Buses GUY Wolverhampton England UK

GUY feathers 150

GUY

Guy Motors was a Wolverhampton-based vehicle manufacturer that produced cars, lorries, buses and trolleybuses. The company was founded by Sydney S. Guy (1885-1971) who was born in Kings Heath, Birmingham. Guy Motors operated out of its Fallings Park factory from 1914 to 1982, playing an important role in the development of the British motor industry.

  An aerial view of Guy Motors' Fallings Park Factory

an-aerial-view-of-guy-motors-fallings-park-factory

1953 Guy GS bus built for London Transport

1953 Guy GS bus built for London Transport

History

Foundation and the First World War

Sydney S. Guy registered Guy Motors Limited on Saturday 30 May 1914, the same day he departed his position as Works Manager at the Wolverhampton company, Sunbeam. A factory was built on the site at Fallings Park, Wolverhampton. and by September 1914 production was underway on the newly designed 30cwt lorry. This employed a much lighter form of pressed steel frame, unlike the more commonly used heavy rolled steel channel frames of the time. This made the vehicle able to cross difficult terrain and a 14 seat poster bus built based on the design was used for crossing the Scottish Highlands.

1914 Guy's 14 seater bus designed for use in the highlands
1914 Guy’s 14 seater bus designed for use in the highlands

In 1915 Guy came under control of the Ministry of Munitions and production was focused on the war effort. The factory continued to produce 30cwt lorries which were supplied to Britain’s allies in the First World War. They also produced Wasp and Dragonfly radial aircraft engines, Tylor truck engines and Maudslay gearboxes as well as being the country’s largest maker of depth charge fuzes. For their efforts during the war Guy received a commendation from William Weir, Secretary of State for Air. Due to orders from the ministry Guy prospered during the war, expanding its factory and became an established name in British manufacturing.

1920s

The post-war period was difficult for the motor industry as military contracts were cancelled and military vehicles no longer required for service were sold onto the market at low prices. Guy returned to the civilian market, deciding to make luxury cars with a design by RH Rose, also from Sunbeam. They produced the Guy 8-cylinder car, powered by the first British V8 engine and featuring horizontal side valves. Around 25 of these were made and it was joined by a smaller model in 1922 with the 2465 cc four-cylinder 16.9 hp. A cheaper model followed in 1924 with the 1954 cc 13/36 with an engine from Coventry Climax. About 110 of the 4-cylinder models are thought to have been made. Production also continued on vehicles based on the 30cwt chassis such as the Guy charabanc and their major success the 30 seater bus.

In 1924 the company adopted the slogan ‘Feathers in our Cap’ which led to the addition of a Native American mascot to their vehicles. 1924 also saw Guy produce the first ever dropped frame chassis for passenger vehicles (the B-type). This design allowed passengers to enter buses in a single step and became extremely popular, Guy receiving an order for 170 from Rio de Janeiro.

Guy Motors badge

Growing populations in towns and cities meant larger capacity buses were a necessity, leading Guy to develop a 6-wheeled version of their dropped-frame chassis which allowed for the introduction of the first 6-wheeled double decker buses and 6 wheeled trolleybuses in 1926. Guy double decker buses and trolleybuses would prove popular with a fleet of double deckers sold to the London Public Omnibus Company and exports supplied all around the world. Exports served as a major source of income for Guy with sales to South Africa, Pakistan, India and the Netherlands, their armoured vehicles proving particularly popular for covering difficult terrain with 100 supplied to the Indian government in 1928.

1923 Guy's first military vehicle produced

Guy’s first military vehicle produced in 1923

In 1928 Guy took control of fellow Wolverhampton manufacturer the Star Motor Company, who had seen declining sales throughout the decade, in an attempt to expand their luxury car manufacturing. Under Guy, Star Motors moved to a new factory in Bushbury and the range of vehicles was narrowed to prevent competition against itself. Despite this Star continued to struggle and a loss was made on every car sold. The Wall Street Crash had a crippling effect on industry and the subsequent recession meant Guy could no longer afford to fit out Star’s Bushbury plant and in 1932 the company entered receivership.

Despite performing well throughout the decade, by the end of the 1920s Guy was facing an uncertain future due to the takeover of Star and the Wall Street Crash which had seen share prices fall from one pound to one shilling.

1930s

Guy was able to endure the depression due to orders from the war office and by taking advantage of the 1930 Road Traffic Act which encouraged the development of lighter vehicles. In 1933 the Arab bus chassis, designed for use with diesel engines, was launched and would prove a mainstay of Guy’s success for the next twenty years.

From the mid-1930s, the company became increasingly involved in the British rearmament programme, developing and producing military vehicles. In 1935 Guy submitted their new four wheel Ant armoured car to military trials where it impressed and 150 were ordered by the government. After this success Guy began to concentrate solely on the production of military vehicles and by 1938 Guy relied exclusively on Government contracts and had ended civilian productions. During this time Guy designed a new armoured car, the Quad Ant, which was welded rather than riveted together. This development made armoured vehicles much safer and is reported to have saved the British government £100 million, earning Guy a commendation from the Royal Commission.

1948 The Arab Mark IV, Guy's most successful bus design

1948 The Arab Mark IV, Guy’s most successful bus design

World War Two

Guy armoured vehicles were used throughout the war, featuring prominently in the North African campaign and at the evacuation of Dunkirk. Although production of the Ant and Quad Ant were moved to Karrier the factory was still involved in the war effort producing anti-aircraft guns.

Passenger car sales in the UK virtually ceased during the war, which was accordingly a good time to be a UK bus manufacturer, and more than 2,000 Guy double-decker buses entered service between 1942 and 1945. The Ministry of Supply had ordered Guy to produce a chassis suitable for double decker buses, the blitzhaving resulted in a shortage of buses. In 1942 Guy launched the Arab utility deck bus based on their original 1933 design, but with a frame of identical shape to the Leyland Titan TD8. It was immediately successful due to its reliability and low running costs. The company’s contribution to the war effort established them as a leading supplier for the government and meant they were financially stable heading into the post-war years.

Post-War Years

After the war Guy returned to civilian production with bus production remaining a mainstay and retaining a strong emphasis on export sales to their major markets including South Africa, Pakistan and the Netherlands. In 1948 Guy acquired Sunbeam Commercial Vehicles Limited and from then on all trolleybuses produced (except some for UK operators carrying Karrier badges) carried the Sunbeam name. Trolleybuses continued to sell well with the Sunbeam becoming the most popular model in South Africa.

1948 The Sunbeam Double-Decker Trolleybus

The Sunbeam Double-Decker Trolleybus

Guy continued to update their old models, introducing a new version of the Otter chassis in 1950 for 30-seater vehicles and 84 were ordered by London Transport. By 1954 Guy passenger vehicles were operated by 150 companies in the UK and in 26 countries abroad. The company developed the first 30 ft two-axle double-deck trolleybus chassis in 1954, the Sunbeam F4A, which could seat 68 passengers.

1954 Otter Tractor Vehicle, Guy Motors Ltd., Wolverhampton

1954 The Otter Tractor Vehicle

In 1957 Sydney Guy retired after 43 years with the company. Guy continued to develop new models of chassis, introducing updated versions of the Otter and Warrior models and the high performance Victory chassis. However an ill-advised decision to take South African sales in house proved an extreme strain on the company’s finances. Combined with their attempt to develop a new double decker chassis this would prove highly damaging for Guy’s future. Launched in 1958 the Wulfrunian promised many innovations in its design but crucially lacked the reliability upon which Guy had built its name.

The decline of the company

Although new designs such as the Warrior Mark II were being produced and despite the fact their lorries were performing well by 1960 Guy faced seemingly insurmountable financial problems. The failure of the Wulfrunian was a commercial disaster and the operation in South Africa was losing them £300,000 a year.

By 1961 Guy had no choice but to enter receivership. Sir William Lyons, managing director of Jaguar, acquired the company for £800,000, transferring its assets to a new company, Guy Motors (Europe) Limited which left all the liabilities with the now defunct Guy Motors Limited the name eventually reverting to “Guy Motors Ltd” in 1966. Jaguar immediately set about rationalisation, decreasing the number of employees and the range of vehicles in production.

