469 and its modifications have gained a dedicated following because of its off-road ability, reliability and simplicity. Off-road enthusiasts welcome it as a lower-cost and better alternative to the American Jeep, British Land Rover and Japanese Land Cruiser.


After the collapse of Soviet Union, UAZ has started feeling the heat. On one hand, people were willing to buy its cars due to its high reputation; on the other hand, most preferred used imported off-road cars due to the lack of reliability of UAZ cars made in the 1990s. UAZ produced a slightly modified version of its original UAZ-469 car, UAZ Hunter, but the sales were still lacking.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, UAZ experienced many financial problems which resulted in poor quality control and cost cutting which resulted in the production of low quality UAZ automobiles compared to those made in Soviet times.

In 2004, the plant was bought by the Severstal financial group, which made many investments in the firm and had also bought the ZMA car plant in Naberezhnye Chelny.

In 2005, a new SUV-like car, UAZ Patriot, was unveiled. Extensive use of third-party parts (which finally allowed UAZ to replace its notorious transmission with a better, Korean-manufactured one), large capacity, good off-road capabilities and affordable price (<15,000 USD) predict good sales in Russia. UAZ unveils a new 4 door pickup truck.


The UAZ-469 (and its modifications) has earned a reputation as a very reliable and capable 4×4. It has gained huge popularity among off-road enthusiasts within Russia, former Soviet republics as well as Europe, Asia, South America and Africa, and is preferred by many over other legendary 4x4s such as Land Rover, Jeep and Toyota.

One of the main reasons the 469 has enjoyed such popularity is its deliberately simple design, which allows for easy maintenance and repairs. Its simplicity is a deliberate design feature for two main reasons: the requirements of the Soviet Armed Forces, as well as that most people in the Soviet Union/Russia prefer to fix their cars themselves as opposed to taking them to an authorized service stations,because of the complete lack of such stations,and later, with their appearance[beginning only from the ‘1960’s]; due to the lack of money from their miserable salaries, spare parts shortages and giant corruption at such stations.

Although the UAZ has proven to be a reliable 4×4, there have been a few problems with the car’s reliability that have slightly hurt its reputation.

The transmission of the original 469 has been known to have problems when not maintained properly (as the owners manual dictates). Another major problem within Russia has been the production of counterfeit parts made out of cheap metals. Furthermore, the 1990s (after the fall of the Soviet Union) saw a significant decline of quality in the assembly of UAZ vehicles as the company struggled to survive and could not afford to pay the salaries of its employees.

Other problems have been encountered with the modernization of the vehicle, as many of the new electrical and cosmetic parts have been of poor quality. To combat these problems, and return the reliability and dependability of UAZ vehicles to their former standards the UAZ Company has recently introduced a new Quality Control system which has reduced the number of UAZ vehicles with defects arriving in showrooms around the world.


UAZ-3741UAZ-452 («Bukhanka», or “Breadloaf”)

1972 - nu UAZ-4691972 UAZ-469 («Bobik»)

2005-nu UAZ Patriot2005 UAZ Patriot

UAZ-31514UAZ-31514 aka UAZ Sport

Gaz 69-2 tot 1970

Gaz 69-2 till 1970 GAZ-69

2006 UAZ-469 new2

2006 UAZ-469 – redesignated UAZ-3151

2005 UAZ-469 medical modification, used in Ukraine2005 UAZ-469B/UAZ-31512 – civilian version of UAZ-469


2007 UAZ 31519

2007 UAZ-31519 – modified UAZ-31514

1998 UAZ 31531998 UAZ-3153

UAZ-3160 mp9UAZ-3160

УАЗ 3159UAZ Bars (UAZ-3159) – based on UAZ-3153

UAZ 3162 GigantusUAZ Simbir (UAZ-3162)

UAZ Simbir policie

UAZ Simbir

UAZ Hunter 4 by zk87

UAZ Hunter – modernized UAZ-469B

uaz patriot 1st suv5d-4800UAZ Patriot (UAZ-3163)

UAZ-3171UAZ 3171/3172 – a rebodied 469 of which the 3172 was the standard version and the 3171 was the short-wheel base version. The civil version had rectangular headlights. Never entered production.


