AMBULANCES + HEARSES part XIV on Alphabet beginning with P till R

AMBULANCES + HEARSES part XIV on Alphabet beginning with P till R

A 1927 Packard ambulance, in front of the Detroit Fire Department headquarters downtown. Burton Historical Collection.

Packard – Ambulances – Flowercars – Hearses -mostly by Henney coachbuilders from 1916 till 1958 when Packard fuseerde met Studebaker.

Only in 1985 made Bayliff some Packard Hearses (Bayliff Coach Corporation, 1979-1992; Lima, Ohio)

Panhard PL 17 Ambulance par Pichon Parat

Panhard ambulances

PAZ Ambulances and Ambulance Bus

Peugeot Ambulances and Hearses from 1934 till recent

Phänomen krankenwagen – ambulances

President Woodrow Wilson’s Pierce-Arrow

Pierce-Arrow Ambulances and Hearses

Plymouth Plaza estate ambulance

Plymouth Ambulances and Hearses

Polski Fiat 621L AMBULANCE with interior

Polski Fiat Ambulances

PONTIAC Ambulances + Hearses

Porsche Ambulances of fast resque and Hearses

 1981 Puch Binz ambulance

Steyr-Daimler-Puch Haflinger Pinzgauer Ambulance

That were all the P ambulances and hearses

ROBUR Buses and Trucks VEB Robur-Werke Zittau of East Germany (GDR)


buses and trucks

Robur Typ LO 2002

Robur was a marque of the Volkseigener Betrieb VEB Robur-Werke Zittau of East Germany (GDR). It mainly produced 3-ton trucks. The vehicles were produced in the town of Zittau in what now is South-East Saxony. Until 1946, company produced under the marque Phänomen (English: Phenomenon), and until 1957 under the name VEB Phänomen Zittau.


Phaenomen moped Phänomen Bob 98 cc motorcycle

Phänomen typ28
 Phänomen 10/30 (1916)
Phaenomen granit 30
 Phänomen Granit 30 in front of the Dresden Frauenkirche (January 2006)
1956 Garant 32 außen
 Garant 32 Diesel (1956)
Robur LO 1800 A
 Modell LO 1800 A
2002 Robur lo
 Modell LO 2002 (1976)

 Robur LO 2002 A Fire Engine
Robur Coach
 Robur Coach
 Four-wheel driven model MZ

In 1888, Karl Gustav Hiller founded a company for the distribution of a machine for the production of pom-pons that he had invented and would receive a patent for in 1894. On a trip to England he obtained an exclusive license to import and build Rover Safety Bicycles. He became shareholder and later owner of the Zittau machine factory “Müller & Preußger”, refined the Rover bicycles and began to distribute them under the name “Phänomen-Rover” in 1894. In 1900 the company began to produce Phänomen motorcycles. At first the motorcycles were fitted with Fafnir engines, but from 1903 onwards single-cylinder four-stroke engines of Phänomen design were used. This change of engine necessitated a strengthening of the bike frame and a change of wheels. Now 26-inch wheels with 214-inch tires were used. Permanent improvements led to the development of a two-cylinder engine.


In 1905 the company began the mass production of the three-wheeled Phänomobil. The two-cylinder engine used in motorbikes was used here as well. Similarities in construction with Berlin-made three-wheeler Cyklonette of Cyklon, led to arguments over patent infringement, especially as the engineers had worked for Hiller’s company. A twin-fan-cooled four-cylinder four-stroke engine was used in the vehicles from 1910, production running until 1927. Between 1912 and 1927 the company, by now known as “Aktiengesellschaft Phänomen-Werke Gustav Hiller”, offered four-wheeled cars that could not establish themselves in the market. The coachwork was done by the “Karosseriewerk August Nowack AG” in Bautzen.

1930 Phaenomen 4RL Heusenstamm

1930 Phänomen 4RL Heusenstamm

By request of the Reichspost for a cheap, safe and capable vehicle, the company introduced its 4 RL truck that could carry loads between 0.75 and 1 tons. The basis for this model was the four-cylinder engine used in the Phänomobil. As demand for higher payloads increased, the company brought theGranit 25 (1.5 tons) and Granit 30 (2.5 tons) trucks into production in 1931 and 1936, respectively. With the increasing arms production in Nazi Germanythe product portfolio was reduced to the Granit 1500 model (called Granit 27 after the war) with a payload of 1.5 tons.

Phaenomen 4RL Heusenstamm

Phänomen 4RL Heusenstamm

All Phänomen trucks and tricycles had air-cooled engines, only the four-wheeled passenger cars were equipped with water-cooled engines. In 1930 the Phänomen-Werke Gustav Hiller A.G. Zittau took up production of light motorcycles, using Sachs engines. Until 1945 Phänomen produced 14 different models.

Phaenomen 5PS

Phänomen 5PS

In consequence of a referendum of 30 April 1946 in Saxony, all property of those judged to be Nazis and war criminals was expropriated. In line with this, the Phänomen works became a Volkseigener Betrieb. Aside from the production of desperately needed commodities, some 1000 vehicles of the Red Army were repaired. In 1949 the mass production of the pre-war models was resumed on a low scale. Only in January 1950 were the first 13 Granit 27finished. In the next year the payload of the model was increased to 2 tons. 1952 the company presented the Phänomen-Granit 32 prototype that was equipped with an air-cooled diesel engine – in contrast to the carburetor engines used until then. The mass production of the diesel engine began in 1954. In the meantime, the carburetor engine used in the Granit 27 model was improved and now produced 60 horsepower (45 kW). It was used in the Granit 30k model.

