TRABANT

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Trabant

Trabant
Trabbi 601-S - Typenschild 1.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer VEB Sachsenring
Production
  • 1957–1990 (East Germany)
  • 1990–1991 (Germany)
  • 3.7 million produced
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine
  • 500cc two-cylinder two-stroke (1957~62)
  • 600cc two-cylinder two-stroke (1963~1989)
  • 1.0L VW Polo I4 four-stroke (1989~1991)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,020 mm (79.5 in)
Length 3,360 mm (132.3 in)
Width 1,500 mm (59.06 in)

Trabant 601 ad

The Trabant (/ˈtræbænt, –ənt/German: [tʁaˈbant]) is an automobile which was produced from 1957 to 1990 by former East German car manufacturer VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau. It is often seen as symbolic of the former East Germany and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc in general. The Trabant was loud, slow, poorly designed, badly built, inhospitable to drive, uncomfortable, confusing and inconvenient. The Trabant had a hard plastic body mounted on a one-piece steel chassis (a so-called unibody or monocoque), front-wheel drive, a transverse engine, and independent suspension – unusual features at that time (1950s) — but it remained the same up until the 1990s. The 1980s model had no tachometer, no headlights or turn signals indicator, no fuel gauge, no rear seat belts, no external fuel door, drivers had to pour a mix of gasoline and oil directly under the hood, etc.

Called “a spark plug with a roof”, 3,096,999 Trabants in a number of models were produced over nearly three decades with few significant changes in their basic design. Older models have been sought by collectors in the United States due to their low cost and fewer restrictions on the importation of antique cars. The Trabant also gained a following among car tuning and rally racing enthusiasts.

Overview

Trabant 601 Mulhouse FRA 001Trabant 601 limousine

Trabant 601 EstateTrabant 601 Estate

Trabant means “satellite” or “companion” in German, derived from the Middle High German drabant (“Hussite foot soldier”). The car’s name was inspired by the Soviet Sputnik satellite. The cars are often referred to as “Trabbi” or “Trabi”. Produced without major changes for nearly 30 years, the Trabant became the most common automobile in East Germany. It came to symbolize the country during the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, as images of East Germans crossing the border into West Germany were broadcast around the globe.

Being a state monopoly, it took ten years to acquire a Trabant, East German buyers were placed on a waiting-list of up to thirteen years. The waiting time depended on their proximity to Berlin, the capital. Official state price was 7,450 GDR marks and the demand to production ratio was forty three to one (1989). The free market price for a second-hand one was more than twice the price of a new one, and the average worker had to wait ten to thirteen years on a waiting list, or, if available, pay more than double for a second hand one.

Trabant 2 interieurInterior of a 601

The Trabant had a steel unibody frame, with the roof, trunk lid, hood, fenders and doors made of duroplast, a hard plastic made from recycled cotton waste from the Soviet Union and phenol resins from the East German dye industry. It was the second car with a body made of recycled material; the first was the AWZ P70 Zwickau, produced from 1955 to 1959. The material was durable, and the average lifespan of a Trabant was 28 years.

Trabant quality was poor, reliability was terrible, closer inspection revealed “patchy assembly quality”, with atrocious maintenance record.

The car had four principal variants:

The P50, also known as the Trabant 500 (produced 1957–1962)

The Trabant 600 (1962–1964)

The Trabant 601 (1963–1991)

The Trabant 1.1, produced in 1990–1991 with a 1,043 cc (63.6 cu in) VW engine

Trabant Engine BlockTrabant two-stroke engine

The engine for the 500, 600 and the original 601 was a small two-stroke engine with two cylinders, accounting for the vehicle’s modest performance. Its curb weight was about 600 kg (1,323 lb). When it ceased production in 1989, the Trabant delivered 19 kilowatts (25 hp) from a 600 cc (37 cu indisplacement. It took 21 seconds to accelerate from zero to its top speed of 100 km/h (62 mph).

