Mercury Turnpike Cruiser SPECIAL EXTRA

Mercury Turnpike Cruiser

The Mercury Turnpike Cruiser is a full-size automobile that was the flagship model of the Mercury division of Ford Motor Company for the 1957 and 1958 model years. Named after the 1956 creation of the Interstate Highway System, the Turnpike Cruiser was produced in two-door and four-door hardtop bodystyles. In 1957, a two-door convertible was also produced, serving as the pace car for the Indianapolis 500 of that year.
They are best known for the unique styling cues and wide array of gadgets including a “Breezeway” power rear window that could be lowered to improve ventilation, “twin jet” air intakes at upper corners of car’s windshield, “seat-o-matic” automatically adjusting seat, and an average speed “computer” (that would tell your average speed at any point along a trip).

Contents
1
1957
1.1
Convertible Cruiser
2
1958
3
References
4
External links

5

You Tube Videos:

https://youtu.be/FaMOyWmAkNw

https://youtu.be/tdBu2oI15bI

1957

rear view showing “Breezeway” window
For 1957, the Turnpike Cruiser was the premium model offering from Mercury. In addition to its unique features, the car was further differentiated from other Mercury models by a gold anodized trim strip in the car’s rear fin. It came standard with an automatic transmission and a 368-c.i.d. engine producing 290 horsepower (220 kW); this engine was optional on other Mercurys. A tachometer was available. Safety features such as an impact absorbing, deep-dish steering wheel, front seat stops (to keep the front seat from breaking away) and safety door locks were standard, while seat belts and a padded dash were optional.
The Turnpike Cruiser would comprise 8.47% of Mercury sales in 1957.[1] Motor Trend gave high marks for fuel economy (14.6mpg at 60mph) and comfort, low for handling.
Convertible Cruiser

1957 Mercury Turnpike Cruiser convertible

1957 Convertible Cruiser with “Continental Kit” spare tire
Later in the model year an open car named Convertible Cruiser was added to this series. From the beginning it was created only to be used as the official pace car of the 1957 Indianapolis 500. On January 7, 1957, it was announced that the Convertible Cruiser would be available as a production model as well. All Convertible cruisers had a continental tire kit and were painted yellow (Sun Glitter), similar to the original pace cars.

1958
In 1958 the Turnpike Cruiser joined the mid-range Mercury Montclair line with only minor trim changes to the car from the previous year, but the convertible version was not offered this year. A further upgrade of luxury equipment and appearance of the Turnpike Cruiser became the Mercury Park Lane which replaced it entirely for 1959.
Standard engine became the 383-c.i.d. “Marauder” V8 engine, with the 430-c.i.d., 360 horsepower (270 kW) version available as an option. A triple-carburetor”Super Marauder” 400 horsepower (300 kW) version was available across the Mercury line. Self-adjusting brakes were added.
From 1963 to 1966 Mercury revived the most distinctive feature of the Turnpike Cruiser, returning a retractable “Breezeway” rear window, on its full-size Monterey, Montclair and Park Lane model ranges.

Cars Wallpapers


References
^
Jump up to:
a b c d Flory, Jr., J. “Kelly” (2008). American Cars, 1946-1959 Every Model Every Year. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7864-3229-5.
Jump up
^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1957 Mercury/album”. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
Jump up
^ http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1957-1958-mercury-turnpike-cruiser2.htm
Jump up
^ http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Mercury/1957%20Mercury/1957_Mercury_Foldout/1957%20Mercury%20Foldout-03.html
Jump up
^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1957 Mercury/1957_Mercury_Foldout”. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
Jump up
^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1957 Mercury/1957_Mercury_Brochure”. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
Jump up
^ http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1957-1958-mercury-turnpike-cruiser3.htm
Jump up
^ http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Mercury/1958%20Mercury/1958_Mercury_Brochure/1958%20Mercury%20Brochure-31.html
Jump up
^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1958 Mercury/1958_Mercury_Brochure”. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.

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JAGUAR Cars Whitley, Coventry, England, UK at start now from Tata Motors India III

JAGUAR Cars

2012 Logo of Jaguar Cars, released in 2012


Whitley, Coventry, England, UK at start now from Tata Motors India III

Sports

1949 Jaguar-xk-120
  • Jaguar XK120
  • fastest production car in the world in 1949

Jaguar XK120

Jaguar XK120
Jaguar XK120

Jaguar XK120 Drop Head Coupe
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1948–1954
12,055 made
Assembly Holbrook Lane, Coventry, England,United Kingdom (1948-1951)
Browns Lane, Coventry, England,United Kingdom (1951-54)
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style 2-seat roadster (OTS)
2-seat coupé
2-seat drophead coupé
Layout FR layout
Related Jaguar C-Type
Powertrain
Engine 3.4 L XK I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 102 in (2,591 mm)
Length 173 in (4,394 mm)
Width 61.5 in (1,562 mm)
Height 52.5 in (1,334 mm)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar SS100
Successor Jaguar XK140

The Jaguar XK120 is a sports car which was manufactured by Jaguar between 1948 and 1954. It was Jaguar’s first sports car since the SS 100, which ceased production in 1940.

History

The XK120 was launched in open two-seater or (US) roadster form at the 1948 London Motor Show as a testbed and show car for the new Jaguar XK engine. The display car was the first prototype, chassis number 670001. It looked almost identical to the production cars except that the straight outer pillars of its windscreen would be curved on the production version. The roadster caused a sensation, which persuaded Jaguar founder and design boss William Lyons to put it into production.

Beginning in 1948, the first 242 cars wore wood-framed open 2-seater bodies with aluminium panels. Production switched to the 1cwt or 112 lb (51 kg) heavier all-steel in early 1950. The “120” in the name referred to the aluminium car’s 120 mph (193 km/h) top speed (faster with the windscreen removed), which made it the world’s fastest production car at the time of its launch. In 1949 the first production roadster, chassis number 670003, was delivered to Clark Gable.

1949 Jaguar XK120 Roadster Clark Gable

The ex-Clark Gable XK120 at the 2012 Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance

The XK120 was ultimately available in two open versions, first as an open 2-seater described in the US market as the roadster (and designated OTS, for open two-seater, in America), then also as a drophead coupé (DHC) from 1953; and also as a closed, or fixed head coupé (FHC) from 1951.

A smaller-engined version 2-litres, 4 cylinders, intended for the UK market was cancelled prior to production.

On 30 May 1949, on the empty Ostend-Jabbeke motorway in Belgium, a prototype XK120 timed by the officials of the Royal Automobile Club of Belgium achieved an average of runs in opposing directions of 132.6 mph with the windscreen replaced by just one small aeroscreen and a catalogued alternative top gear ratio, and 135 mph with a passenger-side tonneau cover in place. In 1950 and 1951, at a banked oval track in France, XK120 roadsters averaged over 100 mph for 24 hours and over 130 mph for an hour, and in 1952 a fixed-head coupé took numerous world records for speed and distance when it averaged 100 mph for a week.

Roadsters were also successful in racing and rallying.

Construction

1950 Jaguar XK120 interior

1950 aluminium-bodied roadster, ex-Clemente Biondetti, has competition seats and aftermarket steering wheel; positions of tachometer and speedometer have been reversed

The first roadsters, hand-built with aluminium bodies on ash frames mounted on modified Jaguar Mark V chassis, were constructed between late 1948 and early 1950. To meet demand, and beginning with the 1950 model year, all subsequent XK120s were mass-produced with pressed-steel bodies. They retained aluminium doors, bonnet, and boot lid. The DHC and FHC versions, more luxuriously appointed than the roadsters, had wind-up windows and also wood veneers on the dashboard and interior door caps.

With alloy cylinder head, hemi-spherical combustion chambers, inclined valves and twin side-draft SU carburetors, the dual overhead-cam 3.4 L straight-6 XK engine was comparatively advanced for a mass-produced unit of the time. With standard 8:1 compression ratio it developed 160 bhp (119 kW), using 80 octane fuel. Most of the early cars were exported; a 7:1 low-compression version, with consequently reduced performance, was reserved for the UK market, where the post-war austerity measures then in force restricted buyers to 70 octane “Pool petrol”. The Jaguar factory, with access to 80 octane fuel, provided roadsters with the higher compression ratio to the press. Journalists could then test the model’s optimum performance in Belgium, on a long, straight stretch of road between Jabbeke and Ostend. The XK engine’s basic design, later modified into 3.8 and 4.2 litre versions, survived into the late 1980s.

All XK120s had independent torsion bar front suspension, semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear, recirculating ball steering, telescopically adjustable steering column, and all-round 12 inch drum brakes that were prone to fade. Some cars were fitted with Alfin (ALuminium FINned) brake drums to help overcome the fade.

1951 XK120 racing at Silverstone

1951 XK120 roadster racing at Silverstone has a single aeroscreen mounted behind the removable full-width windscreen

The roadster’s lightweight canvas top and detachable sidescreens stowed out of sight behind the seats, and its barchetta-style doors had no external handles; instead there was an interior pull-cord which was accessible through a flap in the sidescreens when the weather equipment was in place. The windscreen could be removed for aeroscreens to be fitted.

The drophead coupé (DHC) had a padded, lined canvas top, which folded onto the rear deck behind the seats when retracted, and roll-up windows with opening quarter lights. The flat glass two-piece windscreen was set in a steel frame that was integrated with the body and painted the same colour.

Dashboards and door-caps in both the DHC and the closed coupé (FHC) were wood-veneered, whereas the more spartan roadsters were leather-trimmed. All models had removable spats (“fender skirts” in America) covering the rear wheel arches, which enhanced the streamlined look. On cars fitted with optional centre-lock wire wheels (available from 1951), the spats were omitted as they gave insufficient clearance for the chromed, two-eared Rudge-Whitworth knockoff hubs. Chromium plated wire wheels were optional from 1953. When leaving the factory it originally fitted 6.00 × 16 inch cross ply tyres on 16 × 5K solid wheels (Pre–1951). Later cars could also specify 185VR16 Pirelli Cinturato tyres as a radial option.

In addition to wire wheels, upgrades on the Special Equipment, or SE, version (called the M version in the United States) included increased power, stiffer suspension and dual exhaust system.

Performance

The Motor magazine road-tested an XK120 roadster in November 1949. This pre-production car, chassis number 670001, road-registered as HKV 455, was the first prototype built. It was also the 1948 London Motor Show display model, and had been driven by Prince Bira in the 1949 Silverstone Production Car Race. When tested, it had the 8:1 compression ratio, was fitted with an undertray, and ran with hood and sidescreens in place. The magazine reported a top speed of 124.6 mph (200.5 km/h), acceleration from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 10.0 seconds and fuel consumption of 19.8 miles per imperial gallon (14.3 L/100 km; 16.5 mpg-US). The car as tested cost £1263 including taxes.

Racing and rallying

XK120s were active in racing and rallying:

1949

  • First race victory: In the Daily Express-sponsored One-Hour Production Car Race held on 30 August 1949 at Silverstone Circuit, England, Leslie Johnson drove the Jabbeke car to the XK120’s first-ever race victory (despite an early collision with a spinning Jowett Javelin which dropped the Jaguar to fifth). The car, road-registered HKV 500, was converted to right-hand drive for Silverstone. Two other XK120s took part. One, driven by Peter Walker, finished second and the other, driven by Prince Bira, spun out of contention when a tyre punctured.

1950

  • First victory in America: In January 1950 Johnson also scored the model’s first competition success in America, winning the production class in a race at Palm Beach Shores, Florida with the car that had finished second at Silverstone. The Jaguar lost its brakes but finished fourth overall. John Lea, Jaguar’s Experimental Department mechanic who attended the race, reported: “The conditions at Palm Beach were wet, windy and sandy. Water and sand gained entry into the brake drums at the front, and the mixture had the effect of accelerating the wear very considerably. Our car finished with no linings and with the steel shoes bearing on the brake drums.”
  • Pebble Beach Cup: In May, XK120s driven by Phil Hill and Don Parkinson finished first and second in this event at the inaugural Pebble Beach Road Races in 1950.

In 1950 Jaguar allocated six alloy-bodied XK120s to drivers Johnson, Walker, Nick Haines, Clemente Biondetti, Ian Appleyard and Tommy Wisdom.

  • Le Mans: Three of the allocated cars, extensively modified, entered the 1950 Le Mans 24 Hours race. Johnson, who spearheaded this factory-supported assault on the race with co-driver Bert Hadley, never ran lower than seventh place, and held second for two hours, but in the 21st hour had to retire from third place with clutch failure caused by using the gears to slow the car in the absence of brakes. (As a result the clutch was revised to a more robust design for production models.) The Jaguar had been closing the gap to leader Louis Rosier, whose Talbot’s pace was significantly slower, at a rate that would have secured victory. Haines, with co-driver Peter Clark, finished 12th, and Walker’s car, driven by Peter Whitehead and John Marshall, was 15th. The results convinced William Lyons it was worth investing in future success at Le Mans.
  • Mille Miglia: Johnson took fifth place in the Mille Miglia, with John Lea as his riding mechanic, while Biondetti and co-driver Gino Bronzoni finished eighth. Fifth was an outstanding achievement for a production car, with Johnson’s Jaguar beaten only by Fangio‘s works Alfa Romeo and the works Ferraris of Serafini, Bracco and winner Marzotto. It was Jaguar’s best-ever finish in the Mille Miglia; also the best by a British car and driver combination, a feat that only Reg Parnell ever equalled, driving an Aston Martin DB3 in 1953.
  • Silverstone Production Car Race: Five XK120s entered the race, which Peter Walker won from Tony Rolt, with Johnson recovering to eighth after spinning on oil. Jaguar won the team prize.
  • Tourist Trophy: XK120s also achieved a 1–2–3 victory in the TT, held at Dundrod in heavy rain. On the eve of his 21st birthday Stirling Moss drove Tom Wisdom’s car to a brilliant win ahead of Whitehead and Johnson, and Jaguar once again took the team prize.
1950 Jaguar XK120 roadster

This 1950 XK120 roadster won a Coupe des Alpes and a Coupe d’Or

  • Alpine Rally: Ian Appleyard’s XK120, road-registered as NUB 120, won the Alpine Rally with his wife Pat, who was the daughter of Sir William Lyons, navigating. They also won a coveted Coupe des Alpes.

1951

  • Alpine Rally: NUB 120 and the Appleyards repeated their previous year’s success.
  • Tulip Rally: The Appleyards took first place in the Tulip Rally, with Swiss fighter pilot Rolf Habisreutinger’s XK120 finishing second.

1952

  • Alpine Rally: Although the Appleyards’ XK120 did not win its third Alpine, it completed the rally without incurring a single penalty point, winning the first-ever Coupe d’Or (Gold Cup).

1954

  • NASCAR road race: In America, an XK120 FHC was the first imported car to achieve victory in NASCAR, when Al Keller won the first NASCAR road race, held at Linden Airport, New Jersey, on 13 June 1954.

High-speed runs and records

1949

  • 132.596 mph (213.393 km/h) through the flying mile: in May, Jaguar demonstrated an XK120 roadster to the press on the high-speed autoroute between Jabbeke and Aeltre in Belgium. The road was closed for the occasion. The white left-hand drive car, chassis number 670002, was the second XK120 built. Jaguar’s development engineer Walter Hassan was to have driven but fell ill, so Jaguar test-driver Ron “Soapy” Sutton substituted. With hood and sidescreens erected, and the airflow under the car improved by the addition of a full-length aluminium undertray, the Jaguar was timed through the flying mile by the Royal Automobile Club of Belgium at 126.448 mph (203.498 km/h). With hood, sidescreens and windscreen removed, a metal airflow deflector fitted in front of the driver, and a tonneau cover fastened over the passenger side of the cockpit the speed improved to 132.596 mph (213.393 km/h). The Observer’s Book of Automobiles said it was the fastest production car in the world.

1950

  • 107.46 mph (172.94 km/h) for 24 hours (including stops for fuel and tyres): Leslie Johnson sharing his XK120 roadster, road-registered JWK 651, with Stirling Moss at the Autodrome de Montlhéry, a steeply banked oval track near Paris. The first time a production car had averaged over 100 mph (160.93 km/h) for 24 hours. Changing drivers every three hours, the Jaguar covered 2579.16 miles, with a best lap of 126.2 mph (203.10 km/h).

1951

  • 131.83 mi (212.16 km) for one hour: Johnson solo in JWK 651 at Montlhéry. “No mean feat…driving at almost twice today’s maximum (UK) speed limit into a steep turn, assaulted by the G-Force induced by 30 degree banking twice every minute, using Forties technology, leaf spring suspension and narrow crossply tyres…Johnson remarked that the car felt so good it could have gone on for another week, an off-the-cuff comment that sowed the seed for another idea. Flat out for a week…”
1952 Jaguar XK120 fixed-head coupė averaged 100 mph for a week

This 1952 XK120 fixed-head coupė averaged 100 mph for a week

1952

  • 100.31 mph (161.43 km/h) for 7 days and 7 nights, again at Montlhéry: XK120 fixed-head coupé driven by Johnson, Moss, Hadley and Jack Fairman. William Lyons, mindful of the considerable kudos and advertising mileage that had already accrued from Johnson’s exploits, commandeered a brand new XK120 FHC for him: bronze-colored, and fitted with wire wheels, it was Jaguar chief engineer Walter Hassan‘s car, the second right-hand drive coupé made. The car broke a spring on the track’s rough concrete surface when already well into the run. No spare was carried, and regulations stipulated that a replacement from outside would make the car ineligible for any further records beyond those already achieved before the repair. Johnson drove nine hours to save the other drivers from added risk while the speed had to be maintained on the broken spring. When he finally stopped to have it replaced, the car had taken the world and Class C 72-hour records at 105.55 mph (169.87 km/h), world and Class C four-day records at 101.17 mph (162.82 km/h), Class C 10,000-kilometer record at 107.031 mph (172.250 km/h), world and Class C 15,000-kilometer records at 101.95 mph (164.07 km/h), and world and Class C 10,000-mile (16,000 km) records at 100.65 mph (161.98 km/h). After the repair the car went on to complete the full seven days and nights, covering a total of 16,851.73 mi (27,120.23 km) at an average speed of 100.31 mph (161.43 km/h).

Jaguar XK100

A 2-litre four-cylinder version of the twin cam XK engine was to have powered an XK100 variant of the XK120 for the UK market. Details of the model were included in an “Advance Particulars” brochure for the XK  but Jaguar’s managers were dissatisfied with the engine and the project was cancelled prior to production.

Note

  1. Jump up^ The Times, 31 May 1949
    Ostend 30 May: British Car’s Speed Record
    (extracts)
    A Jaguar 3½-litre sports car . . . travelled at a timed speed of 132 mph on the Ostend-Jabbeke motorway today . . . The runs were timed by officials of the Royal Automobile Club of Belgium . . . moreover it was running on normal Belgian pump petrol and at the end of its high speed runs it demonstrated its ability to throttle down to 15 mph in top gear and to accelerate speedily without pinking. Running with the hood up, the car averaged 126.4 mph for a mile in two runs in opposite directions. The fastest mean speed of 132.5 mph was reached with a racing windscreen in place, the best run being made at 133.2 mph. The car also covered a kilometre from a standing start at a speed of 74.1 mph and a mile at 86.4 mph.

Jaguar XK140

Jaguar XK140
1954 XK140 open two-seater or roadster

XK140 open two-seater or roadster 1954
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1954–1957
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style 2-seat roadster
2-seat convertible
2-seat coupé
Layout FR layout
Dimensions
Length 176 in (4,470 mm)
Width 64.5 in (1,638 mm)
Curb weight 3,136–3,248 lb (1,422–1,473 kg)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar XK120
Successor Jaguar XK150

The Jaguar XK140 is a sports car manufactured by Jaguar between 1954 and 1957 as the successor to the XK120. Upgrades included more interior space, improved brakes, rack and pinion steering, increased suspension travel, and telescopic shock absorbers instead of the older lever arm design.

History

The XK140 was introduced in late 1954 and sold as a 1955 model. Exterior changes that distinguished it from the XK120 included more substantial front and rear bumpers with overriders, and flashing turn signals (operated by a switch on the dash) above the front bumper.

Emblem Jaguar XK 140

Boot emblem

The grille remained the same size but became a one-piece cast unit with fewer, and broader, vertical bars. The Jaguar badge was incorporated into the grille surround. A chrome trim strip ran along the centre of the bonnet (hood) and boot (trunk) lid. An emblem on the boot lid contained the words “Winner Le Mans 1951–3″.

Jaguar XK140(cropped)

Roadster rear

1956 Jaguar XK 140

Open two-seater or roadster interior 1956 showing waterproof leather fascia

Jaguar XK140 Drophead coupé interior

Drophead coupé interior

1955 LA2 Jaguar XK 140 DHC rear

Drophead coupé 1955

Jaguar XK140 fixed head coupé

Fixed head coupé

The interior was made more comfortable for taller drivers by moving the engine, firewall and dash forward to give 3 inches (76 mm) more legroom. Two 6-volt batteries, one in each front wing were fitted to the Fixed Head Coupe, but Drop Heads and the Open Two Seater had a single 12-volt battery. This was installed in the front wing on the passenger side (e.g. In the left wing on right hand drive cars and in the right wing on left hand drive).

The XK140 was powered by the Jaguar XK engine with the Special Equipment modifications from the XK120, which raised the specified power by 10 bhp to 190 bhp (142 kW) gross at 5500 rpm, as standard. The C-Type cylinder head, carried over from the XK120 catalogue, and producing 210 bhp (157 kW) gross at 5750 rpm, was optional equipment.

When fitted with the C-type head, 2-inch sand-cast H8 carburettors, heavier torsion bars and twin exhaust pipes, the car was designated XK140 SE in the UK and XK140 MC in North America.

In 1956 the XK140 became the first Jaguar sports car to be offered with automatic transmission. As with the XK120, wire wheels and dual exhausts were options, and most XK140s imported into the United States had wire wheels. Cars with the standard disc wheels had spats (fender skirts) over the rear wheel opening. When leaving the factory it originally fitted either 6.00 × 16 inch crossply tyres or you could specify 185VR16 Pirelli Cinturato CA67 as a radial option on either 16 × 5K½ solid wheels or 16 × 5K (special equipment) wire wheels.

Body styles

The Roadster (designated OTS – Open Two Seater – in America) had a light canvas top that folded out of sight behind the seats. The interior was trimmed in leather and leatherette, including the dash. Like the XK120 Roadster, the XK140 version had removable canvas and plastic side curtains on light alloy barchetta-type doors, and a tonneau cover. The door tops and scuttle panel were cut back by two inches(50mm) compared to the XK120, to allow a more modern positioning of the steering wheel. The angle of the front face of the doors (A-Post) was changed from 45 degrees to 90 degrees, to make access easier.

The Drophead Coupé (DHC) had a bulkier lined canvas top that lowered onto the body behind the seats, a fixed windscreen integral with the body (the Roadster’s screen was removable), wind-up side windows, and a small rear seat. It also had a walnut-veneered dashboard and door cappings.

The Fixed Head Coupé (FHC) shared the DHC’s interior trim and rear seat. The prototype Fixed Head Coupe retained the XK120 Fixed Head roof-profile, with the front wings and doors the same as the Drophead. In production, the roof was lengthened with the screen being placed further forward, shorter front wings, and longer doors. This resulted in more interior space, and more legroom.

Performance

Realistically, a stock XK-140 SE could achieve a top speed of 120–125 mph (193–201 km/h). Road & Track ’​s XK-140 MC test in June 1955 recorded a best two-way average of 120.3 mph (193.6 km/h). Best one-way run was 121.1 mph (194.9 km/h). Sports Cars Illustrated ’​s test of the same model in Aug 1957 had a fastest two-way average of 121 mph (195 km/h). Their best one-way run was 124 mph (200 km/h). Karl Ludvigsen’s test published in Sports Car World (July 1957) had the same results as the SCI test.

Acceleration times from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) were 8.4 seconds, 9.1 seconds and 9.1 seconds respectively. Only the R&T test tried 0–100 mph (160 km/h) which took 26.5 seconds. Standing 1/4 mile (~400 m) times were 16.6 seconds (82 mph (132 km/h) approx) and 16.9 seconds (86 mph (138 km/h)).

Jaguar XK150

Jaguar XK150
1958 Jaguar XK150 Roadster

1958 Jaguar XK150 Roadster
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1957–1961
Assembly Coventry, England
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style 2–3 seater coupé
2–3 seater convertible
2 seater roadster
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine 3442 cc(210CID) I6
3781 cc I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,591 mm (102.0 in)
Length 4,496 mm (177.0 in)
Width 1,580 mm (62.2 in)
Kerb weight 2,968 lb (1,346 kg)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar XK140
Successor Jaguar E-type

The Jaguar XK150 is a sports car produced by Jaguar between 1957 and 1961. It replaced the XK140.

Initially it was available in Fixed Head Coupé (FHC) and Drophead Coupé (DHC) versions. The Roadster (XK150 OTS – Open Two-Seat) was launched in 1958. Minimal rear seats were fitted in the coupés.

History

Although bearing a family resemblance to the XK120 and XK140, the XK150 was radically revised. A one-piece windscreen replaced the split screen, and the wing line no longer dropped so deeply at the doors. The widened bonnet opened down to the wings, and on the Roadster the windscreen frame was moved back 4 inches (102 mm) to make the bonnet longer. The car was available at various times in Red, Pearl Grey, White, Indigo Blue, Claret, Cotswold Blue, Black, Mist Grey, Sherwood Green, Carmen Red, British Racing Green, Cornish Grey, and Imperial Maroon.

The XK140’s walnut dashboard was replaced by one trimmed in leather. On the early Drophead Coupés, the aluminium centre dash panel, which was discontinued after June 1958, had an X pattern engraving similar to the early 3.8 E-type. Thinner doors gave more interior space. On the front parking lights, which were located atop the wings (fenders), a little red light reminded the driver the lights were on.

Suspension and chassis were very similar to the XK140, and steering was by rack and pinion; power steering was not offered. The standard engine, the similar to the XK140, but with an new “B” type cylinder head, was the 3.4 litre DOHC Jaguar straight-6 rated at 180 SAE bhp at 5750 rpm but most cars were fitted with the SE engine whose modified cylinder head (B type) and larger exhaust valves boosted the power to 210 SAE bhp at 5500 rpm. Twin 1.75-inch (44 mm) SU HD6 carburettors were fitted.

While the first XK150s were slower than their predecessors, the deficit was corrected in the spring of 1958 with a 3.4-litre “S” engine whose three 2-inch (51 mm) SU HD8 carburettors and straight-port cylinder head increased power to a claimed 250 SAE bhp.

For 1960, the 3.4 litre engine was bored to 3.8 litres, rating this option at 220 hp (164 kW; 223 PS) in standard tune or 265 hp (198 kW; 269 PS) in “S” form. A 3.8 litre 150S could top 135 mph (217 km/h) and go from 0–60 mph in around 7.0 seconds. Fuel economy was 18mpg.[3] Four-wheel Dunlop 12 in (305 mm) disc brakes appeared for the first time although it was theoretically possible to order a car with drums. When leaving the factory the car originally fitted either 6.00 × 16 inch Dunlop Road Speed tyres as standard, or you could specify 185VR16 Pirelli Cinturato CA67 as a radial option on either 16 × 5K½ solid wheels (basic models) or 16 × 5K wire wheels.

Production ended in October 1960, and totalled 2265 Roadsters, 4445 Fixed Head Coupés and 2672 Drophead Coupés.

Performance

A 250 bhp 3.4 litre XK150S Fixed-Head Coupé with limited slip differential was tested by The Motor in 1959. It had a top speed of 132 mph (212 km/h) and could accelerate from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 7.8 seconds. Fuel consumption of 22.0 miles per imperial gallon (12.8 L/100 km; 18.3 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £2110 including taxes of £623. It was at the time the fastest closed car the magazine had ever subjected to a full road test.

Photographs

Jaguar E-Type

Jaguar E-Type
1963 Jaguar XK-E Roadster
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Also called Jaguar XK-E
Production 1961–752014
Assembly Coventry, England
Designer Malcolm Sayer
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Layout FR layout
Related Jaguar D-Type
Jaguar XJ13
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar XK150
Successor Jaguar XJ-S
Jaguar F-Type

The Jaguar E-Type (a.k.a. Jaguar XK-E) is a British sports car, which was manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of good looks, high performance and competitive pricing established the marque as an icon of 1960s motoring. More than 70,000 E-Types were sold.

In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in a The Daily Telegraph online list of the world’s “100 most beautiful cars” of all time.

In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s.

Overview

The E-Type was initially designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form (FHC or Fixed Head Coupé) and as a two-seater convertible (OTS or Open Two Seater). A “2+2” four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released several years later.

On its release Enzo Ferrari called it “The most beautiful car ever made”.

Later model updates of the E-Type were officially designated “Series 2” and “Series 3”, and over time the earlier cars have come to be referred to as “Series 1” and “Series 1½”.

Of the “Series 1” cars, Jaguar manufactured some limited-edition variants, inspired by motor racing :

  • The “‘Lightweight’ E-Type” which was apparently intended as a sort of follow-up to the D-Type. Jaguar planned to produce 18 units but ultimately only a dozen were reportedly built. Of those, two have been converted to Low-Drag form and two others are known to have been wrecked and deemed to be beyond repair, although one has now been rebuilt. These are exceedingly rare and sought after by collectors.
  • The “Low Drag Coupé” was a one-off technical exercise which was ultimately sold to a Jaguar racing driver. It is presently believed to be part of the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

The New York City Museum of Modern Art recognised the significance of the E-Type’s design in 1996 by adding a blue roadster to its permanent design collection, one of only six automobiles to receive the distinction.

Concept versions

E1A (1957)

After the company’s success at the Le Mans 24 hr through the 1950s, Jaguar’s defunct racing department was given the brief to use D-Type style construction to build a road-going sports car, replacing the XK150.

The first prototype (E1A) featured a monocoque design, Jaguar’s fully independent rear suspension and the well proved “XK” engine. The car was used solely for factory testing and was never formally released to the public. The car was eventually scrapped by the factory.

E2A (1960)

Jaguar’s second E-Type concept was E2A which, unlike the E1A, was constructed from a steel chassis with an aluminium body. This car was completed as a racing car as it was thought by Jaguar at the time it would provide a better testing ground. E2A used a 3-litre version of the XK engine with a Lucas fuel injection system.

After retiring from the Le Mans 24 hr the car was shipped to America to be used for racing by Jaguar privateer Briggs Cunningham. In 1961, the car returned to Jaguar in England to be used as a test vehicle. Ownership of E2A passed to Roger Woodley (Jaguar’s customer competition car manager) who took possession on the basis the car not be used for racing. E2A had been scheduled to be scrapped. Roger’s wife Penny Griffiths owned E2A until 2008 when it was offered for sale at Bonham’s Quail Auction. It eventually sold for US$4,957,000.

Production versions

Series 1 (1961–68)

Series I
Jaguar e-Type series one
Overview
Production March 1961–68
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 3.8 L XK I6
4.2 L XK I6
Transmission 4-speed manual; 3-speed automatic (automatic available 1966-onward, 2+2 model only)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 96.0 in (2,438 mm) (FHC / OTS)
105.0 in (2,667 mm) (2+2)
Length 175.3125 in (4,453 mm) (FHC / OTS)
184.4375 in (4,685 mm) (2+2)
Width 65.25 in (1,657 mm) (all)
Height 48.125 in (1,222 mm) (FHC)
50.125 in (1,273 mm) (2+2)
46.5 in (1,181 mm) (OTS)
Kerb weight 2,900 lb (1,315 kg) (FHC)
2,770 lb (1,256 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2)

The Series 1 was introduced, initially for export only, in March 1961. The domestic market launch came four months later in July 1961. The cars at this time used the triple SU carburetted 3.8 litre six-cylinder Jaguar XK6 engine from the XK150S. Earlier built cars utilised external bonnet latches which required a tool to open and had a flat floor design. These cars are rare and more valuable. After that, the floors were dished to provide more leg room and the twin bonnet latches moved to inside the car. The 3.8-litre engine was increased to 4.2 litres in October 1964.

The 4.2-litre engine produced the same power as the 3.8-litre (265 bhp;198 kW) and same top speed (150 mph;241 km/h), but increased torque from 240 to 283 lb·ft (325 to 384 N·m). Acceleration remained pretty much the same and 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) times were around 7.0 seconds for both engines, but maximum power was now reached at 5,400rpm instead of 5,500rpm on the 3.8-litre. That all meant better throttle response for drivers that did not want to shift down gears.

Autocar road tested a UK spec E-Type 4.2 fixed head coupe in May 1965. The maximum speed was 153 mph (246 km/h), the 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) time was 7.6 seconds and the 14 mile (402 m) from a standing start took 15.1 seconds. They summarised it as “In its 4.2 guise the E-type is a fast car ( the fastest we have ever tested) and offers just about the easiest way to travel quickly by road.”.

Motor magazine road tested a UK spec E-Type 4.2 fixed head coupe in Oct 1964. The maximum speed was 150 mph (241 km/h), the 0-60 mph time was 7 seconds and the 14 mile time was 14.9 seconds.They summarised it as “The new 4.2 supersedes the early 3.8 as the fastest car Motor has tested. The absurd ease which 100mph can be exceeded in a 14 mile never failed to astonish. 3,000 miles of testing confirms that this is still one of the worlds outstanding cars”.

All E-Types featured independent coil spring rear suspension with torsion bar front ends, and four wheel disc brakes, in-board at the rear, all were power-assisted. Jaguar was one of the first vehicle manufacturers to equip cars with disc brakes as standard from the XK150 in 1958. The Series 1 can be recognised by glass-covered headlights (up to 1967), small “mouth” opening at the front, signal lights and tail-lights above bumpers and exhaust tips under the number plate in the rear.