Guy continued to be successful throughout the 1960s with the development of the Victory trambus and the Big J series of trucks. The Big J was designed around a new Cummins V6 engine, and was intended for motorway operation. However a series of mergers by their parent company had left them in a precarious situation In 1966 Jaguar had merged with the British Motor Corporation to form British Motor Holdings. This company had then merged with Leyland in 1968 to form the British Leyland Motor Corporation. Leyland ceased the production of Guy badged buses in 1972 although Leyland badged versions of the Guy Victory were produced at Wolverhampton and Leyland until 1986. Despite the mergers the British motor industry continued on a generally downward trend and British Leyland looked for where it could make savings.

Guy Motors was able to postpone closure due to the success of its Big J range which meant it was one of the few companies owned by British Leyland operating at a profit. Despite this in 1981 Leyland decided to close the Fallings Park plant as part of a rationalisation drive and in August 1982 the doors were shut at the cost of 740 jobs. On 5 October the factory was stripped clean and the contents auctioned.

1914 Guy Syzygies

1914 Guy Syzygies 2

1914 Guy Syzygies

1914 Guy Syzygies 3

1914 Guy Syzygies

1914 Guy Syzygies 4

1914 Guy Syzygies

1919 Guy Charabanc

1919 Guy Charabanc T-5182

1921 Guy 30-seater bus

1921 Guy 30-seater bus

1921 Guy coaches in Wolverhampton Market place

1921 Guy coaches in Wolverhampton Market place

1922 Guy Promenade Runabout

1922 Guy Promenade Runabout

1924 Guy six-wheelers in Rio de Janeiro

1924 Guy six-wheelers in Rio de Janeiro

1925 Guy first six wheeled pneumatic Trolley Bus

1925 Guy first six wheeled pneumatic Trolley Bus

1925 Guy Motors

1925 Guy Motors

1925 Guy Rio 1925

1925 Guy Rio 1925

1927 Guy 6 wheeled Londonbus

1927 Guy 6 wheeled Londonbus

1927 Guy 26 seater

1927 Guy 26 seater

1927 Guy FBB (chassis number 22257) with a Hall Lewis B32R body

1927 Guy FBB (chassis number 22257) with a Hall Lewis B32R body

1927 Guy Star Flyer

1927 Guy Star Flyer

1928 Guy 6 wheeled double deck long distance sleeper coach

1928 Guy 6 wheeled double deck long distance sleeper coach

Guy Motors Ltd badge

1928 Guy BT Dodson DY 4965 in Hastings

1928 Guy BT Dodson DY 4965 in Hastings

1929 Guy phptbyWrK

1929 Guy php

1930 Guy FC of Newcastle Corporation

1930 Guy FC of Newcastle Corporation

1930 Guy Motors

1930 Guy Motors

1930 guy-vixen-05

1930 guy-vixen

1931 Guy 'BTX' Zuid Africa

1931 Guy ‘BTX’ Zuid Africa

1931 Guy Trolleybus op weg naar Japan

1931 Guy Trolleybus op weg naar Japan

1932 Guy Open coach

1932 Guy Open coach

1933 Guy Trolleybus adv1

1933 Guy Trolleybus adv1

1933 Guy

1933 Guy NL

1934 Guy Wolf Guy GR-1157

1934 Guy Wolf Guy GR-1157

1936 Guy Trolleybus  adv

1936 Guy Trolleybus  adv

1937 Guy Arab

1937 Guy Arab

1937 Guy Wolf with Martin body

1937 Guy Wolf with Martin body

1938 Guy Wolf with 20 seat bodywork by Waveney

1938 Guy Wolf with 20 seat bodywork by Waveney

1943 Guy Arab I JUA762 Pickering H30 26R Re bodied ROE H31-25R (2)

1943 Guy Arab I JUA762 Pickering H30 26R Re bodied ROE H31-25R

1943 Guy Arab I JUA762 Pickering H30 26R Re bodied ROE H31-25R

1943 Guy Arab I JUA762 Pickering H30 26R Re bodied ROE H31-25R

1943 Guy Arab II new in 1943 as a double decker, later an open top decker similar to 39

1943 Guy Arab II as a double decker, later an open top decker similar to 39

1946 Guy Arab III with Massey C35F body new to W. Alexander

1946 Guy Arab III with Massey C35F body new to W. Alexander

1946 Guy Arab Massey TSB019

1946 Guy Arab Massey TSB019

1946 Guy Arab Seamer Service

1946 Guy Arab Seamer Service

1946 Guy Arab with Brush B35F body

1946 Guy Arab with Brush B35F body

1946 Guy Vixen Hainje B-22878

1946 Guy Vixen Hainje B-22878 NL

1946 Guy-Arab bus 84 met carrosserie van Verheul. Dienstbus Almelo-Glanerbrug op de weg Borne-Hengelo. Opname verm. 1949.

1946 Guy-Arab bus 84 met carrosserie van Verheul. Dienstbus

Almelo-Glanerbrug op de weg Borne-Hengelo. Opname verm. 1949. NL

1947 Guy Arab (Seida)

1947 Guy Arab (Seida)

1947 Guy Arab III with Duple C35F body

1947 Guy Arab III with Duple C35F body

1947 Guy Arab Verheul NB-34-13

1947 Guy Arab Verheul NB-34-13 NL

1947 Guy first post war Trolley Bus Belfast Corporation

1947 Guy first post war Trolley Bus Belfast Corporation

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders GTW 30

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr. Saunders GTW 30 NL

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 32

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 32 NL

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 33

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 33 NL

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 34

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 34 NL

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 35

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 35 NL

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 36

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 36 NL

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 37

1947 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Saunders-de Schelde GTW 37 NL

1947 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton, Individually built bus advert

1947 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton, Individually built bus advert

1947 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton, Newport buses bus advert

1947 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton, Newport buses bus advert

1947 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton, Southampton Guy Arab bus advert

1947 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton, Southampton Guy Arab bus advert

1947 Guy Saunders Tet 075

1947 Guy Saunders Tet 075 NL

1947 guy-arab-01

1947 guy-arab

1947 Guy-Vixen. Carrosserie Bos(linker bus)

1947 Guy-Vixen. Carrosserie v d Bos(linker bus) NL

1947-52 Guy carr. Den Oudsten NB-21-69

1947-52 Guy carr. Den Oudsten NB-21-69 NL

1947-52 Guy Vixen carr. Verheul NB-28-40

1947-52 Guy Vixen carr. Verheul NB-28-40 NL

1948 Guy Arab 16 Brian Shaw

1948 Guy Arab 16 Brian Shaw

1948 Guy Arab 16

1948 Guy Arab 16

1948 Guy Arab 21 Brian Shaw

1948 Guy Arab 21 Brian Shaw

1948 Guy Arab 37

1948 Guy Arab 37

1948 Guy Arab carr. Verheul NB-28-54

1948 Guy Arab carr. Verheul NB-28-54

1948 Guy Arab Fleet LUT&PC 22

1948 Guy Arab Fleet LUT&PC 22

1948 Guy Arab Fleet of Maidstone Corporation Transport Department 26

1948 Guy Arab Fleet of Maidstone Corporation Transport Department 26

1948 Guy Arab Fleet of Newport Corporation Transport 24

1948 Guy Arab Fleet of Newport Corporation Transport 24

1948 Guy Arab Glasgow Corporation Transport Fleet 23

1948 Guy Arab Glasgow Corporation Transport Fleet 23

1948 Guy Arab I 136

1948 Guy Arab I 136

1948 Guy Arab III with an MCW 35 seat body

1948 Guy Arab III with an MCW 35 seat body

1948 Guy Arab III with MCW 35 seat rear entrance body.

1948 Guy Arab III with MCW 35 seat rear entrance body.

1948 Guy Arab IV African Transport Limited Kenya 30

1948 Guy Arab IV African Transport Limited Kenya 30

1948 Guy Arab Mark IV Hong Kong China Bus Company Limeted 34

1948 Guy Arab Mark IV Hong Kong China Bus Company Limeted 34

1948 Guy Arab Mark IV South Africa 35

1948 Guy Arab Mark IV South Africa 35 Greyhound

1948 Guy Arab Mark IV Southdown Motor services Limeted 32

1948 Guy Arab Mark IV Southdown Motor services Limited 32

1948 Guy Arab Mk III 19 6 1957 Verheul 1948 TET 88 E-45960

1948 Guy Arab Mk III 19 6 1957 Verheul 1948 TET 88 E-45960 NL

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW 320

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW 320 NL

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW 321

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW 321 NL

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW 324

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW 324 NL

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW 328

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW 328 NL

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW

1948 Guy Arab MkIII, Gardner 6LW, carr. Verheul GTW NL

1948 Guy Arab Single decker 2

1948 Guy Arab Single decker 2

1948 Guy Arab single decker vehicle5

1948 Guy Arab single decker vehicle

1948 Guy Arab Single Decker

1948 Guy Arab Single Decker

1948 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Verheul GTW 39

1948 Guy Gardner 6LW Arab MkIII carr Verheul GTW 39 NL

1948 Guy met Verheul carr. uit de serie 82 tm 84 uit 1948  werd in 1953 verbouwd . De achterkant is verheul en front is _