The engine produced a very smoky exhaust and was a significant source of air pollution: nine times the hydrocarbons and five times the carbon-monoxide emissions of the average 2007 European car. Its fuel consumption was 7 l/100 km (40 mpg‑imp; 34 mpg‑US). Since the engine did not have an oil pumptwo-stroke oil had to be added to the 24-liter (6.3 U.S. gal; 5.3 imp gal) fuel tank at a 50:1 (or 33:1) ratio of fuel to oil at each fill-up. Contemporary gas stations in countries where two-stroke engines were common sold a premixed gas-oil mixture at the pump. Because the Trabant had no fuel pump, its fuel tank was above the motor so fuel could reach the carburetor by gravity; this increased the risk of fire in front-end accidents. Earlier models had no fuel gauge, and a dipstick was inserted into the tank to determine how much fuel remained.

Best known for its dull color scheme and cramped, uncomfortable ride, the Trabant is an object of ridicule for many Germans and is regarded as symbolic of the fall of the Eastern Bloc. Known as a “spark plug with a roof” because of its small size, the car did gain public affection. Its design remained essentially unchanged from its introduction in the late 1950s, and the last model was introduced in 1964. In contrast, the West German Volkswagen Beetle received a number of updates (including improvements in efficiency) over a similar period.

History

Origins

The Trabant was the result of a planning process which had intended to design a three-wheeled motorcycle. In German, a trabant is an astronomical term for a moon (or other natural satellite) of a celestial body.

Full production

1959 Trabant P50

A 1959 Trabant P50

The first of the Trabants left the VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau factory in Saxony on 7 November 1957. It was a relatively advanced car when it was formally introduced the following year, with front wheel driveunitary construction and independent suspension. The Trabant’s greatest shortcoming was its engine. By the late 1950s, many small West European cars (such as the Renault) had cleaner, more-efficient four-stroke engines, but budgetary constraints and raw-materials shortages mandated an outdated (but inexpensive) two-stroke engine in the Trabant. It was technically equivalent to the West German Lloyd automobile, a similarly sized car with an air-cooled, two-cylinder four-stroke engine. The Trabant had a front, transversely-mounted engine and front-wheel drive in an era when many European cars were using rear-mounted engines or front-mounted engines with rear-wheel drive. Its greatest drawback was its largely unchanged production; the car’s two-stroke engine made it obsolete by the 1970s, limiting exports to Western Europe.

The Trabant’s air-cooled, 500 cc (31 cu in) engine—upgraded to 600 cc (37 cu in) in 1962–63—was derived from a pre-war DKW design with minor alterations during its production run. The first Saab car had a larger (764 cc), water-cooled, two-cylinder two-stroke engine. Wartburg, an East German manufacturer of larger sedans, also used a water-cooled, three-cylinder, 1,000 cc (61 cu in), two-stroke DKW engine.

The original Trabant, introduced in 1958, was the P50. Trabant’s base model, it shared a large number of interchangeable parts with the latest 1.1s. The 500 cc, 18 hp (13 kW) P50 evolved into a 20 hp (15 kW) version with a fully synchronized gearbox in 1960, and received a 23 hp (17 kW), 500 cc (31 cu in) engine in 1962 as the P60.

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0503-0015-001, Sachsenring Trabant 601A 1963 Trabant 601

The updated P601 was introduced in 1964. It was essentially a facelift of the P60, with a different front fascia, bonnet, roof and rear and the original P50 underpinnings. The model remained nearly unchanged until the end of its production except for the addition of 12V electricity, rear coil springs and an updated dashboard for later models.

Trabant P1100 prototypeP1100 prototype

The Trabant’s designers expected production to extend until 1967 at the latest, and East German designers and engineers created a series of more-sophisticated prototypes intended to replace the P601; several are displayed at the Dresden Transport Museum. Each proposal for a new model was rejected by the East German government due to shortages of the raw materials required in larger quantities for the more-advanced designs. As a result, the Trabant remained largely unchanged for more than a quarter-century. Also unchanged was its production method, which was extremely labour-intensive.

Production started from 34.000 in 1964, reached 100.000 in 1973, to a high of 150.000 in 1989.