3.8-litre cars have leather-upholstered bucket seats, an aluminium-trimmed centre instrument panel and console (changed to vinyl and leather in 1963), and a Moss four-speed gearbox that lacks synchromesh for first gear (“Moss box”). 4.2-litre cars have more comfortable seats, improved brakes and electrical systems, and an all-synchromesh four-speed gearbox. 4.2-litre cars also have a badge on the boot proclaiming “Jaguar 4.2 Litre E-Type” (3.8 cars have a simple “Jaguar” badge). Optional extras included chrome spoked wheels and a detachable hard top for the OTS. When leaving the factory the car was originally fitted with Dunlop 6.40 × 15 inch RS5 tyres on 15 × 5K wire wheels (with the rear fitting 15 × 5K½ wheels supplied with 6.50 X15 Dunlop Racing R5 tyres in mind of competition). Later Series One cars were fitted with Dunlop 185 – 15 SP41 or 185 VR 15 Pirelli Cinturato as radial ply tyres.[

A 2+2 version of the coupé was added in 1966. The 2+2 offered the option of an automatic transmission. The body is 9 in (229 mm) longer and the roof angles are different. The roadster and the non 2+2 FHC (Fixed Head Coupe) remained as two-seaters.

Less widely known, right at the end of Series 1 production and prior to the transitional “Series 1½” referred to below, a very small number 10 to 20 Series 1 cars were produced, with open headlights in the uk, these series one cars that had their head lights modified by removing the covers and altering the scoops they sit in, the headlights differ in several respects from the “production” Series 1½, the main being they are shorter at 143mm from the production Series 1½ at 160mm . Production dates on these machines vary but in right hand drive form production has been verified as late as March 1968. The low number of these cars produced make them amongst the rarest of all production E Types.

Following the Series 1 there was a transitional series of cars built in 1967–68, unofficially called “Series 1½”, which are externally similar to Series 1 cars. Due to American pressure the new features were open headlights, different switches, and some de-tuning (using two Zenith-Stromberg carburetters instead of the original three SUs) for US models. Some Series 1½ cars also have twin cooling fans and adjustable seat backs. Series 2 features were gradually introduced into the Series 1, creating the unofficial Series 1½ cars, but always with the Series 1 body style. A United States federal safety law affecting 1968 model year cars sold in the US was the reason for the lack of headlight covers and change in switch design in the “Series 1.5” of 1968. An often overlooked change, one that is often “modified back” to the older style, is the wheel knock-off “nut.” US safety law for 1968 models also forbid the winged-spinner knockoff, and any 1968 model year sold in the US should have a hexagonal knockoff nut, to be hammered on and off with the assistance of a special “socket” included with the car from the factory. This hexagonal nut carried on into the later Series 2 and 3.

An open 3.8-litre car, actually the first such production car to be completed, was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1961 and had a top speed of 149.1 mph (240.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) in 7.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 21.3 miles per imperial gallon (13.3 L/100 km; 17.7 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £2,097 including taxes.

The cars submitted for road test by the popular motoring journals of the time (1961)such as The Motor, The Autocar and Autosport magazines were specially prepared by the Jaguar works to give better-than-standard performance figures. This work entailed engine balancing and subtle work such as gas-flowing the cylinder heads and may even have involved fitting larger diameter inlet valves.

Both of the well-known 1961 road test cars: the E-type Coupe Reg. No. 9600 HP and E-type Convertible Reg.No. 77 RW, were fitted with Dunlop Racing Tyres on test, which had a larger rolling diameter and lower drag co-efficient. This goes some way to explaining the 150 mph (240 km/h) maximum speeds that were obtained under ideal test conditions. The maximum safe rev limit for standard 6-cylinder 3.8-litre E-type engines is 5,500 rpm. The later 4.2-Litre units had a red marking on the rev counter from just 5,000 rpm. The maximum safe engine speed is therefore 127 mph (3.31:1 axle) and 137 mph (3.07:1 axle) at the 5,500 rpm limit. Both test cars must have reached or exceeded 6,000 rpm in top gear when on road test in 1961.

Jaguar E-Type S1 4.2 Roadster

Series 1 4.2 Roadster, pictured in London

Production numbers from Robson:

  • 15,490 3.8s
  • 17,320 4.2s
  • 10,930 2+2s

Production numbers:

FHC OTS 2+2 Total
S1 3.8 7,670 7,828 0 15,498
S1 4.2 5,830 6,749 3,616 16,195
S1.5 1,942 2,801 1,983 6,726
TOTAL 38,419

Series 2 (1968–71)

Series II
1969 Jaguar E-Type roadster
Overview
Production 1968–71
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 4.2 L XK I6
Dimensions
Kerb weight 3,018 lb (1,369 kg) (FHC)
2,750 lb (1,247 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2)

The Series 2 introduced a number of design changes, largely due to U.S. design legislation. The most distinctive feature is the absence of the aerodynamic glass headlight covers, which impacted several otherimported cars, like the Citroën DS, as well. Unlike other cars, this retrograde step was applied worldwide for the E-Type, not just to Americans living under the authority of the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration.

Other hallmarks of Series 2 cars are a wrap-around rear bumper, re-positioned and larger front indicators and tail lights below the bumpers, better cooling aided by an enlarged “mouth” and twin electric fans, and uprated brakes.

A combination steering lock and ignition key was fitted to the steering column, which replaced the dash board mounted ignition switch and charismatic push button starter. A new steering column was fitted with a collapsible section in the event of an accident.

New seats were fitted, which purists claim lacked the style of the originals but were certainly more comfortable. These new seats allowed the fitment of head restraints, as required by U.S. law beginning in 1969. The interior and dashboard were also redesigned; rocker switches that met US health and safety regulations were substituted for toggle switches. The dashboard switches also lost their symmetrical layout.

The engine is easily identified visually by the change from smooth polished cam covers to a more industrial “ribbed” appearance. It was de-tuned in the US with twin Strombergs and larger valve clearances, but in the UK retained triple SUs and the much tighter valve clearances. (Late Series 1½ cars also had ribbed cam covers). This detuned engine produced 245 hp (183 kW), a drop of 20hp.

Air conditioning and power steering were available as factory options.

Production according to Robson is 13,490 of all types.

Series 2 production numbers:

FHC OTS 2+2 TOTAL
S2 4,855 8,628 5,326 18,809

Official delivery numbers by market and year are listed in Porter but no summary totals are given.

Series 3 (1971–75)

Series III
1974 Jaguar E-Type
Overview
Production 1971–75
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 5.3 L Jaguar V12 engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 105 in (2,667 mm) (both)
Length 184.4 in (4,684 mm) (2+2)
184.5 in (4,686 mm) (OTS)
Width 66.0 in (1,676 mm) (2+2)
66.1 in (1,679 mm) (OTS)
Height 48.9 in (1,242 mm) (2+2)
48.1 in (1,222 mm) (OTS)
Kerb weight 3,361 lb (1,525 kg) (2+2)
3,380 lb (1,533 kg) (OTS)

A new 5.3 L twelve-cylinder Jaguar V12 engine was introduced, with uprated brakes and standard power steering. The short wheelbase FHC body style was discontinued and the V12 was available only as a convertible and 2+2 coupé. The convertible used the longer-wheelbase 2+2 floorplan. The Series 3 is easily identifiable by the large cross-slatted front grille and flared wheel arches, and a badge on the rear that proclaims it to be a V12. Cars for the US market were fitted with large projecting rubber bumper over-riders (in 1973 these were on front, in 1974 both front and rear) to meet local 5 mph (8 km/h) impact regulations, but those on European models were considerably smaller. US models also have side indicator repeats on the front wings. There were also a very limited number of six-cylinder Series 3 E-Types built. These were featured in the initial sales literature. When leaving the factory the V12 Open Two Seater and V12 2 ± 2 originally fitted Dunlop E70VR − 15 inch tyres on 15 × 6K wire or solid wheels.

Robson lists production at 15,290.

Series 3 production numbers:

FHC OTS 2+2 TOTAL
S3 0 7,990 7,297 15,287
Jaguar E-Type Series 3 2+2

Jaguar E-Type Series 3 2+2

Limited editions

Two limited production E-Type variants were made as test beds, the Low Drag Coupe and Lightweight E-Type, both of which were raced:

Low Drag Coupé (1962)

Shortly after the introduction of the E-Type, Jaguar management wanted to investigate the possibility of building a car more in the spirit of the D-Type racer from which elements of the E-Type’s styling and design were derived. One car was built to test the concept designed as a coupé as its monocoque design could only be made rigid enough for racing by using the “stressed skin” principle. Previous Jaguar racers were built as open-top cars, because they were based on ladder frame designs with independent chassis and bodies. Unlike the steel production E-Types, the LDC used lightweight aluminium. Malcolm Sayer retained the original tub with lighter outer panels riveted and glued to it. The front steel sub frame remained intact, the windshield was given a more pronounced slope, and the rear hatch was welded shut. Rear brake cooling ducts appeared next to the rear windows, and the interior trim was discarded, with only insulation around the transmission tunnel. With the exception of the windscreen, all cockpit glass was perspex. A tuned version of Jaguar’s 3.8-litre engine with a wide-angle cylinder head design tested on the D-Type racers was used. Air management became a problem and, though a higher performing vehicle than its production counterpart, the car was never competitive.

The only test bed car was completed in summer of 1962 but was sold a year later to Jaguar racing driver Sledge hammer Protheroe. Since then it has passed through the hands of several collectors on both sides of the Atlantic and is now believed to reside in the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Lightweight E-Type (1963–64, 2014)

Twelve cars plus two spare bodies were made by Jaguar.

In some ways, this was an evolution of the Low Drag Coupé. It made extensive use of aluminium alloy in the body panels and other components. However, with at least one exception, it remained an open-top car in the spirit of the D-Type to which this car is a more direct successor than the production E-Type which is more of a GT than a sports car. The cars used an aluminium block tuned version of the production 3.8-litre Jaguar engine with 300 bhp (224 kW) output rather than the 265 bhp (198 kW) produced by the “ordinary” version. Factory-built lightweights were homologated by Jaguar with three 45DCO3 Weber carburettors in addition to a Lucas mechanical fuel injection system. Early cars were fitted with a close-ratio version of the four-speed E-type gearbox, with some later cars being fitted with a ZF 5-speed gearbox.

The cars were entered in various races but, unlike the C-Type and D-Type racing cars, they did not win at Le Mans or Sebring but were reasonably successful in private hands and in smaller races.

One Lightweight was modified into a Low-Drag Coupé (the Lindner/Nocker car), by Malcolm Sayer.

1963 Jaguar E-type Lightweight Low Drag Coupe

The Klat designed 1963 Jaguar E-type Lightweight Low Drag Coupe

Another Lightweight was modified into a unique Low-Drag design (the Lumsden/Sargent car), by Dr Samir Klat of Imperial College. Along with the factory LDC, this lightweight is now believed to reside in the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Many were fitted with more powerful engines as developments occurred.

On 14 May 2014, Jaguar’s Heritage Business announced it will be building the six ‘remaining’ Lightweights. The original run of Lightweights was meant to be 18 vehicles; however only 12 were built. The new cars, using the un-used chassis codes, will be hand-built to exactly the same specification as the originals. Availability will be prioritised for established collectors of Jaguars, with a focus on those who have an interest in historic race cars.

Motorsport

Jaguar at Goodwood Hill

Jaguar at Goodwood Hill

Bob Jane won the 1963 Australian GT Championship at the wheel of a “lightweight” E-Type.

The Jaguar E-Type was very successful in SCCA Production sports car racing with Group44 and Bob Tullius taking the B-Production championship with a Series-3 V12 racer in 1975.[29] A few years later, Gran-Turismo Jaguar from Cleveland Ohio campaigned a 4.2-litre six-cylinder FHC racer in SCCA production series, and in 1980 won the National Championship in the SCCA C-Production Class, defeating a fully funded factory Nissan Z-car team with Paul Newman.

Jaguar XJS

Jaguar XJ-S
Jaguar XJS 3,6
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1975–1996
Assembly Coventry, England
Body and chassis
Class Grand tourer
Layout FR layout
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar E-Type
Successor Jaguar XK8
XJ-S (Pre H.E.)
1978 Jaguar XJ-S
Overview
Production 1975–1980
14,800 built
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupé
Powertrain
Engine 5.3 L Jaguar V12
Dimensions
Wheelbase 102 in (2,591 mm)
Length 191.72 in (4,870 mm)
Width 70.6 in (1,793 mm)
Height 50 in (1,300 mm)

The Jaguar XJ-S (later the Jaguar XJS), a luxury grand tourer, was produced by the British manufacturer Jaguar from 1975 to 1996. The XJ-S replaced the E-Type (also known as the XK-E) in September 1975, and was based on the XJ saloon. It had been developed as the XK-F, though it was very different in character from its predecessor. Although it never had quite the same sporting image, the XJ-S was a competent grand tourer, and more aerodynamic than the E-Type. The last XJS was produced on 4 April 1996, by then 115,413 had been produced during a 21-year production life. The model was replaced by the XK8.

1975

The first XJ-S appeared in 1975 as a 1976 model. The development of the car had begun in the late 1960s as project XJ27, with an initial shape set by Malcolm Sayer, but after his death in 1970 it was completed by the in-house Jaguar design team, headed by Doug Thorpe. Power came from the Jaguar V12 petrol engine with a choice of a manual or automatic transmission, but the manual was soon dropped as they were left over from V12 E Type production. V12 automobiles were unusual at the time, with notable others coming from Italian luxury sports car makers Lamborghini and Ferrari. The specifications of the XJ-S compared well with both Italian cars; it was able to accelerate to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 7.6 seconds (automatic) and had a top speed of 143 mph (230 km/h).[4] The first series of XJ-S cars had a Borg-Warner Model 12 transmission with a cast-iron case and a bolt-on bell-housing. In 1977 GM Turbo-Hydramatic 400 transmissions were fitted.[5] The TH400 transmission was an all-aluminium alloy case with an integrated non-detachable bell-housing. When leaving the factory the XJ-S originally fitted Dunlop SP Super E205/70VR tyres on 15 × 6K alloy wheels, though British police forces would upgrade from this factory standard and fit a higher performing 205/70VR15 Michelin XWX to the Jaguars in their fleet.

Jaguar’s timing was not good; the car was launched in the wake of a fuel crisis, and the market for a 5.3-litre V12 grand tourer was very small. The styling was also the subject of criticism, including the buttresses behind the windows. German authorities feared these would restrict rearward vision, and refused to give the model (along with Lancia‘s similarly adorned Montecarlo model) type approval: it was for a time necessary instead for German XJS buyers to obtain type approval for each individual car when registering it. Such fears were ill founded, since in reality the rear visibility was very reasonable, with only the frontmost top edges of the buttresses being visible, when looking rearward.

Jaguar did seize promotional opportunities with the television series The New Avengers and Return of the Saint. The New Avengers featured Mike Gambit (Gareth Hunt) who drove an XJ-S. Return of the Saint saw Simon Templar (played by Ian Ogilvy) driving an early XJ-S with the number plate “ST 1”. Miniature versions were made by Corgi and proved popular. A decade and a half before, Jaguar had turned down the producers of the earlier Saint series when approached about the E-type; the producers had instead used a Volvo P1800.

Responding to criticisms that the XJ-S was not a worthy E-type successor, Pininfarina revealed a sporty show car in 1978 based on XJ-S mechanicals and called Jaguar XJSpider. The car never went into production.

1980s

XJ-S H.E., 3.6, XJ-SC
1981 Jaguar XJS
Overview
Production (All engines, including H.E. and 3.6)
1980–1990
73,207 built
Coupé: 55,822
Targa / convertible: 5,013
Full convertible: 12,372
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupé
2-door targa convertible (1983-88, V12 from 1985)
2-door full convertible (from 1988)
Powertrain
Engine 3.6 L AJ6 I6
5.3 L HE V12
Transmission 5-speed manual (3.6 only)
3/4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 102.0 in (2,591 mm)
Length 191.7 in (4,869 mm)
Width 70.6 in (1,793 mm)
Height 47.8 in (1,214 mm)

From July 1980, the XJ-S became the XJS-HE received the new High-Efficiency engine for much better economy which included the Fire Ball combustion chamber designed by Swiss Engineer Michael May, as a by-product, power was increased to 220 kW (295 hp) or 196 kW (263 hp) in North America. At the same time, the XJS-HE received changes to its exterior and interior (Body coloured trunk plinth in place of the standard previous black, new five-spoke (Starfish) alloy wheels, chrome inserts on the upper part of the bumpers, Burled Elm wood inserts on dashboard and door cappings). In 1982, the new V12 XJS-HE won first and second at the RAC Tourist Trophy race at Silverstone.

Six-cylinder version and a convertible

1986 Jaguar XJ-SC targa convertible (US spec, with twin headlights)

1986 Jaguar XJ-SC targa convertible (US spec, with twin headlights)

In 1983, a new 3.6-litre engine débuted – the Jaguar AJ6 straight-six (I6) engine – as well as a new cabriolet version, the XJ-SC. In the XJ-SC, the coupé’s rather small rear seats were eliminated making it only a 2-seat car. The XJ-SC was not a full convertible but had a non-removable centre targa-type structure and fixed cant rails above the doors. The rear quarter windows remained as well. The six-cylinder cars can be identified by a slightly raised “power bulge” — the longitudinal centre section of the bonnet.

Between 1983 and 1987 the six-cylinder-engined cars were only available with a five-speed manual transmission (Getrag 265), with a four-speed automatic (ZF 4HP22) offered from 1987 onwards (along with improved fuel injection as used on the XJ40). The earlier, manual models were not imported by Jaguar into the United States, which had to wait until the facelift manual 4-litre XJS coupé and convertible were available.

A V12 XJ-SC emerged in 1985.

Full convertible

1989 Jaguar XJ-S (pre-facelift) full convertible

1989 (pre-facelift) full convertible

The two-seat XJ-SC targa-type model, never a great success in the market place, was replaced with a two-seat full convertible in 1988 which proved to be a great hit.

1988 Jaguar pre-facelift XJ-S coupé note new 'crosslace' road wheels

1988 pre-facelift XJ-S coupé; note new ‘crosslace’ road wheels

Coach Builders limited(1983–1988)

Coach Builders limited converted XJS from coupe. It has 4 seats compared to factory convertible. Number produced is unknown.

Hess & Eisenhardt convertible

From 1986 a full convertible version was available through some dealers, modified by Hess & Eisenhardt in the USA. The Hess & Eisenhardt coachbuilding firm was located in Ohio, USA, and built about 893 of these cars under contract from Jaguar before the official Jaguar-built XJS full convertible appeared in 1988.

The Hess & Eisenhardt convertible differed from the later Jaguar convertible XJS as its unpadded top folded down deeper into the body structure of the car resulting in a cleaner rear profile when the roof was lowered. To accommodate this design element, the Hess & Eisenhardt convertibles have two separate fuel tanks, positioned to allow for the roof to fully retract. The process of converting the stock Jaguar XJS coupé into the H&E Convertible included the post-production removal of the roof, cutting the body in several sections, the addition of steel reinforcements behind the driver’s seat, and 20 lb (9.1 kg) weights placed just behind the headlights to eliminate harmonic resonance caused by the significant modifications to the car. H&E XJS convertibles are easily identified by the lower folding top, as well as two small badges located just behind the front wheels. The later Jaguar full convertible had a heavier padded top that did not fold into as small a bundle when in the lowered position, but retained nearly all of the original components of the coupé.

The number of H&E Jaguar XJS produced is unknown, partly because a fire at the Hess & Eisenhardt factory destroyed most of the records pertaining to the Jaguar XJS conversions.

XJR-S

From 1988, a special XJR-S version of the V12 5.3-litre car was produced by JaguarSport, a separate company owned 50:50 by Jaguar and TWR. This car had a distinctive body kit, special alloy wheels and suspension and handling improvements. the first 100 of these cars were termed “Celebration Le Mans” to commemorate Jaguar’s 1988 win at Le Mans. Between 1988 and 1989 a total of 350 XJR-S cars were produced with the 5.3-litre engine. After September 1989 the change was made to a special 6.0-litre engine with a Zytec engine management system (234 kW (314 hp), later 245 kW (329 hp)). This was different from the standard 6.0-litre engine used in the late XJS models. The XJR-S stayed in the line until 1993; a total of 1,130 cars were built.

Daimler

Daimler XJS prototype

Daimler XJS prototype

Jaguar considered a luxury Daimler version tentatively called Daimler-S, without the buttresses. One prototype was made in 1986, but the vehicle was not put into production. Paul Banham did produce some custom notch back coupés without the buttresses, larger rear side windows, and a narrow C-pillar. In the mid-nineties, Banham also made a re-worked version called the XJSS based on the XJS.

1990–1996

XJS (Facelift)
1995 Jaguar XJS photographed in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada at the 2010 Ottawa British Auto Show.
Overview
Also called Jaguar XJS Classic
Production 1990–1996
27,406 built
Coupé: 8,832
Convertible: 18,574
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupé
2-door 2-seat convertible
2-door 2+2 convertible
Powertrain
Engine 4.0 L AJ6 I6
4.0 L AJ16 I6
5.3 L HE V12
6.0 L HE V12
Transmission 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 102.0 in (2,591 mm)
Length 191.2 in (4,856 mm)
Width 1992—1993: 70.6 in (1,793 mm)
1994—1996: 74.1 in (1,882 mm)
Height 48.7 in (1,237 mm)

The car was re-engineered in June 1990 and renamed XJS. The rear side windows appeared enlarged (although the body glass aperture was actually the same size as the earlier car), and the buttresses stayed (although their appearance was minimised by the new side window treatment), as designer Geoff Lawson argued that they were part of the car’s character. The car received a new 4.0-litre version of the AJ6. In 1992, a 4.0-litre convertible was added to the range. The V12’s capacity was enlarged to 6.0 litres in May 1992 (227 kW (304 hp)). At the same time the car benefited from a revision to the rear brakes, they were now fitted with outboard rear disc brakes, instead of the more complicated inboard items on previous models. With the introduction of the 6.0-litre V12, the transmission was also updated to a GM 4L80E with a fourth-gear overdrive, whilst the automatic 4.0-litre models continued with the electronic ZF4HP24E transmission. A 2+2 convertible was also introduced, as was a customised insignia line. At the same time the car received more aerodynamic front and rear bumpers.

1996 Jaguar Facelift (post-1991) XJS convertible note revised rear lights

Facelift (post-1991) XJS convertible; note revised rear lights

In April 1994, substantial revisions were made to the 4.0-litre AJ6 engine which became the 4.0-litre AJ16 with coil-on-plug ignition. In 1995, the final specification changes were made and the car was referred to as the Celebration model to celebrate the 60th year of the Jaguar company. Celebration cars feature diamond turned wheels, Jaguar embossed seats and a wooden steering wheel.

The XJS was discontinued in 1996, after 21 years in production. It was replaced by the XK8.

1996 Jaguar Facelift (post-1991) XJS in profile view note revised side windows

Facelift (post-1991) XJS in profile view; note revised side windows

Motorsport

For 1977, the “Group44” racing team had a very successful season in Trans Am with a race car based on the actual production XJ-S chassis and running gear. The team won the series’ 1977 drivers’ championship cup for Bob Tullius but missed winning the manufacturer’s title by two points (only one Jaguar was competing in the Trans-Am series compared to many more Porsche entrants). In 1978, a purpose-built tube-frame “silhouette” style XJS race car was constructed which greatly reduced the weight compared to the full production chassis car campaigned in 1977. This silhouette car had only the production car’s roof panel as the sole piece of factory XJS sheetmetal on the car. Group 44 succeeded in again capturing the driver’s championship for Bob Tullius and also captured the manufacturer’s title as well, by entering Brian Fuerstenau driving the 1977 car at some venues to gain additional manufacturer’s points for Jaguar. The silhouette car survived and has surfaced recently in the SVRA historic sports race series. The 1977 factory chassis race car is believed to still be in the hands of Group 44’s Bob Tullius.

In April 1979 a Jaguar XJS driven by Dave Heinz and Dave Yarborough was entered into Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash, widely known simply as the Cannonball Run. They completed the 2,863 miles (4,608 km) from New York to Los Angeles in a record time of 32 hours and 51 minutes, a record that stood for 4 years, until it was beaten by David Diem and Doug Turner in a Ferrari 308. Diem and Turner covered the same distance in 32 hours and 7 minutes on the US Express, an unofficial successor to the Cannonball Run.

In 1982 Tom Walkinshaw‘s TWR had entered a team of the V12 XJS’ into the European Touring Car Championship, the cars built to the FIA‘s Group A touring car rules. The XJS won its first race that season when Walkinshaw and Chuck Nicholson won the XIV Grand Prix Brno, the Jags simply proving too fast for their rival BMW and Alfa Romeo opposition with Walkinshaw qualifying 5.37 seconds faster than anyone else on the 10.925 km (6.789 mi) Brno Circuit. After more victories for the teams Jaguars in 1983, the TWR Jaguars were the cars to beat in the ETCC, with Walkinshaw claiming the 1984 ETCC Drivers’ Championship. During the championship season the TWR Jaguar team also won the prestigious Spa 24 Hours race with an XJS driven by Walkinshaw, Hans Heyer and Win Percy, proving not only the speed of the cars, but the reliability of the 5.3 litre V12 engine. By 1984 the TWR Jaguars had a new challenger in the ETCC. The turbocharged Volvo 240T arrived on the scene and had the speed to match the V12’s, though with turbocharging new to touring car racing it took a number of races for reliability to match the cars speed.

By 1985 the XJS’ had been retired and TWR was committed to running the 3.5L V8 Rover Vitesse in the ETCC. Walkinshaw had been to the 1984 James Hardie 1000 at the Mount Panorama Circuit in Bathurst, Australia, to co-drive a locally developed Australian Group C XJS with Aussie John Goss. Walkinshaw qualified the V12 Jag in provisional 7th place with a 2:16.09 lap of the 6.172 km (3.835 mi) circuit, recording 290 km/h (180 mph) on the 2 km long Conrod Straight, with the promise of more to come in the “Hardies Heroes” Top 10 runoff through the use of special tyres. However, the tyres failed to arrive at the circuit in time and Walkinshaw eventually qualified 10th having to use front wheels on the car as no suitable rubber was available. Clutch failure saw the car fail to get off the start line and a helpless Walkinshaw was hit from behind by a Chevrolet Camaro Z28, causing the cars instant retirement and the races first ever restart after the track was blocked at the start/finish line.

The Scot was determined to come back in 1985 and win the race in the first season of Group A in Australia and in 1985 the three TWR XJS Jaguars were brought out of retirement and shipped down under for the James-Hardie 1000. The cars were clearly the class of the field, finishing Hardies Heroes in 1st (Walkinshaw/Percy in #8), 2nd (Jeff Allam/Ron Dickson in #9) and 6th (Goss/Armin Hahne in #10). This time the big Cats got off the start line and Walkinshaw and Percy dominated most of the race, only losing the lead to the Goss/Hahne car during pit stops (the Allam/Dickson car went out on lap 3 with engine failure). The drivers of the #10 car, who had to battle a broken seat which was held loosely in place by straps and cable ties for well over 100 laps, sat in second most of the way until a split oil line late in the race cost the Walkinshaw/Percy car 3 laps and any chance of victory. 1974 Bathurst 1000 winner Goss won his second “Great Race” while Hahne, who had won the Group A category in the 1984 race driving a TWR Rover, maintained his 100% record with his only Bathurst 1000 win. After having the oil line replaced, Walkinshaw resumed in 4th place but easily caught and passed the JPS Team BMW 635 CSi of 1985 Australian Touring Car Champion Jim Richards in the last laps to make it a Jaguar 1-3, with Walkinshaw following Goss across the finish line in a formation finish.

The TWR XJS Jaguars were next seen late in 1986 at the Fuji 500 in Japan in what was meant to be its Group A swansong as it ran out of FIA homologation in at the end of the year. Against old foes in the BMW 635 CSi and Volvo 240T, as well as newer Group A cars such as the Australian Holden VK Commodore SS Group A V8 and the turbocharged Nissan Skyline RS DR30, Walkinshaw qualified the XJS on pole, proving how competitive the car could still be in Touring car racing (the cars had been entered in the 1986 Bathurst 1000 and had undergone testing and development which gave a reported extra 50 bhp, though ultimately did not race due to a lack of money). The race saw the Walkinshaw/Percy car lead the race until retiring on lap 6 with no oil pressure while the Hahne/Denny Hulme/Walkinshaw car only lasted until half distance before retiring with a broken differential.

Despite not being eligible for Group A racing in 1987, TWR ran their two Jaguars in the 1987 (January) Nissan Mobil 500 in Wellington, New Zealand under special invitation from the race promoters. Neither car finished with Walkinshaw/Percy suffering diff failure and the Hahne/Hulme car cutting a tyre resulting in a race ending crash after fighting their way into the lead. The cars then raced at Pukekohe, with Percy/Hahne giving the big cat a second place finish in its final race behind the VK Commodore of Australian drivers Larry Perkins and David Parsons.

Aussie privateer Garry Willmington ran an XJS in the 1985 and 1986 Australian Touring Car Championships, and also the late season endurance races. While he reportedly had obtained more power from the V12 than TWR, Willmington didn’t have TWR’s resources to develop either the car or engine reliability and results were not forthcoming, though on occasions where the track had a long enough straight (such as Sandown Raceway in Melbourne or the Adelaide International Raceway), the Willmington Jag was usually the fastest car in a straight line. John Goss also ran his own privately entered XJS in the 1986 James Hardie 1000 after Jaguar-Rover Australia pulled its backing of the proposed TWR return to Bathurst due to a severe downturn in the Australian car market forced him to defend his crown alone, though he did receive some technical assistance from TWR. Electrical problems in the race Goss finish 24th with veteran Australian driver Bob Muir.

1985 Jaguar XJS TWR

1985 XJS TWR

Today the XJS continues to be extensively campaigned in club level motorsport both in the United Kingdom and overseas. Best known of the race series is probably the Jaguar Enthusiasts’ Club XJS championship, currently in association with Toyo Tires. Their championship has now been running for over a decade, offering an affordable entry into club motorsport in the UK, and continuing to attract large grids of this unlikely racing car. Cars compete in various states of modification, from barely modified road cars through to full race-specification cars built in homage to the great TWR specials.

Jaguar XJ220

Jaguar XJ220
Jaguar XJ220 Front JagMENA
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1992–94
(275 produced)
Assembly JaguarSport
Jaguar/TWR joint venture
Bloxham, Oxfordshire
Designer Jim Randle
Keith Helfet
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style 2-door coupé
Layout RMR layout
Powertrain
Engine 3.5 L twin-turbocharged V6
Transmission 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,640 mm (103.9 in)
Length 4,930 mm (194.1 in)
Width 2,220 mm (87.4 in)
including wing mirrors
Height 1,150 mm (45.3 in)
Kerb weight 1,470 kg (3,240.8 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar XJR-15
Successor Jaguar C-X75

The Jaguar XJ220 is a two-seater supercar produced by British luxury car manufacturer Jaguar from 1992 until 1994, in collaboration with the specialist automotive and race engineering company Tom Walkinshaw Racing. The XJ220 held the record for the fastest production car throughout 1992 after recording a top speed of 213.478 mph (343.560 km/h), before being superseded by the McLaren F1 in 1993 when it recorded a top speed of 231 mph (372 km/h). The Jaguar held the Nürburgring production car lap record between 1992 and 2000 with a time of 7:46.36.

The XJ220 was developed from a V12-engined 4-wheel drive concept car designed by an informal group of Jaguar employees working in their spare time. The group wished to create a modern version of the successful Jaguar 24 Hours of Le Mans racing cars of the 1950s and ’60s that could be entered into FIA Group B competitions. The XJ220 made use of engineering work undertaken for Jaguar’s then current racing car family.

The initial XJ220 concept car was unveiled to the public at the 1988 British International Motor Show, held in Birmingham, England. Its positive reception prompted Jaguar to put the car into production; some 1500 deposits of £50,000 each were taken, and deliveries were planned for 1992.

Engineering requirements resulted in significant changes to the specification of the XJ220, most notably replacement of the Jaguar V12 engine by a turbocharged V6 engine. The changes to the specification and a collapse in the price of collectible cars brought about by the early 1990s recession resulted in many buyers choosing not to exercise their purchase options. A total of just 275 cars were produced by the time production ended, each with a retail price of £470,000 in 1992.

Conception

Jaguar were approached by racing team owner Tom Walkinshaw and encouraged to enter the Jaguar XJS into the 1981 European Touring Car Championship; they succeeded in winning the competition in 1984. Jaguar had started to provide factory support to racing team Group 44 Racing, who were using the Jaguar-engined XJR-5 in the IMSA GT Championship, supplying V12 engines from 1983 onwards and supporting a Le Mans entry in 1984. Tom Walkinshaw and Jaguar agreed to entering the FIA Group C World Sportscar Championship and developed the XJR-6, which was powered by the Jaguar V12 engine; the car was launched during the 1985 season.

TWR took over the IMSA GT Championship operation in 1988 and one model – Jaguar XJR-9 – was launched to compete in both series. The XJR-9, which retained the Jaguar V12 engine, went on to win the 1988 24 Hours of Le Mans and World Sportscar Championship in the same year. The poor fuel consumption of the Jaguar V12 combined with new rules restricting refueling during races forced the replacement of the V12 engine in the XJR-9s successors, the XJR-10 and XJR-11. The normally-aspirated Austin Rover V64V engine, designed for the MG Metro 6R4 had recently been made redundant thanks to the Group B rally ban in 1987, and the design rights were for sale. The compact, lightweight and fuel efficient nature of the small-displacement, turbocharged engine was investigated by TWR, who considered it an ideal basis for a new engine to power the XJR-10 and purchased the design rights from Austin Rover Group.

Jaguar and their Director of Engineering, Jim Randle, felt these racing cars were too far removed from the product available to the general public, especially with the rule changes that mandated the replacement of the Jaguar V12 engine in the forthcoming XJR-10 and XJR-11 racing cars. Therefore a project was initiated to design and build a car capable of winning Le Mans “in house”, just as the Jaguar C-Type and D-Type had done. The groundwork for the project was undertaken by Randle over Christmas 1987, when he produced a 1:4 scale cardboard model of a potential Group B racing car.

The cardboard model was taken into the Jaguar styling studio and two mock-ups were produced. One was said to be reminiscent of the Porsche 956, the other took elements of the then current Jaguar XJ41 project and Malcolm Sayer‘s work on the stillborn Jaguar XJ13 racing car. The second design, by Keith Helfet, was chosen as it was “more obviously Jaguar in its look”.

