Buses manufacturer HESS AG, Bellach Switserland

Hess (Carrosserie) logo

Carrosserie Hess AG is a bustrolleybus and commercial vehicle manufacturer based in Bellach (near Solothurn), Switzerland. Its products can be found operating in several countries, including the Netherlands, the United States and Canada.

History

HESS geschichte

The company was founded in 1882, when Heinrich Hess set up business in Solothurn to build customised car bodies. The company first began building buses in 1919, and production reverted to aluminiumproducts in 1933. It produced its first trolleybuses in 1940 for the Swiss cities of Basel and Biel/Bienne. In 1961, it commenced building of articulated vehicles, some of which were supplied to operators in the United States and Canada in 1975. The company soon began to expand, and businesses were set up in Portugal and Australia in 1957 and 1978. respectively. The U.S. business was set up in 1996. The company began production of low-floor buses and trolleybuses in 1991, and in 2003 built its first double-articulated trolleybuses.

Products

Buses

  • N UB 2-2: A low-floor, two-door bus with 10m, 11.3m and 12m variants, which can accommodate approximately 82, 86 and 95 passengers, respectively.
  • N UB 2-2-1: Identical to the N UB 2-2 with the addition of an extra door at the rear of the vehicle.
  • N UA 2-2-2-2: A low-floor, 18m four-door articulated bus, which has a capacity of around 150 passengers.
  • Hess LighTram : A 24.69m bi-articulated bus with a duraluminium body. Hybrid version available.

Trolleybuses

Afbeelding

Hess Swisstrolley 3 of an old design in Lucerne(luzern)

  • Eurotrolley 3: A 9.7m long half-low-floor trolleybus with a capacity of approximately 80 passengers. Built for Lyon with Kiepe electrical equipment and a Skoda traction motor.
  • Swisstrolley 3: An 18m long articulated trolleybus which can accommodate not less than 140 passengers. It and LighTram have a duraluminium body.
  • LighTram 3: A 24.7m long double-articulated trolleybus with a capacity of around 192 passengers.
  • Trolleyzug: A 23.3m long trolleybus and trailer with a capacity of around 180 passengers.

Bus kits

As well as building complete vehicles, Hess also manufactures bus kits for its worldwide customers. These kits are imported and then assembled on reaching their destination.

Minibuses

Hess also builds smaller buses, mainly for the transportation of school children and persons with disabilities.

Commercial vehicles

Hess builds vehicles designed for commercial purposes, such as vans, some of which are fitted with tipper equipment, loading ramps and trailers.