1948 Guy met Verheul carr. uit de serie 82 tm 84 uit 1948  werd in 1953 verbouwd . De achterkant is verheul NL

1948 Guy Otters were never common and ones with Alexander bodywork rarer still

1948 Guy Otters were never common and ones with Alexander bodywork rarer still

1948 Guy Vixen  coach

1948 Guy Vixen  coach

1948 Guy Wolf chassis carries a Barnard body

1948 Guy Wolf chassis carries a Barnard body

1948 Guy-Arab met carrosserie Saunders (Engeland)

1948 Guy-Arab met carrosserie Saunders  NL

1948 guy-arab-03

1948 guy-arab dd

1948 guy-arab-04

1948 guy-arab 440

1948 guy-arab-06

1948 guy-arab 440

1948 guy-arab-08

1948 guy-arab dd

1948 Guy-bus 23 erachter Crossley- Scheldebus 20 (NS 1065) op 12 september 1948 vliegveld Beek en EBAD

1948 Guy-bus 23 erachter Crossley- Scheldebus 20 (NS 1065) op 12 september 1948 vliegveld Beek en EBAD NL

1949 burlingham guy coach rmJWX126

1949 burlingham guy coach

1949 Guy Arab III 6LW with Park Royal H30-26R body

1949 Guy Arab III 6LW with Park Royal H30-26R body

1949 Guy Arab III, fleet number 10 (KTC 615)

1949 Guy Arab III, fleet number 10 (KTC 615)

Guy Motors Ltd badge

1949 Guy Arab IV

1949 Guy Arab IV

1949 Guy Arab MK 5

1949 Guy Arab IV

1949 Guy Arab MKIII Gardner 6 LW carr Hainje GTW 329

1949 Guy Arab MKIII Gardner 6 LW carr Hainje GTW 329 NL

1949 Guy ArabIII-Brislington BusWorks

1949 Guy ArabIII-Brislington Bus Works

1949 Guy Motors

1949 Guy Motors adv.

1949 Guy Vixen carrosserie Den Oudsten

1949 Guy Vixen carrosserie Den Oudsten NL

1949 guy-arab-07

1949 guy-arab

1949-53 Guy-Jongman NB-56-18

1949-53 Guy-carr. Jongman NB-56-18 NL

1950 Guy Arab III with Guy B33R bodywork

1950 Guy Arab III with Guy B33R bodywork

1950 Guy Arab III-Harkness Coachworks B31F (may be B30F now) 286, MZ7384

1950 Guy Arab III-Harkness Coachworks B31F (may be B30F now) 286, MZ7384

1950 Guy Arab III-Harkness

1950 Guy Arab III-Harkness

1950 Guy Arab Mark IV

1950 Guy Arab Mark IV

1950 Guy Arab MK IV South Africa 37

1950 Guy Arab MK IV South Africa 37

1950 Guy Arab UF with Guy B40F body (using Park Royal framework)

1950 Guy Arab UF with Guy B40F body (using Park Royal framework)

1950 Guy Arab V double deck bus

1950 Guy Arab V double deck bus

1950 Guy Motors

1950 Guy Motors

1950 Guy Vixen Overland Firms 59

1950 Guy Vixen Overland Firms 59

1950 Guy Vixen

1950 Guy Vixen NL

1950 guy-arab-02

1950 guy-arab

1950 guy-arab-05

1950 guy-arab

1950 Guy-Vixen

1950 Guy-Vixen NL

1951 Guy Arab III with a Windover C33F body

1951 Guy Arab III with a Windover C33F body

1951 Guy Arab III with rare Roe coach body

1951 Guy Arab III with rare Roe coach body

1951 Guy Arab III with unusual Roe coach body

1951 Guy Arab III with unusual Roe coach body

1951 Guy Arab UF fitted from new with a preselector gearbox and carried a Guy B40F body.

1951 Guy Arab UF fitted from new with a preselector gearbox and carried a Guy B40F body.

1951 Guy-Arab 76 met carrosserie van Hondebrink. Opname 1955 tijdens toerwagenral

1951 Guy-Arab 76 met carrosserie van Hondebrink. Opname 1955 tijdens toerwagenral NL

1952 Guy Arab III with Roe B41C bodywork

1952 Guy Arab III with Roe B41C bodywork

1952 Guy Arab LUF with Weymann B44F body

1952 Guy Arab LUF with Weymann B44F body

1952 Guy Arab Underfloor engined single deck Huddersfield 43 seater bus 4

1952 Guy Arab Underfloor engined single deck Huddersfield 43 seater bus 4

1952 Guy GS - MXX 342

1952 Guy GS – MXX 342

1952 Guy Otters with rare Mulliner bodywork

1952 Guy Otters with rare Mulliner bodywork

1952 Guy Underfloor Verheul  Jac. van Dijk nr 58 NB-06-72

1952 Guy Underfloor Verheul  Jac. van Dijk nr 58 NB-06-72 NL

1952 Guy Vixen Wadham

1952 Guy Vixen Wadham

1952 Guy-Arab 89 met carrosserie van Verheul. Met 45 zit en 10 staanplaatsen. Opname grens Glanerbrug in 1954

1952 Guy-Arab 89 met carrosserie van Verheul. Met 45 zit en 10 staanplaatsen. Opname grens Glanerbrug in 1954 NL

1952 Guy-Arab nr. 86 met carrosserie van Verheul

1952 Guy-Arab nr. 86 met carrosserie van Verheul NL

1952 guy-otter-04

1952 guy-otter

1952 guy-otter-07

1952 guy-otter

1953 Guy Arab 88 met carrosserie van Verheul.

1953 Guy Arab 88 met carrosserie van Verheul. NL

1953 Guy Arab bus 60

1953 Guy Arab bus 60

1953 Guy Arab III with Roe B41C bodywork

1953 Guy Arab III with Roe B41C bodywork

1953 Guy GS MXX-343ECW B26F Kerel

1953 Guy GS MXX-343ECW B26F Kerel

1953 GUY Otter Diesel light vehicle12

1953 GUY Otter Diesel light vehicle12

1953 Guy Special NLLVP with ECW B26F body

1953 Guy Special NLLVP with ECW B26F body

1953 Guy Vixen Bus

1953 Guy Vixen Bus

1953 Guy Special with ECW B26F bodywork

1953 Guy Special with ECW B26F bodywork

1953 Guy Special NLLVP with ECW B26F bodywork

1953 Guy Special NLLVP with ECW B26F bodywork

1953 Guy Vixen 30 seater vehicle 4

1953 Guy Vixen 30 seater vehicle 4

1953 Guy Vixen London Transport GS84 and GS76

1953 Guy Vixen London Transport GS84 and GS76

1953 Guys with ECW B26F bodies for use on low traffic country area routes

1953 Guys with ECW B26F bodies for use on low traffic country area routes

1953 Guys with ECW B26F bodies

1953 Guys with ECW B26F bodies

1954 Guy Arab Lighteight heavy duty underfloor engined coach

1954 Guy Arab Lighteight heavy duty underfloor engined coach

1954 Guy Arab LUF with a Guy B43F body

1954 Guy Arab LUF with a Guy B43F body

1954 Guy Arab LUF with Picktree C35F body

1954 Guy Arab LUF with Picktree C35F body

1954 Guy Arab LUF with rare Picktree Continental C35F body

1954 Guy Arab LUF with rare Picktree Continental C35F body

1954 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton advert 2

1954 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton advert

1954 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton advert 3

1954 Guy Motors of Wolverhampton advert

1954 Guy Otter with a Roe B25F body

1954 Guy Otter with a Roe B25F body

1954 Guy Sunbeam Trolley Double Deck Bus Walsall Corporation

1954 Guy Sunbeam Trolley Double Deck Bus Walsall Corporation

1954 Guy Warrior 43 seater Trambus with AEC 6cyl 135 bhp engine

1954 Guy Warrior 43 seater Trambus with AEC 6cyl 135 bhp engine

1954 Guy-bus 8 van de EBAD met Den Oudsten carrosserie

1954 Guy-bus 8 van de EBAD met Den Oudsten carrosserie NL

1955 Guy Arab LUF with Alexander C41F bodywork

1955 Guy Arab LUF with Alexander C41F bodywork

1955 Guy Arab LUF

1955 Guy Arab LUF

1955 Guy Arab LUFs, fitted with Roe B34C+24 bodies