The project still had no official support, leaving Randle no option but to put together a team of volunteers to work evenings and weekends in their own time. The team came to be known as “The Saturday Club”, and consisted of twelve volunteers. To justify the resources consumed by the project, the XJ220 needed to provide meaningful data to the engineers on handling, aerodynamics – particularly at high speeds – and aluminium structures. These requirements, together with FIA racing regulations and various government regulations governing car design and safety influenced the overall design and engineering direction of the car.

Concept car

Jaguar XJ220 concept car with V12 engine at the Heritage Motor Centre, Gaydon

Jaguar XJ220 concept car with V12 engine at the Heritage Motor Centre, Gaydon

The FIA Group B regulations steered the concept towards a mid-engine, four-wheel drive layout, with a Jaguar V12 engine as the power source. The concept car was designed and built at very little cost to Jaguar, as Randle called in favours from component suppliers and engineering companies he and Jaguar had worked with in the past. In return he offered public recognition for their assistance and dangled the possibility of future contracts from Jaguar.

The name XJ220 was chosen as a continuation of the naming of the Jaguar XK120, which referred to the top speed of the model in miles per hour. The concept car had a targeted top speed of 220 mph (350 km/h) so became the XJ220. The XK120, like the XJ220, was an aluminium-bodied sports car, and when launched was the fastest production car in the world.

Engine and transmission

Jaguar and engine designer Walter Hassan had previously created a 48-valve variant of their V12 engine specifically for motorsport use. It featured a double overhead camshaft layout with four valves per cylinder, compared with the single overhead camshaft and two valves per cylinder of the production engine, which was used in the Jaguar XJ and Jaguar XJS models at the time.

TWR and Cosworth had manufactured a number of these racing V12 engines during the 1980s and they had been raced competitively, with a 7-litre version of this engine featuring in the Le Mans winning Silk Cut Jaguar XJR-9. Five of these engines still existed, all of which were fitted with dry sump lubrication. These engines were chosen and considered to be especially useful as the dry sump would lower the vehicle’s centre of gravity. The displacement of the V12 was set at 6.2 litres (6222 cc) for the XJ220. The engine fitted to the XJ220 concept had titanium connecting rods.

Jaguar had little experience with four-wheel drive systems at the time, having previously only produced rear-wheel drive cars. Randle approached Tony Rolt‘s company, FF Developments to design the transmission and four-wheel drive system for the XJ220, with Rolt’s son Stuart running the project. Tony Rolt was the Technical Director of Ferguson Research, where he was heavily involved in the design of the four-wheel drive system used in the Jensen FF, the first sports car to be fitted with such a transmission. Tony Rolt also had a long involvement with Jaguar, winning the 1953 24 Hours of Le Mans with the factory works team driving the Jaguar C-Type.

The mid-engine complicated the design of the four-wheel drive system, and an innovative solution was needed to get drive from the rear of the engine to the front wheels. The chosen design took the front-wheel drive from the central differential on the rear transaxleand sent it through the V in the centre of the engine using a quill drive, before joining an inverted differential. The clutch was a twin-plate unit designed by AP Racing.

Bodywork and interior

The design brief for the exterior restricted the use of aerodynamic aids, and aimed for a stylish yet functional body similar to the Jaguar D-Type. Drag and lift were limited at the envisioned ground clearance for road use, but the design allowed for additional downforce when the car was set up for racing; the body produced around 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) of downforce at 200 mph (320 km/h). The design was also intended to have a variable rear wing that folded into the bodywork at lower speeds. Aerodynamic work was undertaken at the Motor Industry Research Association wind tunnel using a 1:4 scale model, as the project was unable to budget for a full-scale mock-up.

The bodywork for the concept car displayed in 1988 was hand built from aluminium by Park Sheet Metal, a specialist automotive engineering company that manufactures concept cars and low-volume, niche models for various manufacturers, including Bentley. QCR Coatings undertook final painting of the bodyshell in silver. The concept also featured electrically operated scissor doors and a transparent engine cover to show off the V12 engine.

The concept car had a Connolly Leather-trimmed interior produced by Callow & Maddox, and was fitted with front and rear heated windscreens, electric windows, air conditioning, heated electrically adjustable seats with an Alpine Electronics CD player. The dashboard was supplied by Veglia.

Chassis

The chassis was manufactured from aluminium using Alcan‘s bonded aluminium structure vehicle technology (ASVT), and had a wheelbase of 2845 mm. The design for the chassis featured rear wheel steering and packaged the fuel tank behind the centre bulkhead. Suspension design largely focused on road use, but a good compromise for racing use was achieved and the suspension height was adjustable. The concept car was fitted with a four-channel anti-lock braking system.

The concept car was larger than the production model at 5,140 mm (202 in) in length and 2,000 mm (79 in) wide. It weighed 1,560 kg (3,440 lb).

Launch

The concept car was completed in the early hours of 18 October 1988, the day it was due to be unveiled at the British International Motor Show, being held at the National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham. The vehicle was completed at 03:00 GMT, moved to Jaguar’s stand at 06:00 GMT and unveiled at 11:00 GMT.

Jaguar’s marketing department had allocated space on their stand at the motor show for the XJ220, but had not seen the vehicle until its arrival. Jaguar chairman John Egan and Roger Putnam, who was in charge of Jaguar’s racing activities, were shown the vehicle the week before the motor show and signed off on the concept, allowing its unveiling. The car received an overwhelmingly positive reception by public and press, and a number of wealthy Jaguar enthusiasts handed over blank cheques to secure a purchase option should the XJ220 concept go into production. Ferrari displayed their F40 model at the same event; an estimated 90,000 additional visitors came to see the Jaguar and Ferrari cars.

The XJ220 was not initially intended to be a production car, but, following the reception of the concept and financial interest from serious buyers, a feasibility study was carried out by teams from TWR and Jaguar. Its conclusion was that such a car would be technically feasible (subject to engineering changes), and that it would be financially viable. The announcement of a limited production run of 220 to 350 cars came on 20 December 1989. The list price on 1 January 1990 was £290,000 exclusive of value added tax, options and delivery charges, but by 1992 that had increased considerably owing to indexation of contracts. The offer was four times oversubscribed, and deposits of £50,000 exclusive of Value Added Tax (VAT) were taken from around 1400 customers; first deliveries were planned for mid-1992.

Production version

The XJ220 used a road version of the XJR10 and 11 V6 turbo racing engine.

The XJ220 used a road version of the XJR10 and 11 V6 turbo racing engine.

Jaguar were unable to develop the XJ220 in house as their engineering resources were committed to working on the Jaguar XJ and Jaguar XJS models; the re-engineered and facelifted XJS was launched in May 1991.

Jaguar and TWR had an existing joint venture, JaguarSport Ltd, formed in 1987 to produce racing cars. Jaguar’s board made the decision that subject to contractual agreement, TWR and JaguarSport would be responsible for the XJ220. JaguarSport formed a new company, Project XJ220 Ltd, specifically to develop and build the XJ220.

The team that should determine the necessary engineering work and assess the car’s financial viability was put in place during mid-1989, working from the TWR workshops. Mike Moreton headed the team, joining TWR to run the XJ220 project. Moreton came from Ford Motorsports where he led the team responsible for the Ford Sierra RS500 Cosworth, and was a project manager for the Ford RS200 Group B rally car program. Richard Owen was appointed chief designer, and the remainder of the team was made up of Jaguar and TWR staff, including Pete Dodd, the only member of the group of twelve responsible for the XJ220 concept. The exterior and interior designers who had worked on the XJ220 prototype, Keith Helfet and Nick Hull, rejoined the project when it became clear that more design work would be needed.

Development

The development team looked at the two principal competitors, the Ferrari F40 and the Porsche 959. These were powered by compact, lightweight engines; both the Ferrari and the Porsche used forced induction to obtain high power outputs from small-displacement engines. Ferrari used a 2.9-litre twin turbo V8 that produced 478 PS (352 kW; 471 hp) whilst Porsche used a 2.9-litre twin-turbo flat six producing 450 PS (330 kW; 440 hp), resulting in cars that were significantly lighter and smaller than the XJ220 concept: the Ferrari was lighter by 600 kg and 710 mm shorter, whilst the Porsche was 250 kg lighter and 870 mm shorter. The Porsche’s specifications were closer to the Jaguar’s, with four-wheel drive and a luxurious interior. By comparison the rear-wheel driven Ferrari had a very basic interior, with no carpets, door handles or a stereo.

Engine

The production XJ220's V6 engine is visible through the rear window

The production XJ220’s V6 engine is visible through the rear window

The production XJ220 used a 3.5-litre (3498 cc) twin turbocharged engine, which was given the designation Jaguar/TWR JV6. This engine, which replaced the Jaguar V12 engine featured in the concept car, was a heavily redesigned and significantly altered version of the Austin Rover V64V V6 engine. The decision to change the engine was based on engine weight and dimensions, as well as to environmental emission considerations. Use of the shorter V6 engine design allowed the wheelbase of the XJ220 to be shortened and its weight to be reduced; the V12 engine was definitively ruled out when it was determined it would have difficulty in meeting emissions legislation whilst producing the required power and torque.

TWR purchased the rights to the V64V engine from Austin Rover in 1989 and developed it into their Jaguar/TWR JV6 engine. TWR redesigned all parts of the engine, increasing the displacement to 3.5 litres, and adding two Garrett TO3 turbochargers. The JV6 engine would first be used in the JaguarSport XJR-10 and XJR-11 racing cars; its compact dimensions and low weight made it an ideal candidate for the XJ220. The engine had a 90° bank angle, four valves per cylinder and belt-driven double overhead camshafts. It shares a number of design features with the Cosworth DFV Formula One engine.

The V64V engine chosen had a short but successful career as a purpose-designed racing car engine. It was designed by Cosworth engine designer David Wood for Austin Rover Group’s Metro derived Group B rally car, the MG Metro 6R4. The redesign work necessary to create the Jaguar/TWR JV6 engine was undertaken by Andrew Barnes, TWR’s Powertrain Manager, and also involved Swiss engine builder Max Heidegger who had designed and built the race engines used in the XJR-10 and XJR-11 racing cars.

The XJ220’s engine had a bore and stroke of 94 mm × 84 mm (3.70 by 3.31 inches), dry sump lubrication, Zytek multi point fuel injection with dual injectors and Zytek electronic engine management. The engine was manufactured with an aluminium cylinder block, aluminium cylinder heads with steel connecting rods and crankshaft, and in the standard state of tune, it produced a maximum power of 550 PS (400 kW; 540 hp) at 7200 rpm and torque of 475 lb·ft (644 N·m) at 4500 rpm. The XJ220 can accelerate from 0–60 miles per hour in 3.6 seconds and reach a top speed of 213 miles per hour.

The exhaust system had two catalytic converters, which reduced the power output of the engine. During testing at the Nardò Ring in Italy the XJ220, driven by 1990 Le Mans Winner Martin Brundle achieved a top speed of 217.1 miles per hour when the catalytic converters were disconnected and the rev limiter was increased to 7,900rpm; owing to the circular nature of the track, a speed of 217 mph (349 km/h) is equivalent to 223 mph (359 km/h) on a straight, level road. The V64V engine had the additional benefit of being very economical for such a powerful petrol engine, it was capable of achieving 32 mpg-imp (8.8 L/100 km; 27 mpg-US), in contrast, the smallest-engined Jaguar saloon of the time, the Jaguar XJ6 4.0 could only achieve around 24 mpg-imp (12 L/100 km; 20 mpg-US).

Transmission

Four-wheel drive was decided against early in the development process, for a number of reasons. It was thought rear-wheel drive would be adequate in the majority of situations, that the additional complexity of the four-wheel drive system would hinder the development process and potentially be problematic for the customer. FF Developments were contracted to provide the gearbox/transaxle assembly, modifying their four-wheel drive transaxle assembly from the XJ220 concept into a pure rear-wheel drive design for the production car. A five-speed gearbox is fitted; a six-speed gearbox was considered but deemed unnecessary, as the torque characteristics of the engine made a sixth gear redundant. The transaxle featured a viscous coupling limited slip differential to improve traction.

The transmission system featured triple-cone synchromeshing on first and second gears to handle rapid starts, whilst remaining relatively easy for the driver to engage and providing positive feel.

AP Racing provided an 8.5 in (22 cm) diameter clutch.

Gear 1 2 3 4 5 Final Drive
Ratio 3.00:1 1.95:1 1.42:1 1.09:1 0.85:1 3.364:1

Exterior

Jaguar Rear three-quarters view of the production XJ220

Rear three-quarters view of the production XJ220

Jaguar XJ220 from behind

XJ220 from behind

The exterior retained the aluminium body panels of the XJ220 concept, but for the production vehicles, Abbey Panels of Coventry were contracted to provide the exterior panels. The scissor doors were dropped for the production model, and significant redesign work was carried out on the design when the wheelbase and overall length of the car was altered. Geoff Lawson, Design Director at Jaguar took a greater interest in the car and insisted the design had to be seen to be a Jaguar if it was to be successful in promoting the company. Keith Helfet returned to undertake the necessary redesign work mandated by the change in the wheelbase, which was reduced by 200 mm. The turbocharged engine required larger air intakes to feed the two intercoolers. Situated between the doors and the rear wheels, the air intakes were larger on the production version of the XJ220 than on the concept car. A number of small design changes for the body were tested in the wind tunnel; the final version had a drag coefficient of 0.36 with downforce of 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) at 200 mph (320 km/h). The XJ220 was one of the first production cars to intentionally use underbody airflow and the venturi effect to generate downforce.

The rear lights used on the production XJ220 were taken from the Rover 400.

Chassis

The production model utilised the same Alcan bonded honeycomb aluminium structure vehicle technology (ASVT) as the concept car for the chassis. The chassis design featured two box section rails which acted as the suspension mounting points and would provide an energy absorbing structure in the event of a frontal impact, these were successfully tested at speeds up to 30 mph (48 km/h), an integral roll cage formed part of the chassis and monocoque, providing additional structural rigidity for the car and allowing the XJ220 to easily pass stringent crash testing.

The rear-wheel steering was dropped from the production car to save weight and reduce complexity, as was the height adjustable suspension and active aerodynamic technology. The suspension fitted to the production model consisted of front and rear independent suspension, double unequal length wishbones, inboard coil springs and anti-roll bars, with Bilstein gas-filled dampers. The suspension was designed in accordance with the FIA Group C specifications.

The braking system was designed by AP Racing and featured ventilated and cross-drilled discs of 13 in (33 cm) diameter at the front and 11.8 in (30 cm) diameter at the rear. The calipers are four pot aluminium units. JaguarSport designed the handbrake, which are separate calipers acting on the rear brake discs. Feedback from enthusiasts and racing drivers resulted in the decision to drop the anti-lock braking system from the production car. The braking system was installed without a servo, but a number of owners found the brakes to be difficult to judge when cold and subsequently requested a servo to be fitted.

Rack and pinion steering was fitted, with 2.5 turns lock to lock; no power assistance was fitted. The Bridgestone Expedia S.01 asymmetric uni-directional tyres were specially developed for the XJ220 and had to be rateable to a top speed in excess of 220 miles per hour (350 km/h), carry a doubling of load with the exceptionally high downforce at speed and maintain a compliant and comfortable ride. Rally alloy wheel specialists Speedline Corse designed the alloy wheels, these are both wider and have a larger diameter on the rear wheels; 17 inches (43 cm) wheels are fitted to the front and 18 inches (46 cm) are fitted at the rear, with 255/55 ZR17 tyres at the front and 345/35 ZR18 tyres at the rear.

Interior

XJ220 Interior

XJ220 Interior

The interior was designed for two passengers and trimmed in leather. Leather trimmed sports seats are fitted together with electric windows and electrically adjustable heated mirrors. The dashboard unusually curves round and carries onto the drivers door, with a secondary instrument binnacle containing four analogue gauges, including a clock and voltmeter fitted on the front of the drivers door. Air conditioning and green tinted glazing was also fitted.

The luggage space consists of a small boot directly behind and above the rear portion of the engine, also trimmed in leather.

Production

The car was assembled in a purpose-built factory at Wykham Mill, Bloxham near Banbury in OxfordshireHRH The Princess of Wales officially opened the factory and unveiled the first production XJ220 in October 1991.

The JV6 engines used in the Jaguar racing cars were produced by Swiss engineer Max Heidegger, but delivering the number of engines required for the XJ220 program was considered beyond his capacity. TWR formed a division, TWR Road Engines, to manage the design, development, construction and testing of the engines for the production cars. The JV6 engine used in the XJ220 featured little commonality with the engines Heidegger built for use in the XJR racing cars, being specifically engineered to meet performance and in particular, the European emissions requirements, which the race engines didn’t have to meet.

FF Developments, in addition to their design work on the gearbox and rear axle assembly were given responsibility for their manufacture. The aluminium chassis components and body panels were manufactured and assembled at Abbey Panels factory in Coventry, before the body in white was delivered to the assembly plant at Bloxham. The car, including chassis and body components, consists of approximately 3000 unique parts.

The first customer delivery occurred in June 1992, and production rates averaged one car per day. The last XJ220 rolled off the production line in April 1994; the factory was then transferred to Aston Martin and used for the assembly of the Aston Martin DB7 until 2004.

Reception

Press coverage of the concept XJ220 in 1988 was overwhelmingly positive and contributed to the decision in 1989 to put the XJ220 into limited production. The production version of the car was first shown to the public in October 1991, at the Tokyo Motor Show. The first car was released for press review in autumn 1991.

Autocar reviewer Andrew Frankel was the first journalist to road-test the car and reported: “Savage acceleration really is a given here. What’s really incredible about the XJ220 is its ability to provide such performance in a way that never, ever intimidates.” He was particularly impressed with the throttle response, the driver’s ability to control the performance of the car very precisely, and the way in which the engine delivers its power progressively rather than in one short burst.

Performance Car reviewer John Barker was also impressed with the performance as well as the ride and stability of the car, writing “The V6 has a rumbly, loping note which, in league with a remarkably supple ride, belies the speed we are travelling at. I glance to the speedo and have trouble believing that it is indicating 170 mph.” Barker was also impressed with the engineering, saying “this car is catalysed, fully homologated and has passed the same tests that a Volvo needs before going on sale,” going on to discuss how the vehicle looked at home on the racetrack thanks to the design. Autocar ’​s verdict was “Right now, the XJ220 gives us a standard by which all other fast cars can be compared. For the few who will actually own and, hopefully, use their XJ220s, the fact that they are in command of the most accomplished supercar ever made should suffice.”

Critics of the car consider it underwhelming for such an expensive, powerful and high performance machine. Motoring journalists have been critical of the interior and the car itself for being too comfortable and lacking the sense of occasion present with other supercars. Commentators who approve of the interior have criticised the luggage space as being “largely useless”. Journalists and other commentators often bemoaned the lack of the Jaguar V12 engine and other technical components fitted to the concept car. Contemporary reviews pondered on whether the sales performance and residual values would have been improved by sticking more closely to the specification of the concept car.

Sales performance was disappointing. Jaguar had intended to produce up to 350 cars, but production ceased in 1994 with 275 production cars produced, not all of which had been sold; some left-hand drive examples were still available in 1997. The recession left many of those who placed a deposit unable to complete the purchase. The index linking of contracts exacerbated the issue, and added almost £200,000 to the purchase price between early 1990 and mid-1992. The McLaren F1 suffered from similarly poor sales performance, with just 71 cars sold against McLaren’s target of 300. McLaren’s F1 program eventually turned a small profit thanks to the sale and servicing of the 28 GTR racing variants produced.

The price of collectible cars collapsed as a result of the recession over the six-year period from 1989–94; for example, a highly collectible Ferrari 250 GTO sold for just $3.5 million in 1994, an $11.1 million loss from its sale price in 1989. The Jaguar XJ220 had attracted a significant number of speculators who hoped the scarcity of the XJ220 and enthusiasm for the Jaguar marque would push up prices overnight, allowing large profits to be made over a short period of time.

The market for supercars was growing when the production XJ220 was announced, with comparable cars immediately reselling after delivery for three and four times the list price. The Ferrari F40 had been selling for more than £800,000 in 1990, but like the XJ220 it was adversely affected by the recession, and by 1992 prices had dropped to between £100,000 to £150,000.

Further complicating the sales situation was the announcement by JaguarSport of a road-going version of the Jaguar XJR-9, the last of the racing cars to feature the Jaguar V12 engine. The Jaguar XJR-15 was developed by TWR and styled by Peter Stevens whilst the XJ220 was being developed at Jaguar, and featured the V12 engine and a host of other technologies not adopted for the XJ220, including carbon fibre construction and the option of a six-speed racing gearbox. It was considerably rarer and more expensive than the XJ220 when it went on sale; only 50 were built, each with a list price of £600,000 ($1 million) in 1990. It was designed primarily for racing but could be specified as a road-legal vehicle. About half were built as road-going variants, which added £55,000 to the list price.

Jaguar customers attempting to withdraw from their contracted purchases were given the option to buy themselves out of their contracts, but by 1995, the issue had resulted in legal action as buyers claimed the specification changes rendered any contracts void. Jaguar produced evidence clearly demonstrating that the vehicle specification shown in the contract matched the vehicle that was delivered, and the presiding judge, John Donaldson, quickly ruled in Jaguar’s favour. The last of the unsold XJ220s were sold for £127,550 plus VAT in 1997. While never officially approved for sale in the United States, the XJ220 was approved under the Show and Display exemption by 2001.

The XJ220 remains popular with the contemporary motoring press; Evo journalist David Vivian, writing a head-to-head test between the XJ220 and the Lamborghini Murcielago in 2009, commented that “going ludicrously fast seems trivially easy”, and acknowledged that the decision to change the V12 engine for a turbocharged V6 engine has more recently become acceptable. Vivian was impressed by the car’s ride, handling and grip.

Racing

Jaguar XJ220S

Jaguar XJ220S

A racing version was introduced at the 1993 Autosport International motor show; given the model name XJ220-C, it was built to compete in FISA GT racing. The XJ220-C driven by Win Percy won its first race, a round of the BRDC National Sports GT Challenge at Silverstone.

Three works XJ220-Cs were entered in the 1993 24 Hours of Le Mans race, in the newly created Grand Touring Class. John Nielsen, David Brabham and David Coulthard won the GT class, beating Porsche by two laps; the other two cars retired, both through engine failure. However, the class win was revoked when the Jaguar XJ220-C was controversially disqualified for failing to run with catalytic converters. The Jaguars had passed scrutiny and completed the first day of qualifying when senior steward Alain Bertaut complained that Jaguar were not running catalytic converters. The cars had been entered under the IMSA GT category and Bertaut claimed that they needed to run with catalysts. The cars ran in the race under appeal. International Motor Sports Association (IMSA) officials wrote to the Automobile Club de l’Ouest (ACO) (English: Automobile Club of the West), organisers of the 24 Hours of Le Mans, confirming that the XJ220s had complied with IMSA rules. Jaguar won their appeal (supported by the FIA) but were nevertheless disqualified, as the ACO confirmed that the appeal had not been lodged in time.

Four cars were entered in the GT1 class for the 1995 24 Hours of Le Mans, two by PC Automotive Jaguar and two by Chamberlain Engineering, though the latter did not run their cars. Neither team had Jaguar or TWR backing; both of PC Automotive’s cars were outpaced by the new McLaren F1 GTR. Richard Piper, Tiff Needell and James Weaver were holding fourth position until an engine failure during the night, ending their race, whilst the second XJ220 retired after leaving the road.

An XJ220 was also used in the Italian GT Championship, although without factory support; it raced in Martini livery. The XJ220C was promoted in the United States in the-made-for-TV “Fast Masters” racing series at Indianapolis Raceway Park, airing on ESPN in the summer of 1993 and featuring invited drivers over 50 years old in an elimination format.

TWR developed a further six XJ220-S road cars, featuring one-piece carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer front and rear bodywork; the engine was tuned to 700 PS (510 kW; 690 hp). The XJ220-S models did away with the hidden headlamps of the original and instead opted for perspex covered lights. The S models were essentially road-going versions of the XJ220-C racer, and as a result featured a much simpler race-orientated interior with kevlar seats and the removal of the leather trim. Colin Goodwin, a writer for Autocar, tested an XJ220-S in June 1995 at Millbrook Proving Ground and set the lap record at an average speed of 180.4 mph (290.3 km/h).

Jaguar XJ220 Pininfarina

The Jaguar XJ220 Pininfarina is a special XJ220 built in 1995 for the Sultan of Brunei and his brother Prince Jefri, who commissioned a number of rare and one-off heavily modified cars based on expensive luxury cars. This car was modified by Pininfarina, with modifications including fixed headlights, new rear lights with a redesigned double-vane rear wing, and a new interior package. The car also comes with dark green exterior paint.

  • 1997–2006 XK8/XKR (X100)
  • 2006–2014 XK (X150)

Jaguar XK (X100)

Jaguar XK8
Jaguar XKR
Jaguar XK8 coupé

Jaguar XK8 coupé
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1996–2006
Assembly Coventry, England
Designer Geoff Lawson (1992)
Body and chassis
Class Grand tourer
Body style 2-door coupé
2-door convertible
Layout FR
Platform X100
Related Aston Martin DB7
Powertrain
Engine 4.0 L AJ26/27 V8
4.0 L AJ26S SC V8
4.2 L AJ34 V8
4.2 L AJ34S SC V8
Transmission 5-speed automatic
6-speed automatic
ZF 5HP24 (NA models) 1997-2002
Mercedes-Benz W5A580 5G-Tronic (Supercharged models only) 1998-2002
ZF 6HP26 2002-2005
Dimensions
Wheelbase 101.9 inches (2,590 mm)
Length 1997–2004: 187.4 inches (4,760 mm)
2005-06: 4,775 mm (188.0 in)
Width 1997–2004: 1,830 mm (72.0 in)
2005–2006: 1,800 mm (70.9 in)
Height 1997–1998 Coupe & 1999–2006 XK8 Convertible: 1,295 mm (51.0 in)
1997–98 Convertible: 1,305 mm (51.4 in)
XKR Convertible: 1,288 mm (50.7 in)
1999–2006 XK8 Coupe: 1,283 mm (50.5 in)
XKR Coupe: 1,278 mm (50.3 in)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar XJS
Successor Jaguar XK (X150)
Jaguar XKR convertible

Jaguar XKR convertible

Jaguar XKR Coupé

Jaguar XKR Coupé

The Jaguar XK8 (project code X100) is a grand tourer car that was launched by Jaguar Cars in 1996, and was the first generation of a new XK series. The XK8 was available in coupé or convertible body styles and with the new 4.0-litre Jaguar AJ-V8 engine. In 1998 the XKR was introduced with a supercharged version of the engine. 2003 the engines were replaced by the 4.2-litre AJ34 engines in both the normally aspirated and supercharged versions. The first-generation XK series shares its platform with the Aston Martin DB7. Both cars are derived from the Jaguar XJS, though the platform has been extensively changed. One of the revisions is the use of the second generation of Jaguar’s independent rear suspension unit, taken from the XJ40. Development began in 1992, with design work starting earlier in late 1991. By October 1992 a design was chosen and later frozen for production in 1993. Prototypes were built from December 1993 after the X100 was given formal approval and design patents were filed in June 1994. Development concluded in 1996.

Power and performance

Both the XK8 and XKR are electronically limited to a maximum of 155.4 mph (250.1 km/h). The XK8 came standard with 17-inch alloy wheels, while 18-inch (Standard on the XKR), 19-inch, and 20-inch wheels are available for additional cost. Jaguar’s Adaptive Cruise Control is an optional feature available on both models. Both come with all-leather interior, burl walnut trim, and side airbags. Jeremy Clarkson, during a Top Geartest-drive, likened the interior of the original XK8 to sitting inside Blenheim Palace. In 2004, the grille design of the XKR was refreshed.

Initially the ZF ZF 5HP24 five-speed automatic transmission was coupled to the conventionally aspirated 4.0-litre model and a Mercedes W5A580 five-speed transmission to the Supercharged version, but in 2002 the new ZF 6HP26 six-speed automatic transmission was fitted in both versions of the 4.2-litre model.

Limited editions

XKR Silverstone

Only 100 Silverstone models were made in Phase I and II (model year 2000 – 01, 50 Coupé, 50 Convertible original and 75 Coupé and 175 Convertible models in more), in celebration of Jaguar’s return to F1 racing in 2001. It featured high gloss paint finish, specific badges and tread plates,a high-performance package (with the same engine as the standard XKR, but improved transmission, steering, suspension and brakes), 20-inch Silver BBS wheels and a custom interior (red-stitched black leather and birds-eye maple wood) . All possible factory options were included, to the exception of the telephone and the navigation system, which had to be ordered separately.

XKR 100

Built to celebrate the centenary of Jaguar’s founder, 500 ‘XKR 100’ coupes and convertibles combined total were made in 2002. The XKR 100 featured an Anthracite paint finish, Recaro seats, 20-inch BBS alloy wheels, Brembo brakes, and custom interior.

XKR Portfolio

The convertible-only Portfolio models featured either red paint with matching Recaro sports seats and interior, or blue paintwork and interiors.

XKR 4.2-S

In Europe the 4.2-S was unveiled at Geneva on 1 March 2005. This was the last XK to be rolled out that was based upon the original 1996 design. Features for the 4.2-S included new exterior and interior colours and two distinct veneer options for the instrument panel, polished door treadplates with chequered-flag emblems and embossed, leather-edged floor mats. The revised white Jaguar badge on the bonnet also feature chequered accents. New 20-inch Atlas wheels plus cross-drilled Brembo brake discs, red wheel badges and red brake callipers were also fitted.

XKR-R concept

Jaguar XKR-R convertible

Jaguar XKR-R convertible

Jaguar also produced a concept car called the XKR-R which was very similar to the production XKR, but boasting a more powerful 450 bhp (340 kW) engine, a manual or auto gearbox, a limited-slip differential and improved handling. 2004 models on are the ones to look out for

Victory Edition

Introduced at the 2005 Los Angeles International Auto Show, the Victory Edition was offered in model year 2006, to “celebrate Jaguar’s four championship wins in the North American Trans-Am road racing series and add to a successful lineage of special and limited edition XKs introduced since its launch,” according to Jaguar’s press statement. The statement went on to explain that “All four XK models – XK8 Coupe and Convertible and supercharged XKR Coupe and Convertible – will be offered as ‘Victory’ editions when the line-up goes on sale next summer. The new exterior styling changes introduced for the 2005 models continue to give the car a bolder, more aggressive and more muscular look.” The Victory Edition was offered in all standard XK colours, plus four unique Victory Edition colours: Black Copper Metallic, Frost Blue Metallic, Bay Blue Metallic and Satin Silver Metallic. Victory Editions offered carbon fibre interior trim on XKR models, and a new Elm wood veneer on the XK8 models. Victory Editions also received special badging and accents. The “growler” badge on the hood (bonnet) had a unique checkered-flag background, and door sill plates featured checkered-flag emblems. Production of Victory Edition models was 1,050 cars.

Production

Between 1995 and 2005, Jaguar built 90,064 XK:

  • 19,748 XK8 coupe
  • 46,760 XK8 convertible
  • 9,661 XKR coupe
  • 13,895 XKR convertible

Jaguar XK

This article is about the Jaguar XK grand tourer series produced from 1996. For the straight-six engine, see Jaguar XK6 engine.

For the Jaguar XK120, XK140 & XK150 models, see Jaguar XK120, Jaguar XK140 & Jaguar XK150.

Jaguar XK
2007 Jaguar-XKR-convertible-front
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Also called XK8, XK, XKR
Production 1996–2014
Model years 1997-2015
Assembly Castle Bromwich Assembly,Birmingham, United Kingdom
Body and chassis
Class Grand tourer
Body style 2-door coupé
2-door convertible
Layout FR layout
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar XJS

The Jaguar XK series (XK, XK8 and XKR) is a series of grand tourer cars produced by British car maker Jaguar Cars since 1996. The series was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show on 5 March 1996, and the last car came off the production line on 23 July 2014. The first generation of the series, the XK8, replaced the XJS, and was available as a coupé and convertible. The XK8 was the first 8-cylinder vehicle produced by Jaguar since the Daimler 250, introducing the Jaguar AJ-V8 engine.

The second generation XK was launched in 2006 (as a model year 2007). The new XK introduced an aluminium monocoque bodyshell, and is available both as a two-door coupé and two-door cabriolet/convertible, with just the engine and associated mechanicals being carried forward.

XK8/XKR (1996–2006)

Main article: Jaguar XK (X100)
2009 Jaguar X100 Convertible front

XK8 Convertible

The XK8 was launched in 1996 to replace the XJ-S. Two body styles were produced – a coupé and a convertible. The car was the first in the Jaguar line-up to use Jaguar’s newly developed V8 engine – the AJ-V8. In 1998 the supercharged XKR was added to the range. However, both the XK8 and XKR are limited to a maximum top speed of 155.4 mph (250.1 km/h).

The XK8 came standard with 17-inch alloy wheels, while 18-inch (Standard on the XKR), 19-inch, and 20-inch wheels were available for the XK8 at an additional cost. Jaguar’s Adaptive Cruise Control is an optional feature available on both models. Both models came with all-leather interior, burl walnut trim, and side airbags.

XK/XKR (2007–2014)

Main article: Jaguar XK (X150)
2010 Jaguar XKR Coupé (X150)Facelift

XKR (X150) Coupé

The newly designed XK was unveiled in 2005 at the Frankfurt Motor Show in Germany. Jaguar’s chief designer Ian Callum (who was also responsible for working on the Aston Martin DB7 and Vanquish coupés) claimed that the inspiration for the shape of the new XK came from his admiration for British actress Kate Winslet‘s curves. The X150’s grille was also inspired from the famous 1961 Jaguar E-Type.

The standard XK model has an unlimited top speed of 158 mph whilst the XKR an unlimited top speed of 174 mph. An even faster variant, the XKR-S model was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in 2012. The XKR-S gained an additional 40 horsepower over the XKR bringing the 0-60 mph time down to only 4.4 seconds and the top speed up to 300 km/h (186 mph) – making it the fastest Jaguar yet after the Jaguar XJ220. A convertible version of the XKR-S was released in 2012.