1925 FBW-Seitz-Hess Zwitserland

1925 FBW-Seitz-Hess Zwitserland

1947 fbw hess

1937 fbw hess

1940 VB Biel Nr. 21 Berna Hess Trolleybus

1940 VB Biel Nr. 21 Berna Hess Trolleybus

1948 TL605 FBW HESS

1948 TL605 FBW HESS

1950 Saurer Hess Typ 4ZP54L CT1DL Nr. 16. BVB Wagen Nr. 16

1950 Saurer Hess Typ 4ZP54L CT1DL BVB Wagen Nr. 16

1952 Amsteg UR 9031 Berna Hess (ex M+3143)

1952 Amsteg UR 9031 Berna Hess (ex M+3143)

1952 Autobus Nr. 5 Berna Hess 4UPO-463-H2 (Achtzylindermotor)

1952 Autobus Nr. 5 Berna Hess 4UPO-463-H2 (Achtzylindermotor)

1953 Berna Hess (ex AGO Olten Nr. 5)

1953 Berna Hess (ex AGO Olten Nr. 5)

1953 Berna-Hess (ex AGO Olten Nr. 5) CH

1953 Berna Hess (ex AGO Olten Nr. 5)

1953 Berna-Hess (ex AGO Olten Nr. 5) CH 1954 Berna Hess (ex Barenco, Faido)

1954 Berna Hess (ex Barenco, Faido)

1955 Berna Hess (ex SOO Olten Nr. 8)

1955 Berna Hess (ex SOO Olten Nr. 8)

1955 FBW Hess Bus BVB 8

1955 FBW Hess Bus BVB 8

1956 Berna-Hess 4UPO-458-T1 (Sechszylindermotor) Zwitserland

1956 Berna-Hess 4UPO-458-T1 (Sechszylindermotor) Zwitserland

1957 Ex Zürich FBW HESS Trolleybus – P Kamm

1957 Ex Zürich FBW HESS Trolleybus © P Kamm

1958 Hess Trolleybus Verein Schweiz

1958 Hess Trolleybus Verein Schweiz

1959 SOO Olten Nr. 17 Berna Hess

1959 SOO Olten Nr. 17 Berna Hess

1960 Berna Hess L4 bus

1960 Berna Hess L4 bus

1962 fbw-hess trolley

1962 fbw-hess trolley

1964 FBW Hess Trolleybus

1964 FBW Hess Trolleybus

1966 FBW Hess C50U index

1966 FBW Hess C50U index

1966 Saurer Hess Tb 40city267

1966 Saurer Hess Tb 40city267

1966 two Eastbourne Fords R buses with NZMB bodies Hess

1966 two Eastbourne Fords R buses with NZMB bodies Hess NZ

1967 Berna Carrosserie Hess Bus Ad Switzerland

1967 Berna Carrosserie Hess Bus Ad Switzerland

1969 Basel FBW-Hess No.62

1969 Basel FBW-Hess No.62

1970 FBW Hess Lugano

1970 FBW Hess Lugano

1974 Volvo B 58 Hess

1974 Volvo B 58 Hess

1975 Volvo B58H Artic Hess 7168

1975 Volvo B58H Artic Hess 7168

Trolebús FBW-Hess-SAAS UST de 1975

Trolebús FBW-Hess-SAAS UST de 1975

1976 12m I suburbain Volvo B10m Hess

1976 12m I suburbain Volvo B10m Hess

1976 Saurer -Hess Bus Geneve

1976 Saurer -Hess Bus Geneve © J Veerkamp

1976 Volvo Hess demonstrator

1976 Volvo Hess demonstrator

1978 Ford R1114 with NZMB-Hess body originally with Eastbourne Bus Co

1978 Ford R1114 with NZMB-Hess body originally with Eastbourne Bus Co

1978 Saurer Hess

1978 Saurer Hess

1978 Trolley bus Volvo-Hess-SSW - Siemens electric

1978 Trolley bus Volvo-Hess-SSW – Siemens electric © Bill MacDONALD

1979 Berna Hess SH550 D2KUT Nr. 70

1979 Berna Hess SH550 D2KUT Nr. 70

SONY DSC

1979 Bristol Hess Bus

1981 FBW  Hess BBC-Sécheron

1981 FBW  Hess BBC-Sécheron

1981 Hess Volvo grenda25

1981 Hess Volvo grenda 25

1982 Hess Trolley bus towing trailer

1982 Hess Trolley bus towing trailer

1984 Hess AG. LMC-D60

1984 Hess AG. LMC-D60 Flugzeugbus-Airportshuttle

1985 Berna Hess SH (ex OAK Wangen a.A. Nr. 10)

1985 Berna Hess SH (ex OAK Wangen a.A. Nr. 10)

1987 Hess Mercedes Litouwen

1986 Hess Mercedes-Benz Litouwen

1986 Friburg Saurer Hess T.Bus 33 Route 1 at Les Perolles

1986 Friburg Saurer Hess T.Bus 33 Route 1 at Les Perolles

1986 Hess Kiepe Valparaiso 814 Chile

1986 Hess Kiepe Valparaiso 814 Chile © Jeff Wien

1986 saurer hess

1986 saurer hess

1987 Nine articulated Sauer Hess trolleybuses from St. Gallen Plovdiv-269

1987 Nine articulated Sauer Hess trolleybuses from St. Gallen Plovdiv-269