The Trabant 1100 (also known as the P1100) was a 601 with a better-performing 1.05-liter (64 cu in), 45 hp (34 kW) VW Polo engine. With a more-modern look (including a floor-mounted gearshift), it was quieter and cleaner than its predecessor. The 1100 had front disc brakes, and its wheel assembly was borrowed from Volkswagen. It was produced between from 1989 to 1991, in parallel with the two-stroke P601. Except for the engine and transmission, many parts from older P50s, P60s and 601s were compatible with the 1100.

1989–1991

Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F086568-0046, Leipzig, ausgeschlachteter PKW Trabant (Trabbi)Many Trabants like this one, photographed in Leipzig in 1990, were abandoned after 1989.

Trabant 1.1 Limousine with VW Polo four-stroke engineTrabant 1.1 with VW Polo four-stroke engine

In mid-1989, thousands of East Germans began loading their Trabants with as much as they could carry and drove to Hungary or Czechoslovakia en route to West Germany on the “Trabi Trail”. Many had to get special permission to drive their Trabants into West Germany, since the cars did not meet West German emissions standards and polluted the air at four times the European average.

A licensed version of the Volkswagen Polo engine replaced the Trabant’s two-stroke engine in 1989, the result of a trade agreement between East and West Germany. The model, the Trabant 1.1, also had minor improvements to its brake and signal lights, a renovated grille, and MacPherson struts instead of a leaf-spring-suspended chassis. When the 1.1 began production in May 1990, the two German states had already agreed to reunification.

By April 1991 3.7 million vehicles had been produced. However, it soon became apparent that there was no place for the Trabant in a reunified German economy; its inefficient, labour-intensive production line survived on government subsidies.

The Trabant ceased production in 1991, and the Zwickau factory in Mosel (where the Trabant 1.1 was manufactured) was sold to Volkswagen AG; the rest of the company became HQM Sachsenring GmbH. Volkswagen redeveloped the Zwickau factory, which is a centre for engine production and produces some Volkswagen Golfs and Passats.

1990s and later

According to Richard Leiby, the Trabant had become “a symbol of the technological and social backwardness of the East German state.” Trabants became well known in the West after the fall of the Berlin Wall, when many were abandoned by their Eastern owners who migrated west. Unlike the Lada NivaŠkoda EstellePolski Fiat and Yugo, the Trabant had negligible sales in Western Europe.

A Trabant could be bought for as little as a few Deutsche Marks during the early 1990s, and many were given away. Although prices recovered as they became collectors’ items, they remain inexpensive cars. In her Bodyworkproject, performance artist Liz Cohen transformed a 1987 Trabant into a 1973 Chevrolet El Camino. The Trabant was planned to return to production in Uzbekistan as the Olimp during the late 1990s, but only one model was produced.

2007 Trabant P50 or 60 during the First Trabant Rally 22-12-2007

A Trabant during the first Parade of Trabants in 2007

Former Bulgarian Foreign Minister and Atlantic Club of Bulgaria founding president Solomon Passy owned a Trabant which was blessed by Pope John Paul II in 2002 and which he took NATO Secretaries General Manfred WörnerGeorge Robertson, and Jaap de Hoop Scheffer for rides. In 2005, Passy donated the vehicle (which had become symbolic of Bulgaria’s NATO accession) to the National Historical Museum of Bulgaria. In 1997 the Trabant was celebrated for passing the moose test without rolling over, as the Mercedes-Benz W168 had; a Thuringian newspaper’s headline read, “Come and get us, moose! Trabi passes A-Class killer test”.

The Trabant entered the world of diplomacy in 2007 when Steven Fisherdeputy head of mission at the British Embassy in Budapest, used a 1.1 (painted as close to British racing green as possible) as his diplomatic carAmerican Trabant owners celebrate the fall of the Berlin Wall with the Parade of Trabants, an annual early-November rally held in Washington, D.C. The event, sponsored by the privately owned International Spy Museum, includes street tours in Trabants, rides, live German music and displays about East Germany.