Production of the XK ceased in July 2014 without a replacement model.

Racing and competition

Jaguar C-Type

Jaguar C-Type
1953 JaguarC-Type
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1951–1953
Body and chassis
Class CompetitionSports car
Body style Roadster
Chronology
Successor Jaguar D-type

The Jaguar C-Type (also called the Jaguar XK120-C) is a racing sports car built by Jaguar and sold from 1951 to 1953. The “C” designation stood for “competition”.

The car used the running gear of the contemporary XK120 in a lightweight tubular frame and aerodynamic aluminium body. A total of 53 C-Types were built.

Specification

The road-going XK120’s 3.4-litre twin-cam, straight-6 engine produced between 160 and 180 bhp (134 kW). The version in the C-Type was originally tuned to around 205 bhp (153 kW). Later C-Types were more powerful, using triple twin-choke Weber carburettors and high-lift camshafts. They were also lighter, and from 1952 braking performance was improved by disc brakes on all four wheels. The lightweight, multi-tubular, triangulated frame was designed by Bob Knight. The aerodynamic body was designed by Malcolm Sayer. Made of aluminium in the barchetta style, it was devoid of road-going items such as carpets, weather equipment and exterior door handles.

Racing

Jaguar C-Type Frame

C-Type frame

Jaguar C-Type in Ecurie Ecosse colours

Jaguar C-Type in Ecurie Ecosse colours

The C-Type was successful in racing, most notably at the Le Mans 24 hours race, which it won twice.

In 1951 the car won at its first attempt. The factory entered three, whose driver pairings were Stirling Moss and Jack Fairman, Leslie Johnson and 3-times Mille Miglia winner Clemente Biondetti, and the eventual winners, Peter Walker and Peter Whitehead. The Walker/Whitehead car was the only factory entry to finish, the other two retiring with lack of oil pressure. A privately entered XK120, owned by Robert Lawrie, co-driven by Ivan Waller, also completed the race, finishing 11th.

In 1952 Jaguar, worried by a report about the speed of the Mercedes-Benz 300SLs that would run at Le Mans, modified the C-Type’s aerodynamics to increase the top speed. However, the consequent rearrangement of the cooling system made the car vulnerable to overheating. All three retired from the race. The Peter Whitehead/Ian Stewart and Tony Rolt/Duncan Hamilton cars blew head gaskets, and the Stirling Moss/Peter Walker car, the only one not overheating having had a full-sized radiator hurriedly fitted, lost oil pressure after a mechanical breakage. Later testing by Norman Dewis at MIRA after the race proved that it was not the body shape that caused the overheating but mainly the water pump pulley that was undersize, spun too fast, caused cavitation and thus the overheating. In addition the header tank was in front of the passenger-side bulkhead, far from the radiator, and the tubing used was 7/8 inch. When the tubing diameter was increased to 1 1/4 inch and the water pump pulley increased in diameter, the car ran without problem. What the body shape did do though was to create enormous tail lift, which caused the cars to squirrel their way down the Mulsanne (properly called the Hunaudières) straight at speeds over 120 mph (193 km/h). The chassis numbers of the cars were XKC 001, 002 and 011, the last existing today as a normal C-type, the others being dismantled at the factory.

In 1953 a C-Type won again. This time the body was in thinner, lighter aluminium and the original twin H8 sand cast SU carburettors were replaced by three DCO3 40mm Webers, which helped boost power to 220 bhp (164 kW). Philip Porter mentions additional changes:

Further weight was saved by using a rubber bag fuel tank … lighter electrical equipment and thinner gauge steel for some of the chassis tubes … [T]he most significant change to the cars was the [switch to] disc brakes.

Duncan Hamilton and Tony Rolt won the race at 105.85 mph (170.35 km/h) – the first time Le Mans had been won at an average of over 100 miles per hour (161 km/h). 1954, the C-Type’s final year at Le Mans, saw a fourth place by the Ecurie Francorchamps entry driven by Roger Laurent and Jacques Swaters.

Values

When new, the car sold for about $6,000, approximately twice the price of an XK120. In an article in the June 11, 2003 issue of Autocar magazine (“Slick Cat Jaguar”, p. 70) the value of a “genuine, healthy” C-Type is estimated as £400,000, and the value of the 1953 Le Mans winner is about £2 million; replicas are available from a variety of sources from £40,000. A C-Type once owned and raced by Phil Hill sold at an American auction in August 2009 for $2,530,000.

Jaguar D-Type

Jaguar D-Type
1955 Jaguar XKD 34 left

1955 Jaguar D-Type
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1954–1957
Body and chassis
Class Sports racing car
Body style Roadster
Related Jaguar XKSS
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar C-Type
Successor Jaguar E-Type

The Jaguar D-Type is a sports racing car that was produced by Jaguar Cars Ltd. between 1954 and 1957. Although it shares many of its mechanical components with the C-Type, including the basic Straight-6 XKengine design (initially 3.4 litres and uprated to 3.8 litres in the late fifties), the structure of the car was radically different. The innovative monocoque construction brought aviation industry technology to competition car design, together with an aeronautical understanding of aerodynamic efficiency.

D-Types won the Le Mans 24-hour race in 1955, 1956 and 1957. After Jaguar temporarily retired from racing as a factory team, the company offered the remaining unfinished D-Types as XKSS versions whose extra road-going equipment made them eligible for production sports car races in America. In 1957 25 of these cars were in various stages of completion when a factory fire destroyed nine of them.

Total D-Type production is thought to have included 18 factory team cars, 53 customer cars, and 16 XKSS versions.

Design

1955 Jaguar XKD-type interior

1955 cockpit

1955 Jaguar XKD rear 34

1955 D-Type with stabilizing fin

1955 Jaguar XKD 3,4 litre six cylinder engine

Double overhead cam 3.4 litre straight six cylinder XK6 engine

The structural design, revolutionary at the time, applied aeronautical technology. The “tub”, or cockpit section, was of monocoque construction, mostly comprising sheets of aluminium alloy. Its elliptical shape and comparatively small cross-section provided torsional rigidity and reduced drag. To the front bulkhead was attached an aluminium tubing subframe for the engine, steering assembly, and front suspension. Rear suspension and final drive were mounted to the rear bulkhead. Fuel was carried in the tail and the designers followed aviation practice by specifying a deformable Marston Aviation Division bag in place of a conventional tank.

The aerodynamic bodywork was largely the work of Malcolm Sayer, who had joined Jaguar following a stint with the Bristol Aeroplane Company during the Second World War and later worked on the C-Type. For the D-Type, he insisted on a minimal frontal area. To reduce the XK engine’s height, Jaguar’s Chief Engineer William Haynes and former Bentley engineer Walter Hassan developed dry sump lubrication, and it has been said that the car’s frontal area was also a consideration in canting the engine at 8½° from the vertical (which necessitated the offset bonnet bulge). Philip Porter, in his book Jaguar Sports Racing Cars, says that “[a] more likely reason was to provide extra space for the ram pipes feeding the three twin-choke Weber carburettors.” Reducing underbody drag contributed to the car’s high top speed; for the long Mulsanne Straight at Le Mans, a fin was mounted behind the driver for aerodynamic stability. For the 1955 season, factory cars were fitted with a longer nose, which lengthened the car by 7½ inches and further increased maximum speed; and the headrest fairing and aerodynamic fin were combined as a single unit that smoothed the aerodynamics and saved weight.

Mechanically, many features were shared with the outgoing C-Type. Its front and rear suspension and innovative all-round disc brakes were retained, as was the XK engine. Apart from the new lubrication system, the engine was further revised as development progressed during the D-Type’s competition life. Notably in 1955 larger valves were introduced, together with an asymmetrical cylinder head to accommodate them.

Elements of the body shape and many construction details were used in the Jaguar E-Type.

Competition history

1954 Jaguar XKD 403 winner Reims 12 Hours

D-Type XKD403, winner of the 1954 Reims 12 Hours race

D-Types fielded by a team under the leadership of Jaguar’s racing manager Lofty England were expected to perform well in their debut at the 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans race. In the event, the cars were hampered by fuel starvation caused by problems with the fuel filters, necessitating pit stops for their removal, after which the entry driven by Duncan Hamilton and Tony Rolt speeded up to finish less than a lap behind the winning Ferrari. The D-Type’s aerodynamic superiority is evident from its maximum speed of 172.8 mph on the Mulsanne Straight compared with the 4.9 litre Ferrari’s 160.1 mph.

For 1955 the cars were modified with long-nose bodywork and engines uprated with larger valves. At Le Mans, they proved competitive with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLRs, which had been expected to win. Mike Hawthorn‘s D-Type had a narrow lead over Juan Manuel Fangio‘s Mercedes when another Mercedes team car was involved in the most catastrophic accident in motorsport history. Driver Pierre Levegh and more than 80 spectators lost their lives, while many more were injured.

Mercedes withdrew from the race. Jaguar opted to continue, and the D-Type driven by Hawthorn and Ivor Bueb went on to win.

1956 Jaguar XKD 606 winner of Le Mans 24 Hours 1957

D-Type XKD606, winner of the 1957 Le Mans 24 Hours race, in Ecurie Ecosse metallic Flag Blue livery

Mercedes withdrew from motorsport at the end of the 1955 season, and Jaguar again entered Le Mans in 1956. Although only one of the three factory-entered cars finished, in 6th place, the race was won by a D-Type entered by the small Edinburgh-based team Ecurie Ecosse and driven by Ron Flockhart and Ninian Sanderson, beating works teams from Aston Martin and Scuderia Ferrari.

In America, the Cunningham team raced several D-Types. In 1955, for example, a 1954 works car on loan to Cunningham won the Sebring 12 Hours in the hands of Mike Hawthorn and Phil Walters, and in May 1956 the team’s entries for Maryland’s Cumberland national championship sports car race included four D-Types in Cunningham’s white and blue racing colors. Driven by John Fitch, John Gordon Benett, Sherwood Johnston and team owner Briggs Cunningham, they finished 4th, 5th, 7th and 8th respectively.

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Jaguar D-Type Long Nose at Goodwood Festival of Speed 2009

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Although Jaguar withdrew from motorsport at the end of the 1956 season, 1957 proved to be the D-Type’s most successful year. D-Types took five of the top six places at Le Mans;
Ecurie Ecosse, with considerable support from Jaguar, and a 3.8-litre engine, again took the win, and also second place. This was the best result in the D-Type’s racing history.

Rules for the 1958 Le Mans race limited engine size to 3 litres for sports racing cars, which ended the domination of the D-Type with its 3.8-litre XK engine. Jaguar developed a 3-litre version to power D-Types in the 1958, 1959 and 1960 Le Mans races but it was unreliable, and by 1960 it no longer produced sufficient power to be competitive.

The D-Type’s star waned as support from Jaguar decreased and the cars from rival manufacturers became more competitive. Although it continued to be one of the cars to beat in club racing and national events, the D-Type never again achieved a podium finish at Le Mans. By the early 1960s it was obsolete.

XKSS

Main article: Jaguar XKSS
1957 Jaguar XKSS crop road equipped

Road-equipped XKSS

After Jaguar temporarily retired from racing as a factory team in 1956, the company offered the remaining unfinished D-Types as XKSS versions whose additional road-going equipment—including a second seat, passenger-side door, side windows, full-width framed windscreen and windscreen wipers, trimmed interior, folding hood, and bumpers—made them eligible for production sports car races in America.

On the evening of 12 February 1957, a fire broke out at Jaguar’s Browns Lane plant and destroyed nine of the 25 cars that were in various stages of completion. With the requisite jigs and tooling also destroyed, this effectively ended production of the XKSS version, although Jaguar later converted two additional D-Types.

Value

The first factory production D-Type (XKD-509) was sold at Bonhams auction for £2,201,500 in July 2008. The previous highest confirmed price was £1,706,000, set in 1999.

Jaguar E-Type

Jaguar E-Type
1963 Jaguar XK-E Roadster
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Also called Jaguar XK-E
Production 1961–752014
Assembly Coventry, England
Designer Malcolm Sayer
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Layout FR layout
Related Jaguar D-Type
Jaguar XJ13
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar XK150
Successor Jaguar XJ-S
Jaguar F-Type

The Jaguar E-Type (a.k.a. Jaguar XK-E) is a British sports car, which was manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of good looks, high performance and competitive pricing established the marque as an icon of 1960s motoring. More than 70,000 E-Types were sold.

In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in a The Daily Telegraph online list of the world’s “100 most beautiful cars” of all time.

In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s.

Overview

The E-Type was initially designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form (FHC or Fixed Head Coupé) and as a two-seater convertible (OTS or Open Two Seater). A “2+2” four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released several years later.

On its release Enzo Ferrari called it “The most beautiful car ever made”.

Later model updates of the E-Type were officially designated “Series 2” and “Series 3”, and over time the earlier cars have come to be referred to as “Series 1” and “Series 1½”.

Of the “Series 1” cars, Jaguar manufactured some limited-edition variants, inspired by motor racing :

  • The “‘Lightweight’ E-Type” which was apparently intended as a sort of follow-up to the D-Type. Jaguar planned to produce 18 units but ultimately only a dozen were reportedly built. Of those, two have been converted to Low-Drag form and two others are known to have been wrecked and deemed to be beyond repair, although one has now been rebuilt. These are exceedingly rare and sought after by collectors.
  • The “Low Drag Coupé” was a one-off technical exercise which was ultimately sold to a Jaguar racing driver. It is presently believed to be part of the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

The New York City Museum of Modern Art recognised the significance of the E-Type’s design in 1996 by adding a blue roadster to its permanent design collection, one of only six automobiles to receive the distinction.

Concept versions

E1A (1957)

After the company’s success at the Le Mans 24 hr through the 1950s, Jaguar’s defunct racing department was given the brief to use D-Type style construction to build a road-going sports car, replacing the XK150.

The first prototype (E1A) featured a monocoque design, Jaguar’s fully independent rear suspension and the well proved “XK” engine. The car was used solely for factory testing and was never formally released to the public. The car was eventually scrapped by the factory.

E2A (1960)

Jaguar’s second E-Type concept was E2A which, unlike the E1A, was constructed from a steel chassis with an aluminium body. This car was completed as a racing car as it was thought by Jaguar at the time it would provide a better testing ground. E2A used a 3-litre version of the XK engine with a Lucas fuel injection system.

After retiring from the Le Mans 24 hr the car was shipped to America to be used for racing by Jaguar privateer Briggs Cunningham. In 1961, the car returned to Jaguar in England to be used as a test vehicle. Ownership of E2A passed to Roger Woodley (Jaguar’s customer competition car manager) who took possession on the basis the car not be used for racing. E2A had been scheduled to be scrapped. Roger’s wife Penny Griffiths owned E2A until 2008 when it was offered for sale at Bonham’s Quail Auction. It eventually sold for US$4,957,000.

Production versions

Series 1 (1961–68)

Series I
Jaguar e-Type series one
Overview
Production March 1961–68
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 3.8 L XK I6
4.2 L XK I6
Transmission 4-speed manual; 3-speed automatic (automatic available 1966-onward, 2+2 model only)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 96.0 in (2,438 mm) (FHC / OTS)
105.0 in (2,667 mm) (2+2)
Length 175.3125 in (4,453 mm) (FHC / OTS)
184.4375 in (4,685 mm) (2+2)
Width 65.25 in (1,657 mm) (all)
Height 48.125 in (1,222 mm) (FHC)
50.125 in (1,273 mm) (2+2)
46.5 in (1,181 mm) (OTS)
Kerb weight 2,900 lb (1,315 kg) (FHC)
2,770 lb (1,256 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2)

The Series 1 was introduced, initially for export only, in March 1961. The domestic market launch came four months later in July 1961. The cars at this time used the triple SU carburetted 3.8 litre six-cylinder Jaguar XK6 engine from the XK150S. Earlier built cars utilised external bonnet latches which required a tool to open and had a flat floor design. These cars are rare and more valuable. After that, the floors were dished to provide more leg room and the twin bonnet latches moved to inside the car. The 3.8-litre engine was increased to 4.2 litres in October 1964.

The 4.2-litre engine produced the same power as the 3.8-litre (265 bhp;198 kW) and same top speed (150 mph;241 km/h), but increased torque from 240 to 283 lb·ft (325 to 384 N·m). Acceleration remained pretty much the same and 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) times were around 7.0 seconds for both engines, but maximum power was now reached at 5,400rpm instead of 5,500rpm on the 3.8-litre. That all meant better throttle response for drivers that did not want to shift down gears.

Autocar road tested a UK spec E-Type 4.2 fixed head coupe in May 1965. The maximum speed was 153 mph (246 km/h), the 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) time was 7.6 seconds and the 14 mile (402 m) from a standing start took 15.1 seconds. They summarised it as “In its 4.2 guise the E-type is a fast car ( the fastest we have ever tested) and offers just about the easiest way to travel quickly by road.”.

Motor magazine road tested a UK spec E-Type 4.2 fixed head coupe in Oct 1964. The maximum speed was 150 mph (241 km/h), the 0-60 mph time was 7 seconds and the 14 mile time was 14.9 seconds.They summarised it as “The new 4.2 supersedes the early 3.8 as the fastest car Motor has tested. The absurd ease which 100mph can be exceeded in a 14 mile never failed to astonish. 3,000 miles of testing confirms that this is still one of the worlds outstanding cars”.

All E-Types featured independent coil spring rear suspension with torsion bar front ends, and four wheel disc brakes, in-board at the rear, all were power-assisted. Jaguar was one of the first vehicle manufacturers to equip cars with disc brakes as standard from the XK150 in 1958. The Series 1 can be recognised by glass-covered headlights (up to 1967), small “mouth” opening at the front, signal lights and tail-lights above bumpers and exhaust tips under the number plate in the rear.

3.8-litre cars have leather-upholstered bucket seats, an aluminium-trimmed centre instrument panel and console (changed to vinyl and leather in 1963), and a Moss four-speed gearbox that lacks synchromesh for first gear (“Moss box”). 4.2-litre cars have more comfortable seats, improved brakes and electrical systems, and an all-synchromesh four-speed gearbox. 4.2-litre cars also have a badge on the boot proclaiming “Jaguar 4.2 Litre E-Type” (3.8 cars have a simple “Jaguar” badge). Optional extras included chrome spoked wheels and a detachable hard top for the OTS. When leaving the factory the car was originally fitted with Dunlop 6.40 × 15 inch RS5 tyres on 15 × 5K wire wheels (with the rear fitting 15 × 5K½ wheels supplied with 6.50 X15 Dunlop Racing R5 tyres in mind of competition). Later Series One cars were fitted with Dunlop 185 – 15 SP41 or 185 VR 15 Pirelli Cinturato as radial ply tyres.

A 2+2 version of the coupé was added in 1966. The 2+2 offered the option of an automatic transmission. The body is 9 in (229 mm) longer and the roof angles are different. The roadster and the non 2+2 FHC (Fixed Head Coupe) remained as two-seaters.

Less widely known, right at the end of Series 1 production and prior to the transitional “Series 1½” referred to below, a very small number 10 to 20 Series 1 cars were produced, with open headlights in the uk, these series one cars that had their head lights modified by removing the covers and altering the scoops they sit in, the headlights differ in several respects from the “production” Series 1½, the main being they are shorter at 143mm from the production Series 1½ at 160mm . Production dates on these machines vary but in right hand drive form production has been verified as late as March 1968. The low number of these cars produced make them amongst the rarest of all production E Types.

Following the Series 1 there was a transitional series of cars built in 1967–68, unofficially called “Series 1½”, which are externally similar to Series 1 cars. Due to American pressure the new features were open headlights, different switches, and some de-tuning (using two Zenith-Stromberg carburetters instead of the original three SUs) for US models. Some Series 1½ cars also have twin cooling fans and adjustable seat backs. Series 2 features were gradually introduced into the Series 1, creating the unofficial Series 1½ cars, but always with the Series 1 body style. A United States federal safety law affecting 1968 model year cars sold in the US was the reason for the lack of headlight covers and change in switch design in the “Series 1.5” of 1968. An often overlooked change, one that is often “modified back” to the older style, is the wheel knock-off “nut.” US safety law for 1968 models also forbid the winged-spinner knockoff, and any 1968 model year sold in the US should have a hexagonal knockoff nut, to be hammered on and off with the assistance of a special “socket” included with the car from the factory. This hexagonal nut carried on into the later Series 2 and 3.

An open 3.8-litre car, actually the first such production car to be completed, was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1961 and had a top speed of 149.1 mph (240.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) in 7.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 21.3 miles per imperial gallon (13.3 L/100 km; 17.7 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £2,097 including taxes.

The cars submitted for road test by the popular motoring journals of the time (1961)such as The Motor, The Autocar and Autosport magazines were specially prepared by the Jaguar works to give better-than-standard performance figures. This work entailed engine balancing and subtle work such as gas-flowing the cylinder heads and may even have involved fitting larger diameter inlet valves.

Both of the well-known 1961 road test cars: the E-type Coupe Reg. No. 9600 HP and E-type Convertible Reg.No. 77 RW, were fitted with Dunlop Racing Tyres on test, which had a larger rolling diameter and lower drag co-efficient. This goes some way to explaining the 150 mph (240 km/h) maximum speeds that were obtained under ideal test conditions. The maximum safe rev limit for standard 6-cylinder 3.8-litre E-type engines is 5,500 rpm. The later 4.2-Litre units had a red marking on the rev counter from just 5,000 rpm. The maximum safe engine speed is therefore 127 mph (3.31:1 axle) and 137 mph (3.07:1 axle) at the 5,500 rpm limit. Both test cars must have reached or exceeded 6,000 rpm in top gear when on road test in 1961.

Jaguar E-Type S1 4.2 Roadster

Series 1 4.2 Roadster, pictured in London

Production numbers from Robson:

  • 15,490 3.8s
  • 17,320 4.2s
  • 10,930 2+2s

Production numbers:

FHC OTS 2+2 Total
S1 3.8 7,670 7,828 0 15,498
S1 4.2 5,830 6,749 3,616 16,195
S1.5 1,942 2,801 1,983 6,726
TOTAL 38,419

Series 2 (1968–71)

Series II
1969 Jaguar E-Type roadster
Overview
Production 1968–71
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 4.2 L XK I6
Dimensions
Kerb weight 3,018 lb (1,369 kg) (FHC)
2,750 lb (1,247 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2)

The Series 2 introduced a number of design changes, largely due to U.S. design legislation. The most distinctive feature is the absence of the aerodynamic glass headlight covers, which impacted several other imported cars, like the Citroën DS, as well. Unlike other cars, this retrograde step was applied worldwide for the E-Type, not just to Americans living under the authority of the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration.

Other hallmarks of Series 2 cars are a wrap-around rear bumper, re-positioned and larger front indicators and tail lights below the bumpers, better cooling aided by an enlarged “mouth” and twin electric fans, and uprated brakes.

A combination steering lock and ignition key was fitted to the steering column, which replaced the dash board mounted ignition switch and charismatic push button starter. A new steering column was fitted with a collapsible section in the event of an accident.

New seats were fitted which allowed the fitment of head restraints, as required by U.S. law beginning in 1969. The interior and dashboard were also redesigned; rocker switches that met US health and safety regulations were substituted for toggle switches. The dashboard switches also lost their symmetrical layout.

The engine is easily identified visually by the change from smooth polished cam covers to a more industrial “ribbed” appearance. It was de-tuned in the US with twin Strombergs and larger valve clearances, but in the UK retained triple SUs and the much tighter valve clearances. (Late Series 1½ cars also had ribbed cam covers). This detuned engine produced 245 hp (183 kW), a drop of 20hp.

Air conditioning and power steering were available as factory options.

Production according to Robson is 13,490 of all types.

Series 2 production numbers:

FHC OTS 2+2 TOTAL
S2 4,855 8,628 5,326 18,809

Official delivery numbers by market and year are listed in Porter but no summary totals are given.

Series 3 (1971–75)

Series III
1974 Jaguar E-Type
Overview
Production 1971–75
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 5.3 L Jaguar V12 engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 105 in (2,667 mm) (both)
Length 184.4 in (4,684 mm) (2+2)
184.5 in (4,686 mm) (OTS)
Width 66.0 in (1,676 mm) (2+2)
66.1 in (1,679 mm) (OTS)
Height 48.9 in (1,242 mm) (2+2)
48.1 in (1,222 mm) (OTS)
Kerb weight 3,361 lb (1,525 kg) (2+2)
3,380 lb (1,533 kg) (OTS)

A new 5.3 L twelve-cylinder Jaguar V12 engine was introduced, with uprated brakes and standard power steering. The short wheelbase FHC body style was discontinued and the V12 was available only as a convertible and 2+2 coupé. The convertible used the longer-wheelbase 2+2 floorplan. The Series 3 is easily identifiable by the large cross-slatted front grille and flared wheel arches, and a badge on the rear that proclaims it to be a V12. Cars for the US market were fitted with large projecting rubber bumper over-riders (in 1973 these were on front, in 1974 both front and rear) to meet local 5 mph (8 km/h) impact regulations, but those on European models were considerably smaller. US models also have side indicator repeats on the front wings. There were also a very limited number of six-cylinder Series 3 E-Types built. These were featured in the initial sales literature. When leaving the factory the V12 Open Two Seater and V12 2 ± 2 originally fitted Dunlop E70VR − 15 inch tyres on 15 × 6K wire or solid wheels.

Robson lists production at 15,290.

Series 3 production numbers:

FHC OTS 2+2 TOTAL
S3 0 7,990 7,297 15,287
Jaguar E-Type Series 3 2+2

Jaguar E-Type Series 3 2+2

Limited editions

Two limited production E-Type variants were made as test beds, the Low Drag Coupe and Lightweight E-Type, both of which were raced:

Low Drag Coupé (1962)

Shortly after the introduction of the E-Type, Jaguar management wanted to investigate the possibility of building a car more in the spirit of the D-Type racer from which elements of the E-Type’s styling and design were derived. One car was built to test the concept designed as a coupé as its monocoque design could only be made rigid enough for racing by using the “stressed skin” principle. Previous Jaguar racers were built as open-top cars, because they were based on ladder frame designs with independent chassis and bodies. Unlike the steel production E-Types, the LDC used lightweight aluminium. Malcolm Sayer retained the original tub with lighter outer panels riveted and glued to it. The front steel sub frame remained intact, the windshield was given a more pronounced slope, and the rear hatch was welded shut. Rear brake cooling ducts appeared next to the rear windows, and the interior trim was discarded, with only insulation around the transmission tunnel. With the exception of the windscreen, all cockpit glass was perspex. A tuned version of Jaguar’s 3.8-litre engine with a wide-angle cylinder head design tested on the D-Type racers was used. Air management became a problem and, though a higher performing vehicle than its production counterpart, the car was never competitive.

The only test bed car was completed in summer of 1962 but was sold a year later to Jaguar racing driver Sledge hammer Protheroe. Since then it has passed through the hands of several collectors on both sides of the Atlantic and is now believed to reside in the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Lightweight E-Type (1963–64, 2014)

Twelve cars plus two spare bodies were made by Jaguar.

In some ways, this was an evolution of the Low Drag Coupé. It made extensive use of aluminium alloy in the body panels and other components. However, with at least one exception, it remained an open-top car in the spirit of the D-Type to which this car is a more direct successor than the production E-Type which is more of a GT than a sports car. The cars used an aluminium block tuned version of the production 3.8-litre Jaguar engine with 300 bhp (224 kW) output rather than the 265 bhp (198 kW) produced by the “ordinary” version. Factory-built lightweights were homologated by Jaguar with three 45DCO3 Weber carburettors in addition to a Lucas mechanical fuel injection system. Early cars were fitted with a close-ratio version of the four-speed E-type gearbox, with some later cars being fitted with a ZF 5-speed gearbox.

The cars were entered in various races but, unlike the C-Type and D-Type racing cars, they did not win at Le Mans or Sebring but were reasonably successful in private hands and in smaller races.

One Lightweight was modified into a Low-Drag Coupé (the Lindner/Nocker car), by Malcolm Sayer.

1963 Jaguar E-type Lightweight Low Drag Coupe

The Klat designed 1963 Jaguar E-type Lightweight Low Drag Coupe

Another Lightweight was modified into a unique Low-Drag design (the Lumsden/Sargent car), by Dr Samir Klat of Imperial College. Along with the factory LDC, this lightweight is now believed to reside in the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

Many were fitted with more powerful engines as developments occurred.

On 14 May 2014, Jaguar’s Heritage Business announced it will be building the six ‘remaining’ Lightweights. The original run of Lightweights was meant to be 18 vehicles; however only 12 were built. The new cars, using the un-used chassis codes, will be hand-built to exactly the same specification as the originals. Availability will be prioritised for established collectors of Jaguars, with a focus on those who have an interest in historic race cars.

Motorsport

Jaguar at Goodwood Hill

Jaguar at Goodwood Hill

Bob Jane won the 1963 Australian GT Championship at the wheel of a “lightweight” E-Type.

The Jaguar E-Type was very successful in SCCA Production sports car racing with Group44 and Bob Tullius taking the B-Production championship with a Series-3 V12 racer in 1975. A few years later, Gran-Turismo Jaguar from Cleveland Ohio campaigned a 4.2-litre six-cylinder FHC racer in SCCA production series, and in 1980 won the National Championship in the SCCA C-Production Class, defeating a fully funded factory Nissan Z-car team with Paul Newman.

Jaguar XJR Sportscars

Several XJRs seen in their traditional European Silk Cut paint scheme.

Several XJRs seen in their traditional European Silk Cut paint scheme.

The Jaguar XJR Sportscars were a series of race cars used by Jaguar-backed teams in both the World Sportscar Championship (WSC) Group C and the IMSA Camel GTP series between 1984 and 1993.

History

Jaguar XJR-5 at Sears Point in 1983

A Jaguar XJR-5 at Sears Point in 1983.

Starting in 1983, the project was started by an American team Group 44 Racing, headed up by owner/driver Bob Tullius, who had the backing of Jaguar to build the Fabcar designed racer known as XJR-5 in their Herndon, Virginia, USA shop and to campaign it in the IMSA Camel GTP championship. After becoming established in IMSA, Jaguar turned to Tom Walkinshaw Racing (TWR) to develop another car known as XJR-6 for the World Sportscar Championship, using the same Jaguar V12, and debuting halfway into the 1985 season.

Jaguar would continue to use two different types of chassis for IMSA and WSC until 1988 when Jaguar chose to have TWR take over their team for both championships, and building an identical car for both series, known as the XJR-9.

After having used the V12 in varying sizes, TWR decided to try a new turbocharged 3.5L V6 for the XJR-10 (for IMSA) and XJR-11 (for WSC) in the 1989 season. However, the FIA announced rule changes to come into effect for the World Sportscar Championship that would require all teams to change to 3.5L naturally aspirated engines. TWR decided that continuing to develop their V6 in WSC was useless, so the new XJR-12 for WSC in 1990 was better suited to carry the old but reliable V12. The XJR-12 was short lived as in 1991, Jaguar decided to debut their new 3.5L naturally aspirated V8 engine by Cosworth for the XJR-14.

After having won multiple championships in WSC, and instability due to multiple rule changes, Jaguar decided to drop out following the 1991 season and concentrate on IMSA. However, after attempting the first few races of the 1993 season, Jaguar decided to end the project altogether, marking the end of the XJR sportscars. Jaguar and TWR attempted to continue racing on with a cheaper and smaller scale project, a racing version of the XJ220 for the GT classes, but it was short lived.

One unique XJR model was the 1990 XJR-15, which was a limited edition road legal supercar built by TWR from the design of the XJR-9 and featuring Jaguar’s V12. Several XJR-15s were also built into racing cars for a special one-make series meant as a support race for Formula One.

Jaguar XJRs

A grouping of various XJRs, from left to right An XJR-9, three XJR-12s, another XJR-9, two XJR-11s, an XJR-10, an XJR-6, and an XJR-5.

A grouping of various XJRs, from left to right: An XJR-9, three XJR-12s, another XJR-9, two XJR-11s, an XJR-10, an XJR-6, and an XJR-5.

Concept models

  • E1A — The 1950s E-Type concept vehicle
  • E2 A — The second E-Type concept vehicle, which raced at LeMans and in the USA
  • Pirana (1967) — Designed by Bertone
  • XJ13 (1966) — Built to race at LeMans, never run
  • XK 180 (1998) — Roadster concept based on the XK8
  • F-Type (2000) — Roadster, similar to the XK8 but smaller
  • R-Coupé (2001) — Large four-seater coupé
  • Fuore XF 10 (2003)
  • R-D6 (2003) — Compact four-seat coupé
  • XK-RR — A high-performance version of last generation XK coupé
  • XK-RS — Another performance-spec version of last generation XK convertible
  • Concept Eight (2004) — Super-luxury version of the long-wheelbase model of the XJ
  • C-XF (2007) — Precursor to the production model XF saloon
  • C-X75 (2010) — Hybrid-electric sports car, originally intended for production but cancelled in 2012
  • C-X16 (2011) — Precursor to the production model F-Type
  • C-X17 (2013) — First ever Jaguar SUV concept
  • Project 7 — a 542 bhp V8-powered speedster based on the F-Type and inspired by the D-Type (2013)

Engines

Jaguar has designed in-house four generations of engines.

Motorsport

See also: Jaguar Racing and Jaguar XJR Sportscars
2004 Jaguar R5 being driven by Mark Webber in 2004—the team's last season in F1

The Jaguar R5 being driven by Mark Webber in 2004—the team’s last season in F1

The company has had major success in sports car racing, particularly in the Le Mans 24 Hours. Victories came in 1951 and 1953 with the C-Type, then in 1955, 1956 and 1957 with the D-Type. The manager of the racing team during this period, Lofty England, later became CEO of Jaguar in the early 1970s. Although the prototype XJ13 was built in the mid-1960s it was never raced, and the famous race was then left for many years.

In 1982, a successful relationship with Tom Walkinshaw‘s TWR team commenced with the XJ-S competing in the European Touring Car Championship, which it won in 1984. In 1985, the TWR XJ-S won the Bathurst 1000race. In the mid-1980s TWR started designing and preparing Jaguar V12-engined Group C cars for World Sports Prototype Championship races. The team started winning regularly from 1987, and won Le Mans in 1988 and 1990 with the XJR series sports cars. The Jaguar XJR-14 was the last of the XJRs to win, taking the 1991 World Sportscar Championship.