Robur Garant 30 K Omnibus

Robur Garant 30 K Omnibus

After changes to design, chassis and some minor modifications to the Granit it became the Garant model that would see 50,000 pieces built in several variations (bus, truck, ambulance) until 1961. Aside from the Garant K 30 model with a petrol engine the Garant 32 with a diesel engine was also available.

Robur Garant 30

Robur Garant 30 Ambulance © Ralf Christiaan Kunkel

In the beginning of 1957 the company was renamed VEB Robur Werke Zittau, as the heirs of the company founder Hiller had no intention of allowing the new company to use the Phänomen brand. The name Robur stems from the Latin name of the pedunculate oak, Quercus robur. The logo design was inspired by a crankshaft. Several other factories were merged with the company, among others the auto body works in Bautzen and Zittau, the engine plant in Kamenz and the fire-extinguisher works in Görlitz. The very successful Garant model was replaced by the Robur LO 2500. It was first presented at the Leipzig Trade Fair in 1961 and was constructed according to international development trends of the time. This modern COE truck had the carburetor engine of its predecessor, with an increased output of 70 HP. It had a payload of 2.5 tons. The four-wheel driven variation with a 1.8 ton payload was called Robur LO 1800 A.

Robur LO 1800 A

Robur LO 1800 A

Further development resulted in 1968 in the LO 2501 and LO 1801 A models, distinguishable by a changed grille. Several further improvements were made over the years, before the 3-ton truck LO 3000 was introduced in 1974. It became the basis for a number of special models. The four-wheel variant also saw its payload increased and was sold under the designation LO 2002A. From the fall of 1982 a diesel engine was offered alongside the carburetor engine Type 4 KVD 12,5 SRL. Development of the LD/LO 3000 series in the 1980s aimed to extend the lifetime of the various components and reaching international level in terms of quality. These changes, that were in part also made to the AWD types LD/LO 2202 A, led to the diesel-driven modelsLD 3001 and LD 3002, recognizable by smaller wheels and increased tread. The carburetor-engined LO variants lost import.

Robur trucks were not only deployed in the COMECON area, but in several overseas countries. Especially in order to open up new markets the Robur-Safari program was created. Here trucks would be adapted to the climatic and geographic conditions of their future country of deployment.

The production of the newly developed O 611/O 611A and D 609 models was not approved by the government and development was restricted to existing models.

After German reunification the company quickly folded. Deployment of Deutz diesel engines did nothing to save it and production was cancelled in 1991. In 1995 a new company called Robur-Fahrzeug-Engineering GmbH was founded and bought all know-how of the Robur-Werke Zittau. In 1999 another successor was founded with FBZ GmbH Zittau. The company builds and supplies components for vehicles.

3achsbus2b 1956 Garant 32 außen 1957 Robur Garant-30К 1957-91 ROBUR Duitsland Robur-Werke Zittau 1958 Robur Garant-30KAW-Zg, 4x4 1969 Barkas B1000 Ambulance 1969 Barkas B1000 Feischer kisbusz 1973 Robur O611 1974 IFA ROBUR O 611 1974 1975 Robur О-611, 4x4 1982-robur-bus-postzegel-ddr 1983 Robur LO-3001AKF with extension body, 4x4 2002 Robur lo 2005 Robur 3019020336_8b1ce2ca40 Ambulance Robur Omnibus Eisenhüttenstadt, 12. Jahrestag DDR-Gründung, Parade D90_50043 Gnadauforumd hqdefault IFA Granit 27 IFA TAKRAF ADK 80 IFA W50 Ballonreifen IFA W50 L Feuerwehrcontainer IFA W50 L Koffer mit Anhänger IFA W50 L Langkabine IFA W50 LA Bergungsfahrzeug IFA W50 LA TLF16 IFA W50 Nicaraqua

© J Veerkamp

IFA W50 images

© J. Veerkamp

Oldimer Robur Bus Phaenomen 5PS Phaenomen granit 30 Phaenomen moped Phaenomen-Logo Phaenomobil Zn Typenschild Phänomen ahoi retouched Phänomen typ28 Robur - Bus in Sanitätsausführung ROBUR (1) ROBUR (2) ROBUR (3) Robur 2500 Brandweerwagen zw Robur and a Tatra Pomßen, mobile Apotheke ROBUR Bus en aanhanger DDR ROBUR BUS LD3001 aus 19288 Warlow Robur Coach ROBUR DDR Robur der VGM Meissen im Busbahnof Chemnitz ROBUR extra ROBUR Fahrzeug Robur Feuerwehr Buf Robur Feuerwehr Bus Robur Feuerwehr TU Dresden Robur Garant 30 K Omnibus Robur Garant K30 Busses in Greifswald a Robur Garant K30 Busses in Greifswald Robur Garant, Robur und W50 Feuerwehr Schwarzheide, VEB Synthesewerk, Messwagen für Luftverschmutzung Robur in pink Robur LD 3004 Robur LO 2500 P

© Ralf Christiaan Kunkel

ROBUR LO 2501 Robur LO 3000 - Bus ROBUR LO 3000 beim 6 Robur LO 3000 Feuerwehr ROBUR LO 3000 Robur LO2500 RoburLO1800A robur lo3000 1