1988 Saurer  Hess GT 560

1988 Saurer  Hess GT 560

1992 Volvo Hess AG 92 USA Ovidius

1992 Volvo Hess AG 92 USA Ovidius

1992 Volvo Hess AG 92 USA

1992 Volvo Hess AG 92 USA Ovidius

1997 Volvo-Hess Zwitserland

1997 Volvo-Hess Zwitserland

1998 BOGG MB Hess O405 Nr79 Front

1998 BOGG MB Hess O405 Nr79 Front

1998 Hess 220 City Scania Estland

1998 Hess 220 City Scania Estland

1998 HESS VAN HOOL Trolley Arnhem ScanImage001

1998 HESS VAN HOOL Trolley Arnhem

1998 Schaffhausen NAW Hess BGT 5-25

1998 Schaffhausen NAW Hess BGT 5-25

1999 Hess 220 City Estland

1999 Hess 220 City Estland

2000 Two Saurer Hess trolleybuses St Gallen 1

2000 Two Saurer Hess trolleybuses St Gallen 1

2001 Hess 220 City  Scania Estland

2001 Hess 220 City  Scania Estland

2001 Hess system co-bolt 4

2001 Hess system co-bolt 4 Hybrid USA

2001 Hess system co-bolt 5

2001 Hess system co-bolt 5 UK

2001 Hess Trolleybus de Berne

2001 Hess Trolleybus te Bern

2001 Hess Trolleybuses in St. Gallen

2001 Hess Trolleybuses in St. Gallen

2004 BBA 167 Scania  Hess Aarau

2004 BBA 167 Scania  Hess Aarau

2004 HESS bus trains 2

2004 HESS bus trains 2

2004 Hess Regiobus LE13 Postbus

2004 Hess Regiobus LE13 Postbus

2004 MERCEDES BENZ 416 CDI Sprinter + Anhänger Hess minibus

2004 MERCEDES BENZ 416 CDI Sprinter + Anhänger Hess minibus

2005 Hess BGGT-N2C Zwitserland

2005 Hess BGGT-N2C Zwitserland

2005 Hess system co-bolt 3

2005 Volvo Hess system co-bolt 3

2005 Hess Trolleybus for Zurich The website, Obus 269

2005 Hess Trolleybus for Zurich The website, Obus 269

2006 Hess BGT-N2 Zwitserland

2006 Hess BGT-N2 Zwitserland

2006 Hess Swisstrolley 3 of an old design in Lucerne

2006 Hess Swisstrolley 3 of an old design in Luzern

2006 Hess system co-bolt 6

2006 Hess system co-bolt 6

2006 HESS Trolley 4delig Luzern

2006 HESS Trolley 4delig Luzern

2006 Hess Trolley derde gen

2006 Hess Trolley derde gen

Saurer-Hess + Draize-Hess Anhänger TN Neuchâtel

Saurer-Hess + Draize-Hess Anhänger TN Neuchâtel

2006 NAW-Hess BGT25 425

2006 NAW-Hess BGT25 425

2006 NAW-Hess LightTram 94

2006 NAW-Hess LightTram 94

2006 NAW-Hess SwissTrolley

2006 NAW-Hess SwissTrolley

2007 Hess (2007) Litouwen

2007 Hess (2007) Litouwen

2007 Hess system co-bolt 2

2007 Hess system co-bolt 2 USA

2008 Hess system co-bolt 8

2008 Hess system co-bolt 8

2008 Hess-Mercedes Citaro Nr.2 ZG 3352

2008 Hess-Mercedes Citaro Nr.2 ZG 3352

2009 HESS bus trains 3

2009 HESS bus trains 3

2009 Hess Scania system co-bolt 7

2009 Hess Scania system co-bolt 7

2009 HESS swisstrolley wint Zurich

2009 HESS swisstrolley wint Zurich

2009 HESS-VW Kleinbus für die Postauto AG Brig

2009 HESS-VW Kleinbus für die Postauto AG Brig

1989 Scania Hess 9,7 m - 10,9 m

2009 Scania Hess 9,7 m – 10,9 m

2009 Scania-Hess mit anhanger, PT 12565 postbus-12949

2009 Scania-Hess mit anhanger, PT 12565 postbus-12949

2010 Articulated Carrosserie Hess lighTram 3 in Zurich

2010 Articulated Carrosserie Hess lighTram 3 in Zurich

2010 HESS (AKIA) hybrid metro busses in state of assembly Iran

2010 HESS (AKIA) hybrid metro busses in state of assembly Iran

2010 HESS bus trains

2010 HESS bus trains

2010 Hess Swisstrolleye

2010 Hess Swisstrolley

2010 Hess Zwitserland

2010 Hess Zwitserland

2011 Hess Hybrid 1323898180-Hagen800

2011 Hess Hybrid

2011 HESS Zwitserland

2011 HESS Zwitserland

2012 HESS delivers 11 BusTrains (BusZug) to the city of Zug

2012 HESS delivers 11 BusTrains (BusZug) to the city of Zug