In the 1999, Ford decided that Jaguar would be the corporation’s Formula One entry. Ford bought out the Milton Keynes-based Stewart Grand Prix team and rebranded it as Jaguar Racing for the 2000 season. The Jaguar F1 program was not a success however, achieving only two podium finishes in five seasons of competition between 2000 and 2004. At the end of 2004, with costs mounting and Ford’s profits dwindling, the F1 team was seen as an unneeded expense and was sold to Red Bull energy drinks owner Dietrich Mateschitz, and it became Red Bull Racing. Since 2004 Jaguar has not had an official presence in motorsport.

Notable Jaguar sports racers:

Electric vehicles

Lotus Cars joined Jaguar, MIRA Ltd and Caparo on a luxury hybrid executive sedan project called “Limo-Green”—funded by the UK Government Technology Strategy Board. The vehicle will be a series plug-in hybrid.

Facilities

Jaguar Land Rover operations are split between several sites, most of which are used for work on both the Jaguar and Land Rover brands.

Current plants

  • Whitley Engineering Centre – Jaguar Land Rover’s headquarters and a research and development centre. The older part of this plant was acquired from Peugeot in the 1980s, and was formerly a First World War airfield, an aircraft factory and then a missile factory before being sold to the Rootes Group (later Chrysler Europe).
  • Gaydon Engineering Centre – Jaguar Land Rover’s other research and development centre. Formerly an RAF bomber base before being acquired by British Leyland and redeveloped as a vehicle design, development and testing centre. Part of this site is also the Aston Martin headquarters, development centre and factory.
  • Castle Bromwich – Jaguar Land Rover’s main Jaguar assembly plant, producing the XF, XJ, XK and F-Type ranges. Originally an aircraft factory during World War Two – Spitfires were built there, it was later acquired by Pressed Steel Fisher and became a vehicle body assembly works, it came under the auspices of Jaguar through the merger with BMC in the 1960s.
  • Solihull – Jaguar Land Rover’s principal Land Rover assembly plant. This was originally an aircraft engine plant during World War Two, being used for as a Rover plant after the war. The Jaguar XE will become the first Jaguar car to be assembled at the facility in late 2014, followed by the Jaguar F-Pace crossover from 2016.
  • Halewood, Merseyside – Now used by Jaguar Land Rover for Land Rover production. Originally a Ford assembly plant (the Ford Escort being its most prolific model) it was given to Jaguar in 2000 for production of the X-Type. Ford still owns the transmission manufacturing operation at Halewood.
  • Wolverhampton Engine Plant – a new £500 million facility located at the i54 site in Staffordshire close to Wolverhampton to build the new Ingenium family of modular diesel and petrol engines. The plant was officially opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on Thursday, October 30, 2014.

Future plants

  • Ryton-on-Dunsmore – Jaguar Land Rover announced that it will build a new Special Vehicle Operations development centre there in 2016. The site was previously used by Rootes for aircraft production plant for World War Two, and later became the Rootes/Chrysler/Peugeot car plant which was closed in 2006 and has since been completely demolished and the site cleared.

Past Jaguar plants

  • Holbrooks Lane, Coventry – by the time Swallow Sidecar Company started using the Jaguar name, they had relocated from Blackpool to Holbrooks Lane in Coventry.
  • Browns Lane – The most well-known site for Jaguar production from 1951, it was progressively run down and replaced by Castle Bromwich. Most of the plant has now been demolished and is now the home of Jaguar Land Rover’s heritage centre.
  • Radford – originally a Daimler bus plant but was later a Jaguar engine and axle plant. Closed by Ford in 1997 when it moved all Jaguar engine production to its Bridgend facility.

Jaguar and the arts

2011 Jaguar Art Project Shadows by Szczesny, Saint-Tropez 2011

Jaguar Art Project “Shadows”, Saint-Tropez 2011

For some time now Jaguar has been active in the international arts scene. In particular, the company has collaborated with the artist Stefan Szczesny, implementing major art projects. In 2011, Jaguar presented the exhibition series “Shadows”, which involved the installation of Szczesny’s shadow sculptures in Sankt-Moritz, on Sylt and in Saint-Tropez. In 2012, a large number of sculptures, ceramics and paintings were shown in Frankfurt (and mainly in Frankfurt’s Palmengarten).

As part of the collaboration with Szczesny, Jaguar has released the “Jaguar Art Collection”.

JAGUAR Cars Whitley, Coventry, England, UK at start now from Tata Motors India II

Jaguar XK8 Convertible The Car Spy logo

JAGUAR Cars

Whitley, Coventry, England, UK at start now from Tata Motors India II

  • 1972–1992 XJ12
  • 1986–1994 XJ6 (XJ40)
  • 1993–1994 XJ12 (XJ81)
  • 1995–1997 XJ6 & XJ12 (X300 & X301)
  • 1998–2003 XJ8 (X308)

Jaguar XJ (X308)

This article is about the generation of Jaguar XJ built from 1997 to 2003. For general XJ information, see Jaguar XJ in Part I
Jaguar XJ (X308)
1998-03 Jaguar X300 front

A Sovereign variant
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Also called Jaguar Sovereign
Jaguar XJ Executive
Jaguar XJ Sport
Jaguar XJ8
Jaguar XJR
Daimler Eight
Daimler Super V8
Production September 1997—December 2002
Assembly Coventry, England
Designer Geoff Lawson (1995)
Body and chassis
Class Luxury vehicle
Body style 4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine 3.2 L Jaguar AJ-V8
4.0 L Jaguar AJ-V8
4.0 L supercharged Jaguar AJ-V8
Transmission 5-speed automatic ZF 5HP24

Mercedes-Benz W5A580 Mercedes-Benz 5G-Tronic transmission (Supercharged models only) 1998-2002

Dimensions
Wheelbase SWB: 112 in (2,800 mm)
LWB: 116 in (2,900 mm)
Length SWB: 197 in (5,000 mm)
LWB: 201 in (5,100 mm)
Width 69 in (1,800 mm)
Height SWB: 51 in (1,300 mm)
LWB: 52 in (1,300 mm)
Curb weight SWB: 3,968 lb (1,800 kg)
LWB: 4,134 lb (1,875 kg)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar XJ (X300)
Successor Jaguar XJ (X350)

The Jaguar XJ (X308) is a luxury saloon manufactured and sold by Jaguar Cars between 1997 and 2003. It is an evolution of the outgoing X300 platform, and the exterior styling is nearly identical between the two generations. The major change was the introduction of Jaguar’s AJ-V8 as the only available engine. Like all previous XJ generations, it features the Jaguar independent rear suspension arrangement.

Exterior

The X308 kept much of the same exterior styling as its predecessor, carrying its rounded four-headlamp bonnet, low roofline, sloping tail, and wrap-around rear light clusters. From the front, the two generations can be differentiated by the shape of the indicator lenses (rectangular on the X300, oval on the X308), and also by the shape of the fog lamps and lower valance air intake (both of which are more rounded on the X308). The front and rear bumpers were both changed along with the taillights which had red/clear lenses rather than red/grey lenses. The grill surround and badging was slightly changed. The headlight fixtures also included forward parking lights housed with the brights, new to X308.

Interior

The instrument binnacle of the XJ40 and X300 was replaced on the X308 with three large, separate gauges set into recesses in the curved dashboard. Door trim and the design of the center console were also slightly revised.

Mechanicals

Having discontinued production of both the AJ16 inline-six and V12 engines, Jaguar offered only its newly designed V8 engine (named the AJ-V8.) It was available in either 3.2 L or 4.0 L form, although certain markets (such as the United States) only received cars powered by the 4.0 L version. The 4.0 L version was also supercharged in certain models.

Engine Power Torque Transmission
3.2 L 240 bhp (179 kW; 243 PS) 233 lb·ft (316 N·m) ZF 5HP24
4.0 L 290 bhp (216 kW; 294 PS) 290 lb·ft (390 N·m) ZF 5HP24
4.0 L supercharged 370 bhp (276 kW; 375 PS) 387 lb·ft (525 N·m) Mercedes-Benz 5G-Tronic W5A580

No manual gearbox or limited slip differential option were available for any models. Computer-controlled active suspension was available as a feature named “Computer Active Technology Suspension” (CATS).

Models

As with previous generations of the XJ, base models were generally not offered outside of the UK home market. Also, instead of the Daimler marque being used in certain markets, the equivalent “Vanden Plas” models were sold under the Jaguar name.

XJ8

The base XJ8 came standard with more equipment than had been fitted to entry-level XJs in the past, including leather upholstery, alloy wheels, and air conditioning. The door mirrors and door handles are body-coloured. The radiator grille, windscreen and rear window surrounds, boot lid plinth, and rain gutters were chromed, while the window frames remained matte black. Interior wood trim is walnut. Rear badging reads “XJ8”.

For the home market in September 2000, Jaguar began badging the XJ8 model as “XJ Executive”, and fitted as standard rain-sensing wipers, a CD player, cruise control, and rear parking sensors.

Sport

Jaguar XJ308 sport variant

Jaguar XJ sport variant

The Sport model was equipped only with the 3.2 L normally aspirated engine, and, in 2002-2003 in the American market with a 4.0 L normally aspirated V8. It offered stiffer suspension, sportier seating and interior colour combinations, and wider/larger wheels than the XJ8. The windscreen and rear window surrounds were painted matte black, as were the rain gutters and window frames for European markets (the US retains chrome surrounds). The radiator grille has metallic grey vertical slats. Rather than a chrome radiator grille surround, the Sport uses a body-coloured surround. Rear badging reads “XJ Sport”.

Sovereign

As with previous “Sovereign” XJ models, this was marketed to those customers who wanted traditional Jaguar luxury features and was essentially “built for comfort”. The interior is trimmed with burl walnut. All the exterior trim is chromed (including window frames, rain gutters, light cluster surrounds, radiator grille surround, and boot lid plinth.) Rear badging reads “Sovereign”.

Jaguar also released a long wheelbase version of the Sovereign in 1998. The only differences were with this variant was that the rear end of the car was approximately four inches longer than its original Sovereign counterpart and came with a 5-high speed gearbox.

XJR

Jaguar-xjr100-knopp

Gear stick in the XJR 100

The XJR is powered by the supercharged version of the 4.0 L V8. It is also equipped with sport suspension, wider wheels and tires, and matte-black exterior window trim (except in the US market, where the XJR was given chrome window frames and rain gutters.) Like the Sport model, the XJR has a body-coloured radiator grille surround, but with a stainless-steel mesh insert rather than the normal vanes. Other exterior touches include the “XJR” rear badging and larger exhaust outlets.

Available on late XJR models was an “R1″ performance option. This included 18” BBS wheels, larger Brembo brakes with cross-drilled rotors, and re-tuned suspension.

The XJR was capable of reaching 60 mph (97 km/h) from a standstill in 5 seconds, with an electronically limited top speed of 155 mph (249 km/h).

In 2001, to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Sir William Lyons‘ birth, Jaguar produced five hundred examples of a special-edition model named the “XJR 100”. Only available in the Anthracite exterior color with charcoal leather upholstery, the interior is trimmed with contrasting red stitching and birdseye maple. It is fitted with a leather-covered sports steering wheel and MOMO shift knob. The XJR 100 uses the Brembo brakes otherwise found on the R1-equipped XJR, plus 19″ “Montreal”-style wheels manufactured by BBS.

SE

Produced only in 2002, the SE (Special Equipment) model was fitted with more equipment than the original base model, and was offered at a competitive price. The rear badging read “SE”, and the cars were fitted with reverse parking sensors as standard.[15]

Daimler/Vanden Plas

Daimler Super V8 (X308) rear

Rear of a Daimler Super V8

The top-of-the-range Daimler marque (sold as the Vanden Plas model in certain markets like the United States) features softer suspension and all available luxury features. They are cosmetically differentiated by the traditional Daimler fluted radiator grille surround and fluted boot-lid plinth.

The Daimler and Vanden Plas cars were also available with the supercharged engine otherwise found only in the XJR. This model was named the Daimler Super V8. In the US market, this combination was available only as a special order though 2001 (with these cars identifiable by their “Vanden Plas Supercharged” rear badging). For US model years 2002 and 2003, the equivalent Super V8 model was then offered. These Supercharged long-wheelbase variants were also fitted with Jaguar’s Proprietary “Computer Active Technology Syetem” (CATS) adaptive suspension. The “Sports” setup from the XJR application, however, is replaced by a “touring” set-up, exclusive to supercharged Daimler and Vanden Plas variants. It is softer and more compliant than the XJR’s Computer Adaptive Technology Suspension system.

Production numbers

Model Production
XJ8 3.2 20,235 (including Executive and SE)
XJ8 3.2 (LWB) 771
XJ8 3.2 Sovereign 2,095
XJ8 3.2 Sovereign (LWB) 385
Sport 1,108
XJ8 3.2 Executive
XJ8 3.2 SE
XJ8 4.0 8,369
XJ8 4.0 (LWB) 148
XJ8 4.0 Sovereign 36,635 (including SE)
XJ8 4.0 Sovereign (LWB) 11,566
XJ8 4.0 SE
XJR 15,203
XJR 100 500
4.0 Vanden Plas (SWB) 1
4.0 Vanden Plas (LWB) 21,080
4.0 Vanden Plas Supercharged 788
Daimler Eight (SWB) 164
Daimler Eight (LWB) 2,119
Daimler Super V8 (SWB) 76
Daimler Super V8 (LWB) 2,387
Total 126,260
  • 2004–2007 XJ (X350)
  • 2008-2009 XJ (X358)
  • 2009–date XJ (X351)

Jaguar XJ (X350)

Jaguar XJ (X350)
2004-2005 Jaguar XJ8 photographed in Alexandria, Virginia, USA. Vanden Plas
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Also called XJ6, XJ8, Vanden Plas, XJR, Super V8, Daimler Super Eight
Production 2003-2007
Assembly Birmingham, England
Designer Geoff Lawson; Ian Callum (1998, 1999)
Body and chassis
Class Luxury vehicle
Body style 4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine petrol
3.0 V6
3.5 V8
4.2 V8
4.2 S/C V8
diesel
2.7 V6
Transmission 6-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase SWB: 119.4 in (3,033 mm)
LWB: 124.4 in (3,160 mm)
Length SWB: 200.4 in (5,090 mm)
LWB: 205.3 in (5,215 mm)
Width 2004-05: 73.2 in (1,859 mm)
2006-07: 83.0 in (2,108 mm)
Height SWB: 57 in (1,448 mm)
LWB: 57.3 in (1,455 mm)
Kerb weight 3,946 lb (1,790 kg)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar XJ (X308)

The third-generation Jaguar XJ (X350) (2003–2007) was a luxury car from Jaguar Cars, introduced in 2003 as the successor of the XJ (X308), and was facelifted as the XJ (X358) in 2007. While the car’s exterior and interior styling were traditional in appearance, the car was completely re-engineered. The new car also saw the return of the fabled XJ6 badge, and with it six-cylinder power, albeit in a V-configuration. It was only equipped with automatic transmission, like most Jaguars.

X350

Specifications

Design and engineering

Like the Audi A8, the X350’s chassis and body were constructed from aluminium. While some steel was used in places throughout the chassis, the X350 has a stressed aluminium monocoque/chassis similar in general design to a conventional steel structure, but with two differences; its underbody components are bonded together with aerospace-grade epoxy adhesives while around 3,200 self-piercing rivets are used to create the new XJ’s unibody.

This differs from the A8’s construction which uses an aluminium spaceframe to which aluminium panels are then attached. However, the aluminium Audi A8 weighs a comparatively high 1,830 kg (4,030 lb) (3.0 V6 TDi) compared to 1,539 kg (3,393 lb) of the (3.0 V6) XJ. On its own, the current XJ’s bodyshell weighs about the same as a contemporary Mini Hatch. If the car were made of steel, it was estimated that it would weigh 40% more.

The new structure, and the need to continually improve the car’s ride and handling, dictated a number of other mechanical changes. The third generation of Jaguar’s rear suspension changed from the previousdouble wishbone layout in favour of a more sophisticated multi-link arrangement. In addition the car has all round adaptive air suspension, just like the Audi A8.

Some of the styling features that distinguish the X350 from the previous XJ include the outer headlights, which are larger than the inner headlights, and wheels which are moved out further towards the corners of the car, both like the original Mark 1 XJ. The car is wider, longer, and higher than the previous model with greatly increased interior space. Also, the X350 dispenses with the separate “sixthlight” rear side window of its predecessor, reverting to two side windows with quarterlight glasses mounted in the rear doors, like the Mark 1. Moreover, beginning in 2004, changes were made to the distinctive chrome side window frames of the XJ, where the use of chrome in the areas in between the front and back doors has been discontinued, in effect hiding the B-pillars. The curve in the rear door and rear screen resembles that of the Jaguar saloons of the 1950s and 1960s.

The vehicle was the first Jaguar to be built using self-piercing rivets.

Engines

2004 Jaguar XJR X350 4.2 litre Supercharged, Black

A 2004 MY UK X350 Model XJR 4.2 litre Supercharged

Model Type Power, torque@rpm
2.7 litre V6 diesel 2.7 L V6 twin turbo 204 PS (150 kW; 201 hp), 435 N·m (321 lb·ft)
3.0 litre V6 petrol 3.0 L V6 238 PS (175 kW; 235 hp)
3.5 litre V8 petrol 3.5 L V8 266 PS (196 kW; 262 hp), 345 N·m (254 lb·ft)
4.2 litre V8 petrol 4.2 L V8 299 PS (220 kW; 295 hp)
4.2 litre V8 petrol supercharged 4.2 L V8 supercharged 395 PS (291 kW; 390 hp)

The V8 engines remained in the new model, but were the revised and more powerful versions found in the 2003 S-Type. The 290 bhp 4.0 L and 370 bhp 4.0 L supercharged engines from the X308 Mk II were replaced by the S-Type’s 294 bhp (219 kW; 298 PS) 4.2 L and 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS) 4.2 L supercharged units respectively, while a new 3.5 L V8 was also introduced for the European market which was derived from the 4.2 L engine and produced 262 bhp (195 kW; 266 PS).

The 240 bhp (179 kW; 243 PS) 3.2 L V8 from the previous model was replaced by the 3.0 L V6 from the X-Type and S-Type. The V6 powers the XJ6, while the XJ8 was powered by a naturally aspirated V8. The XJR was powered by a supercharged 4.2 L V8. The XJ6 and the XJ TDVi are the only X350 models not sold in the Americas.

TDVi

In 2005, Jaguar introduced the diesel-powered XJ TDVi, featuring the same Ford-Peugeot-developed 2.7 litre twin-turbo V6 found in the S-Type. The engine, known as the AJD-V6, produces 204 bhp (152 kW; 207 PS) and 321 lb·ft (435 N·m) of torque, and was fitted with electronically controlled active engine mounts to minimise vibration at idle.

Daimler Super Eight/Super V8

The Super V8, also known as the Daimler Super Eight, was the most expensive model, with the XJR second. The Super V8, which debuted in the 2003 model year in the new X350 body style, was essentially a long-wheelbase, supercharged XJ8 with the more luxurious Vanden Plas, or Daimler interior. Its primary competitor was the Mercedes-Benz S55 AMG. A distinctive wire mesh grille and chrome-finished side mirrors set the Super V8 and the XJR apart from the less expensive XJ saloons. In 2005, the Super V8 model was replaced by the Daimler Super Eight in all markets other than North America. The Daimler Super Eight was essentially the same car, but with the addition of a different grille, boxwood inlays in the wood veneer and several other interior luxuries as standard. Daimler’s US equivalent was no longer known as the Vanden Plas, but the Super V8. The Vanden Plas name was used on models that would be known as Sovereign elsewhere. Daimler has been the State Car for the British Prime Minister since the 1980s.

For 2007, the premium model was the reintroduced Jaguar Sovereign when the Super V8 and Daimler versions were dropped.

North American models

All North American XJ models came standard with a 300 hp (224 kW) naturally aspirated engine. A 400 hp (298 kW) supercharged 4.2 L V8 engine was optional. The valvetrain had a dual overhead cam design with four valves per cylinder. The top speed was limited electronically to 155 mph (249 km/h).

Super V8 Portfolio

In early 2005, Jaguar announced its most exclusive and expensive XJ saloon since ceasing V12 production. Called the 2006 Super V8 Portfolio, it was a limited-edition trim level of the flagship Super V8 saloon. It debuted at the New York International Auto Show in March 2005, and was the most expensive Jaguar saloon produced to date, with a base price of US$115,995. The Portfolio features added power as well as exterior and interior enhancements, including a DVD player and 7-inch screens in the rear headrests. The Super V8 Portfolio, aimed at North American markets, became available in August 2005. It was available in only two new, limited colours: Black Cherry and Winter Gold.

The Super V8 Portfolio was powered by Jaguar’s supercharged 400 hp (300 kW), 4.2 L, 32-valve, AJ-V8 engine. Top speed was 155 mph (249 km/h) and the Portfolio has a 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) acceleration time of under 5 seconds.

Production

The last X350 vehicle was produced in March 2009.

Facelift (X358)

Jaguar XJ (X358)
2008 Jaguar XJ
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover
Also called XJ8, Vanden Plas, XJR, Super V8
Production 2007–2009
Assembly Birmingham, England
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine 3.0 L AJ-V6 V6
4.2 L AJ-V8 V8
4.2 L supercharged AJ-V8 V8
2.7 L TDVi AJD-V6 V6
Transmission 6-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase SWB: 119.4 in (3,033 mm)
LWB: 124.4 in (3,160 mm)
Length SWB: 200.4 in (5,090 mm)
LWB: 205.3 in (5,215 mm)
Width 76.5 in (1,943 mm)
Height SWB: 57 in (1,448 mm)
LWB: 57.3 in (1,455 mm)
Kerb weight 3,946 lb (1,790 kg)
Chronology
Successor Jaguar XJ (X351)

The X350 was facelifted for the 2008 model year, a design unveiled at the end of February 2007. Jaguar gave the car a mildly revised front grille, though still of a similar design to that of the pre-facelift XJ (rather than following the contemporary design language of the Jaguar XF) while the new front bumper assembly featured a prominent lower grille. The Jaguar Logo was changed from the 3D bonnet ornament to the logo of the Jaguar face within the grille that was currently also found on the front of the XK and the XF. The front lights had detail changes while the revised door mirrors incorporated side repeaters. The front wings on all models were remodelled to feature side vents, previously the preserve of the Super V8 Portfolio (and XJR Portfolio in the UK), while the side sills, rear bumper and tail lights were revised.

The interior was only slightly changed from its predecessor, featuring re-sculptured front seats that gave additional support and more legroom in the rear, allowing rear passengers over a metre of legroom.

Specifications

Models

Models Executive Sovereign XJR Super V8
Engines 2.7D, 3.0, 4.2 2.7D, 3.0, 4.2 4.2 Supercharged 4.2 Supercharged
Wheelbase short, long(optional) short, long (optional) short short, long (optional)
Wheels (standard) Carelia 8.5Jx19 alloy Polaris 8.5Jx19 alloy Carelia 8.5Jx20 alloy Carelia 9Jx20 alloy

UK

As of November 2007, the following XJ models were available in the UK:

  • XJ 2.7D Executive
  • XJ 2.7D Sport Premium
  • 3.0-litre Executive
  • 2.7D, 3.0-litre, and 4.2-litre Sovereign
  • 4.2-litre supercharged XJR
  • Daimler Super Eight

These models with the 2.7-litre diesel engine or with the 3.0-litre petrol V6 engine are also known as the XJ6 (since the engines have six cylinders), while the 4.2-litre eight-cylinder petrol engine mounted in the Sovereign results in that model being known as the XJ8. Also notice that the model list for the UK does not include the 3.5-litre V8 engine available in Germany, for example.

Germany

From May 2007, the following models were available in Germany:

  • XJ6 2.7 litre Diesel Classic
  • XJ6 2.7 litre Diesel Executive
  • XJ6 3 litre Executive
  • XJ8 3.5 litre Executive
  • XJ8 4.2 litre Executive
  • XJ6 2.7 litre Diesel Sovereign
  • XJ8 3.5 litre Sovereign
  • XJ8 4.2 litre Sovereign
  • XJR 4.2 litre V8 Kompressor (i.e. the supercharged V8 variant)
  • Daimler Super Eight

USA

From May 2007, the following XJ models were available in the US:

  • XJ8
  • XJ8L
  • XJ Vanden Plas (this model was equivalent to ‘Daimler’ in Europe; the name ‘Daimler’ was not used by Jaguar in the US)
  • XJR
  • XJ Super V8

Notice: the XJ6 and the XJ 2.7D are not available in the US, unlike in Europe. The ‘L’ on the XJ8L badge denotes the long-wheelbase version.

Engines

Model Type (displacement, bore x stroke) power, torque@rpm acceleration (0–100 km/h) (s) top speed
2.7 litre V6 diesel 2,720 cc (2.72 L; 166 cu in) twin turbo V6, 81 mm (3.2 in)x88 mm (3.5 in) 207 PS (152 kW; 204 hp) @ 4,000, 435 N·m (321 lb·ft) @ 1,900 8.2 225 km/h (140 mph)
3.0 litre V6 petrol 2,967 cc (2.967 L; 181.1 cu in) V6, 89 mm (3.5 in)x79.5 mm (3.13 in) 235 PS (173 kW; 232 hp) @ 6,800, 293 N·m (216 lb·ft) @ 4,100 8.1 233 km/h (145 mph)
4.2 litre V8 petrol 4,196 cc (4.196 L; 256.1 cu in) V8, 86 mm (3.4 in)x90.3 mm (3.56 in) 298 PS (219 kW; 294 hp) @ 6,000, 303 N·m (223 lb·ft) @ 4,100 6.6 250 km/h (160 mph)
4.2 litre V8 petrol Supercharged 4,196 cc (4.196 L; 256.1 cu in) V8 supercharged, 86 mm (3.4 in)x90.3 mm (3.56 in) 395 PS (291 kW; 390 hp) @ 6,100, 541 N·m (399 lb·ft) @ 3,500 5.3 250 km/h (160 mph)

Transmission

All models use the same ZF six-speed automatic transmission, XJ6 petrol versions have a lower final drive ratio.

In popular culture

The Jaguar X350 (a facelifted X358) featured in an episode of BBC 2‘s Top Gear, where it drove from Basel to Blackpool Tower on one tank of fuel. Despite the 650-mile (1,050 km) pre-defined range, Jeremy Clarkson, who was driving the car at the time, had actually driven 800 miles (1,300 km), and after examining the tank, had enough fuel to do another 120 miles (190 km), making its range about 1,000 miles (1,600 km). Clarkson then described the car as “astonishing” and “the second most economical car in the world”, finishing just after Richard Hammond in a Polo.

Compact executive

1955-1959 Jaguar Mark 1

Jaguar Mark 1
SONY DSC

Jaguar 2.4 Litre Special Equipment early 1957
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production
  • 1955–1959
  • 37,397
  • (19,992 2.4 Litre)
  • (17,405 3.4 Litre)
Body and chassis
Body style Saloon
Powertrain
Engine 2,483 cc XK I6
3,442 cc XK I6
Transmission 4-speed manual
4-speed manual + overdrive
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 107.5 in (2,730 mm)
Length 181 in (4,597 mm)
Width 66.75 in (1,695 mm)
Height 57.25 in (1,454 mm)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar 2½ Litre saloon
Successor Jaguar Mark 2

The Jaguar Mark 1 is a British saloon car produced by Jaguar between 1955 and 1959. Referred to in contemporary company documentation as the Jaguar 2.4 Litre and Jaguar 3.4 Litre, the word “Saloon” was often added. The designation “Mark 1” was included retrospectively upon its replacement by the Mark 2 in October 1959. The 2.4 Litre was the company’s first small saloon since the demise of its 1½ and 2½ Litre cars in 1949, and was an immediate success, easily outselling the larger Jaguar saloons.

The 2.4 Litre saloon was announced on 28 September 1955. The 3.4 Litre saloon announced 17 months later in USA on 26 February 1957 was designed for the American market and was not at first freely available on the domestic market.

History

In 1951 Jaguar relocated to Daimler’s Browns Lane plant which provided not merely sufficient production capacity for their existing range, but enabled them to move into the middle-weight executive saloon sector, then occupied in the UK by cars such as the stately Humbers, the bulbous Standard Vanguard and the heavy Rover P4. Jaguar’s new 2.4 and 3.4 introduced a modern style and a new level of performance to this respectable company.

Although having a family resemblance to the larger Mark VII, the Mark I differed in many ways. Most importantly, it was the first Jaguar with unitary construction of body and chassis. The independent front suspension featured double wishbones, coil springs, telescopic dampers, and an anti-roll bar, all carried in a separate subframe mounted to the body by rubber bushes (with only minor revisions, this system was used on subsequent Jaguar saloons including early versions of the XJ). The live rear axle used a simplified version of the D-Type suspension, with inverted semi-elliptic springs cantilevered into the main body frame with the rear quarter section carrying the axle and acting as trailing arms. Transverse location was secured by a Panhard rod, the system being a significant improvement over other contemporary Jaguar saloons and sports cars (the reason for the unusual inverted leaf spring arrangement was the same as for the D-Type, to transfer all rear axle loads forward to the unitary body shell. The rear of the car was unstressed). The rear wheel track was some 4.5 in (114 mm) narrower than the front track and looked peculiar from behind, a feature that was blamed (probably incorrectly) for excessive understeer at low speed. It was reported to be better balanced at higher speeds – indeed, the narrower track was deemed to assist high speed straight-line stability and was a feature incorporated in many record-breaking cars of pre and post-War design. Nevertheless, it is probable that the narrower rear track was occasioned by the lack of a suitably dimensioned component from Salisbury, the axle manufacturer.

1955 MHV Jaguar 2.4 Litre with new grille

2.4 Litre with new grille introduced 1957

1957 Jaguar 3.4 automatic

Rear view of 1957 3.4 Litre Automatic

The interior was of similar design to the contemporary Jaguar saloons and sports cars, with most of the dials and switches being located on the central dashboard between the driver and passenger. This arrangement reduced the differences between LHD and RHD versions.

Although its profile was very different from that of previous Jaguars, the side window surrounds and opening rear “no draught ventilator” (quarterlight) windows are reminiscent of Jaguar Mark IV saloons.

At launch the car had 11.125 in (283 mm) drum brakes but from the end of 1957 got the innovative (at the time) option of disc brakes on all four wheels.

The car was available in Standard or Special Equipment versions with the former lacking rev counter, heater (available as an option), windscreen washers, fog lights and cigarette lighter. Both versions did however have leather upholstery and polished walnut trim.

3.4 Litre engine

The Mark 1 was initially offered with a 2.4 Litre short-stroke version of the XK120’s twin-cam six-cylinder engine, rated at 112 bhp gross, but from February 1957 the larger and heavier 3.4 Litre 210 bhp unit already used in the Jaguar Mark VIII also became available, largely in response to pressure from US Jaguar dealers. Wire wheels became available. The 3.4 had a larger front grille for better cooling, a stronger rear axle, and rear-wheel covers (spats) were cut away to accommodate the wire wheels’ knock-off hubcaps. The 2.4 Litre was also given the larger grille. After 200 cars had been built and sent to USA and just prior to the car’s announcement a major factory fire destroyed 3.4 Litre production facilities. See also Jaguar XKSS.

In September 1957 a three-speed Borg-Warner automatic transmission previously an export-only option became available with either engine and Dunlop disc brakes for all four wheels were made available as an optional extra on all Jaguar models except the Mark VIII saloon. 19,992 of the 2.4 and 17,405 of the 3.4 Litre versions were made.

Performance

A 2.4 Litre saloon with overdrive was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1956. It was found to have a top speed of 101.5 mph (163.3 km/h) and could accelerate from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 14.4 seconds. A fuel consumption of 18.25 miles per imperial gallon (15.48 L/100 km; 15.20 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £1532 including taxes.

1959 Jaguar 3.4 Litre (XLK 495)

Very late (1959) Jaguar 3.4 Litre

They went on to test a 3.4 Litre automatic saloon in 1957. This car had a top speed of 119.8 mph (192.8 km/h), acceleration from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 11.2 seconds and a fuel consumption of 21.1 miles per imperial gallon (13.4 L/100 km; 17.6 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £1864 including taxes of £622.

A manual overdrive version of the 3.4 Litre was tested by The Autocar in June 1958. Its 0–60 mph (97 km/h) time was 9.1 seconds, and 0–100 mph (160 km/h) in 26 seconds, little more than a second behind the contemporary XK150 with the same engine.

Racing

Mark I 3.4 Litre saloons competed successfully in many rallies, touring car, and saloon car races, notable drivers including Stirling Moss, Mike Hawthorn, Tommy Sopwith, and Roy Salvadori.

In Australia, David McKay won the 1960 Australian Touring Car Championship at the wheel of a 3.4 Litre “Mark 1” and Bill Pitt won the 1961 Australian Touring Car Championship driving the same model.

Mike Hawthorn

The Jaguar Mark I gained a certain notoriety when on 22 January 1959 former motor racing world champion Mike Hawthorn died in an accident involving his own highly-tuned 1957 3.4 Litre, registration VDU 881, on the A3 Guildford By-Pass in Surrey, England.

Jaguar Mark 2

Jaguar Mark 2, 240 and 340
1963 Jaguar 3,4litre MkII

Jaguar Mark 2 3.4 Litre, first registered 1963
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Also called Jaguar 240 & Jaguar 340
(from September 1967)
Jaguar 3.8 Sedan (US market)
Production 1959–1967 83,976 (Mark 2)
1967–1969 7,234 (240 & 340)
Assembly Coventry, England
Body and chassis
Class Sports saloon
Body style 4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Related Daimler 2.5-V8 / V8-250
Jaguar S-Type
Jaguar 420
Powertrain
Engine 2,483 cc (2.5 L) XK I6
3,442 cc (3.4 L) XK I6
3,781 cc (3.8 L) XK I6 (until 1966)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 107 in (2,718 mm)
Length 180 in (4,572 mm)
Width 67 in (1,702 mm)
Height 58 in (1,473 mm)
Kerb weight 3,174 lb (1,440 kg) 2.4 manual without overdrive
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar Mark 1
Successor not replaced, Jaguar XJ6

The Jaguar Mark 2 is a medium-sized saloon car built from late 1959 to 1967 by Jaguar in Coventry, England. Twelve months before the announcement of the XJ6 they were renamed Jaguar 240 and Jaguar 340. The previous Jaguar 2.4 Litre and 3.4 Litre models made between 1955 and 1959 have been identified as Mark 1 Jaguars since Jaguar produced this Mark 2 model.