Planned reintroduction

The Herpa company, a Bavarian miniature-vehicle manufacturer, bought the rights to the Trabant name and showed a scale model of a “newTrabi” at the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show. Plans for production included a limited run, possibly with a BMW engine. A Trabant nT model was unveiled two years later in Frankfurt.

The Trabant nT consortium includes Herpa, the German specialized-auto-parts manufacturer IndiKar and the German automobile-engineering company IAV. The group was looking for investment, design and production in the Trabant’s original hometown of Zwickau, with sales “in 2012”. The Trabant nT electric car would be equipped with a 45 kW (60 hp; 61 PS) asynchronous motor powered by a lithium-ion battery.

Models

Fotothek df ps 0002918 Stadt ^ Stadtlandschaften ^ Camping

Trabant P50 Universal, later known as the 500 Universal

 

P50: Later known as the 500 (Limousine and Universal [Combi])

600 (Limousine and Universal)

601 Standard (Limousine, Universal)

601S (Sonderwunsch; Special Edition) with fog lamps, a rear white light and an odometer

601 DeLuxe: Similar to the 601S, with two colours and a chrome bumper

601 Kübel: Doorless jeep with a folding roof, auxiliary heating system and RFI-shielded ignition

601 Tramp: Civilian version of the Kübel, primarily exported to Greece

601 Hycomat: For drivers unable to use their left leg, with an automatic clutch

800RS: Rally version

1.1: Limousine, Universal and Tramp (convertible)

Gallery

See also

August Horch Museum Zwickau

Jokes about the Trabant

Ostalgie

Soybean Car

Notes

Jump up^ According to Elof Hellquist‘s Svensk etymologisk ordbok (Swedish Etymological DictionaryISBN 91-40-01978-0), the word also exists in Low German dravant, French trabant and Italian trabante but its origin is unknown: “It is not even certain whether the Romance words have been borrowed from the German, or vice versa.”

References

Jump up to:a b Legends of the Open Road. Rizzoli International Publications. ISBN 978-88-6130-066-8.

Jump up^ World Cars 1978. Herald Books. ISBN 0-910714-10-X.

Jump up to:a b “The Trabant Was an Awful Car Made by Communists”. November 2016.

Jump up^ “Trabant Canada”. Trabant.ca. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010.

Jump up^ “99 (Svensk etymologisk ordbok)”runeberg.org (in Swedish). 1922. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017. (in Swedish)

Jump up to:a b c d James, Kyle (19 May 2007). “Go, Trabi, Go! East Germany’s Darling Car Turns 50”. Deutsche Welle. Archivedfrom the original on 11 September 2007.

Jump up^ Stokes, Raymond G. (2000). “Plastics and the New Society: The German Democratic Republic in the 1950s and 1960s”. In Reid, Susan E.; Crowley, David. Style and Socialism: Modernity and Material Culture in Post-War Eastern Europe. Oxford, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: Berg. ISBN 1-85973-239-9OCLC 898724665.

Jump up to:a b c Williams, Adam (6 September 2007). “The ‘Trabi’ automobile, once a symbol of East Germany, to be revived”International Herald Tribune. Reuters. Archived from the originalon 4 December 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.

Jump up to:a b c “German Firm Plans to Launch Revamped Trabant”. Deutsche Welle. 7 September 2007. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2010.

Jump up to:a b “The 12 worst cars ever built”. January 2010.

Jump up to:a b c d “The Trabant: Consumption, Eigen-Sinn, and Movement”History Workshop Journal. 18 September 2009.

Jump up to:a b “Special From Germany: Show 402”Scientific American Frontiers. PBS. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015.

Jump up^ Cotta, Rick. “Driving a Trabant”.

Jump up^ “BBC”. bbc.co.uk. 1 January 2007. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2014.

Jump up^ “carfolio.com”. carfolio.com. 28 February 2013. Archivedfrom the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.

Jump up^ “Trans National Trabant Tour 2007”. Transtrabant.cz. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2010.

