The ZiU-5 (in Russian ЗиУ-5) is a Soviet trolleybus. The ZiU acronym stands for Zavod imeni Uritskogo (Russian Завод имени Урицкого, ЗиУ, which corresponds to Plant named after Uritskiy (Moisei Uritsky, a Russian revolutionary). This model of city trolleybus was in mass production from 1959 to 1972. Total number of produced ZiU-5s exceeds 14500 vehicles. This allowed ZiU-5 to become dominant model of trolleybus in Soviet towns and cities of that time. Last vehicles were withdrawn from active service in the mid-1980s (the exact date varies from city to city). The small number of surviving vehicles are kept now for museum purposes.
Museum ZiU-5 trolleybus in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
1959-72 ZIU 5 Trolleybus USSR
ZIU 5 trolleybus at the Budapest fun fair files
or ZIU-9 (Cyrillic: ЗиУ-9) is a Soviet (and later Russian) trolleybus vehicle. Other names and indexes for the same vehicle include ZiU-682 and HTI-682 (Cyrillic: ЗиУ-682 and ХТИ-682). The ZiU acronym stands for Zavod imeni Uritskogo, which is a plant named after Moisei Uritsky, the Russian revolutionary. Before 1996 this acronym was also a trademark of the vehicle manufacturer. It has been changed to Trolza. The ZiU-9 was put in mass production in 1971 and it is still assembled along with other more advanced trolleybus vehicles in the Trolza (former ZiU) factory. The total number of produced ZiU-9s exceeds 42,000 vehicles. In addition, many copies of ZiU-9 were made in other factories of the former Soviet bloc. This model is the most numerous trolleybus vehicle in the world.
History and development
The explosion-like development of trolleybus systems in the Soviet Union in the 1960s required a large number of trolleybus vehicles. The mainstay of the contemporary Soviet trolley fleet, the ZiU-5, was not sufficient for huge urban passenger transfers. It was more suited for medium-size cities rather than large megapolises such as Moscow or Saint Petersburg. In addition the ZiU-5 had an aluminium hull, which was expensive and complicated from a technological point of view. The two doors in the ZiU-5 hull ends did not work well in overcrowded situations which were quite common in Soviet public transportation.
The ZiU-9 was a quite successful attempt to solve this problems. It has one extra door compared to the ZiU-5. Two doors are wide and placed in the middle and rear end of the vehicle hull. One small door in the front end of the vehicle was/is comfortable for the driver and for outgoing passengers. The hull of the ZiU-9 is a welded steel one and it is significantly cheaper and simpler in production than the hull of the ZiU-5. The external appearance of the ZiU-9 was influenced by contemporary German-made MAN trolleybuses.
ZiU-9G trolleybus in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
The electrical equipment of the ZiU-9 had some minor differences from the ZiU-5. The power of the main motor was increased. The indirect resistor-based control system of electric current was slightly modified to deal with the increased power of the main motor. While western designers developed new semiconductor-based control devices, Soviet engineers decided to leave the old resistor-based system for service simplicity. The first prototype vehicles were tested in Moscow in 1971 and were approved for mass production after some minor design adjustments.
The ‘9’ in the vehicle name was the initial project index of the design team. However, after launching mass production, the new trolleybus received a new index ‘682’ from the united classification of non-rail public transport vehicles. So all series vehicles had a ZiU-682 designation. But the number 682 is difficult to pronounce and the shorter ‘9’ still lives in the everyday language of drivers and servicemen. In 1986, the new classification was introduced and the former ZiU-682 was designated as HTI-682. But this was not an end of renaming the same vehicle. The Russian acronym HTI in the Cyrillic alphabet is ХТИ and these three Cyrillic letters in 1995 were confused with the Latin letters XTU. This Latin acronym became an official name of the vehicle.
The first prototype ZiU-9 was built in 1966. Elements of the appearance and number of design decisions were borrowed from contemporary to the time foreign firms MAN and Chausson.
ZiU-9A – experimental version with wide body to 2680 mm. The only prototype was made in 1968.
In August 1972, began production of the first production series ZiU- 682B ( with designation change ZiU ZiU -9 -682 was due to the labeling requirements of bringing industry classifier ) . First serial trolley cars differed from later releases . Until 1974, had an angular wheel arches, and not circular. The first batch of trolleybuses raised outdated engine DC – 207G, which in 1973 was replaced by the DC -210 110 kW . Suspension on the first ZiU- 682B was pneumatic, with torque rods as guiding elements, later became pnevmoressornoy . Rear funded playground had a reduced level of the floor, which reduced the number of steps one at the back door and to facilitate loading wheelchairs and prams and large items . However, this “advantage” was leveled by a high handrail on the steps of separating the rear and middle doors. Transition from high floor in the cabin to lower smoothly carried out in the aisle between the rear wheel arches, which caused inconvenience to passengers at peak hours ( especially in winter), standing on an icy downhill ” hill .” In 1991, developers have replaced high -speed separator handrail attached to the door, but by this time all storage sites were at three stages from sidewalk level . For natural ventilation in the roof of the cabin was equipped with 4 ceiling hatch, and each is equipped with a sliding side window pane . Currently, the only instance ZIU- 9B preserved and operated in the linear regime in the city of Zaporozhye and has the side number 562.