Until the XJ, Jaguar’s postwar saloons were usually denoted by Roman Numerals (e.g. Mark VII, Mark VIII) while the Mark 2 used Arabic Numerals, denoted on the rear of the car as “MK 2”.

The XK engine

Adhering to Sir William Lyons‘ maxim of “grace, pace and space”, the Mark 2 was a fast and capable saloon. It came with a 120 bhp (89 kW; 120 PS) 2,483 cubic centimetres (152 cu in), 210 bhp (160 kW; 210 PS) 3,442 cubic centimetres (210 cu in) or 220 bhp (160 kW; 220 PS) 3,781 cubic centimetres (231 cu in) Jaguar XK engine. The 3.8 is similar to the unit used in the 3.8 E-Type (called XKE in the USA), having the same block, crank, connecting rods and pistons but different inlet manifold and carburation (two SUs versus three on the E-Type in Europe) and therefore 30 bhp (22 kW) less. The head of the six-cylinder engine in the Mark 2 had curved ports compared to the straight ports of the E-Type configuration. The 3.4 Litre and 3.8 Litre cars were fitted with twin SU HD6 carburettors and the 2.4 Litre with twin Solex carburettors.

Some explanation is required concerning the claimed bhp figures shown above. Jaguar used gross bhp figures throughout the production period of the Mk II and 240/340 models. A direct conversion into DIN bhp is not possible, but we know that the 3.8 Mk II engine developed around 190bhp DIN.This compares with the later 4.2 XJ6 engine which also gave around 190bhp DIN or 245 gross bhp, according to Jaguar, both being for 8:1 compression engines. The explanation was that the lower peak for the XJ6 4.2 engine meant that the bhp was being delivered at less rpm, for the same output.The camshaft timing and inlet and exhaust valve sizes were the same for the 2.4,3.4,3.8 Mk II and XJ6 4.2 engines, so the engines throttled themselves sooner in the bigger engine sizes. The later 4.2 XJ6 engines had special induction pipes, to reduce exhaust emissions, that crossed over between the inlet and exhaust sides of the engine, which reduced bhp to around 170bhp on later production.

Body

Compared to the Mark 1, appearance of the car was transformed by an increase of 18% in cabin glass area greatly improving vision. The car was re-engineered above the waistline, slender front pillars allowed a wider windscreen and the rear window almost wrapped around to the enlarged side windows now with the familiar Jaguar D-shape above the back door and fully chromed frames for all the side windows. The radiator grille was amended and larger side, tail and fog lamps repositioned. Inside a new heating system was fitted and ducted to the rear compartment (although still notoriously ineffective). There was an improved instrument layout that became standard for all Jaguar cars until the XJ series II of 1973.

Mechanical changes

The front suspension geometry was rearranged to raise the roll centre and the rear track widened. Four-wheel disc brakes were now standard. Power steering, overdrive or automatic transmissions could be fitted at extra cost. The 3.8 Litre was supplied fitted with a limited-slip differential.

The Mark 2 was over 100kg heavier than the 2.4 / 3.4 cars.

Daimler 2.5 V8 and V8-250

1967 Daimler 2.5 V8 grille

1967 Daimler 2.5 V8 grille

Main article: Daimler 250

A popular luxury derivative fitted with Daimler’s own 142 bhp (106 kW; 144 PS) 2½-litre V8 it sold well from 1962 to 1967 as a Daimler 2.5 V8. In late 1967 it was re-labelled V8-250 to match Jaguar 240. As well as being significantly more powerful than the 2.4-litre XK6 the more modern Daimler engine was lighter by about 150 lb (68 kg) and also shorter which reduced the mass over the front wheels and so reduced understeer during hard cornering.

These cars were recognisable by the characteristic Daimler wavy fluting incorporated in the chrome radiator grille and rear number plate lamp cover, their smoothness and the sound of their V8 engine. They were given distinct exterior and luxury interior fittings.

240 and 340

1968 Jaguar 340

1968 Jaguar 340

In September 1967 the 2.4 Litre and 3.4 Litre Mark 2 cars were rebadged as the 240 and 340 respectively. The 3.8 Litre model was discontinued. The 240 and 340 were interim models intended to fill the gap until the introduction of the XJ6 in September 1968. The 340 was discontinued on the introduction of the XJ6 but the 240 continued as a budget priced model until April 1969; its price of £1364 was only £20 more than the first 2.4 in 1956.

Output of the 240 engine was increased from 120 bhp (89 kW; 120 PS) @ 5,750 r.p.m. to 133 bhp (99 kW; 135 PS) @ 5,500 r.p.m. and torque was increased. It now had a straight-port type cylinder head and twin HS6 SU carburettors with a new inlet manifold. The automatic transmission was upgraded to a Borg-Warner 35 dual drive range. Power steering by Marles Varamatic was now available on the 340. Servicing intervals were increased from 2,000 miles to 3,000 miles. There was a slight reshaping of the rear body and slimmer bumpers and over-riders were fitted. For the first time the 2.4 litre model could exceed 100 mph, resulting in a slight sales resurgence.

The economies of the new 240 and 340 models came at a cost – the leather upholstery was replaced by Ambla leather-like material and tufted carpet was used on the floor—though both had been introduced on the Mark 2 a year earlier. Other changes included the replacement of the front fog lamps with circular vents and optional fog lamps for the UK market. The sales price was reduced to compete with the Rover 2000 TC.

Production

Jaguar MK2 Four forward speeds and (electric) overdrive

Four forward speeds and (electric) overdrive

Mark 2: 83,976 produced between 1959 and 1967, split as follows:

2.4 Litre – 25,173
3.4 Litre – 28,666
3.8 Litre – 30,141

240 and 340: 7,246 produced between 1967 and 1969, split as follows:

240 – 4,446
340 – 2,788
380 – 12 (not a standard production option)

The XJ6 was introduced in September 1968.

Performance

A 3.4 Litre with automatic transmission tested by The Motor magazine in 1961 had a top speed of 119.9 mph (193.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 11.9 seconds. A touring fuel consumption of 19.0 miles per imperial gallon (14.9 L/100 km; 15.8 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £1951 including taxes of £614.

A 3.8 Litre with the 220 bhp engine was capable of accelerating from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 8.5 seconds and could reach a top speed of 125 mph (201 km/h).

Motorsport

Influence on modern Jaguars

The Mark 2’s body lines, derived from the Mark 1, and overall layout proved sufficiently popular over time to provide an inspiration for the Jaguar S-Type introduced in 1999.

Portrayal in media

Jaguar Mark 2

Jaguar Mark 2

The Mark 2 gained a reputation as a capable car among criminals and law enforcement alike; the 3.8 Litre model being particularly fast with its 220 bhp (164 kW) engine driving the car from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 8.5 seconds and to a top speed of 125 mph (201 km/h) with enough room for five adults. Popular as getaway cars, they were also employed by the police to patrol British motorways.

The Mark 2 is also well known as the car driven by fictional TV detective Inspector Morse played by John Thaw; Morse’s car was the version with 2.4 L engine, steel wheels and Everflex vinyl roof. In November 2005, the car used in the television series sold for more than £100,000 following a total ground-up rebuild (prior to this, in its recommissioned state in 2002 after coming out of storage, it had made £53,000 at auction – £45,000 more than an equivalent without the history). In the original novels by Colin Dexter, Morse had driven a Lancia but Thaw insisted on his character driving a British car in the television series.

In the 1987 British film Withnail and I, a light-grey Mark 2 in very poor condition serves as the main transport for the eponymous main characters’ disastrous trip to the Lake District.

Jaguar S-Type (1963)

Jaguar S-Type
(1963–68)
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1963–1968
3.4-litre S-Type – 9,928
1963–1968
3.8-litre S-Type – 15,065
Body and chassis
Class Sports saloon
Body style 4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Related Jaguar Mark X
Powertrain
Transmission 4-speed manual; 4-speed manual/overdrive; or 3-speed automatic options available
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107 in)
Length 4,750 mm (187 in)
Width 1,683 mm (66 in)
Height 1,416 mm (56 in)
Curb weight 1,625 kg (3,583 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar Mark 2
Successor Intended Jaguar 420
Actual Jaguar XJ6

The Jaguar S-Type is an automobile which was produced by Jaguar Cars in the United Kingdom from 1963 to 1968. It was a technically more sophisticated development of the Jaguar Mark 2, offering buyers a more luxurious alternative to the Mark 2 but without the size and expense of the Mark X. The S-Type sold alongside the Mark 2, as well as the Jaguar 420 following its release in 1966. The 1960s S-Type should not be confused with the retro-styled Jaguar S-Type sold from 1999 to 2008.

History

The Jaguar Mark 2 was introduced in 1959 and sold throughout most of the 1960s. It had a live rear axle and was powered by the XK six-cylinder engine first used in the Jaguar XK120 of 1948. In the Mark 2 the engine was available in 2.4, 3.4 and 3.8-litre capacities.

In 1961 Jaguar launched two new models. The full size Jaguar Mark X saloon (pronounced mark ten) used Jaguar’s new independent rear suspension and a triple SU carburettor version of the 3.8-litre XK engine. The other new car for 1961 was the Jaguar E-Type sports car, which shared the same 3.8-litre engine as the Mark X but used a scaled down version of the independent rear suspension.

Having released the Mark X, with its many technical refinements, Jaguar boss Sir William Lyons expected the Mark 2 would need updating with similar features if it was to retain its place in the market. Accordingly, work began on developing the S-Type (codenamed “Utah Mk III”, the Mark 2 having been “Utah Mk II”) as soon as development work was finished on the Mark X.

The S-Type was a major redevelopment of the Mark 2. It used a mid-scale version of the Mark X independent rear suspension to replace the Mark 2’s live rear axle and featured longer rear bodywork, among other styling and interior changes. The S-Type was available with either 3.4 or 3.8-litre XK engines but only in twin carburettor form because the triple carburettor setup would not fit into what was essentially still the Mark 2 engine bay.

By the time of the S-Type’s release in 1963, the Mark 2 remained an unexpectedly strong seller despite its age. Although the Mark X was selling less well than hoped, especially in its intended market of the USA, Sir William decided to retain all three models in the Jaguar range concurrently. The Mark X was renamed “420G” in 1966 and was joined by another new model, the 4.2-litre 420. The 420 was developed to replace the S-Type but because some demand remained for the S-Type, all four saloon models (Mark 2, S-Type, 420 and 420G) remained on sale until the arrival of the Jaguar XJ6 in 1968. The XJ6 replaced all but the 420G in the Jaguar range.

Development

engines

No new engines were developed for the S-Type. It was first released with the SU HD-8 twin-carburettor variant of the 3.8-litre XK engine, the same as that which powered the 3.8-litre Mark 2. The 3.8-litre was the only engine offered on S-Types sold into the US market.

The lower powered 3.4-litre S-Type used the same 3.4-litre engine as the Mark 2. It was released a few months after the 3.8S and was not made available at any stage on Jaguar’s press demonstrator fleet in the UK. Whereas the 3.4-litre version remained the most popular engine option for the Mark 2, the 3.8-litre S-Type outsold the 3.4 S in the ratio 3 to 2, this despite the 3.8 S being discontinued in mid-1968, a couple of months before the 3.4S.

Mechanical

Despite the S-Type’s weight gain of 152 kg (335 lb) over the Mark 2, no changes were deemed necessary to the Dunlop four-wheel disc braking system.

Major changes were made to the S-Type’s steering system. The Burman power steering system in the Mark 2, with its 4.3 turns lock-to-lock, was regarded as being excessively low geared and lacking in road feel. In the S-Type it was replaced by a higher-geared Burman unit of 3.5 turns lock-to-lock, which linked the input shaft and hydraulic valve by a torsion spring to improve its “feel”.

The heating and ventilating system of the Mark 2 was not considered adequate for the more upmarket S-Type and was replaced with an improved system. Separate control of ventilation direction was provided for both driver and front seat passenger. Warm air could also be directed to the rear passengers through an outlet situated on the propeller shaft tunnel cover between the two front seats.

Suspension

A key element of the Mark X that Jaguar wanted to include in the S-Type was its sophisticated, and by then widely acclaimed, Jaguar independent rear suspension. The suspension was a revelation at the time of its introduction, and remained the benchmark against which others were judged until the 1980s. Essentially a double wishbone setup, it uses the driveshaft as the upper wishbone. It carries the drive, braking, suspension and damping units in a single fabricated steel crossbridge, which is isolated from the bodyshell by rubber blocks. Including this suspension in the S-Type necessitated the development of a new crossbridge suitable for its 54″ track, coming as it did between the 58″ track of the Mark X and 50″ track of the E-Type.

The S-Type used the same subframe mounted, coil sprung, twin wishbone front suspension as the Mark 2.

Styling

1966 Jaguar S-Type 3.8

Rear 3/4 view of 1966 Jaguar S-Type 3.8

Sir William wanted to introduce some of the Mark X’s sleeker and sharper lines into the S-Type but with limited time and money available, most effort was applied to restyling the rear bodywork. The S-Type was given extended rear bodywork similar to that on the Mark X, which also gave it a much larger boot than the Mark 2. Relatively minor changes were made to the frontal styling of the car in an attempt to balance the longer rear styling, but the overall effect at the front was still very rounded. The only change made to the centre section was to flatten and extend the rear roofline, which made the car look larger and helped to give rear seat passengers slightly more headroom.

The styling of the S-Type was regarded by many of those who worked on it as being not altogether successful. The mismatch between the horizontal lines of its rear styling and the rounded front was least flattering when viewing the car from the front quarter. This ref. quotes Cyril Crouch, Assistant Chief Body Engineer at Browns Lane during development of the S-Type, as saying “We ourselves appreciated what an ugly looking car it was, and when it came out there was a … ‘Is that the best you can do?’ sort of thing! People like myself had to take the stick for producing such an abomination! Perhaps I shouldn’t call it that, but I think everyone was very pleased to see the end of the S and move on to the 420. It seemed an odd-looking vehicle.”

The reasonable sales success of the S-Type prior to the release of the Jaguar 420 suggests that not everyone was as offended by its styling as Mr Crouch. Nevertheless, the 420 did “finish the job” in a styling sense by adding to the car a squarer, four-headlamp front end more like that of the Mark X.

Among the significant styling changes between the Mark II and the S-Type were: the tail was extended, with styling features similar to the Mark X, but scaled down; the Mark 2’s spats over the rear wheels were deleted and the rear guards reshaped and brought lower over the wheels; new slimline bumpers were used front and rear, the front bumper still featuring a dip to reveal the full depth of the radiator grille; wraparound indicators and low mounted sidelights were added at the bottoms of the front wings; the foglamps were recessed more deeply into the wing fronts; the grille was given a thicker surround and centre bar; the headlamps were given a small peak, making the car look longer and thus going some way towards balancing the longer tail; the roofline was lowered, made flatter and extended rearwards slightly; and the rear window became larger and more upright.

Bodyshell

Starting with the Mark 2’s unitary bodyshell, Jaguar’s engineers had to alter it to accommodate the independent rear suspension’s extra bulk and weight and to extend the rear bodywork. Structural changes at the front were minimal and no changes at all were made to the inner scuttle, windscreen or dashboard structure.

Among the significant structural differences between the Mark 2 and S-Type are: the reprofiled roof line resulted in the B-pillar being approximately 1″ (25.4 mm) lower and the rear window aperture being larger and more upright; the Mark 2’s underbody reinforcing rails were extended to the rear of the car and enclosed, sweeping up and over the space for the rear suspension assembly; the boot floor was double-skinned and ribbed for additional strength; the spare wheel well was relocated centrally in the boot floor (it was on the right in the Mark 2); the lid of the new longer boot (trunk) was secured by two catches rather than the single catch of the Mark 2; the 12-gallon (14 US gal) fuel tank was removed from under the boot floor and replaced by two 7-gallon (approx. 8 US gal) tanks, one inside each rear wing; new front wings were made to carry the frontal styling changes listed above; new attachment points were made for the new wings and bumpers; and new wheelarches were made to match the new front guards and rear structure.

Interior

The S-Type’s interior again reflected the styling of the Mark X but included features particular to the S-Type. Changes to the rear seat accommodation gave the impression of far greater room than in the rear of a Mark 2 and changes to the front of the cabin also gave the impression of greater luxury.

Interior differences between the Mark 2 and S-Type included a scaled down Mark X Burled Belgian walnut veneer dashboard with a burled walnut pull-out drinks tray below the centre section, the veneer extending to the dashboard centre section, which in the Mark 2 had been covered with black vinyl; a full width parcel tray was fitted below the dashboard; new controls were provided to go with the improved heating and ventilation system; the front seats were widened to give the appearance of being almost full width, and each was provided with an inboard armrest; the centre console was redesigned to suit the wider front seats and rear compartment heating arrangements; the door trims were given horizontal fluting; Mark X type armrests were added to the front doors along with an elasticated map pocket; the rear doors were given new armrests with a flip-top ashtray and magazine pocket; the front seats were given a new fore and aft adjustment mechanism that raised the rear of the seat as it was moved forwards; the backs of the front seats were made thinner to the benefit of rear seat passenger legroom, and the rear seat had a 50 mm (2.0 in) thinner squab and its backrest was more steeply angled, further benefitting headroom already enhanced by the slightly higher rear roofline. These changes did, however, leave longer legged rear seat passengers in a fairly uncomfortable ‘knee-high’ posture.

Performance

A contemporary road test by Autosport magazine was typical in describing the “on paper” performance of the 3.8 S-Type as slower than the 3.8-litre Mark 2 but its actual cross country performance as faster. Despite its extra weight, the S-Type’s independent rear suspension allowed it to corner faster than the Mark 2, especially on uneven surfaces. Other benefits ascribed to the rear suspension were better traction and a much smoother ride for rear seat passengers. Some enthusiasts rued the loss of the Mark 2’s “driftability” and noted that the S-Type suffered more body roll during high speed cornering but the consensus was that the S-Type provided significant improvements over the Mark 2 in roadholding, safety and ride comfort.

Car and Driver concluded its test report on a 3.8S with these words, It can be a convenient family car, a businessman’s express, a sports coupe, and a grand tourer. The latter two classifications come particularly clear to anyone who spends much time with the car in the wet, when the sure-footedness of its all independent suspension and the Dunlop RS-5 tires makes its responsive handling an absolute revelation. The S-Type represents a great step forward for what has always been a fine automobile.” The RS-5 cross-ply tyres were soon to be replaced by much better Dunlop SP41 radials, further enhancing the car’s handling and grip.

Recorded performance figures obviously differed between testers and gearbox options but for the purposes of comparison, the following contemporary data are typical:

3.4 Mark 2 automatic
0–60 mph 10.0 sec
Max speed 118 mph (190 km/h)

3.4S manual/overdrive
0–60 mph 13.9 sec
Max speed 115 mph (185 km/h)

3.8S manual/overdrive
0–60 10.3 sec
Max speed 125 mph (201 km/h)

3.8S automatic
0–60 mph 11.5 sec
Max speed 116 mph (187 km/h)

Production developments

Several significant changes were made to the S-Type’s interior and mechanicals during its six years in production.

Of the various performance enhancing mechanical changes, most were applied to both the 3.4S and 3.8S at the same time. These were:

  • In June 1964 the original Dunlop RS5 cross-ply tyres were replaced with Dunlop SP41 radials, removing the former’s tendency to squeal under hard cornering and providing higher limits of adhesion with more gradual breakaway at the limit.
  • In October 1964 the brakes were given a bigger servo, requiring lower pedal pressures.
  • Also in October 1964, the Moss four-speed manual gearbox with no synchromesh on first gear was replaced with Jaguar’s own all-synchromesh four-speed gearbox. Revised gear ratios improved acceleration and a more compact Laycock A-type overdrive unit was fitted (when the overdrive option was specified)
  • A very few of the last S-Types built had the same Marles Varamatic variable ratio power steering that was available on the 420 and 420G.

The only production development not shared by both the 3.4S and 3.8S was that the Powr-Lok limited slip differential option ceased to be available on the 3.4S when the 1967 cost saving trim revisions were introduced.

In 1966 a dashboard switch was provided for the heated rear window, which had previously remained “on” as long as the ignition was on, leading to instances of flat batteries.

Sales performance

Jaguar S-Type (opalescent silver blue metallic)

Jaguar 3.4S in factory opalescent silver blue

Though introduced in 1963, only a small number of S-Types was produced in that year. The S-Type did not manage to overtake the Mark 2’s production figures until 1965. It repeated the feat in 1966, the year in which the Jaguar 420 and its badge-engineered partner the Daimler Sovereign were introduced. In 1967 the 420/Sovereign outsold both the S-Type and the Mark 2, despite a resurgence in the latter’s sales that year. Both the Mark 2 and 420/Sovereign easily outsold the S-Type in 1967 and 1968. Sales of the S-Type in 1968, its last year of production, fell below four figures. Top seller in 1968 was actually the venerable Mark 2, potential buyers of both the S-Type and 420/Sovereign hanging back to wait for the new Jaguar XJ6.

Introduced late in 1968, the Jaguar XJ6 was slightly larger than the S-Type and 420/Sovereign and swept them both from the Jaguar range along with the Mark 2. The 420G continued to be available until 1970.

Production figures for each year of the S-Type’s life were:
1963 – 43
1964 – 7,032
1965 – 9,741
1966 – 6,260
1967 – 1,008
1968 – 909

Specifications

Engine Jaguar 6-cylinder in-line, iron block, alloy head
Capacities 3.4 L (3442 cc) or 3.8 L (3781 cc)
Bore/Stroke 3.4 L (83 mm x 106 mm) or 3.8 L (87 mm x 106 mm)
Valves DOHC 2 valves per cylinder
Compression Ratio 8:1 (7:1 and 9:1 optional)
Max. Power 3.4 L 210 bhp (157 kW; 213 PS) @ 5500 rpm or 3.8 L 220 bhp (164 kW; 223 PS) @ 5500 rpm
Max. Torque 3.4 L 216 lb·ft (293 N·m) @ 3000 rpm or 3.8 L 240 lb·ft (325 N·m) @ 3000 rpm
Carburettors Twin SU HD6 (1.75 in)
Suspension Front independent, with wishbones, coil springs with telescopic dampers and anti-roll barRear independent, with lower wishbone and driveshaft as upper link, radius arms and twin coil springs with telescopic dampers
Steering Recirculating ball, worm and nut; power assistance optional
Brakes Servo assisted discs on all four wheels, inboard at rear
Body/Chassis Monocoque bodyshell with bolted front subframe, five-seater saloon, front-engine rear-wheel drive
Tyres/Wheels 6.40 x 15 crossply or 185 x 15 radial, 5.0in rim, five-stud disc wheels with wire spoke optional
Track Front=1,403 mm (55 in) Rear=1,378 mm (54 in)

Scale Models

The S-type was modelled by Spot-on in the 1960s.

Neo Scale Models currently produce a 1:43 resin moulded model of the 3.4 S-Type.

  • 1966–1968 420

Jaguar 420 and Daimler Sovereign (1966–69)

Jaguar 420 and Daimler Sovereign
(1966–69)
1968 Jaguar 420 (gold) and 1967 Daimler Sovereign (blue)

1968 Jaguar 420 (left) and 1967 Daimler Sovereign (right)
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1966–68
Jaguar 420: 10,236
1966–69
Daimler Sovereign: 5,824
Body and chassis
Class Sports saloon
Body style 4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Related Jaguar Mark 2
Jaguar Mark X
Powertrain
Engine 4.2 L XK I6
Transmission 4-speed manual (Jag only); 4-speed manual/overdrive; or 3-speed automatic options available
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,727 mm (107 in)
Length 4,762 mm (187 in)
Width 1,702 mm (67 in)
Height 1,429 mm (56 in)
Curb weight 1,676 kg (3,695 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar S-Type
Successor Jaguar XJ6

The Jaguar 420 (pronounced “four-twenty”) and its Daimler Sovereign equivalent were introduced at the October 1966 London Motor Show and produced for two years as the ultimate expression of a series of “compact sporting saloons” offered by Jaguar throughout that decade, all of which shared the same wheelbase. Developed from the Jaguar S-Type, the 420 cost around £200 more than that model and effectively ended buyer interest in it, although the S-Type continued to be sold alongside the 420/Sovereign until both were supplanted by the Jaguar XJ6 late in 1968.

Pedigree

The 420/Sovereign traces its origins back to the Jaguar Mark 2, which was introduced in 1959 and sold through most of the 1960s. The Mark 2 had a live rear axle and was powered by the XK six-cylinder engine first used in the Jaguar XK120 of 1948. The Mark 2 was available in 2.4, 3.4 and 3.8-litre engine capacities.

In 1961 Jaguar launched two new models with the triple SU carburettor version of the 3.8-litre XK engine: the Mark X (pronounced “mark ten”) saloon and the E-Type sports car. Both cars used versions of Jaguar’s new independent rear suspension, the Mark X having a 58-inch (1,500 mm) track and the E-Type a 50-inch (1,300 mm) track. In 1965 the Mark X and E-Type were updated with a new 4.2-litre version of the XK engine, still using triple carburettors.

Meanwhile, in 1963 Jaguar had introduced the Jaguar S-Type as a development of the Mark 2. It used a new intermediate-width, 54-inch (1,400 mm) version of the independent rear suspension in place of the live rear axle of the Mark 2. Other differences from the Mark 2 were extended rear bodywork to provide for a larger boot, a changed roofline for more rear seat passenger headroom, a slightly plusher interior and detail differences around the nose. The S-Type was available with either 3.4 or 3.8-litre XK engines (only 3.8-litre in USA) but in twin-carburettor form because the triple-carburettor setup would not readily fit into what was essentially still the Mark 2 engine bay.

James Taylor suggests four reasons why Jaguar boss Sir William Lyons might have decided to add yet another model to an already extensive Jaguar range:

  • sales of the Mark X were disappointing; the car was widely seen as being too big and cumbersome and a smaller car with similar standards of technical sophistication and luxury he thought could be more successful
  • demands for more luxurious features would add weight to any future models, forcing the drive towards a 4.2-litre-engined compact saloon
  • a combination of the 4.2-litre engine with the compact saloon body was expected to have market appeal
  • aesthetic objections to the controversially styled S-Type were known to be harming its sales

Consequently, Sir William initiated development of a new saloon based on the S-Type, retaining its 54-inch independent rear suspension but adding a twin-carburettor version of the 4.2-litre powerplant and frontal styling more akin to that of the Mark X. The new car was released in August 1966 in the form of two badge-engineered models, the Jaguar 420 and the Daimler Sovereign.

Progress

Styling

Jaguar 420 (side view)

Jaguar 420 (side view)

The starting point for design of the 420/Sovereign was the Jaguar S-Type, which had been in production since 1963 but whose styling had never met with universal acceptance.

In styling terms, the 420/Sovereign was essentially an S-Type with that car’s curvaceous nose made much more linear, the better to match its rear styling (which was not altered). Contouring around its four lamps was relatively subtle, with small peaks over each, and its flat frontage sloped forward slightly. The square grille with central divider matched that of the 420G, (which was the new name given to the Mark X at the time of the 420/Sovereign’s release). The low-set fog lamps of the Mark 2 and S-Type were replaced by a pair of inner headlamps at the same level as the main headlamps. The inner lamps were lit on main beam only. Dummy horn grilles were added below each inner headlamp to break up what would otherwise have been a large expanse of flat metal on either side of the radiator grille. The tops of the front wheel arches were flattened to match the squarer lines of the nose. The slimline bumpers dispensed with the centre dip which had characterised the bumpers of the Mark 2 and S-Type. All this was done to improve the car’s aesthetic balance compared with the S-Type and to create a family resemblance to the Mark X/420G, changes which Sir William could not afford (in either time or money) when the S-Type was designed. No attempt was made to give the 420/Sovereign the same front-hinged bonnet as the Mark X/420G and it retained a rear-hinged bonnet of similar dimensions to those of the S-Type and Mark 2.

Interior

Jaguar 420 interior

Jaguar 420 interior

Changes to the S-Type’s interior to create the 420/Sovereign were driven mainly by safety considerations, with the wood cappings on the doors and dashboard replaced with padded Rexine and a wooden garnish rail on the tops of the door linings. The clock was relocated from the tachometer to the centre of the dashboard top rail, where it was powered by its own battery. The S-Type’s pull out map tray below the central instrument panel was not carried over although the 420 retained the same central console and under-dash parcel tray. The seats of the 420 were of slightly different proportions from the S-Type, although they appeared very similar.

Engine

The 4.2-litre XK engine of the 420/Sovereign was fitted with the straight port cylinder head and 3/8-inch lift cams. Compression ratios of 7:1, 8:1 and 9:1 could be specified according to local fuel quality, the difference being obtained by varying the crown design of the pistons. The engine was fed by just two carburettors and developed a claimed 245 bhp (183 kW; 248 PS) gross at 5,500 rpm, which was 20 bhp (15 kW; 20 PS) less than the triple-carburettor version in the 420G and E-Type. The maximum torque of the engine at 283 lb·ft (384 N·m) was virtually the same as that of the triple-carburettor version yet was achieved at 3,750 rpm rather than 4,000 rpm.

The factory-quoted horsepower rating of 245 bhp (183 kW; 248 PS) was measured using the SAE (gross) system current in the USA at the time the 420/Sovereign was sold there. The SAE (gross) system excluded many accessory drives and often used non-standard induction and exhaust systems and so was replaced by the more accurate SAE (net) system in 1972, long after the 420/Sovereign had gone out of production. Reference states that the DIN horsepower rating of the 1977 USA specification 4.2-litre Series II XJ6 was equivalent to 180 bhp. The DIN system yields horsepower ratings which, for most technical purposes, are the same as those that would be obtained using the SAE (net) system. However, the 1977 test would have included power-sapping emissions equipment not present on the 420/Sovereign. Therefore, the SAE (net) power rating of the 420/Sovereign must have lain somewhere between 180 bhp and 245 bhp.

Mechanical

Jaguar 420 engine bay

Jaguar 420 engine bay

A novel mechanical feature that the 420/Sovereign shared with the 420G was Marles Varamatic power steering, which was offered as an option on the 420 but was standard on the Sovereign. Built by Adwest Engineering Co Ltd of Reading, England, it was a “cam and roller” system in which the non-constant pitch of the cam resulted in a variable steering ratio, with the lowest gearing being at the straight ahead, rising rapidly to either lock. The rise in gearing (equivalent to a drop in ratio from 21.6:1 to 13:1) occurred almost entirely within the first half turn of the steering wheel from the straight-ahead position. The effect was to give very light and relaxed steering at the straight ahead, with quick reaction when cornering. There was no adjustment in the behaviour of the steering in reaction to road speed. A very few of the last S-Types were similarly equipped.

Other mechanical refinements the 420/Sovereign had over the S-Type included:

  • replacement of the Borg Warner Type 35 automatic transmission with the stronger Model 8
  • a more efficient cross-flow radiator in place of the S-Type’s smaller vertical flow type
  • a dual-line hydraulic braking system replacing the S-Type’s single line system
  • twin 2-inch HD8 SU carburettors (cf. the S-Type’s twin 1.75-inch HD6 SUs)
  • brake discs featuring a peripheral cast-iron anti-squeal ring
  • a Holset “Torquatrol” viscous coupled engine cooling fan
  • negative earthing, the S-Type was positive earth
  • a pre-engaged starter instead of a Bendix pinion
  • an alternator rather than the S-Type’s dynamo

Performance

Contemporary road tests indicate that the performance of the 420 and Sovereign was very highly thought of.

A Motor (UK) road test in May 1967 reported:

It seems somehow insolent to apply medium [price] standards to a saloon that for a combination of speed, comfort and safety is as good as any in the world, regardless of cost.

A North American perspective was provided by Road & Track, whose December 1967 report concluded:

Jaguar’s big seller in the U.S. remains the E-type sports cars, but the 420 sedan offers just as unique a combination of qualities in its own field. For a reasonable basic price of $5900, Jaguar offers brisk performance, outstanding braking, excellent handling and ride, quality finish, and luxury in abundance, all in an automobile that’s easy to maneuver in today’s maddening traffic.

A road test by Wheels (Australia) in August 1967 enthused:

While they can continue to build and sell cars as good as this, there is hope for the man who cares about his motoring.

In terms of performance measured under test conditions, 0–60 mph in under 10 seconds and a top speed of more than 125 mph (201 km/h) were typical. Such performance figures were superior to those of many of the 4.2-litre XJ6 models that followed. Among the few exceptions the testers took was to its 15–16mpg average fuel consumption, which even for the late 1960s was rather high. Combined with the modest size of its two 7 Imperial gallon (31.75 litre) fuel tanks, such fuel consumption gave the model a touring range of only around 250 miles (403 km).

Daimler

 1967 Daimler Sovereign

Daimler Sovereign

Daimler Sovereign engine bay

Daimler Sovereign engine bay

Where as the Daimler 2½-litre V8 released in 1962 differed from the Jaguar Mark 2 in having a genuine Daimler engine, only the Sovereign’s badging and aspects of interior trim differentiated it from the 420.

The market perception of the two marques Daimler and Jaguar, which the material differences between them sought to foster, was that the Daimler represented luxury motoring for the discerning and more mature gentleman whereas the Jaguar was a sporting saloon aimed at a somewhat younger clientele. In the Daimler model range, the Sovereign filled a gap between the 2½-litre V8 and the larger and more conservatively styled 4½-litre Majestic Major. Prices in the UK of the basic 420 and Sovereign, as quoted in the Motor magazine of October 1966 were:

Manual o/d – Jaguar £1615, Daimler £1724
Automatic – Jaguar £1678, Daimler £1787

In return for the ≈6.5% difference in price, the Daimler purchaser obtained only a few substantive advantages but would have considered the cachet of the Daimler badge to be well worth the extra money; indeed the Daimler name attracted buyers who disliked the Jaguar’s racier image. By the same token, rather than being unable to afford the difference for a Daimler, those who chose the Jaguar are unlikely to have regarded the Daimler as something they would wish to own anyway.