1955 Guy Arab LUFs, fitted with Roe B34C+24 bodies

1955 Guy Arab Mark IV East kent Road car Company Limited 31

1955 Guy Arab Mark IV East kent Road car Company Limited 31

1955 Guy Warrior LUF Coach 3

1955 Guy Warrior LUF Coach 3

1955 Guy Warrior with Burlingham C41F body

1955 Guy Warrior with Burlingham C41F body

1955 guy-s ad

1955 guy-s ad

1956 Guy Arab LUFs with Willowbrook C37C bodies

1956 Guy Arab LUFs with Willowbrook C37C bodies

1956 Guy Arab Mark IV Belgium 36

1956 Guy Arab Mark IV Belgium 36

1956 Guy Arab, with Park Royal body

1956 Guy Arab, with Park Royal body

1956 Guy Kusters-bus, de EBAD 91

1956 Guy Kusters-bus, de EBAD 91

1956 Guy Raghano België

1956 Guy Raghano België

1956 Guy Seal Small capacity tourist coach 1

1956 Guy Seal Small capacity tourist coach 1

1956 Guy Warrior, XUK768, with Mulliner C37C body

1956 Guy Warrior, XUK768, with Mulliner C37C body

1957 Guy Arab LUF with Roe B41R body

1957 Guy Arab LUF with Roe B41R body

1957 GUY België

1957 GUY Jonckheere België

1957 Guy Otter P6 with Mulliner B26F bodywork

1957 Guy Otter P6 with Mulliner B26F bodywork

1957 Guy Vixen car.

1957 Guy Vixen

1958 Guy Arab LUFs with Longwell Green B44F bodies, XNY419

1958 Guy Arab LUFs with Longwell Green B44F bodies, XNY419

1958 Guy LUF with Longwell Green B44F body

1958 Guy LUF with Longwell Green B44F body

1958 Guy UF with Burlingham Seagull C41F body

1958 Guy UF with Burlingham Seagull C41F body

1958 Guy Victory Trambus 2

1958 Guy Victory Trambus

1958 Guy Victory Trambus 5

1958 Guy Victory Trambus

1958 Guy Victory UF 44 till 65 seater Luxery Touring Coach Victory 2

1958 Guy Victory UF 44 till 65 seater Luxery Touring Coach Victory 2

1958 Guy Victory

1958 Guy Victory

1958 Guy Warrior Gardner 5HLW oil engine 2

1958 Guy Warrior Gardner 5HLW oil engine 2

1958 Guy Wulfrunian

1958 Guy Wulfrunian

1958 Guy-Arab nr. 89 met carrosserie van Verheul. De bus had 45 zit en 10 staanplaatsen

1958 Guy-Arab nr. 89 met carrosserie van Verheul. De bus had 45 zit en 10 staanplaatsen

1958 guy-victory-02

1958 guy-victory

1958 guy-victory-03

1958 guy-victory

1958 guy-victory-05

1958 guy-victory

1959 GUY 1460

1959 GUY 1460

1959 Guy Arab LUF Powered by a Gardner 6HLW engine Registration 1294 RE

1959 Guy Arab LUF Powered by a Gardner 6HLW engine Registration 1294 RE

1960 GUY J- Type

1960 GUY J- Type

1960 Guy Warrior coach vehicle21

1960 Guy Warrior coach vehicle 21

1960 guy-victory-01

1960 guy-victory

1961 Guy Arab III-Strachen-HighlandTrans.G.Rixon2

1961 Guy Arab III-Strachen-Highland Trans.G.Rixon2

1961 Guy Wulfrunians with Roe H43-32F body

1961 Guy Wulfrunians with Roe H43-32F body

1963 Guy Arab IV with Massey lowbridge body

1963 Guy Arab IV with Massey lowbridge body

1964 Guy Conquest Luxery Coach

1964 Guy Conquest Luxery Coach

1965 Guy Conquest Luxery Coach with AEC AV505 Gardner 6LX or 6LW Victory Trambus

1965 Guy Conquest Luxery Coach with AEC AV505 Gardner 6LX or 6LW Victory Trambus

Guy Victory 40-45 seat

1960 Guy Victory 40-45 seat

GUY 4505808763_a144f7f80b

GUY DD

Guy Arab - FRU 224

Guy Arab – FRU 224

Guy buses

Guy buses

1967 Guy -ZABO Bus

1967 Guy -ZABO NL

1978 Guy Victory U F Victory 1

1978 Guy Victory U F Victory 1 ?

END

GUY feathers 150

Buses FORD USA + all over the world part I

Buses FORD USA & all over the world part I

Ford Motor Company I

001

1914 Ford Model T, Four cylinders, 2900cc, 20 Horsepower

002

“Ford” redirects here. For other uses, see Ford.

Ford Mot002or Company

Type

Public company

Traded as

NYSEF
(S&P 500 Component)

Industry

Automotive

Founded

June 16, 1903 (110 years ago)

Founder(s)

Henry Ford

Headquarters

Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.
(GPS: 42°18′55.00″N83°12′37.00″W)

Area served

Worldwide

Key people

William C. Ford, Jr.
(Executive Chairman)
Alan R. Mulally
(President & CEO)

Products

Automobiles
Automotive parts

Services

Automotive finance
Vehicle leasing
Vehicle service

Revenue

 US$136.26 billion (2011)

Operating income

 US$8.681 billion (2011)

Net income

 US$20.21 billion (2011)

Total assets

 US$178.35 billion (2011)

Total equity

 US$15.07 billion (2011)

Employees

164,000 (2011)

Divisions

Ford
Lincoln
Motorcraft

Subsidiaries

List[show]

Website

Ford.com

BF2-2004

1914 Ford T R Spanje ©David Tejedor

Ford Motor Company (also known as simply Ford) is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. In the past it has also produced heavy trucks, tractors and automotive components. Ford owns small stakes in Mazda of Japan and Aston Martin of the United Kingdom. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership.

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1916 Ford Model T oldtimer bus L

Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914 these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford’s former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States since 1938.

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1916 ford T Depot Hack

Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2010 vehicle sales. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe. Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide.

1917 Ford Autobus Model TT

1917 Ford Autobus Model TT

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1918 T Ford Bus

History

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Henry Ford (ca. 1919)

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A 1910 Model T, photographed in Salt Lake City

Main article: History of Ford Motor Company

20th century

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1920 Ford bus – DD 475

1921 Harmonicabus op basis van Ford T

1921 Harmonicabus op basis van Ford T © Conam

Henry Ford’s first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge (who would later found their own car company). During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue in DetroitMichigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept; and Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era.

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1922 Ford

Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world’s largest and most profitable companies, as well as being one to survive the Great Depression. As one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world, the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 100 years.