Jump up^ Silk, Bernard (3 May 2003). “Daily Telegraph”. London: Telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 October 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2010.

Jump up^ Hockenos, Paul (7 November 2014). “Berlin Welcomes Back the Trabant, if Only for a Day”The New York TimesArchivedfrom the original on 7 November 2017.

Jump up^ Richard Stroup (2003). Eco-nomics: What Everyone Should Know about Economics and the Environment. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-930865-44-0.

Jump up^ “Translate Trabant from German to English”http://www.interglot.comArchived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018.

Jump up^ Sebetsyen, Victor (2009). Revolution 1989: The Fall of the Soviet Empire. New York City: Pantheon BooksISBN 0-375-42532-2.

Jump up^ “Trabant”. Archived from the original on 14 April 2011.

Jump up^ Richard A. Leiby (1999). The Unification of Germany, 1989–1990. Greenwood. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-313-29969-8.

Jump up^ Keats, Jonathon (July 2003). “High-Performance Artist”WiredArchived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.

Jump up^ “Trabant Clunks Back to Life”. Moscowtimes.ru. Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 2 December2010.

Jump up^ “Automobile Industry In Uzbekistan”Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2010.

Jump up^ “Соломон Паси подари трабанта си на НИМ” (in Bulgarian). Вести. 13 July 2005. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2009.

Jump up^ “Petite feat”. drive.com.au. 6 May 2005. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2010.

Jump up^ “British Deputy Ambassador’s ride small and green”. Politics.Hu. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2009.

Jump up^ Zsolt, Csikós (10 November 2008). “A brit nagykövethelyettes Trabantja (“The British Deputy Ambassador’s Trabant”)”. TotalCar.hu Ltd. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2012.

Jump up^ “Sixth Annual Parade of Trabants”International Spy MuseumArchived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2012.

Jump up^ Williams, Adam (6 September 2007). “The ‘Trabi’ automobile, once a symbol of East Germany, to be revived”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2012.

Jump up^ “Photo Gallery: Electric Trabant Unveiled at Frankfurt Motor Show”. Spiegel Online. 16 September 2009. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2012.

Jump up^ “German group develops new Trabant”. London: news.bbc.co.uk. 14 August 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009.

Jump up^ Hall, Allan (14 August 2009). “Smoke-belching Trabant to be reborn as electric car”. London: telegraph.co.uk. Archivedfrom the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009.

Jump up^ “The “newTrabi” idea becomes the “Trabant nT” concept car”. Trabant nT GmbH. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.

Jump up^ “Eco Cars: All-electric Trabant NT Gears To Clean 20-year-old Mess”. Ecofriend. 17 September 2009. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.

Further reading

Berdahl, Daphne. “‘Go, Trabi, Go!’: Reflections on a Car and Its Symbolization over Time.” Anthropology and Humanism 25.2 (2000): 131-141. online

Rubin, Eli. “The Trabant: Consumption, Eigen-Sinn, and Movement.” History Workshop Journal (2009) 68#1 pp 27–44. online

Zatlin, Jonathan R. “The vehicle of desire: The Trabant, the Wartburg, and the end of the GDR.” German History 15.3 (1997): 358-380. online

Lisse, Jürgen (2010), Fahrzeuglexikon Trabant (in German) (2. erweiterte ed.), Witzschdorf: Bildverlag Böttger, ISBN 978-3-937496-34-4

Röcke, Matthias (2011), Die Trabi-Story. Der Dauerbrenner aus Zwickau (in German), Bath: Parragon, ISBN 978-1-4454-6266-0, vormals in zwei Auflagen erschienen im Heel Verlag

Stiegler, Theo (2007), Der Trabant wird 50! In guten wie in schlechten Zeiten (in German), Dresden: edition Sächsische Zeitung/Saxo’Phon, ISBN 978-3-938325-36-0

Sarotte, Mary Elise (2014). The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall. New York: Basic Books. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-465-06494-6.