2012 Hess Lightram UK

2012 Hess Lightram UK

2012 HESS presented TOSA

2012 HESS presented TOSA

2012 HESS Supertrolley

2012 HESS Supertrolley

2012 HESS sve-bus

2012 HESS sve-bus

2012 Hess Swisstrolley 3 of an old design in Lucerne

2012 Hess Swisstrolley 3 of an old design in Luzern

2012 nieuwe hess trolleybussen voor arnhem

New Hess Trolleys for Arnhem in the Netherlands

2012 Volvo Hess Kiepe BGT-N2C #210

2012 Volvo Hess Kiepe BGT-N2C #210

2013 A 25m bi-articulated Zurich Hess 'Lightram' trolleybus

2013 A 25m bi-articulated Zurich Hess ‘Lightram’ trolleybus

2013 BRENG TROLLEY HESS ARNHEM

2013 BRENG TROLLEY HESS ARNHEM NL

2013 Hess Hamburg Germany 2 lighTrams Hybrid

2013 Hess Hamburg Germany 2 lighTrams Hybrid

2013 Hess system co-bolt

2013 Hess system co-bolt COBUS Fluhafenbus

2013 HESS Trolley Arnhem richting Duifje 2013

2013 HESS Trolley Arnhem richting Duifje 2013

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

2013 hess trolley busstation Arnhem NL

2013 Swiss Trolleybus Arnhem NAW Hess ABB BGT-N (type 1), BGT-N2 (type 2), Hess-Vossloh Kiepe BGT-N2C (02268) (type 3

2013 Swiss Trolleybus Arnhem NAW Hess ABB BGT-N (type 1), BGT-N2 (type 2),

Hess-Vossloh Kiepe BGT-N2C (02268) (type 3) NL

2013 Luzern 272u Designbild HESS a

2013 Luzern 272u Designbild HESS

2013 Van Hool and Hess as well as pure battery buses from Contrac, Rampini und SOR. Parma's first 'ebus' UK

2013 Van Hool and Hess as well as pure battery buses from Contrac, Rampini und SOR.

Parma’s first ‘ebus’ UK.

Hess (Carrosserie) logo

END

Buses GILLIG Hayward Californië USA

Buses GILLIG Hayward Californië USA

September 26, 2013 By  Leave a Comment (Edit)

Gillig Corporation

Gillig Corporation

History

Gillig Corporation HQ

Gillig headquarters in Hayward

In 1890, Jacob Gillig opened a carriage and wagon shop in San Francisco, California, and was joined by his son Leo in 1896. The original shop was destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, but reopened as the Leo Gillig Automobile Works manufacturing automobile, hearse, truck, and bus bodies.

In 1920, Leo’s brother Chester Gillig joined the company and introduced and patented the “California Top” roof construction style consisting of a hard-top roof and sliding windows. The company’s name was changed at this time as well to Gillig Bros. In the late 1920s, Gillig starting producing pleasure boats and heavy trucks, and produced their first school bus in 1932. In 1937, Gillig introduced their first transit-style (flat front) school bus, and in 1938 the company moved to Hayward, CA. In 1957, Gillig purchased Pacific Bus division of Kenworth Truck Company, and by that time the company was devoted almost entirely to the production of school buses. In 1959, Gillig pioneered the diesel-powered rear-engined transit style school bus with the release of the C-series Transit Coach, and within five years the C-Series accounted for three-quarters of all of Gillig sales figures. In 1967, Gillig produced the highest-capacity school bus ever produced, the 855-D, which had a passenger capacity of 97 pupils.

In 1969, Herrick-Pacific Steel purchased the company and changed the name to the Gillig Corporation. During the time they built school buses, Gillig earned a reputation for being one of the “safest” buses ever built due to the near total absence of recalls. The only recall for a Gillig-built school bus was in 1979 for rear-end axle separation issues.