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1922 FORD T-OMNIBUS

After the first modern automobile was already created in the year 1886 by German inventor Carl Benz (Benz Patent-Motorwagen), more efficient production methods were needed to make the automobile affordable for the middle-class; which Ford contributed to, for instance by introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913.

In 1908 Ford introduced the first engine with a removable cylinder head, in the Model T. In 1930, Ford introduced the Model A, the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low priced V8 engine powered car in 1932.

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1922 Henry Ford I ©HenryFord.ORG TheOldMotor

Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, and, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, and an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and in the same year offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. The Ford Mustang was introduced in 1964. In 1965 Ford introduced the seat belt reminder light.

With the 1980s, Ford introduced several highly successful vehicles around the world. During the 1980s, Ford began using the advertising slogan, “Have you driven a Ford, lately?” to introduce new customers to their brand and make their vehicles appear more modern. In 1990 and 1994 respectively, Ford also acquired Jaguar Cars and Aston Martin. During the mid- to late 1990s, Ford continued to sell large numbers of vehicles, in a booming American economy with a soaring stock market and low fuel prices.

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1922 Henry Fordson II ©HenryFord.ORG TheOldMotor

With the dawn of the new century, legacy healthcare costs, higher fuel prices, and a faltering economy led to falling market shares, declining sales, and diminished profit margins. Most of the corporate profits came from financing consumer automobile loans through Ford Motor Credit Company.

21st century

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William Clay Ford, Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford, serves as the executive chairman at the board of Ford Motor Company.

By 2005, both Ford and GM‘s corporate bonds had been downgraded to junk status, as a result of high U.S. health care costs for an aging workforce, soaring gasoline prices, eroding market share, and an over dependence on declining SUV sales. Profit margins decreased on large vehicles due to increased “incentives” (in the form of rebates or low interest financing) to offset declining demand. In the latter half of 2005, Chairman Bill Ford asked newly appointed Ford Americas Division President Mark Fields to develop a plan to return the company to profitability. Fields previewed the Plan, named The Way Forward, at the December 7, 2005 board meeting of the company and it was unveiled to the public on January 23, 2006. “The Way Forward” included resizing the company to match market realities, dropping some unprofitable and inefficient models, consolidating production lines, closing 14 factories and cutting 30,000 jobs.

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1923 Ford A R Spanje ©Lluis Cuesta

Ford moved to introduce a range of new vehicles, including “Crossover SUVs” built on unibody car platforms, rather than more body-on-frame chassis. In developing the hybrid electric powertrain technologies for the Ford Escape Hybrid SUV, Ford licensed similar Toyota hybrid technologies to avoid patent infringements. Ford announced that it will team up with electricity supply company Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid. Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility’s electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated “in typical customer settings”, according to Ford.

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1923 Ford Amaac Uruquay

William Clay Ford Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford (and better known by his nickname “Bill”), was appointed Executive Chairman in 1998, and also became Chief Executive Officer of the company in 2001, with the departure of Jacques Nasser, becoming the first member of the Ford family to head the company since the retirement of his uncle, Henry Ford II, in 1982. Upon the retirement of President and Chief Operation Officer Jim Padilla in April 2006, Bill Ford assumed his roles as well. Five months later, in September, Ford named Alan Mulally as President and CEO, with Ford continuing as Executive Chairman. In December 2006, the company raised its borrowing capacity to about $25 billion, placing substantially all corporate assets as collateral. Chairman Bill Ford has stated that “bankruptcy is not an option”. Ford and theUnited Auto Workers, representing approximately 46,000 hourly workers in North America, agreed to a historic contract settlement in November 2007 giving the company a substantial break in terms of its ongoing retiree health care costs and other economic issues. The agreement included the establishment of a company-funded, independently run Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA) trust to shift the burden of retiree health care from the company’s books, thereby improving its balance sheet. This arrangement took effect on January 1, 2010. As a sign of its currently strong cash position, Ford contributed its entire current liability (estimated at approximately US$5.5 billion as of December 31, 2009) to the VEBA in cash, and also pre-paid US$500 million of its future liabilities to the fund. The agreement also gives hourly workers the job security they were seeking by having the company commit to substantial investments in most of its factories.

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1923 Ford T 12-13 zitpl B-6185 NL

The automaker reported the largest annual loss in company history in 2006 of $12.7 billion, and estimated that it would not return to profitability until 2009. However, Ford surprised Wall Street in the second quarter of 2007 by posting a $750 million profit. Despite the gains, the company finished the year with a $2.7 billion loss, largely attributed to finance restructuring at Volvo.

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1923 Ford T B-6185 Ameland NL

On June 2, 2008, Ford sold its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors for $2.3 billion.

During November 2008, Ford, together with Chrysler and General Motors, sought government bridge loans at Congressional hearings in Washington, D.C. in the face of conditions caused by the 2008 financial crisis. The three companies presented action plans for the sustainability of the industry. Ford opted not to seek government loans. GM and Chrysler received government loans and financing through T.A.R.P. legislation funding provisions. On December 19, the cost of credit default swaps to insure the debt of Ford was 68 percent the sum insured for five years in addition to annual payments of 5 percent. That meant $6.8 million paid upfront to insure $10 million in debt, in addition to payments of $500,000 per year. In January 2009, Ford reported a $14.6 billion loss in the preceding year, a record for the company. The company retained sufficient liquidity to fund its operations. Through April 2009, Ford’s strategy of debt for equity exchanges erased $9.9 billion in liabilities (28% of its total) in order to leverage its cash position. These actions yielded Ford a $2.7 billion profit in fiscal year 2009, the company’s first full-year profit in four years.

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1923 Ford T Ford 20pk carr Verheul GTM1 NL

In 2012, Ford’s corporate bonds were upgraded from junk to investment grade again, citing sustainable, lasting improvements.

On October 29, 2012, Ford announced the sale of its climate control components business, its last remaining automotive components operation, to Detroit Thermal Systems LLC for an undisclosed price.

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1923 Ford T NL

On November 1, 2012, Ford announced that CEO Alan Mulally will stay with the company until 2014. Ford also named Mark Fields, the president of operations in Americas, as its new chief operating officer

Corporate affairs

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Ford World Headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, USA, known as the Glass House.

Executive management

Members of the Ford board as of 2012 are: Richard A. Gephardt, Stephen Butler, Ellen Marram, Kimberly CasianoAlan Mulally (President and CEO), Edsel Ford II, Homer Neal, William Clay Ford Jr. (Executive Chairman), Jorma Ollila, Irvine Hockaday Jr., John L. Thornton, and William Clay Ford, Sr. (Director Emeritus).

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1923 FORDSON BUS

The main corporate officers are: Lewis Booth (Executive Vice President, Chairman (PAG) and Ford of Europe), Mark Fields (Executive Vice President, President of The Americas), Donat Leclair (Executive Vice President and CFO), Mark A. Schulz (Executive Vice President, President of International Operations), and Michael E. Bannister (Group Vice President; Chairman & CEO Ford Motor Credit). Paul Mascarenas (Vice President of Engineering, The Americas Product Development)

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1923 Ford-T WSM

Financial results

In 2010, Ford earned a net profit of $6.6 billion and reduced its debt from $33.6 billion to $14.5 billion lowering interest payments by $1 billion following its 2009 net profit of $2.7 billion. In the U.S., the F-Series was the best-selling vehicle for 2010. Ford sold 528,349 F-Series trucks during the year, a 27.7% increase over 2009, out of a total sales of 1.9 million vehicles, or every one out of four vehicles Ford sold. Trucks sales accounts for a big slice of Ford’s profits, according to USA Today. Ford’s realignment also included the sale of its wholly owned subsidiary, Hertz Rent-a-Car to a private equity group for $15 billion in cash and debt acquisition. The sale was completed on December 22, 2005. A 50–50 joint venture with Mahindra & Mahindra of India, called Mahindra Ford India, Limited (MIFL), ended with Ford buying out Mahindra’s remaining stake in the company in 2005. Ford had previously upped its stake to 72% in 1998.

1924 tet ford-bussen

1924 tet ford-bussen

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1925 Ford T Carr. v d Bos & Br NL

Operations

Ford has manufacturing operations worldwide, including in the United States, Canada, Mexico, China, the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Australia and South Africa. Ford also has a cooperative agreement with Russian automaker GAZ.