In total, the Daimler differed from the Jaguar in having:

  • a plastic insert on the rear number plate housing bearing the Daimler name. On the 420 the cast number plate housing bore the Jaguar name and on the Sovereign this remained beneath the plastic “Daimler” insert
  • wheel trim centres, horn button, oil filler cap and seat belt clasps carrying the stylised D rather than the title Jaguar, a Jaguar’s head or no badging at all
  • ribbed camshaft covers bearing the inscription ‘Daimler’ rather than ‘Jaguar’, (although earlier versions shared the same polished alloy covers)
  • all of the 420 extras as standard, including a heated rear window, overdrive on manual transmission cars and power assisted steering
  • a flying D mascot at the forward edge of the bonnet in place of the ‘leaping cat’ Jaguar mascot above the radiator grille
  • a fluted radiator grille with stylised D badge in place of the smooth crowned and Jaguar-badged grille
  • arguably more carefully selected and matched walnut veneer trim
  • higher grade Vaumol ventilated leather seat centre sections
  • better quality covers for the sun visors

Differentiation

The larger, Mark X-based Jaguar 420G

The larger, Mark X-based Jaguar 420G

Difficulty in differentiating the 420/Sovereign from other Jaguar/Daimler models has meant that they are less well known than other Browns Lane products of the era. Even some Jaguar enthusiasts are unsure exactly where and when the 420/Sovereign fitted into the Jaguar range.

At the same time as the 420 was released, Jaguar added a chrome side strip and side repeater indicator to the Mark X and a centre bar to its grille. Along with alterations to the interior, these changes were used to justify renaming it the 420G (“G” for Grand). The Motor magazine of October 1966 referred to the 420G as “still one of the best looking large cars in the world today” and commented on the similarity of its new radiator grille to that of the 420. Given the similarity between both the names and frontal styling of the 420 and 420G, the casual observer might be forgiven for mistaking one for the other.

Daimler DS420

Daimler DS420

In 1968 the Daimler DS420 limousine began to be produced, carrying a similarly styled grille to the Sovereign and using the 4.2-litre Jaguar engine in twin carburettor form, and also undergoing final assembly at Jaguar’s Browns Lane factory in Coventry, England. Although this car was based on a modified 420G floorpan rather than that of the 420, the existence of a third Jaguar-manufactured model with “420” in its name provides further scope for confusion.

Similar confusion arises with regard to the Daimler Sovereign. From late 1969 its Series I Jaguar XJ6-based successor continued with the Daimler Sovereign name until 1983, when the “Sovereign” model name was instead applied to the high-specification version of the Jaguar (which by then was into its Series III XJ6 iteration).

Demise

In 1967, its first full year of production, the 420/Sovereign easily outsold the other Jaguar saloon models still in production (the 240 and 340 Jaguar Mark 2s, Daimler 250 V8, Jaguar S-Type and 420G) and effectively ended buyer interest in the S-Type. Nevertheless, relatively few were made in total due to the fact that the Coventry factory stopped making the Jaguar 420 in 1968, just over two years after production began and with just 10,236 produced. The Daimler Sovereign continued into 1969 and 5,824 were sold.

In 1968, 420/Sovereign sales were again well in excess of those of the S-Type and 420G but it was outsold by the resurgent Jaguar Mark 2/Daimler 250. By this time, many potential 420/Sovereign buyers were hanging back to wait for the new Jaguar XJ6. Introduced late in 1968, the XJ6 was slightly larger than the 420 and swept it from the Jaguar range along with the Mark 2 and S-Type, although the Daimler 250 remained in production into 1969 and the 420G lasted until 1970.

The decision by Sir William to base the Jaguar XJ6 on the engine, suspension and approximate dimensions of the 420/Sovereign showed his faith in the 420/Sovereign formula as the best way to rationalise the company’s saloon car range. In that way, the 420/Sovereign became a victim of its own success.

The Jaguar 420 ceased production at Browns Lane in September 1968 and the Daimler Sovereign in July 1969, although CKD (“completely knocked down”) Jaguar 420 kits were supplied as late as November 1968 for assembly by Jaguar Cars South Africa Ltd.

Scale models

As yet, no diecast model of either the 420 or Sovereign has been produced.

  • Airfix produced a 1/32 scale plastic kit of the 420 during the car’s production run.
  • MPC models produced a 1/32 scale plastic kit of the 420 during the 1960s, kit No. 1006-100
  • Neo Scale Models currently produce a 1:43 resin moulded model of the 420 and also a Sovereign version.

Specifications

Engine Jaguar 6-cylinder in line, iron block, alloy head
Capacity 4,235 cc (258.4 cu in)
Bore/Stroke 92.07 mm × 106 mm (3.6 in × 4.2 in)
Valves DOHC, 2 valves per cylinder
Compression Ratio 8:1 (7:1 and 9:1 optional)
Max. Power 245 bhp (183 kW; 248 PS) (SAE Gross) @ 5,500 rpm
Max. Torque 283 lb·ft (384 N·m) @ 3,750 rpm
Carburettors Twin SU HD8 (2 in)
Suspension Front independent, with wishbones, coil springs with telescopic dampers and anti-roll barRear independent, with lower wishbone and driveshaft as upper link, radius arms and twin coil springs with telescopic dampers
Steering Recirculating ball, worm and nut; Varamatic power assistance optional on Jaguar (standard on Daimler)
Brakes Servo assisted discs on all four wheels, inboard at rear
Body/Chassis Monocoque bodyshell with bolted front subframe, five-seater saloon, front engine, rear-wheel drive
Tyres/Wheels 6.40 × 15 crossply or 185 × 15 radial, 5.5 in rim, five-stud disc wheels with wire spoke optional
Track Front=1,410 mm (56 in) Rear=1,384 mm (54 in)
Weight (dry) 1695 kg

Jaguar S-Type

This article is about the modern S-Type. For the classic S-Type, see Jaguar S-Type (1963).
Jaguar S-Type
2004-2007 Jaguar S-Type front

Jaguar S-Type (2004–2007)
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1999–2008
Model years 2000-2008
Assembly Birmingham, England
Taiwan (Ford Lio Ho)
Designer Geoff Lawson(1995)
Ian Callum (2004 Face lift)
Body and chassis
Class Executive car
Body style 4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Platform Ford DEW98 platform
Related Lincoln LS
Powertrain
Engine petrol
2.5 V6
3.0 V6
4.0 V8
4.2 V8
4.2 S V8
diesel
2.7 V6
Transmission 5-speed manual
5-speed automatic
6-speed semi-automatic
6-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 114.5 in (2,908 mm)
Length 2006-08: 193.1 in (4,905 mm)
2002-05: 192.0 in (4,877 mm)
2000-01: 191.3 in (4,859 mm)
Width 2006-08: 81.1 in (2,060 mm)
2000-05: 71.6 in (1,819 mm)
Height 2000-03: 55.7 in (1,415 mm)
2004-05: 56.0 in (1,422 mm)
2006-08: 57.0 in (1,448 mm)
Kerb weight 1,800 kg (3,968 lb)
Chronology
Successor Jaguar XF

The Jaguar S-Type is a model of executive car that debuted at the 1998 Birmingham Motor Show and was marketed by Jaguar for model years 1999-2008, reviving the nameplate of the company’s 1963 S-Type. The S-Type received a mild facelift for model year 2005.

Model history

Overview

The S-Type was produced at Jaguar’s Castle Bromwich facility in Birmingham, England. The car was styled by Geoff Lawson in 1995 and is based on the Jaguar DEW platform/Ford DEW platform, shared with the Lincoln LS.

The first S-Types (“X200” 1999–2002) are distinguished by a U-shaped centre console and optional touch-screen navigation system in the 2003 and later models. The traditional leaping jaguar hood ornament was optional even though it is approved by the US and EU standards and breaks away in the case of an accident. Subsequent models (“X202”, “X204”, “X206”; the last digit denoting the model year) have the Jaguar logo incorporated within the radiator grille and a more traditional ‘looped’ styling for the centre console. In Australia, the “leaper” bonnet ornament did not become available until 2004.

1999–2004 Jaguar S-Type sedan (Australia)

1999–2004 Jaguar S-Type sedan (Australia)

The supercharged S-Type R (Jaguar STR for short) joined the lineup in 2002, and the hope was that it would compete with BMW’s M5 and the Mercedes E55 AMG. The R was powered by the newly revised 4.2-Litre V8 with an Eaton M112 supercharger, producing 400 hp (300 kW; 410 PS) and could accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 5.3 seconds (0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 5.6 s). It included 18-inch (457-millimeter) alloy wheels, wire-mesh grille, and monochromatic paint. The R also has a rear apron, side-skirts, and front apron with built-in fog-lamps, a rear spoiler, a brace located near the rear subframe, and R badging on the boot lid and both front fenders (wings).

Later models of the S-Type R featured a revised pulley system for the Eaton M112 supercharger, allowing it to produce an extra 20 hp (15 kW; 20 PS).

Also added on the 2003 model was an electronic parking-brake paddle-switch that replaced the conventional manually operated lever for the rear brakes. For the 2003 model year, the Jaguar S-type was given a six-speed, automatic ZF 6HP26 transmission as well as a revised 3.0-litre V6 engine with 235 hp (175 kW) (US spec) versus 210 hp (160 kW) for the 1999 to 2002 models. The 2003 model featured a revised dash, centre console, and a grille with the Jaguar badge to give the vehicle a more Jaguar-like appearance, and a flip-open key was devised for the ignition.

A minor facelift on the 2005 model year featured redesigned front and rear aprons, a slightly modified grille, remodeled rear light clusters, an aluminium bonnet, and a new 2.7-litre V6 diesel engine with 207 hp (154 kW). The windscreen washer jets were incorporated into the windscreen wiper arms. There were no changes made to the cabin interior. 2006 to 2008 models featured no fog lights.

Powertrain

The S-Type was powered by a variety of petrol and diesel engines. At launch, the V8 S-Type was powered by the 4.0L Jaguar AJ-V8 engine, the capacity of which was increased to 4.2L in 2002. Variants of this engine are used in Ford, Lincoln, Landrover/Rangerover and Aston Martin models. V6 engines used are the Ford Duratec unit which is used extensively throughout the Ford model range (and in Ford subsidiary companies). The 2.5 L V6 engine was not available for vehicles exported to the United States and Canada. Diesel engines are the Ford/Peugeot 2.7L HDi Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17 which is used in a number of Ford, Peugeot, Citroen, Jaguar and Landrover models.

From model years 1999 to 2002, the rear-wheel-drive S-Type was equipped with either a five-speed manual or a five-speed J-Gate Ford 5R55N transmission . From 2003, the S-Type was produced with either a 5-speed manual transmission or a six-speed J-Gate transmission that allows automatic gear selection or clutchless manual gear selection. The 2004 diesel saw the introduction of a 6-speed manual transmission; it was also available with the six-speed J-Gate automatic transmission.

2006-08 Jaguar S-Type (North America)2006-08 Jaguar S-Type (North America)

Jaguar X-Type

Jaguar X-Type
2004–2006 Jaguar X-Type (X400) SE sedan

Jaguar X-Type Sedan
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 2001–2009
Assembly United Kingdom: Halewood, England (Halewood Body & Assembly)
Designer Ian Callum (estate)
Wayne Burgess (saloon)
Body and chassis
Class Compact Executive
Body style 4-door saloon
5-door estate
Layout Transverse Front engine, front-wheel drive / all-wheel drive
Platform Ford CD132 platform
Related Ford Mondeo
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 5-speed automatic
6-speed automatic
5-speed manual
6-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 106.7 in (2,710 mm)
Length Saloon (’01-’08): 4,672 mm (183.9 in)
Saloon (’08-’09): 4,716 mm (185.7 in)
Estate (’04-’09): 185.5 in (4,710 mm)
Width Body (’01-’09) 70.4 in (1,790 mm)
Overall (’01-’08) 78.8 in (2,000 mm)
Overall (’08-’09) 2,000 mm (78.7 in)
Height Saloon (’01-’08) 54.8 in (1,390 mm)
Saloon (’08-’09) 1,430 mm (56.3 in)
Estate (’04-’09) 58.4 in (1,480 mm)
Chronology
Successor Jaguar XE

The Jaguar X-Type is a compact executive car manufactured and marketed by Jaguar Cars from 2001 to 2009 in a single generation under the internal designation X400. Manufactured at the Halewood Assembly Facility near Liverpool, the X-Type was developed during the period when Jaguar was a division of Ford’s Premium Auto Group, was based on a modified version of the Ford CD132 platform.

The smallest of the Jaguar model range, the X-Type was marketed in sedan/saloon and wagon/estate variants, and was the first estate manufactured in series production by the company.

Description

The Jaguar X-Type, codenamed X400, was launched in October 2001. It was Jaguar’s first compact executive car since the Jaguar Mark 1 of 1955. The X-Type was one of the last to be styled under the supervision of Geoff Lawson, with Wayne Burgess as principal designer.

The four-door saloon was launched in 2001 and in 2004 the five-door estate joined the range. Production of both versions ended in 2009. The estate was officially known as the “Sportwagon” in the United States. It was the first Jaguar model designed by Ian Callum.

Initially, the X-Type was only available with all-wheel-drive and either a 2.5 litre or 3.0 litre V6 petrol engine. In 2002, an entry-level 2.1 litre V6 front-wheel-drive model was added. All three engines were available with either five-speed automatic or five-speed manual transmissions. The X-Type grille was slightly modified for both the 2004 and 2006 model years.

Facelift

Jaguar X-Type estate (2008 facelift)

Jaguar X-Type estate (2008 facelift)

The X-Type facelift was unveiled at the 2007 Canary Wharf Motorexpo. The revised X-Type went on sale internationally during 2008, with UK sales from March. The facelift featured revised front and rear facias, new door mirrors with integrated turn indicator repeaters, the choice of a 2.2-litre diesel with particulate filter and a new six-speed automatic transmission with Jaguar Sequential Shift. The range continued to offer the 2.0-litre diesel, and two V6 petrol engines; 2.5 and 3.0-litre. In some European markets, the petrol engines nolonger marketed.

On 15 July 2009, Jaguar Land Rover announced that it would end production of the X-Type by late 2009, with the loss of 300 jobs, and have a three-week shut down, at their plant in Halewood where the car was built, between September and December. By this time more than 350,000 had been produced.

Special editions

In 2004, the Spirit limited model based on the 2.5-litre V6 featured the ‘Sports Collection’ pack with new spoilers and rear valance. It was followed in 2005 by the XS limited edition, which continued the sports theme, but available with a wider range of engines.

Technical

The X-Type was based on a modified version of the Ford CD132 platform shared with the Ford Mondeo. The X-Type was initially offered as all-wheel drive only and mated to a 2.5 litre and 3.0 litre AJ-V6 petrol engine.

The Jaguar AJ-V6 engine design is unique to the Jaguar X-Type; one notable addition is the use of variable valve timing. The X-Type’s petrol engine is also set apart by the use of SFI fuel injection, four valves per cylinder and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods plus a one-piece cast camshaft and has direct-acting mechanical bucket (DAMB) tappets.

In 2003, the X-Type was also offered in front-wheel drive with the introduction of Jaguar’s first four-cylinder diesel engines (based on the Ford Duratorq ZSD unit from the Mondeo and Transit), and with the smaller 2.1 litre petrol V6. The six-speed automatic transmission supplied on the later 2.2-litre diesel models includes Jaguar Sequential Shift.

Safety

Euro NCAP 2002 X-Type Points Rating
Adult Occupant: 26 out of 36 4/5 stars
Pedestrian Impact: 2 out of 36 1/4 stars
ANCAP 2010 X-Type Points Rating
Overall Score: 26.40 out of 37 4/5 stars
Offset Impact: 10.40 out of 16
Side Impact: 14.10 out of 16
Pole Impact: 2 out of 2
Bonus Points: 0 out of 3
NHTSA 2004 X-Type Rating
Frontal Driver: 4/5 stars
Frontal Passenger: 4/5 stars
Side Driver: 4/5 stars
Side Passenger: 4/5 stars
Rollover 4WD: 4/5 stars (10.5%)

Sales and reception

Jaguar X-Type 2.0D 2004 Sport-wagon facelift dashboard, UK

Jaguar X-Type 2.0D 2004 Sport-wagon facelift dashboard, UK

Jaguar X-Type 3.0 AWD SW

X-Type 3.0 estate, US

In November 2000, managing director Jonathan Browning said Jaguar’s objective was to achieve annual sales of 100,000 with the car, partly by taking market share from established German rivals and partly by expanding the market segment in Jaguar’s key markets. The X-Type was Jaguar’s best-selling model during almost all its production run, but sales did not meet projections, peaking at 50,000 in 2003. In the United States, the car’s primary market, sales dropped from 21,542 in 2004 to 10,941 in 2005. In the same year, Audi sold 48,922 A4s, BMW sold 106,950 3 Series‘ and Mercedes-Benz sold 60,658 C-Class‘.

The X-Type’s sharing of a modified Ford Mondeo platform (shared with the Land Rover Freelander Compact SUV which was also produced at Halewood) wasn’t well received by Jaguar “purists.” The X-Type’s limited powertrain choices also affected its market reception. Initially, the X-type was only available with thirsty 6-cylinder petrol engines coupled to an all-wheel drive system, whilst its key German rivals – the BMW 3-Series, Audi A4 and Mercedes C-Class are sold predominantly in 2-wheel drive form with 4-cylinder petrol or diesel engines, a critical offering in the economy-conscious European market. A 4-cylinder diesel option (with 2-wheel drive) was not offered in the X-Type until several years after its release. Time magazine called the X-Type a “British Cadillac Cimarron” in its “50 Worst Cars of All Time” list, saying its platform sharing made it unpopular.

Jeremy Clarkson of BBC‘s Top Gear lauded the X-Type, especially the 4×4 and sport versions. In two episodes he demonstrated its capabilities in the snow, declaring that it “laughs in the face of the weatherman, the police and the AA, with their advice to stay at home”. Although he gives a different representation of the car being a Ford Mondeo underneath, affirming that this should not put you off, saying that “genetically, you are 98% identical to a halibut, but it’s the 2% that makes the difference”.

Other car magazine and website reviews were largely positive for the X-Type, especially during its introduction. The X-Type used only 20% of Ford Mondeo’s components, while a variety of Ford platforms, engines and components were being used by all models of the Ford Motor Company’s luxury brands in that period, namely Aston Martin, Jaguar and Lincoln. In 2008, Jaguar director of design Ian Callum said that the X-Type “was essentially designed in Detroit and presented as close as a fait accompli to reluctant designers and engineers at Jaguar’s Whitley design centre.”

  • 2008–present XF

Jaguar XF

Jaguar XF
2012 Jaguar-XF-studio
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 2007–present
Assembly Castle Bromwich AssemblyBirmingham, England
Pune, India (CKD)
Designer Ian Callum (2005)
Body and chassis
Class Executive car/Mid-size luxury car
Body style 4-door saloon
5-door estate
Layout FR
Platform Ford DEW98 platform
Related Lincoln LS (2000–2006)
Ford Thunderbird (2002–2005)
Jaguar S-Type (1999–2008)
Powertrain
Engine petrol
2.0 T I4
3.0 V6
3.0 S V6
4.2 V8
4.2 S V8
5.0 V8
5.0 S V8
diesel
2.2 I4
2.7 V6
3.0 V6
Transmission 6-speed automatic

8-speed automatic

Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,909 mm (114.5 in)
Length 4,961 mm (195.3 in) Saloon

4,966 mm (195.5 in) Sportbrake

Width 1,877 mm (73.9 in) (exc. mirrors; 2008-2011)

2,077 mm (81.8 in) (inc. mirrors; 2008-2011)
80.8 in (2,052 mm) (2012-)

Height 1,460 mm (57.5 in)
Kerb weight 1,850 kg (4,079 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar S-Type

The Jaguar XF (codename: X250) is an executive/mid-size luxury car and estate produced by British car manufacturer Jaguar Cars which was first revealed in autumn 2007 as a replacement for the Jaguar S-Type.

Overview

2008 Jaguar XF rear

2008 Jaguar XF

The XF was developed at Jaguar’s Whitley design and development HQ in Coventry and is built at Castle Bromwich Assembly facility in Birmingham. During its development the XF was known by its codename X250.

The XF was launched at the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show, following the public showing of the C-XF concept in January 2007 at the North American International Auto Show. Designed by Jaguar’s design director Ian Callum, it was a significant design change from its predecessor. The styling of the finalised production XF varies from that of the C-XF, most notably around the front lights and nose, which incorporates an oval mesh grille harking back to the original Jaguar XJ of 1968. The boot lid retained the S-Type’s chromed blade to its edge, but also included a “leaper” Jaguar logo as well.

The interior included some unique features such as the air conditioning vents which are flush-fitting in the dash, rotating open once the engine is started, and a rotating gearshift dial called the JaguarDrive Selector which rises out of the centre console. Another departure from the traditional Jaguar cabin ambiance is the use of pale-blue backlighting to the instruments, switchgear, and around major control panels. Some minor systems, such as the interior lighting, are controlled simply by touching the light covers. The glove compartment also opens to the touch. Unusually the XF has no cloth interior option, with even the entry level model being fully trimmed in leather – even areas that have employed plastic on previous Jaguars. Real wood veneers are available, but have been joined by aluminium, carbon fibre and piano black lacquer trims to create a modern look to the passenger compartment.

Customer deliveries commenced in March 2008, with a range of V6 and V8 engines.

Worldwide Sales

Year Sales
2009 26,247
2010 34,368
2011 30,646
2012 34,693
2013 47,422

Facelift (2011)

2011 Jaguar XF sedan facelifted

Facelift Jaguar XF

In April 2011, Jaguar revealed the details of a facelift for the XF at the New York International Auto Show, with manufacturing beginning in July 2011.[

The facelift includes front and rear styling changes which are based on the original Jaguar C-XF concept car, internal trim enhancements, adaptive cruise control, and a new four-cylinder 187 bhp (139 kW; 190 PS) 450 N·m (332 lb·ft) 2.2-litre diesel engine, which is combined with a new eight-speed automatic transmission and stop-start technology to emit 149 g/km CO2 and fuel consumption of 52.3 mpg-imp (5.40 L/100 km; 43.5 mpg-US).

XF models

The XF was launched with a variety of models called, depending on country, ‘SE’, ‘Luxury’, ‘Premium Luxury’ (or ‘Premium’), ‘Portfolio’ (or ‘Premium Portfolio’), ‘SV8’ (or ‘Supercharged’) and ‘R’. For the UK market, company car friendly ‘Executive Edition’ and ‘SE Business’ models with a lower tuned versions of the 3.0 L and 2.2 L diesel engines respectively are available.

XF Supercharged (2009–)

The 2008 4.2-litre supercharged engined was replaced by the new 5.0-litre supercharged engine rated at 470 PS (346 kW; 464 hp), and came with Adaptive Dynamics (computer controlled continuously variable damping) and Active Differential Control (electronically controlled rear differential).

XFR (2009–)

2010 Jaguar XFR

2010 Jaguar XFR

The XFR was announced at Detroit‘s North American International Auto Show in January 2009 as a new performance derivative of the XF range, and featured the new 5.0-litre supercharged AJ-V8 Gen III engine rated 510 PS (375 kW; 503 hp), a revised front bumper and spoiler and 20-inch (510 mm) alloy wheels.

Police car (2009–)

2011 facelift Jaguar XF Sportbrake police car

2011 facelift Jaguar XF Sportbrake police car

A special version of the XF Diesel S was announced in 2009 for the UK police car market, with the first police force orders in 2010. Its emergency vehicle equipment included a roof-mounted light bar with 3,600 light elements, side alley lights, blue and white strobing LEDs in the grille and blue flashing LEDs along the side of the car, blue and red flashing LED lights in the rear light clusters.

XF Sportbrake (2012–)

2013 Jaguar XF Sportbrake

Jaguar XF Sportbrake

The Sportbrake was formally revealed in March 2012, and went on-sale date in October of the same year. It is available with all of the saloon’s engines and has a loading capacity of 550 litres (19 cubic feet) with the seats up and 1,675 litres (59.2 cubic feet) with them folded. The maximum capacity surpasses that of rivals BMW 5-Series Touring, Cadillac CTS Sport Wagon, and the Mercedes-Benz CLS Shooting Brake. The extended roofline increases rear headroom by 48 mm (1.9 inches) and the rear bench includes a 60:40 split and remote-controlled ‘one-touch’ folding function. The load area is fitted with multi-function rails and is 1,970 mm (78 inches) long and 1,064 millimetres (41.9 in) wide.

XFR-S (2013–)

An R-S version of the XF was confirmed in 2012 following on from a picture that Jaguar released shortly before the Los Angeles Motor Show. It uses the same 5.0-litre supercharged V8 engine as the XKR.

The engine produces 550 PS (400 kW) and 680 N·m (500 lbf·ft) of torque. The XFR-S has an electronically limited top speed of 300 km/h and does 0-60 mph in 4.4 seconds. The XFR-S differs from the normal XFR as it has bespoke 20-inch Varuna-design alloy wheels, wider front grills and carbon fibre. The front grills improve aerodynamic efficiency as does the large rear wing. Combined, they cut lift by 68%. At the back there is a rear diffuser and quad tailpipes. The suspension is stiffer by 30% and the electronic differential and stability control are reprogrammed to take the extra power.

Specifications

Aerodynamics

The car body was developed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) before the car ever saw a wind tunnel. Every area from the outer skin to the lightweight, composite undertray to the cooling airflow (even the shape of the exterior mirrors) was optimised using this process. The higher, squarer tail is more efficient aerodynamically than a lower, rounded one, and the XF’s coupé-like roofline and raised bootlid lip improve airflow over the rear of the car.

Chassis

The basic sub-structure of the XF has been carried over from the S-Type, although the body has been stretched to meet crash safety requirements, and heightened to provide additional headroom while still retaining the “saloon within a coupé” proportions. The suspension and mountings are the same as that used on the XK, while the engine line-up is basically similar to that used in the S-Type.

Sound and vibration insulation is provided by the addition of a special underbody tray and engine mounts, a tuned exhaust system, and a double bulkhead between the engine bay and passenger compartment.

Engine specifications

All XF models are automatic and are Euro 5 compliant. The naturally-aspirated petrol 3.0 V6 was discontinued in Europe in 2010, but continues to be sold elsewhere.

Next Green Car (NGC) an organisation that analyses vehicle emissions and rates them from 0 (cleanest) to 100 (dirtiest) – analysed the emissions from Jaguar’s current XF range: ADAC’s EcoTest has also rated three of the diesel engines.

The 2.7-litre V6 diesel engine, replaced in 2009 with a new 3.0-litre V6 diesel AJ-V6D Gen III, came in two states of tune. The diesel engines are a product of the joint venture between Ford and Peugeot-Citroën.

Transmissions

The XF was launched with only an automatic gearbox. The six-speed ZF automatic with torque converter lock-up is programmed to shift 10% quicker than before and is fitted to all petrol engines. Diesel engines are fitted with an advanced eight-speed ZF automatic transmission. On both transmissions the gears can either be selected using a rotary dial that rises from the centre console on start-up or can be manually controlled using paddles behind the steering wheel. An AWD option is available in some left hand drive markets, and is only available with the supercharged 3.0L V6 engine.

Equipment

Sound system

The standard audio system comprises a ten-speaker, 250 W set-up that includes a radio, CD player, WMA and MP3 compatibility as well as USB storage devices.

From 2008 to 2012, there was an optional Bowers & Wilkins (B&W) sound system available. At its core there are 17 speakers which (with the exception of the aluminium high-frequency tweeters) employ B&W’s Kevlar composite speaker cones. Each front door contains a 168 mm (6.6 in) woofer, a 100 mm (4 in) mid-range speaker and a 25 mm (1.0 in) dome tweeter (the latter two wired in parallel with a crossover), while each rear door houses a similar 168 mm (6.6 in) woofer and 25 mm (1.0 in) tweeter. As a centre speaker there is a 100 mm (4 in) full-range driver, similar to the two 100 mm (4 in) full-range ‘surround’ speakers located on the rear parcel shelf. The B&W system has been reviewed by journalists at Autocar magazine, who proclaimed it the best in-car system they have ever heard.

For 2013 models, Jaguar introduced the option of a new Meridian sound system upgrade instead of B&W; with a choice of 380 W 11-speaker or an 825 W surround sound 17-speaker system.

Multimedia interaction

A 7-inch full-colour screen is fitted to the dashboard of all XFs and can be used to control most multimedia systems. The same screen can also be upgraded with analogue and digital television capability. Available as an option is JaguarVoice which allows the driver to speak commands in order to control everything from the sound and navigation systems to telephone calls and the climate control system.

Safety

The XF was crash tested in 2010 by EuroNCAP and it gained a four star rating. The XF’s result was seen as a disappointment by some car magazines. When retested in 2011, the XF turned in improved scores in adult occupant, child occupant and pedestrian areas.

Jaguar XF
Euro NCAP 2010
Jaguar XF
Euro NCAP 2011
Test Points  %
Overall 4/5 stars
Adult Occupant 28 78%
Child Occupant 32 65%
Pedestrian Impact 16 43%
Safety Assist 5 71%
Test Points  %
Overall 4/5 stars
Adult Occupant 28 79%
Child Occupant 36 73%
Pedestrian Impact 22 62%
Safety Assist 5 71%

The Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) also tested the XF and gave it a score of 32.38 points out of 37, giving it an ANCAP rating of 4 out of 5.

Thatcham’s New Car Whiplash Ratings awarded the XF ‘good’ score for Geometric, Dynamic and Overall ratings.

Security

Deadlocks, an alarm and an engine immobiliser are fitted as standard to the XF. The car also locks itself when it reaches a pre-set speed to help protect against carjackings. The XF was tested by Thatcham’s New Vehicle Security Ratings (NVSR) organisation and achieved the following ratings:

NVSR Rating
Theft of car: 5/5 stars
Theft from car: 4/5 stars

Critical reception

Jeremy Clarkson of ‘Top Gear reviewed the XFR during episode 5 of series 13. During the review he said: “I’m not going to, even for a minute suggest that it’s [XFR] better than the M5, but it’s as-good-as. And praise does not get higher than that”. During the same episode The Stig managed a lap time of 1:26.7 s with the XFR, making the XFR only 0.5 s slower than its rival the BMW M5 (1:26.2).

Jaguar speed record

On 7 November 2008, a modified XFR was driven by Paul Gentilozzi of Rocketsports, who prepared the car, to a new Jaguar record of 225.675 mph (363.189 km/h) on the Bonneville Salt Flats. The new record beat the previous Jaguar record of 217.1 mph (349.4 km/h) in an XJ220 in 1992. Changes to the stock vehicle included low-mounted rear spoiler, increased power to 510 PS (375 kW; 503 hp) by a remapped ECU, a modified air intake and exhaust system and revised supercharger settings.

Awards

  • The concept C-XF was awarded 2007 North American Production Preview Vehicle of the Year award.
  • What Diesel? magazine awarded the XF both the Car of the Year and Best Executive Car awards in 2008.
  • In 2009, What Diesel? magazine, for the second year running, awarded the XF both the Car of the Year and Best Executive Car awards.
  • The XF won the What Car? Best Executive Car category again in 2009,
  • The XF won the What Car? Best Executive Car award for the third time in 2010.
  • For the fourth successive year, the XF won the What Car? Best Executive Car award in 2011.
  • In August 2011 the XF was awarded Car of the Decade by Auto Express
  • 2015- Jaguar XE

Sports

  • Jaguar XK120
  • fastest production car in the world in 1949

Racing and competition

Concept models

  • E1A — The 1950s E-Type concept vehicle
  • E2 A — The second E-Type concept vehicle, which raced at LeMans and in the USA
  • Pirana (1967) — Designed by Bertone
  • XJ13 (1966) — Built to race at LeMans, never run
  • XK 180 (1998) — Roadster concept based on the XK8
  • F-Type (2000) — Roadster, similar to the XK8 but smaller
  • R-Coupé (2001) — Large four-seater coupé
  • Fuore XF 10 (2003)
  • R-D6 (2003) — Compact four-seat coupé
  • XK-RR — A high-performance version of last generation XK coupé
  • XK-RS — Another performance-spec version of last generation XK convertible
  • Concept Eight (2004) — Super-luxury version of the long-wheelbase model of the XJ
  • C-XF (2007) — Precursor to the production model XF saloon
  • C-X75 (2010) — Hybrid-electric sports car, originally intended for production but cancelled in 2012
  • C-X16 (2011) — Precursor to the production model F-Type
  • C-X17 (2013) — First ever Jaguar SUV concept
  • Project 7 — a 542 bhp V8-powered speedster based on the F-Type and inspired by the D-Type (2013)

Engines

Jaguar has designed in-house four generations of engines.

Motorsport

See also: Jaguar Racing and Jaguar XJR Sportscars

The Jaguar R5 being driven by Mark Webber in 2004—the team’s last season in F1

The company has had major success in sports car racing, particularly in the Le Mans 24 Hours. Victories came in 1951 and 1953 with the C-Type, then in 1955, 1956and 1957 with the D-Type. The manager of the racing team during this period,Lofty England, later became CEO of Jaguar in the early 1970s. Although the prototype XJ13 was built in the mid-1960s it was never raced, and the famous race was then left for many years.

In 1982, a successful relationship with Tom Walkinshaw‘s TWR team commenced with the XJ-S competing in the European Touring Car Championship, which it won in 1984. In 1985, the TWR XJ-S won the Bathurst 1000 race. In the mid-1980s TWR started designing and preparing Jaguar V12-engined Group C cars for World Sports Prototype Championship races. The team started winning regularly from 1987, and won Le Mans in 1988 and 1990 with the XJR series sports cars. The Jaguar XJR-14was the last of the XJRs to win, taking the 1991 World Sportscar Championship.