In 1977, Gillig decided to branch out into the manufacture of transit buses and teamed up with Neoplan to build a series of European-styled transit buses that had the option of propane fueled engines. However, the partnership with Neoplan lasted only until 1979, and in 1980 Gillig introduced the Phantom, a heavy-duty transit bus based slightly upon their previous round-body school bus platform. A State of California tax-free subsidy helped early sales, and sales were later buoyed by low bidding on contracts and specializing in serving smaller transit agencies. This strategy has proven to be successful, as the Phantom became one of the longest-lasting transit models in existence. Production of the Transit Coach School Bus ceased in 1982, but a school bus variation of the Phantom was offered beginning in 1986, but production stopped in 1993 when Gillig exited the school bus market altogether.

The Spirit, a late-1980s attempt at a medium-duty bus, did not sell well and was discontinued after a few years. In 1997, Gillig entered the low-floor bus market with the Advantage (originally called “H2000LF”, and is currently called the “Low Floor”). Like the Phantom, the Low Floor was first purchased largely by rental car companies for use at their airport facilities, but transit sales increased as the model matured.

Currently, Gillig produces around 1,200 to 1,300 buses a year.

On August 1, 2008, Gillig became a Henry Crown company under CC Industries, Inc. CC Industries will operate Gillig in the same location with the current management team.

Also, the Phantom model has been discontinued from manufacturing after 28 years from Gillig.

Alternative fuels

In 1992, Gillig began producing an LNG fueled version of the Phantom in an attempt to produce a low-emissions transit bus, but this was later discontinued. The only LNG Phantoms in existence currently operate shuttle service at Los Angeles International Airport and Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport.

In 1996, Gillig introduced a diesel-electric hybrid powered Phantom, which they produced until 2006. The Low Floor bus is now offered in a hybrid powered version as the company continues to focus its efforts on “clean diesel” technology.

In September 2011, Gillig introduced an alternative fuel BRT model with a CNG propulsion, which is their first CNG-powered bus produced and first production natural gas buses since 1998. Long Beach Transit used purchased a pilot bus in 2011 and placed an order for 63 more in 2012, bringing the total to 64 buses.

Although Gillig has never built an electric trolley bus (ETB), in 2001-2002 the company supplied 100 body/chassis shells to Seattle‘s King County Metro Transit for the latter to equip as trolley buses. More than just shells, these Phantom buses were shipped by Gillig complete in almost every way (including interior fittings such as seats) except lacking any propulsion equipment and other ETB-only features such as trolley poles. The Seattle transit agency, Metro, removed the propulsion packages from its old fleet of 1979-built AM General trolley coaches (G.E. traction motor, Randtronics chopper control, and electronic card cage), which the Gillig vehicles were purchased to replace, and shipped them to Alstom (in New York) for refurbishment. After receiving the refurbished propulsion equipment back from Alstom, Metro installed it in the new Gillig Phantom bodies, along with Vossloh-Kiepe pneumatically operated fiberglass trolley poles.

Products

FoothillTransit F1124

CDTA Saratoga Gillig

DART Gillig Advantage hybrid 111

CDTA Gillig Hybrid

StarMetro Gillig BRT 29

EMTA Bayliner 3

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Walnut Creek Gillig Trolley

 

Current Gillig Product Lines
Model Name Low Floor Low Floor Hybrid Electric Vehicle BRT Trolley Replica
Photo(s) FoothillTransit F1124.jpg
CDTA Saratoga Gillig.jpg
DART Gillig Advantage hybrid 111.jpg CDTA Gillig Hybrid.jpg
StarMetro Gillig BRT 29.jpg
EMTA Bayliner 3.jpg
Walnut Creek Gillig Trolley.JPG
Length (ft)
  • 29
  • 35
  • 40
  • 31
  • 37
  • 41
  • 30
  • 35
  • 40
Year Introduced 1996 2004 2004
Notes
  • Older buses have a flat front windshield and a somewhat larger headsign area (top picture), while newer models feature a larger windshield.
  • Frameless side windows are also an option (bottom picture).
  • Also available with hybrid drivetrain (top picture).
  • Frameless windows are a popular option with this model.
  • Low Floor variant produced in collaboration with Cable Car Classics of Healdsburg, CA.