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1925 Ford T carr. Hainje Heerenveen B-5225 NL

North America

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Ford dealer in Garden City, New York, ca. 1930-1945

In the first five months of 2010, auto sales in the U.S. rose to 4.6 million cars and light trucks, an increase of 17% from a year earlier. The rise was mainly caused by the return of commercial customers that had all but stopped buying in 2009 during the recession. Sales to individual customers at dealerships have increased 13%, while fleet sales have jumped 32%. Ford reported that 37% of its sales in May came from fleet sales when it announced its sales for the month increased 23%. In the first seven months of 2010, vehicle sales of Ford increased 24%, including retail and fleet sales. Fleet sales of Ford for the same period rose 35% to 386,000 units while retail sales increase 19%. Fleet sales account for 39 percent of Chrysler’s sales and 31 percent for GM’s.

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1927-ford-blue-bird-school-bus

Europe

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1927-ford-blue-bird-school-bus

Main article: Ford of Europe

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Ford’s Dunton Technical Centre inLaindonUnited Kingdom, the largest automotive research and development facility in the country

030 Ford Duitsland

The Ford Research Center in AachenGermany

At first, Ford in Germany and Ford in Britain built different models from one another until the late 1960s, with the Ford Escort and then the Ford Capri being common to both companies. Later on, the Ford Taunus and Ford Cortina became identical, produced in left hand drive and right hand drive respectively. Rationalisation of model ranges meant that production of many models in the UK switched to elsewhere in Europe, including Belgium and Spain as well as Germany. The Ford Sierra replaced the Taunus and Cortina in 1982, drawing criticism for its radical aerodynamic styling, which was soon given nicknames such as “Jellymould” and “The Salesman’s Spaceship.”

1928-Poelgeest-bussen

1928-Poelgeest-bussen ©Amstelveenweb.com

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1928 Ford V8 Hainje Heerenveen B-9274 NL

Increasingly, the Ford Motor Company has looked to Ford of Europe for its “world cars”, such as the Mondeo, Focus, and Fiesta, although sales of European-sourced Fords in the U.S. have been disappointing. The Focus has been one exception to this, which has become America’s best selling compact car since its launch in 2000

In February 2002, Ford ended car production in the UK. It was the first time in 90 years that Ford cars had not been made in Britain, although production of the Transit van continues at the company’s Southampton facility, engines at Bridgend and Dagenham, and transmissions at Halewood. Development of European Ford is broadly split between Dunton in Essex (powertrain, Fiesta/Ka, and commercial vehicles) and Cologne (body, chassis, electrical, Focus, Mondeo) in Germany. Ford also produced the Thames range of commercial vehicles, although the use of this brand name was discontinued circa 1965. Elsewhere in continental Europe, Ford assembles the Mondeo range in Genk (Belgium), Fiesta in Valencia (Spain) and Cologne (Germany), Ka in Valencia, and Focus in Valencia, Saarlouis (Germany) and Vsevolozhsk (Russia). Transit production is in Kocaeli (Turkey), Southampton (UK), and Transit Connect in Kocaeli.

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1928 Ford NL

Ford also owns a joint-venture production plant in Turkey. Ford-Otosan, established in the 1970s, manufactures the Transit Connect compact panel van as well as the “Jumbo” and long-wheelbase versions of the full-size Transit. This new production facility was set up near Kocaeli in 2002, and its opening marked the end of Transit assembly in Genk.

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1929 Ford

Another joint venture plant near Setúbal in Portugal, set up in collaboration with Volkswagen, formerly assembled the Galaxy people-carrier as well as its sister ships, the VW Sharan and SEAT Alhambra. With the introduction of the third generation of the Galaxy, Ford has moved the production of the people-carrier to the Genk plant, with Volkswagen taking over sole ownership of the Setúbal facility.

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1931 Ford V8 Cupido uitvoering 5 B-27189 NL

In 2008, Ford acquired a majority stake in Automobile Craiova, Romania. Starting 2009, the Ford Transit Connect was Ford’s first model produced in Craiova, followed, in 2012, by low-capacity car engines and a new small class car, the B-Max.

Ford Europe has broken new ground with a number of relatively futuristic car launches over the last 50 years.

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1931 Ford AA Bus

Its 1959 Anglia two-door saloon was one of the most quirky-looking small family cars in Europe at the time of its launch, but buyers soon became accustomed to its looks and it was hugely popular with British buyers in particular. It was still selling well when replaced by the more practical Escort in 1967.

The third incarnation of the Ford Escort was launched in 1980 and marked the company’s move from rear-wheel drive saloons to front-wheel drive hatchbacks in the small family car sector.

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1931 Ford-Hainje Cupido 8 NL

The fourth generation Escort was produced from 1990 until 2000, although its successor – the Focus – had been on sale since 1998. On its launch, the Focus was arguably the most dramatic-looking and fine-handling small family cars on sale, and sold in huge volumes right up to the launch of the next generation Focus at the end of 2004.

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1932 Ford – Den Oudsten, Woerden – Domburg A’dam NL

The 1982 Ford Sierra – replacement for the long-running and massively popular Cortina and Taunus models – was a style-setter at the time of its launch. Its ultramodern aerodynamic design was a world away from a boxy, sharp-edged Cortina, and it was massively popular just about everywhere it was sold. A series of updates kept it looking relatively fresh until it was replaced by the front-wheel drive Mondeo at the start of 1993.

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1932 Ford A Visser  B-13634a NL

The rise in popularity of small cars during the 1970s saw Ford enter the mini-car market in 1976 with its Fiesta hatchback. Most of its production was concentrated at Valencia in Spain, and the Fiesta sold in huge figures from the very start. An update in 1983 and the launch of an all-new model in 1989 strengthened its position in the small car market.

On October 24, 2012, Ford announced that it would be closing its Genk assembly plant in eastern Belgium by the end of 2014.

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1932 Ford A Visser  B-13634b NL

Asia Pacific

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1932 Ford A Visser B-13634 NL

Ford formed its first passenger-vehicle joint venture in China in 2001, six years behind GM and more than a decade after VW. It has spent as of 2013 $4.9 billion to expand its lineup and double production capacity in China to 600,000 vehicles This includes Ford’s largest-ever factory complex in the southwestern city of Chongqing. Ford had 2.5 percent of the Chinese market in 2013, while VW controlled 14.5 percent and GM had 15.6 percent, according to consultant LMC Automotive. GM outsells Ford in China by more than six-to-one.

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The Ford stamping plant in Geelong, Australia

The Ford India plant in ChennaiTamil Nadu

In Australia and New Zealand, the popular Ford Falcon has long been considered the average family car and is considerably larger than the Mondeo, Ford’s largest car sold in Europe. Between 1960 and 1972, the Falcon was based on a U.S. model of the same name, but since then has been entirely designed and manufactured in Australia, occasionlly being manufactured in New Zealand. Like its General Motors rival, the Holden Commodore, the Falcon uses a rear wheel drive layout. High performance variants of the Falcon running locally built engines produce up to 362 hp (270 kW). A ute (short for “utility”, known in the US as pickup truck) version is also available with the same range of drivetrains. In addition, Ford Australia sells highly tuned limited-production Falcon sedans and utes through its performance car division, Ford Performance Vehicles.

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1932-35 Ford. Bouwjaren NL

In Australia, the Commodore and Falcon have traditionally outsold all other cars and comprise over 20% of the new car market. In New Zealand, Ford was second in market share in the first eight months of 2006 with 14.4 per cent. More recently Ford has axed its Falcon-based LWB variant of its lineup – the Fairlane and LTD ranges, and announced that their Geelong engine manufacturing plant may be shut down from 2013. They have also announced local manufacturing of the Focus small car starting from 2011.

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1932-ford-model-b-school-bus ©Old Bus

However, with the acquisition of a stake in Japanese manufacturer Mazda in 1979, Ford began selling Mazda’s Familia and Capella (also known as the 323 and 626) as the Ford Laser and Telstar, replacing the European-sourced Escort and Cortina.