External links

Trabant

Trabant vehicles

UK-based official Wartburg, Trabant and IFA owners’ club

Trabant at Curlie

TrabantForums TrabantForums.com

History of the Trabant

The story behind Trabant

Sachsenring Trabant site

IFA Mobile 2-takt Vereniging, de oudste vereniging voor Oost-Duitse auto’s

Trabant history and prospects

Technical Data and additional Information about Trabant 601.

Technical details and pictures of the Trabant 601

British microcar club that welcomes trabant owners and drivers

Trabant – East Germany’s Finest

Media

Interactive presentation of Red Pearl Trabant 601z

Trabant TV ad at Google Videos

Trabant test drive at Google Videos

Production of the Trabant car (Final Quality Testing) on YouTube

ROBUR Buses and Trucks VEB Robur-Werke Zittau of East Germany (GDR)

Robur

buses and trucks

Robur Typ LO 2002

Robur was a marque of the Volkseigener Betrieb VEB Robur-Werke Zittau of East Germany (GDR). It mainly produced 3-ton trucks. The vehicles were produced in the town of Zittau in what now is South-East Saxony. Until 1946, company produced under the marque Phänomen (English: Phenomenon), and until 1957 under the name VEB Phänomen Zittau.

https://myntransportblog.com/2014/03/25/buses-more-ifa-industrieverband-fahrzeugbau-east-germany/

https://myntransportblog.com/2014/03/15/eastern-europian-car-combination-i-1896-1936/

History

Phaenomen moped Phänomen Bob 98 cc motorcycle

Phänomen typ28
 Phänomen 10/30 (1916)
Phaenomen granit 30
 Phänomen Granit 30 in front of the Dresden Frauenkirche (January 2006)
1956 Garant 32 außen
 Garant 32 Diesel (1956)
Robur LO 1800 A
 Modell LO 1800 A
2002 Robur lo
 Modell LO 2002 (1976)

 Robur LO 2002 A Fire Engine
Robur Coach
 Robur Coach
 Four-wheel driven model MZ

In 1888, Karl Gustav Hiller founded a company for the distribution of a machine for the production of pom-pons that he had invented and would receive a patent for in 1894. On a trip to England he obtained an exclusive license to import and build Rover Safety Bicycles. He became shareholder and later owner of the Zittau machine factory “Müller & Preußger”, refined the Rover bicycles and began to distribute them under the name “Phänomen-Rover” in 1894. In 1900 the company began to produce Phänomen motorcycles. At first the motorcycles were fitted with Fafnir engines, but from 1903 onwards single-cylinder four-stroke engines of Phänomen design were used. This change of engine necessitated a strengthening of the bike frame and a change of wheels. Now 26-inch wheels with 214-inch tires were used. Permanent improvements led to the development of a two-cylinder engine.

3achsbus2b

In 1905 the company began the mass production of the three-wheeled Phänomobil. The two-cylinder engine used in motorbikes was used here as well. Similarities in construction with Berlin-made three-wheeler Cyklonette of Cyklon, led to arguments over patent infringement, especially as the engineers had worked for Hiller’s company. A twin-fan-cooled four-cylinder four-stroke engine was used in the vehicles from 1910, production running until 1927. Between 1912 and 1927 the company, by now known as “Aktiengesellschaft Phänomen-Werke Gustav Hiller”, offered four-wheeled cars that could not establish themselves in the market. The coachwork was done by the “Karosseriewerk August Nowack AG” in Bautzen.

1930 Phaenomen 4RL Heusenstamm

1930 Phänomen 4RL Heusenstamm

By request of the Reichspost for a cheap, safe and capable vehicle, the company introduced its 4 RL truck that could carry loads between 0.75 and 1 tons. The basis for this model was the four-cylinder engine used in the Phänomobil. As demand for higher payloads increased, the company brought theGranit 25 (1.5 tons) and Granit 30 (2.5 tons) trucks into production in 1931 and 1936, respectively. With the increasing arms production in Nazi Germanythe product portfolio was reduced to the Granit 1500 model (called Granit 27 after the war) with a payload of 1.5 tons.