Gillig TheBus (Downtown Honolulu)

Ride On 5368 at Glenmont

Discontinued Product Lines (Transit Buses)
Model Name Phantom Gillig-Neoplan Spirit
Photo(s) TheBus (Downtown Honolulu).jpgRide On 5368 at Glenmont.jpg
Length (ft)
  • 30
  • 35
  • 40
  • 30
  • 35
28
Years Produced 1980-2009 1977-1979 mid-late 1980s
Notes
  • Offered in 102″ or 96″ widths.
  • A hybrid version was also offered from 2001 to 2006.
A 28-foot (8.5 m) medium-duty bus offered as lower-cost alternative to the 30-foot-long (9.1 m) Phantom.
Discontinued Product Lines (School Buses)
Model Name Transit Coach School Bus
Photo Gillig Valley View No4 img13
Length (ft) 28-40
Years Produced 1940-1982
Notes
  • A long-running lineup of transit-style school buses offered by Gillig prior to the production of the Phantom.
  • Available in mid-engine and rear-engine models with single or tandem rear axles.

Phantom School Bus

Gillig Phantom School Bus LAUSD 2002

  • 37
  • 40

1986-1993

96″ wide version of the Phantom redesigned to school bus specifications as a successor to the Transit Coach.

Coreys Gillig 1962 Chevy School Bus

1929 Gillig bus51929 Gillig bus

1952 Gillig bus9

1952 Gillig bus

1955 Gillig Short Bus On Ford B500 Chassis

1955 Gillig Short Bus On Ford B500 Chassis

1957 Gillig Transit Coach School Bus

1957 Gillig Transit Coach School Bus

1962 Gillig-Pacific-bus-f

1962 Gillig-Pacific-bus

1966 Model 743D

1966 Model 743D

1966 Model C-180D (retired)

1966 Model C-180D (retired)

1971 Model C-190D-12 (retired)

1971 Model C-190D-12 (retired)

1972 Gillig Transit Coach

1972 Gillig Transit Coach

1973 Model 318D-12

1973 Model 318D-12

1977 Gillig25

1977 Gillig 25

1979 Gillig Model VTF555D school bus

1979 Gillig Model VTF555D school bus

1979 Gillig Phantom School Bus Grand Pacific Charter

1979 Gillig Phantom School Bus Grand Pacific Charter

1979 Model 636D-12

1979 Model 636D-12

1984 Walnut Creek Gillig Trolley

1984 Walnut Creek Gillig Trolley

1988 gillig-bus-06

1988 gillig-bus

1990 gillig-bus-04

1990 gillig-bus

1992 gillig-bus-03

1992 gillig-bus

1995 EMTA Bayliner 3 Gillig

1995 EMTA Bayliner 3 Gillig

1996 Gillig Ride On 5368 at Glenmont

1996 Gillig Ride On 5368 at Glenmont

1997 mst gillig712 route

1997 mst gillig712 route © Michael Strauch

1998 gillig-bus-02

1998 gillig-bus

1999 Gillig Phantom Unitrans

1999 Gillig Phantom Unitrans

2001 Gillig Phantom(Downtown Honolulu)

2001 Gillig Phantom(Downtown Honolulu)

2001 StarMetro Gillig BRT 29

2001 Star Metro Gillig BRT 29

2002 Gillig Phantom School Bus LAUSD

2002 Gillig Phantom School Bus LAUSD

2004 Gillig Low Floor advantage

2004 Gillig Low Floor advantage

2004 gillig-bus-07

2004 gillig-bus

2006 Gillig Foothill Transit F1124

2006 Gillig Foothill Transit F1124

2007 gillig-bus-08

2007 gillig-bus

2007 MVTA Gillig Bus

2007 MVTA Gillig Bus

2008 CDTA Saratoga Gillig

2008 CDTA Saratoga Gillig

2008 Gillig Dart Advantage hybrid 111

2008 Gillig Dart Advantage hybrid 111

2008 Gillig Phantom 9100-9120

2008 Gillig Phantom 9100-9120

2008 GILLIG VelociRFTA121311

2008 GILLIG VelociRFTA121311

2009 A pair of Gillig BRT buses by Sean9118

2009 A pair of Gillig BRT buses by Sean 9118

2010 Gillig Lynx Bus

2010 Gillig Lynx Bus © formerwmdriver

2011 Sound Transit Gillig Advantage

2011 Sound Transit Gillig Advantage

Gillig Bros Plate CC-182-015-950

Gillig Bros Plate CC-182-015-950

gillig-bus-01

gillig-bus

gillig-bus-05

gillig-bus © ramayauctions