In the 1999, Ford decided that Jaguar would be the corporation’s Formula Oneentry. Ford bought out the Milton Keynes-based Stewart Grand Prix team and rebranded it as Jaguar Racing for the 2000 season. The Jaguar F1 program was not a success however, achieving only two podium finishes in five seasons of competition between 2000 and 2004. At the end of 2004, with costs mounting and Ford’s profits dwindling, the F1 team was seen as an unneeded expense and was sold to Red Bull energy drinks owner Dietrich Mateschitz, and it became Red Bull Racing. Since 2004 Jaguar has not had an official presence in motorsport.

Notable Jaguar sports racers:

Electric vehicles

Lotus Cars joined Jaguar, MIRA Ltd and Caparo on a luxury hybrid executive sedanproject called “Limo-Green”—funded by the UK Government Technology Strategy Board. The vehicle will be a series plug-in hybrid.

Facilities

Jaguar Land Rover operations are split between several sites, most of which are used for work on both the Jaguar and Land Rover brands.

Current plants

  • Whitley Engineering Centre – Jaguar Land Rover’s headquarters and a research and development centre. The older part of this plant was acquired from Peugeotin the 1980s, and was formerly a First World War airfield, an aircraft factory and then a missile factory before being sold to the Rootes Group (later Chrysler Europe).
  • Gaydon Engineering Centre – Jaguar Land Rover’s other research and development centre. Formerly an RAF bomber base before being acquired by British Leyland and redeveloped as a vehicle design, development and testing centre. Part of this site is also the Aston Martin headquarters, development centre and factory.
  • Castle Bromwich – Jaguar Land Rover’s main Jaguar assembly plant, producing the XF, XJ, XK and F-Type ranges. Originally an aircraft factory during World War Two – Spitfires were built there, it was later acquired by Pressed Steel Fisher and became a vehicle body assembly works, it came under the auspices of Jaguar through the merger with BMC in the 1960s.
  • Solihull – Jaguar Land Rover’s principal Land Rover assembly plant. This was originally an aircraft engine plant during World War Two, being used for as aRover plant after the war. The Jaguar XE will become the first Jaguar car to be assembled at the facility in late 2014, followed by the Jaguar F-Pace crossover from 2016.
  • Halewood, Merseyside – Now used by Jaguar Land Rover for Land Rover production. Originally a Ford assembly plant (the Ford Escort being its most prolific model) it was given to Jaguar in 2000 for production of the X-Type. Ford still owns the transmission manufacturing operation at Halewood.
  • Wolverhampton Engine Plant – a new £500 million facility located at the i54 site in Staffordshire close to Wolverhampton to build the new Ingenium family of modular diesel and petrol engines. The plant was officially opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on Thursday, October 30, 2014.

Future plants

  • Ryton-on-Dunsmore – Jaguar Land Rover announced that it will build a new Special Vehicle Operations development centre there in 2016. The site was previously used by Rootes for aircraft production plant for World War Two, and later became the Rootes/Chrysler/Peugeot car plant which was closed in 2006 and has since been completely demolished and the site cleared.

Past Jaguar plants

  • Holbrooks Lane, Coventry – by the time Swallow Sidecar Company started using the Jaguar name, they had relocated from Blackpool to Holbrooks Lane in Coventry.
  • Browns Lane – The most well-known site for Jaguar production from 1951, it was progressively run down and replaced by Castle Bromwich. Most of the plant has now been demolished and is now the home of Jaguar Land Rover’s heritage centre.
  • Radford – originally a Daimler bus plant but was later a Jaguar engine and axle plant. Closed by Ford in 1997 when it moved all Jaguar engine production to itsBridgend facility.

Jaguar and the arts

2011 Jaguar Art Project Shadows by Szczesny, Saint-Tropez 2011

Jaguar Art Project “Shadows”, Saint-Tropez 2011

For some time now Jaguar has been active in the international arts scene. In particular, the company has collaborated with the artist Stefan Szczesny, implementing major art projects. In 2011, Jaguar presented the exhibition series “Shadows”, which involved the installation of Szczesny’s shadow sculptures in Sankt-Moritz, on Sylt and in Saint-Tropez. In 2012, a large number of sculptures, ceramics and paintings were shown in Frankfurt (and mainly in Frankfurt’s Palmengarten).

As part of the collaboration with Szczesny, Jaguar has released the “Jaguar Art Collection”.

JAGUAR Cars Whitley, Coventry, England, UK at start now from Tata Motors India I

2012 Logo of Jaguar Cars, released in 2012

Jaguar Cars (/ˈæɡjuː.ər/ jag-ew-ər) is a brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer headquartered in Whitley, Coventry, England, owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since 2008.

Jaguar was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922, originally making motorcycle sidecars before developing passenger cars. The name was changed to “Jaguar” after World War II to avoid the unfavourable connotations of the SS initials. A merger with the British Motor Corporation followed in 1966, the resulting enlarged company now being renamed as British Motor Holdings (BMH), which in 1968 merged with Leyland Motor Corporation and became British Leyland, itself to be nationalised in 1975.

SS Jaguar marque

Jaguar was de-merged from British Leyland and was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, becoming a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until it was acquired by Ford in 1990. Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the British Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being an XJ in May 2010. The company also holds royal warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles.

Jaguar cars today are designed in Jaguar Land Rover’s engineering centres at the Whitley plant in Coventry and at their Gaydon site in Warwickshire, and are manufactured in Jaguar’s Castle Bromwich assembly plant in Birmingham with some manufacturing expected to take place in the Solihull plant.

In September 2013 Jaguar Land Rover announced plans to open a 100 million GBP (160 million USD) research and development centre in the University of Warwick, Coventry to create a new generation of vehicle technologies. The carmaker said around 1,000 academics and engineers would work there and that construction would start in 2014.

History

Birth of the cars

SS Jaguar marque

The original SS Jaguar marque

1935 Jaguar 2½-litre, 68 hp 1935 SS 90

The 2½-litre, 68 hp 1935 SS 90

The Swallow Sidecar Company was founded in 1922 by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and William Walmsley. leading to SS Cars Ltd. In 1935 the SS Jaguar name first appeared on a 2.5-litre saloon, sports models of which were the SS 90 and SS 100.

Cash was short after World War II, and Jaguar sold the plant and premises of Motor Panels, a pressed steel body manufacturing company they had acquired in the late 1930s when growth prospects seemed more secure. The buyer was Rubery Owen. Nevertheless, Jaguar achieved relative commercial success with their early post war models; times were also tough for other Coventry-based auto-makers and the company was able to buy from John Black‘s Standard Motor Company the plant where Standard had built the six-cylinder engines it had been supplying to Jaguar.

1940 SS Jaguar 3½-litre, 125 hp drophead coupé

SS Jaguar 3½-litre, 125 hp
drophead coupé 1940

Jaguar made its name by producing a series of successful eye-catching sports cars, the Jaguar XK120 (1948–54), Jaguar XK140 (1954-7), Jaguar XK150 (1957–61), and Jaguar E-Type (1961-75), all embodying Lyons’ mantra of “value for money”. The sports cars were successful in international motorsport, a path followed in the 1950s to prove the engineering integrity of the company’s products.

Jaguar’s sales slogan for years was “Grace, Space, Pace”, a mantra epitomised by the record sales achieved by the MK VII, IX, Mks I and II saloons and later the XJ6. During the time this slogan was used, but the exact text varied.

The core of Bill Lyons’ success following WWII was the twin-cam straight six engine, conceived pre-war and realised while engineers at the Coventry plant were dividing their time between fire-watching and designing the new power plant. It had a hemispherical cross-flow cylinder head with valves inclined from the vertical; originally at 30 degrees (inlet) and 45 degrees (exhaust) and later standardised to 45 degrees for both inlet and exhaust.

As fuel octane ratings were relatively low from 1948 onwards, three piston configuration were offered: domed (high octane), flat (medium octane), and dished (low octane).

The main designer, William “Bill” Heynes, assisted by Walter “Wally” Hassan, was determined to develop the Twin OHC unit. Bill Lyons agreed over misgivings from Hassan. It was risky to take what had previously been considered a racing or low-volume and cantankerous engine needing constant fettling and apply it to reasonable volume production saloon cars.

The subsequent engine (in various versions) was the mainstay powerplant of Jaguar, used in the XK 120, Mk VII Saloon, Mk I and II Saloons and XK 140 and 150. It was also employed in the E Type, itself a development from the race winning and Le Mans conquering C and D Type Sports Racing cars refined as the short-lived XKSS, a road-legal D-Type.

Few engine types have demonstrated such ubiquity and longevity: Jaguar used the Twin OHC XK Engine, as it came to be known, in the Jaguar XJ6 saloon from 1969 through 1992, and employed in a J60 variant as the power plant in such diverse vehicles as the British Army’s Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) family of vehicles, as well as the Fox armoured reconnaissance vehicle, the Ferret Scout Car, and the Stonefield four-wheel-drive all-terrain lorry. Properly maintained, the standard production XK Engine would achieve 200,000 miles of useful life.

Two of the proudest moments in Jaguar’s long history in motor sport involved winning the Le Mans 24 hours race, firstly in 1951 and again in 1953. Victory at the 1955 Le Mans was overshadowed by it being the occasion of the worst motorsport accident in history. Later in the hands of the Scottish racing team Ecurie Ecosse two more wins were added in 1956 and 1957.

In spite of such a performance orientation, it was always Lyons’ intention to build the business by producing world-class sporting saloons in larger numbers than the sports car market could support. Jaguar secured financial stability and a reputation for excellence with a series of elegantly styled luxury saloons that included the 3 litre and 3½ litre cars, the Mark VII, VIII, and IX, the compact Mark I and 2, and the XJ6 and XJ12. All were deemed very good values, with comfortable rides, good handling, high performance, and great style.

Combined with the trend-setting XK 120, XK 140, and XK 150 series of sports car, and nonpareil E-Type, Jaguar’s elan as a prestige motorcar manufacturer had few rivals. The company’s post-War achievements are remarkable, considering both the shortages that drove Britain (the Ministry of Supply still allocated raw materials) and the state of metallurgical development of the era.

In 1950, Jaguar agreed to lease from the Ministry of Supply the Daimler Shadow 2 factory in Browns Lane, Allesley, Coventry, which at the time was being used by The Daimler Company Limited and moved to the new site from Foleshill over the next 12 months. Jaguar purchased Daimler — not to be confused with Daimler-Benz or Daimler AG—in 1960 from BSA. From the late 1960s, Jaguar used the Daimler marque as a brand name for their most luxurious saloons.

An end to independence

Pressed Steel Company Limited made all Jaguar’s (monocoque) bodies leaving provision and installation of the mechanicals to Jaguar. In mid-1965 British Motor Corporation (BMC), the AustinMorris combine, bought Pressed Steel. Lyons became concerned about the future of Jaguar, partly because of the threat to ongoing supplies of bodies, and partly because of his age and lack of an heir. He therefore accepted BMC’s offer to merge with Jaguar to form British Motor (Holdings) Limited. At a press conference on 11 July 1965 at the Great Eastern Hotel in London, Lyons and BMC Chairman George Harriman announced, “Jaguar Group of companies is to merge with The British Motor Corporation Ltd., as the first step towards the setting up of a joint holding company to be called British Motor (Holdings) Limited”. In due course BMC changed its name to British Motor Holdings at the end of 1966.

BMH was pushed by the Government to merge with Leyland Motor Corporation Limited, manufacturer of Leyland bus and truck, StandardTriumph and, since 1967, Rover vehicles. The result was British Leyland Motor Corporation, a new holding company which appeared in 1968, but the combination was not a success. A combination of poor decision making by the board along with the financial difficulties of, especially, the Austin-Morris division (previously BMC) led to the Ryder Report and to effective nationalisation in 1975.

Temporary return to independence

Over the next few years it became clear that because of the low regard for many of the group’s products insufficient capital could be provided to develop and begin manufacture of new models, including Jaguars, particularly if Jaguar were to remain a part of the group.

In July 1984, Jaguar was floated off as a separate company on the stock market – one of the Thatcher government’s many privatisations– to create its own track record.

Installed as chairman in 1980, Sir John Egan is credited for Jaguar’s unprecedented prosperity immediately after privatisation. In early 1986 Egan reported he had tackled the main problems that were holding Jaguar back from selling more cars: quality control, lagging delivery schedules, poor productivity, and laid off about a third of the company’s 10,000-some employees to cut costs. Commentators have since pointed out he exploited an elderly model range on which all development costs had been written off and raised prices as well as intensifying the push to improve Jaguar’s quality but in the USA the price rises were masked by a favourable exchange rate.

Ford Motor Company era

Ford made offers to Jaguar’s US and UK shareholders to buy their shares in November 1989; Jaguar’s listing on the London Stock Exchange was removed on 28 February 1990. In 1999 it became part of Ford’s new Premier Automotive Group along with Aston Martin, Volvo Cars and, from 2000, Land Rover. Under Ford’s ownership, Jaguar never made a profit.

Under Ford’s ownership Jaguar expanded its range of products with the launch of the S-Type in 1999 and X-type in 2001. Since Land Rover’s May 2000 purchase by Ford, it has been closely associated with Jaguar. In many countries they share a common sales and distribution network (including shared dealerships), and some models now share components, although the only shared production facility was Halewood Body & Assembly, for the X-Type and the Freelander 2. However operationally the two companies were effectively integrated under a common management structure within Ford’s PAG.

On 11 June 2007, Ford announced that it planned to sell Jaguar, along with Land Rover and retained the services of Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley and HSBC to advise it on the deal. The sale was initially expected to be announced by September 2007, but was delayed until March 2008. Private equity firms such as Alchemy Partners of the UK, TPG Capital, Ripplewood Holdings (which hired former Ford Europe executive Sir Nick Scheele to head its bid), Cerberus Capital Management and One Equity Partners (owned by JP Morgan Chase and managed by former Ford executive Jacques Nasser) of the US, Tata Motors of India and a consortium comprising Mahindra and Mahindra (an automobile manufacturer from India) and Apollo Management all initially expressed interest in purchasing the marques from the Ford Motor Company.

Before the sale was announced, Anthony Bamford, chairman of British excavator manufacturer JCB had expressed interest in purchasing the company in August 2006, but backed out upon learning that the sale would also involve Land Rover, which he did not wish to buy. On Christmas Eve of 2007, Mahindra and Mahindra backed out of the race for both brands, citing complexities in the deal.

Tata Motors era

On 1 January 2008, Ford formally declared that Tata was the preferred bidder. Tata Motors also received endorsements from the Transport And General Worker’s Union (TGWU)-Amicus combine as well as from Ford. According to the rules of the auction process, this announcement would not automatically disqualify any other potential suitor. However, Ford (as well as representatives of Unite) would now be able to enter into detailed discussions with Tata concerning issues ranging from labour concerns (job security and pensions), technology (IT systems and engine production) and intellectual property, as well as the final sale price. Ford would also open its books for a more comprehensive due diligence by Tata. On 18 March 2008, Reuters reported that American bankers Citigroup and JP Morgan would finance the deal with a USD 3 billion loan.

On 26 March 2008, Ford announced that it had agreed to sell its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors of India, and that they expected to complete the sale by the end of the second quarter of 2008. Included in the deal were the rights to three other British brands, Jaguar’s own Daimler, as well as two dormant brands Lanchester and Rover. On 2 June 2008, the sale to Tata was completed at a cost of £1.7 billion.

Assembly plant

The Swallow Sidecar company (SSC) was originally located in Blackpool but moved to Holbrook Lane, Coventry in 1928 when demand for the Austin Swallow became too great for the factory’s capacity. In 1951, having outgrown the original Coventry site they moved to Browns Lane, which had been a wartime “shadow factory” run by The Daimler Company. Today, Jaguars are assembled at Castle Bromwich in Birmingham. The historic Browns Lane plant ceased trim and final operations in 2005, the X350 XJ having already moved to Castle Bromwich two years prior, leaving the XK and S-Type production to Castle Bromwich

In 2000, Ford turned its Halewood plant over to Jaguar following the discontinuation of its long running Escort that year for Jaguar’s new X-Type model. It was later joined by the second-generation Land Rover Freelander 2, from 2007. Jaguars ceased being produced at Halewood in 2009 following the discontinuation of the X-Type; Halewood now becoming a Land Rover-only plant.

A reduced Browns Lane site operates today, producing veneers for Jaguar Land Rover and others, as well as some engineering facilities. A new assembly plant was opened at Pune, India in April 2011.

Jaguar will begin producing the Jaguar XE – the replacement for the X-Type – at Land Rover’s Solihull plant in 2015, the first non-4×4 passenger car to be produced at the plant since the Rover SD1 in the late 1970s.

Current car models

XE

The XE will be the first compact executive Jaguar since the 2009 model year X-Type and will be the first of several Jaguar models to be built using Jaguar’s new modular aluminium architecture, moving the company away from the Ford derived platforms that were used in the past for the X-Type and XF. The use of Jaguar’s own platform will allow the XE to feature either rear-wheel drive or all-wheel drive configurations, and it will become the first car in its segment with an aluminium monocoque structure. Originally announced at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show with sales scheduled for 2015.

F-Type

The F-Type convertible was launched at the 2012 Paris Motor Show, following its display at the Goodwood Festival of Speed in June 2012, and is billed as a successor to the legendary E-Type. In fact, the Series III E-Type already had a successor, in the form of the XJS, which was in turn replaced by the XK8 and XKR. The F-Type nevertheless returns to the 2-seat plan that was lost with the introduction of the Series III E-Type, which was available only in a 2+2-seat configuration. It was developed following the positive reaction to Jaguar’s C-X16 concept car at the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show. Sales will begin in 2013 with three engine choices; two variants of the AJ126 V6 petrol engine and the AJ133 V8 petrol engine.

XF

The Jaguar XF is a mid-size executive car introduced in 2008 to replace the S-Type. In January 2008, the XF was awarded the What Car? ‘Car of the Year’ and ‘Executive Car of the Year’ awards. The XF was also awarded Car of the Year 2008 from What Diesel? magazine. Engines available in the XF are 2.2-litre I4 and 3.0-litre V6 diesel engines, or 3.0 litre V6 and 5.0-litre V8 petrol engines. The 5.0 Litre engine is available in supercharged form in the XFR. From 2011, the 2.2-litre diesel engine from the Land Rover Freelander was added to the range as part of a facelift.

XJ

The Jaguar XJ is a full-size luxury saloon. The model has been in production since 1968 with the first generation being the last Jaguar car to have creative input by the company’s founder, Sir William Lyons. In early 2003, the third generation XJ arrived in showrooms and while the car’s exterior and interior styling were traditional in appearance, the car was completely re-engineered. Its styling attracted much criticism from many motoring journalists who claimed that the car looked old-fashioned and barely more modern than its predecessor, many even citing that the ‘Lyons line’ had been lost in the translation from Mark 2 into Mark 3 XJ, even though beneath the shell lay a highly advanced aluminium construction that put the XJ very near the top of its class.

Jaguar responded to the criticism with the introduction of the fourth generation XJ, launched in 2009. Its exterior styling is a departure from previous XJs, with a more youthful, contemporary stance, following the design shift that came into effect previously with the company’s XF and XK models.

The 5-litre V8 engine in the XJ Supersport can accelerate the car from 0 to 60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 4.7 seconds, and has a UK CO2 emission rating of 289 g/km. To cater to the limousine market, all XJ models are offered with a longer wheelbase (LWB) as an option, which increases the rear legroom.

R models

Jaguar XKR-S

Jaguar XKR-S

Jaguar began producing R models in 1995 with the introduction of the first XJR. Powered by a supercharged 6-cylinder engine, the car produced approximately 322 horsepower. With the revamped line of engines, the powerplant would be based on an eight-cylinder engine with supercharger from 1997 to present. The 1997–2003 XJR produced 370 horsepower (276 kW) and 385 pound-feet (522 N·m) of torque, taking the car to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 5 seconds. The new aluminium bodyshell from 2004 to 2009 and increased power to 400 hp (298 kW) and enhanced computer systems decreased the time to 60 mph (97 km/h) to 4.8 seconds. Starting after year 2000, XJRs were equipped with Jaguar’s CATS (Computer Active Technology Suspension), which helped firm up the ride in sporty driving without compromising comfort during day-to-day use.

The first XKR was introduced in 1997 and kept with the same power increases as the XJR except for after 2006 the power in the XKR was boosted to 420 hp (313 kW). The S-Type R had a short production run from 2003 to 2008, and came equipped with the same 400 horsepower (298 kW) supercharged V8 as the other R models. It was replaced by the XFR, featuring a 5.0 L supercharged V8 producing 510 hp (380 kW).

  • Jaguar XFR  510 hp (380 kW) mid-size saloon
  • Jaguar XKR  510 hp (380 kW) coupé and cabriolet
  • Jaguar XFR-S  550 hp (410 kW) mid-size saloon
  • Jaguar XKR-S  550 hp (410 kW) coupé and cabriolet
  • Jaguar XJR
  • Jaguar F-Type R  550 hp (410 kW) coupé

Future models

After years of speculation, Jaguar designer Ian Callum confirmed in early 2012 that there would not be a Jaguar SUV, but suggested that he may be designing a crossover for Jaguar. In 2013 Jaguar announced the C-X17 concept, and in January 2015 announced the Jaguar F-Pace, due for a 2015 debut prior to going on sale in 2016. It will incorporate many cues from the C-X17 concept as the first-ever Jaguar crossover.

Previous models

Recent

2002–2003 Jaguar X-Type saloon

2002–2003 Jaguar X-Type saloon

The Jaguar S-Type, first appeared in 1999 and stopped production in 2008. It has now been replaced by the Jaguar XF. Early S-Types suffered from reliability problems but those were mostly resolved by the 2004 model year.

The Jaguar X-Type was a compact executive car launched in 2001, while the company was under Ford ownership. Sharing its platform with a 2000 Ford Mondeo, the X-Type ceased production in 2009.

The Jaguar XK is a luxury grand tourer introduced in 2006, where it replaced the XK8. The XK introduced an aluminium monocoque bodyshell, and was available both as a two-door coupé and two-door cabriolet/convertible. Production ceased in 2014.

 Historic

The Jaguar company started production with the pre-war 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5-litre models, which used engines designed by the Standard Motor Company. The 1.5-litre four-cylinder engine was still supplied by Standard but the two larger six-cylinder ones were made in house. These cars have become known unofficially as Mark IVs.

The first post-war model was the 1948 Mark V available with either 2.5- or 3.5-litre engines, and it had a more streamlined appearance than pre-war models, but more important was the change to independent front suspension and hydraulic brakes.

1950 Jaguar XK120 From the Ralph Lauren collection

The XK120 was a breakthrough both for Jaguar and post-WWII sports cars

The big breakthrough was the launch in 1948 of the XK120 sports car, powered with the new XK twin overhead camshaft (DOHC) 3.5-litre hemi-head six-cylinder engine designed by William Heynes, Walter Hassan and Claude Baily. This engine had been designed at night during the war when they would be on fire watch in the factory. After several attempts a final design was achieved. That is until owner William Lyons said “make it quieter”. The car had originally been intended as a short production model of about 200 vehicles as a test bed for the new engine until its intended home, the new Mark VII saloon, was ready. The XK120’s exceptional reception was followed in 1954 by the introduction of the derivative XK140, and a much revised XK150.

1961 Jaguar E-type

1963 open two-seat E-Type

Jaguar launched the E-Type in 1961.

Along with sports cars, Jaguar maintained a strong place in the upscale saloon car market. Introducing the large Mark VII in 1951, a car especially conceived for the American market, Jaguar was overwhelmed with orders. The Mark VII and its successors gathered rave reviews from magazines such as Road & Track and The Motor. In 1956 a Mark VII won the prestigious Monte Carlo Rally.

1963 Jaguar MK II

The late 1950s Mark 2 became one of the most recognisable Jaguar models ever produced

In 1955, the “2.4-Litre” saloon (subsequently known as the 2.4 Mark 1) was the first monocoque (unitary) car from Jaguar. Its 2.4-litre short-stroke version of the XK engine provided 100 mph (160 km/h) performance. In 1957, the 3.4-litre version with disk brakes, wire wheels and other options was introduced, with a top speed of 120 mph (190 km/h). In 1959, an extensively revised version of the car with wider windows and 2.4, 3.4, and 3.8-litre engine options became the Mark 2. The 3.8 Mark 2 was popular with British police forces for its small size and 125 mph (201 km/h) performance.

1958 Jaguar Mark IX (2)

Jaguar’s slogan motto of “Grace, Space, Pace” was epitomised in the 1958 Mark IX

The Mark VIII of 1956 and Mark IX of 1958 were essentially updates of the Mark VII, but the Mark X of 1961 was a completely new design of large saloon with all round independent suspension and unitary construction.

The independent rear suspension from the Mark X was incorporated in the 1963 S-Type, which closely resembled the Mark 2, and in 1967 the Mark 2 name was dropped when the small saloon became the 240/340 range. The 420 of 1966, also sold as the Daimler Sovereign, put a new front onto the S-type, although both cars continued in parallel until the S-Type was dropped in 1968. The Mark X became the 420G in 1966.

Jaguar XJ6

The XJ6, regarded by many as the definitive Jaguar saloon

Of the more recent saloons, the most significant is the XJ (1968–1992). From 1968 on, the Series I XJ saw minor changes, first in 1973 (to Series II), 1979 (Series III), a complete redesign for 1986/1987 in XJ40, further modifications in 1995 (X300), in 1997 with V8-power (X308), and a major advance in 2003 with an industry-first aluminium monocoque-chassis (X350). The most luxurious XJ models carried either the Vanden Plas (US) or Daimler (rest of world) nameplates. In 1972, the 12-cylinder engine was introduced in the XJ, while simultaneously being offered in the E Type.

1992-94 Jaguar XJ220 Engine 3200cc Turbocharged V6

The XJ220—the world’s fastest production car in 1992

1992 saw the introduction of the mid-engined, twin-turbo XJ220, powered by a 542 bhp (404 kW; 550 PS) V6 engine. The XJ220 was confirmed the fastest production car in the world at the time after Martin Brundle recorded a speed of 217 mph (349 km/h) on the Nardo track in Italy.

Over the years many Jaguar models have sported the famous chrome plated Leaping Jaguar, traditionally forming part of the radiator cap. Known as “The Leaper” this iconic mascot has been the subject of controversy in recent times when banned for safety reasons from cars supplied to Europe whilst it continued to be fitted on cars destined for the United States, Middle East and Far East. It has now been dropped from all the latest Jaguar models.

Complete line-up

Large executive

1935-1949 Jaguar Mark IV

SS Jaguar
Jaguar
1½—2½—3½ Litre
1947 Jaguar Mk IV 2.5 Litre

Jaguar 2½ litre sports saloon 1947
Overview
Manufacturer
Production 1935–1949
Assembly Coventry, England
Layout FR layout
Chronology
Predecessor SS Cars Ltd SS1
Successor Jaguar Mark V

The Jaguar Mark IV (pronounced mark four) is an automobile built by Jaguar Cars from 1945 to 1949. It was a relaunch of the SS Jaguar 1½ litre, 2½ litre and 3½ litre models produced by SS Cars from 1935 to 1940.

Before the Second World War the name Jaguar was the model name given to the complete range of cars built by SS Cars Ltd. The saloons were titled SS Jaguar 1½ litre, 2½ litre or 3½ litre. The two-seater sports car was titled the SS Jaguar 100 2½ litre or 3½ litre.

After the war the company name was changed to Jaguar Cars Ltd. Although the post-war saloons were officially the Jaguar 1½ litre, 2½ litre etc., the term “Mark IV” was sometimes applied retrospectively by the trade to differentiate them from the officially named Mark V.

All the cars were built on a separate chassis frame with suspension by semi-elliptic leaf springs front and rear.

SS Jaguar and Jaguar 1½ Litre

SS Jaguar 1½ Litre
Jaguar 1½ Litre
1937 Jaguar 1½ litre by SS

SS Jaguar sports saloon 1937
Overview
Production 1935–1949
10,980 made
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door saloon
2-door drophead coupé
Powertrain
Engine 1,608 cc (1.6 l) I4
1,776 cc (1.8 l) I4
Standard
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 112.5 in (2,860 mm)
Length 173 in (4,390 mm)
Width 65.5 in (1,660 mm)
Height 60 in (1,520 mm)

The smallest model of the range originally featured a 1608 cc side valve Standard engine but from 1938 this was replaced by a 1776 cc overhead-valve unit still from Standard who also supplied the four-speedmanual transmission.

Pre-war the car was available as a saloon or drophead coupé but post war only the closed model was made. Up to 1938 body construction on all the models was by the traditional steel on wood method but in that year it changed to all steel. Performance was not a strong point but 70 mph (113 km/h) was possible: the car featured the same cabin dimensions and well-appointed interior as its longer-engined brothers.

Despite its lack of out-and-out performance, a report of the time, comparing the 4-cylinder 1½-litre with its 6-cylinder siblings, opined that the smallest-engined version of the car was “as is often the case … the sweetest running car” with a “big car cruising gait in the sixties”.

Mechanically operated brakes using a Girling system were fitted.

1937 Jaguar 1½ litre by SSa

SS Jaguar sports saloon 1937

1935-1948 SS Jaguar and Jaguar 2½ Litre

SS Jaguar 2½ Litre
Jaguar 2½ Litre
1936 S. S. Jaguar 2½-litre sports saloon

SS Jaguar sports saloon 1936
Overview
Production 1935–1948
6281 made
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door saloon
2-door drophead coupé
Powertrain
Engine 2,664 cc (2.7 l) I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1935–1937: 119 in (3,020 mm)
1938–1948: 120 in (3,050 mm)
Length 186 in (4,720 mm)
Width 66 in (1,680 mm)

Again the engine was sourced from Standard but had the cylinder head reworked by SS to give 105 bhp. Unlike the 1½ Litre there were some drophead models made post-war.

The chassis was originally of 119 in (3,020 mm) but grew by an inch (25 mm) in 1938 to 120 in (3,050 mm). The extra length over the 1½ Litre was used for the six-cylinder engine and the passenger accommodation was the same size.

1937-1948 SS Jaguar and Jaguar 3½ Litre

SS Jaguar 3½ Litre
Jaguar 3½ Litre
1947 Jaguar MK IV Limousine

Jaguar sports saloon 1947
Overview
Production 1937–1948
3162 made
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door saloon
2-door drophead coupé
Powertrain
Engine 3,485 cc (3.5 l) I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 120 in (3,050 mm)
Length 186 in (4,720 mm)
Width 66 in (1,680 mm)

The 3½ Litre, introduced in 1938, was essentially the same body and chassis as the 2½ Litre but the larger 125 bhp engine gave better performance but at the expense of economy. The rear axle ratio was 4.25:1 as opposed to the 4.5:1 on the 2½ Litre.

1948-1951 Jaguar Mark V

Jaguar Mark V
1950 Jaguar Mark V 3485cc

3½-litre saloon
first registered November 1950
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1948–1951
10,466
Body and chassis
Body style saloon, drophead coupé
Powertrain
Engine 2664 cc or 3485 cc straight-6pushrod ohv
Transmission four-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 120 in (3,048 mm)
Length 187.5 in (4,762 mm)
Width 69.5 in (1,765 mm)
Height 62.5 in (1,588 mm)
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar 2½ Litre & 3½ Litre saloons
Successor Jaguar Mark VII

1949 Jaguar MK V DHC

Jaguar Mark V drophead coupé

Jaguar Mark V drophead coupé

The Jaguar Mark V (pronounced mark five) is an automobile which was built by Jaguar Cars Ltd from 1948 to 1951.

The Mark V was launched at the 1948 London Motor Show at the same time as the XK120, with which it shared a stand. However, the Mark V vastly outsold the XK120 by roughly 5,000 cars per year as compared to 2,000 cars per year for the XK120. While the XK120 had a new overhead-camshaft XK engine, the Mark V retained the 1936 driveline including the “Jaguar” overhead-valve pushrod straight-6 2½L and 3½L units for which the company was renamed after the war. No 1½L version was offered. Claimed power output in this application was 104 bhp (78 kW) for the 2664 cc Mark V and 126 bhp (94 kW) for its more popular 3486 cc sibling. The chassis was new with independent front suspension by double wishbones and torsion bar, an arrangement that would be used by Jaguar for many future vehicles. It also had hydraulic brakes, which Jaguar had been slow to adopt compared to other manufacturers, and an all pressed steel body.

The styling of the car followed prewar SS-Jaguar lines with upright chrome grille and the leaping Jaguar radiator cap mascot became available as an option. There is a distinct hint of the recently modernised Bentley look in the style of the front grill.

The wheels were 16-inch (410 mm) steel-disc type, significantly smaller than the 18-inch (460 mm) ones on the MK IV. From the side, a distinctive styling touch was a “tuck in” curve at the base of the rear window following the curved profile of the side glass. Rear-wheel spats (fender skirts) were standard. There was also a drophead coupé version which is now highly sought after.

A 3½ litre car tested by The Motor magazine in 1949 had a top speed of 90.7 mph (146.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 20.4 seconds. Jaguar’s inimitable test engineer Norman Dewis used a Mark V regularly. Recently asked about the top speed he saw in his car, he commented that he verified 90 mph once, but the thrill of the moment did not encourage repeating the feat. A fuel consumption of 18.2 miles per imperial gallon (15.5 L/100 km; 15.2 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £1263 including taxes.

Production figures were:

  • 2½ litre saloon 1647
  • 2½ litre coupé 28
  • 3½ litre saloon 7814
  • 3½ litre coupé 977

In 1951 the Mark V was replaced by the Jaguar Mark VII. The Mark VII had the same 10-foot (3.0 m)wheelbase as the Mark V, but a longer and more streamlined-looking body, which continued in production with little outward change through the Jaguars Mark VIII and Mark IX until 1961.

The Mark V name

The origin of the Mark V name is somewhat mysterious as there had been no Mk I to IV Jaguars and the MK IV designation was only given to its predecessor after the launch of the Mk V. It was perhaps a nod to Bentley who built 11 advanced Mark V saloons in 1939, resumed with the Mark VI in 1946-52 and dropped the “Mark” naming thereafter while Jaguars continued with the Mark VII to X.

1951-1957 Jaguar Mark VII

Jaguar Mark VII
Jaguar Mark VII M
1954 Jaguar Mark VII Saloon
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1950–1956
30,969 produced