Phaenomen 4RL Heusenstamm

Phänomen 4RL Heusenstamm

All Phänomen trucks and tricycles had air-cooled engines, only the four-wheeled passenger cars were equipped with water-cooled engines. In 1930 the Phänomen-Werke Gustav Hiller A.G. Zittau took up production of light motorcycles, using Sachs engines. Until 1945 Phänomen produced 14 different models.

Phaenomen 5PS

Phänomen 5PS

In consequence of a referendum of 30 April 1946 in Saxony, all property of those judged to be Nazis and war criminals was expropriated. In line with this, the Phänomen works became a Volkseigener Betrieb. Aside from the production of desperately needed commodities, some 1000 vehicles of the Red Army were repaired. In 1949 the mass production of the pre-war models was resumed on a low scale. Only in January 1950 were the first 13 Granit 27finished. In the next year the payload of the model was increased to 2 tons. 1952 the company presented the Phänomen-Granit 32 prototype that was equipped with an air-cooled diesel engine – in contrast to the carburetor engines used until then. The mass production of the diesel engine began in 1954. In the meantime, the carburetor engine used in the Granit 27 model was improved and now produced 60 horsepower (45 kW). It was used in the Granit 30k model.

Robur Garant 30 K Omnibus

Robur Garant 30 K Omnibus

After changes to design, chassis and some minor modifications to the Granit it became the Garant model that would see 50,000 pieces built in several variations (bus, truck, ambulance) until 1961. Aside from the Garant K 30 model with a petrol engine the Garant 32 with a diesel engine was also available.

Robur Garant 30

Robur Garant 30 Ambulance © Ralf Christiaan Kunkel

In the beginning of 1957 the company was renamed VEB Robur Werke Zittau, as the heirs of the company founder Hiller had no intention of allowing the new company to use the Phänomen brand. The name Robur stems from the Latin name of the pedunculate oak, Quercus robur. The logo design was inspired by a crankshaft. Several other factories were merged with the company, among others the auto body works in Bautzen and Zittau, the engine plant in Kamenz and the fire-extinguisher works in Görlitz. The very successful Garant model was replaced by the Robur LO 2500. It was first presented at the Leipzig Trade Fair in 1961 and was constructed according to international development trends of the time. This modern COE truck had the carburetor engine of its predecessor, with an increased output of 70 HP. It had a payload of 2.5 tons. The four-wheel driven variation with a 1.8 ton payload was called Robur LO 1800 A.

Robur LO 1800 A

Robur LO 1800 A

Further development resulted in 1968 in the LO 2501 and LO 1801 A models, distinguishable by a changed grille. Several further improvements were made over the years, before the 3-ton truck LO 3000 was introduced in 1974. It became the basis for a number of special models. The four-wheel variant also saw its payload increased and was sold under the designation LO 2002A. From the fall of 1982 a diesel engine was offered alongside the carburetor engine Type 4 KVD 12,5 SRL. Development of the LD/LO 3000 series in the 1980s aimed to extend the lifetime of the various components and reaching international level in terms of quality. These changes, that were in part also made to the AWD types LD/LO 2202 A, led to the diesel-driven modelsLD 3001 and LD 3002, recognizable by smaller wheels and increased tread. The carburetor-engined LO variants lost import.

Robur trucks were not only deployed in the COMECON area, but in several overseas countries. Especially in order to open up new markets the Robur-Safari program was created. Here trucks would be adapted to the climatic and geographic conditions of their future country of deployment.

The production of the newly developed O 611/O 611A and D 609 models was not approved by the government and development was restricted to existing models.

After German reunification the company quickly folded. Deployment of Deutz diesel engines did nothing to save it and production was cancelled in 1991. In 1995 a new company called Robur-Fahrzeug-Engineering GmbH was founded and bought all know-how of the Robur-Werke Zittau. In 1999 another successor was founded with FBZ GmbH Zittau. The company builds and supplies components for vehicles.

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© J Veerkamp

IFA W50 images

© J. Veerkamp

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© Ralf Christiaan Kunkel

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© Ralf Christiaan Kunkel

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