In Australia, the Laser was one of Ford Australia‘s most successful models, and was manufactured in Ford’s Homebush plant from 1981 until the plant’s closure in September 1994. It outsold the Mazda 323, despite being almost identical to it, due to the fact the Laser was manufactured in Australia and Ford was perceived as a local brand.

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1933 Ford carr. Postma Rottevalle

In New Zealand, the Ford Laser and Telstar were assembled alongside the Mazda 323 and 626 until 1997, at the Vehicle Assemblers of New Zealand (VANZ) plant in WiriAuckland. The Sierra wagon was also assembled in New Zealand, owing to the popularity of station wagons in that market.

Through its relationship with Mazda, Ford also acquired a stake in South Korean manufacturer Kia, which built the (Mazda-based) Ford Festiva from 1988–1993, and the Ford Aspire from 1994–1997 for export to the United States, but later sold their interest to Hyundai (which also manufactured the Ford Cortina until the 1980s). Kia continued to market the Aspire as the Kia Avella, later replaced by the Rio and once again sold in the US.

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1933 Ford V8 Carr. Brouwers Holwerd NL

Ford’s presence in Asia has traditionally been much smaller, confined to Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Taiwan, where Ford has had a joint venture with Lio Ho since the 1970s. Ford began assembly of cars in Thailand in 1960, but withdrew from the country in 1976, and did not return until 1995, when it formed a joint venture with Mazda called Auto Alliance. Now in Bo-win Sub District, Sriracha District of the Chonburi it is located The Ford Motor Company (Thailand) Limited, making passenger automobiles.

Ford India began production in 1998 at ChennaiTamil Nadu, with its Ford Escort model, which was later replaced by locally produced Ford Ikon in 2001. It has since added Fusion, Fiesta, Mondeo and Endeavour to its product line.

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1934 Ford Carr. Postma Rottervalle NL

On March 9, 2010, Ford Motor Co. launched its first made-for-India compact car. Starting at 349,900 ($7,690), the Figo is Ford’s first car designed and priced for the mass Indian market. On July 28, 2011, Ford India signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the State of Gujarat for the construction of an assembly and engine plant in Sanand, and planned to invest approximately US$1 billion on a 460-acre site.

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1934 Ford Lawrie CL-BB Winnipeg ©Foote

The scheduled closure of Ford’s Australian manufacturing base in 2016 was confirmed in late May 2013. Headquartered in the Victorian suburb of Broadmeadows, the company had registered losses worth AU$600 million over the five years prior to the announcement. It was noted that the corporate fleet and government sales that account for two-thirds of large, local car sales in Australia are insufficient to keep Ford’s products profitable and viable in Australia. The decision will affect 1200 Ford workers—over 600 employees in Geelong and more than 500 in Broadmeadows—who will lose their jobs by October 2016.

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1934 Ford V8 – Kusters & Lemmens  BBA 63 Autobus SVA 63 erfg NL

Ford of Japan

Ford established a manufacturing facility in the port city of Yokohama in February 1925, where Model T vehicles were assembled using imported knock-down kits. The factory subsequently produced 10,000 Model A’s up to 1936. Production ceased in 1940 as a result of political tensions between Japan and the United States.

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1934 Ford V8 Kusters & Lemmens- BBA 63 NL

After World War II, Ford did not have a presence in Japan, as the Ford facility was appropriated by the Japanese Government until 1958, when property was returned as a possession of the Ford Motor Company and became a research and development location for Ford partner Mazda. In 1979, Ford acquired a 24.5% ownership stake in Mazda, and in 1982 Ford and Mazda jointly established a sales channel to sell Ford products in Japan, including vehicles manufactured in North America, at a dealership called Autorama (Japanese). The Autorama sales channel was renamed Ford Sales of Japan in 1997.

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1934 Ford, type V8-40 Kusters en lemmens UB-93-63 NL

Vehicles sold at Autorama locations were the North American assembled Ford Explorer, Probe (1989–1998), Mustang, Taurus (1989–1997), Thunderbird (1990–1993), Lincoln Continental, and Lincoln LS. Ford products manufactured in Europe that were sold in Japan were the Ford MondeoKaFocusFocus C-MAXFiesta, and the Galaxy. Mazda manufactured Ford vehicles in Japan and sold them as Fords at the Autorama locations. They were the Ford Telstar (Mazda Capella), LaserFestivaFestiva Mini WagonIxion (Mazda Premacy), Freda (Mazda Bondo Friendee), Spectron (Mazda Bongo), and commercial trucks J80 and the J100 (Mazda Bongo truck).

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1934 Ford, type V8-40 Kusters en lemmens NL

Ford increased its shareholding in Mazda to 33.4% in 1996. Ford currently sells a small range of vehicles in Japan; as of October 2010, the Ford Mustang, Escape, Explorer (and Explorer truck), Ford KugaLincoln Navigator and Lincoln MKX were available in Japan. Ford maintains a regional office in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

South America

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1934 Ford © Hank Suderman

During much of the 20th century, Ford faced protectionist government measures in South America, with the result that it built different models in different countries, without particular regard to rationalization or economy of scale inherent to producing and sharing similar vehicles between the nations. In many cases, new vehicles in a country were based on those of the other manufacturers it had entered into production agreements with, or whose factories it had acquired. For example, the Corcel and Del Rey in Brazil were originally based on Renault vehicles.

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1935 Ford B-38868 NL

In 1987, Ford of Brasil and Ford of Argentina merged their operations with the Brazilian and Argentinan operations of Volkswagen Group, forming a new joint-venture company called Autolatina with a shared model range. Sales figures and profitability were disappointing, and Autolatina was dissolved in 1995. With the advent of Mercosur, the regional common market, Ford was finally able to rationalize its product line-ups in those countries. Consequently, the Ford Fiesta and Ford EcoSport are only built in Brazil, and the Ford Focus only built in Argentina, with each plant exporting in large volumes to the neighboring countries. Models like the Ford Mondeo from Europe could now be imported completely built up. Ford of Brazil produces a pick-up truck version of the Fiesta, the Courier, which is also produced in South Africa as the Ford Bantam in right hand drive versions.

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1935 Ford V8 Den Oudsten en Domburg B-21037 NL

Africa and Middle East

In Africa, Ford’s market presence has traditionally been strongest in South Africa and neighbouring countries, with only trucks being sold elsewhere on the continent. Ford in South Africa began by importing kits from Canada to be assembled at its Port Elizabeth facility. Later Ford sourced its models from the UK and Australia, with local versions of the Ford Cortina including the XR6, with a 3.0 V6 engine, and aCortina-based ‘bakkie’ or pick-up, which was exported to the UK. In the mid-1980s Ford merged with a rival company, owned by Anglo American, to form the South African Motor Corporation (Samcor).

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1935 Ford V8 Hainje B-20623 Rally Monte Carlo NL

Following international condemnation of apartheid, Ford divested from South Africa in 1988, and sold its stake in Samcor, although it licensed the use of its brand name to the company. Samcor began to assemble Mazdas as well, which affected its product line-up, and saw the European Fords like the Escort and Sierra replaced by the Mazda-based Laser and Telstar. Ford bought a 45 per cent stake in Samcor following the demise of apartheid in 1994, and this later became, once again, a wholly owned subsidiary, the Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa. Ford now sells a local sedan version of the Fiesta (also built in India and Mexico), and the Focus. The Falcon model from Australia was also sold in South Africa, but was dropped in 2003, while the Mondeo, after briefly being assembled locally, was dropped in 2005.

057

1935 Ford V-8 Intercity Bus

Ford’s market presence in the Middle East has traditionally been even smaller, partly due to previous Arab boycotts of companies dealing with Israel. Ford and Lincoln vehicles are currently marketed in ten countries in the region. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the UAE are the biggest markets. Ford also established itself in Egypt in 1926, but faced an uphill battle during the 1950s due to the hostile nationalist business environment. Ford’s distributor in Saudi Arabia announced in February 2003 that it had sold 100,000 Ford and Lincoln vehicles since commencing sales in November 1986. Half of the Ford/Lincoln vehicles sold in that country were Ford Crown Victorias. In 2004, Ford sold 30,000 units in the region, falling far short of General Motors‘ 88,852 units and Nissan Motors‘ 75,000 units.