YAZ-3165 Simba

UAZ Simba 3165/3165m (4×2 or 4×4) – 8-seater minivan concept vehicle – not produced


1958 UAZ 450

1958 UAZ 450 UAZ-450

1966 UAZ 451 DM

1966 UAZ 451 DM UAZ-451

2000 UAZ-452 of the Soviet Army Road Police

1996 UAZ-452 of the Soviet Army Road Police UAZ-452

2002 UAZ-22069 nieuw UAZ-2206 4x4 UAZ-2206 8617f UAZ-2206 UAZ-2206a


UAZ 3741 UAZ 3741aUAZ-3741

uaz 3909 1 UAZ 3909 JP UAZ 3909a UAZ 3909b


Uaz 3962 12 Uaz 3962 21 Uaz 3962 a Uaz 3962 1999 Uaz 39621999 UAZ-39625

UAZ 39094 uaz-39095-04


Uaz 39099


UAZ 396259



UAZ 450DUAZ-450D

UAZ 452 tekeningen UAZ 452, Ambulances, Koryazhma UAZ УАЗ 452 Скорая помощь Харьков UAZ-452 fourwheeldrive bus met chauffeur Nehmaa UAZ-452 mud Uaz-452-1 uaz-452-allrad-sowjetarmee uaz-452-d-04

UAZ-452D. © Ralf Christiaan Kunkel UAZ-452D

1985 UAZ 3303a 1998 UAZ-3303 UAZ 3303


UAZ 33036 uaz-33036 uaz-33036-mkm-1903UAZ-33036

UAZ 39094 UAZ 39094a


2006 Uaz Cargo 230602-050 2011 Uaz Pickup 23632 with bedcap UAZ Patriot 2360 UAZ Patriot UAZ-2360 a UAZ-2360 Milk for GTA San Andreas UAZ-2360UAZ-2360

2006 Uaz Cargo 230602-050 Uaz cargo 03 UAZ Cargo uaz patriot cargo UAZ-Pick-Up УАЗа Cargo camper УАЗа Cargo

UAZ Cargo


UAZ Simbir policieUAZ Simbir

See also

1958 UAZ 450 1966 UAZ 451 DM 1972 - nu UAZ-469 1973 UAZ-452 experimental 6x6 12s 1985 UAZ 3303a 1995 UAZ-452-based fire-engine 1998 UAZ 3153 1998 UAZ-3303 1999 Uaz 3962 1999 UAZ-2206 Mongolië 2000 UAZ-452 of the Soviet Army Road Police 2002 UAZ-22069 nieuw 2005 UAZ Pickup 2005 UAZ-469 medical modification, used in Ukraine 2005-nu UAZ Patriot 2006 Uaz Cargo 230602-050 2006 UAZ-469 new2 2007 UAZ 31519 2008 Ukrainian police UAZ-3151 UMM 2009 Russian Police UAZ Hunter in Saint Petersburg 2010 Cross-country vehicle UAZ-39294 «TREKOL» 2010 UAZ Patriot Sport police vehicle 2011 Uaz Pickup 23632 with bedcap 2013 UAZ Patriot-Integrated Safety and Security Exhibition 2013 UAZ-Bukhanka-Kazakhstan-September-2013 554680 conclusion-that-the-thing-will-break-down-somewhere-in-the-middle-of-the_5a6cc Den rabotnikov lesa, Koryazhma 2009 (004) Den rabotnikov lesa, Koryazhma 2010 (011) Dnepr Gaz 69-2 tot 1970 GAZ Family variants GAZ-69A gaz-aa IZh-2126 Oda Jílové u Prahy, vůz městské policie UAZ 450D UAZ 452 tekeningen UAZ 452, Ambulances, Koryazhma uaz 2206 UAZ 3162 Gigantus UAZ 3303 UAZ 3741 UAZ 3741a uaz 3909 1 UAZ 3909 JP UAZ 3909a UAZ 3909b Uaz 3962 12 Uaz 3962 21 Uaz 3962 a Uaz 3962 UAZ 33036 UAZ 39094 UAZ 39094a Uaz 39099 UAZ 396259 Uaz cargo 03 UAZ Cargo UAZ folder 1 UAZ folder 2 UAZ folder 3 UAZ folder 4 UAZ folder 5 UAZ folder 6 UAZ folder 7 UAZ folder