Products and services

Automobiles

See also: List of Ford vehicles and List of Mercury vehicles

058 2013_Lincoln_MKS_--_2012_DC

The 2013 model year Lincoln MKS

As of 2012 Ford Motor Company sells a broad range of automobiles under the Ford marque worldwide, and an additional range of luxury automobiles under theLincoln marque in the United States. The company has sold vehicles under a number of other marques during its history. The Mercury brand was introduced by Ford in 1939, continuing in production until 2011 when poor sales led to its discontinuation. In 1958, Ford introduced the Edsel brand, but poor sales led to its discontinuation in 1960. In 1985, the Merkur brand was introduced in the United States to market products produced by Ford of Europe; it was discontinued in 1989.

059

1935 ford-busse-oldtimer

Ford acquired the British sports car maker Aston Martin in 1989, later selling it on March 12, 2007, although retaining a 15% stake, and bought Volvo Cars of Sweden in 1999, selling it to Zhejiang Geely Holding Group in 2010. In November 2008, it reduced its 33.4% controlling interest in Mazda of Japan to a 13.4% non-controlling interest. On November 18, 2010, Ford reduced their stake further to just 3%, citing the reduction of ownership would allow greater flexibility to pursue growth in emerging markets. Ford and Mazda remain strategic partners through exchanges of technological information and joint ventures, including an American joint venture plant in Flat Rock, Michigan called Auto Alliance. Ford sold the United Kingdom-based Jaguar and Land Rover companies and brands to Tata Motors of India in March 2008.

060

1935 LINDBERGH op Ford R-Series NL             ^ Fotograaf

In 2011, J.D. Power ranked Ford 23rd in initial quality, a drop from fifth in 2010. Consumer Reports magazine likewise decided not to recommend several new Ford SUVs, blaming the Sync entertainment and phone system used.

Marque

Country of origin

Years used/owned

Markets

Ford United States 1903 to present Global
Lincoln United States 1922 to present North America, Middle East
Mercury United States 1939 to 2011 North America
Edsel United States 1958 to 1960 North America
Merkur United States 1985 to 1989 North America
Jaguar United Kingdom 1989 to 2008 Global
Aston Martin United Kingdom 1989 to 2007 Global
Volvo Sweden 1999 to 2010 Global

Land Rover

United Kingdom

2000 to 2008

Global

Trucks

061 Ford_1939

An advert for the 1939 Ford V-8 pick-up truck

062 Ford_1961

An advert for the 1961 Ford H-Series truck

Ford has produced trucks since 1908. Countries where Ford commercial vehicles are or were made include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada (badged Mercury too), France, Germany, India, Netherlands, Philippines, Spain (badged Ebro too), Turkey, UK (badged also Fordson and Thames) and USA.

063

1936 Ford V8 Hainje NL

From the 1940s to late 1970s Ford’s Ford F-Series were used as the base for light trucks for the North American market.

Most of these ventures are now extinct. The European one that lasted longest was the lorries arm of Ford of Britain, which was eventually sold to Iveco group in 1986, and whose last significant models were the Transcontinental and the Cargo.

In the United States, Ford’s heavy trucks division (Classes 7 and 8) was sold in 1997 to Freightliner Trucks, which rebranded the lineup as Sterling. Freightliner is in the process of discontinuing this line.

064

1936 Ford V8 New Zealand

Line of heavy trucks made by Ford for the North American market:

065

1936 Ford V-8 Transit Bus

Ford continues to manufacture medium duty trucks under the F-650 and F-750 badges. In 2001, the company entered into a joint venture with Navistar International to produce medium duty commercial trucks. The first new model from the new corporation, known as Blue Diamond Truck Company LLC, was the 2006 model year LCF, the first Ford branded cab-over-engine design in the United States since Freightliner’s acquisition of the Cargo in the mid-1990s. The LCF was discontinued in 2009 and Ford’s 2011 medium-duty commercial offerings are limited to the two F-Series.

In 1999 the end of the F800 meant Ford was not producing in any F-series heavy truck chassis.

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit jumbo van which is classed as a Large Goods Vehicle and has a payload of up to 2,265 kg, there are options of a panel van, pickup or chassis cab. The Ford Transit is also available as a light van called the Ford Transit Connect and the Ford Ranger pickup is available.

Buses

065 1980sThomasFordSheffield

A Ford B700 bus chassis, with a body byThomas Built

Ford manufactured complete buses in the company’s early history, but today the role of the company has changed to that of a second stage manufacturer. In North America, the E-Series is still used as a chassis for small school buses and the F-650 is used in commercial bus markets. In the 1980s and 1990s, the medium-duty B700 was a popular chassis used by school bus body manufacturers including Thomas BuiltWard and Blue Bird, but Ford lost its market share due to industry contraction and agreements between body manufacturers. Older bus models included:

Prior to 1939, Ford buses were based on truck bodies:

  • Model B – 1930s
  • Model T – 1920s
  • F-105 school bus

066

1936 Ford V8T carr. Hainje Heerenveen B-7387 NL

During World War II Ford manufactured Ford Transit bus, a series of small transit buses with bodies built by second party:

  • 09-B/19-B City transit bus – 1939–1941
  • 19-B/29-B City transit bus – 1941–1942
  • 49-B/79-B City transit bus – 1944–1947
  • 69-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 29-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 72-T transit bus – 1944–1945

After 1946 the Transit City bus was sold as Universal Bus with the roof changed from fabric/wood to all metal:

  • 79-B Universal transit bus – 1946–1947

Succeeding the Ford Transit bus was the Ford 8M buses:

  • 8MB transit bus – with Wayne Works 1948–?

Following World War II and from 1950s onwards Ford lost out to General Motors. This led to the end of transit buses for Ford in North America.

  • B500 or B-series – 1950-1990s based on Ford F-series truck chassis used by school bus body manufacturers

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit Minibus which is classed in Europe as a Passenger Carrying Vehicle and there are options of 12, 15 or 17 seaters. In the past European models included:

  • EM
  • N-138
  • D series buses (Australia)

067

1936 Ford Verheul NL

Tractors

068 Ford-Tractor

A Ford N series tractor

The “Henry Ford and Son Company” began making Fordson tractors in Henry’s hometown of Springwells (later part of Dearborn), Michigan from 1907 to 1928, from 1919 to 1932, at Cork, Ireland, and 1933–1964 at Dagenham, England, later transferred to Basildon. They were also produced in Leningrad beginning in 1924.

069

1936 Ford-Hainje, gefotografeerd door ©Jan Voerman op 4-8-1940 in Den Bosch NL

In 1986, Ford expanded its tractor business when it purchased the Sperry-New Holland skid-steer loader and hay baler, hay tools and implement company fromSperry Corporation and formed Ford-New Holland which bought out Versatile tractors in 1988. This company was bought by Fiat in 1993 and the name changed from Ford New Holland to New Holland. New Holland is now part of CNH Global.

070

1937 Ford carr. Veth ZEGO194 NL

Financial services

071

1937 Ford Greyhound Bus

072

1937 Ford Greyhound Bus

074

1937 Ford Super Coaches Australia

Ford offers automotive finance through Ford Motor Credit Company.

Automotive components

075 isobloc

1937 Ford Isobloc met V8 motor F

Ford’s FoMoCo parts division sells aftermarket parts under the Motorcraft brand name. It has spun off its parts division under the name Visteon.

Motorsport

076

1937 Ford van Koopmans Jubbega met carroserie van Hainje NL

Main article: Ford Racing

077

1938 Ford A Hainje Heerenveen NL

Along with Shelby and Chevrolet, Ford is one of only three American constructors to win titles on the international scene at the FIA World Championships. As a constructor, Ford won the World Sportscar Championship three times in 19661967 and 1968, and the World Rally Championship three times in 19792006 and 2007.

078

1938 Ford Hainje B-21375 NL

Stock car racing

079 Todd_Kluever

NASCAR Ford Fusion race car

Ford is one of four manufacturers in NASCAR‘s three major series: Sprint Cup SeriesNationwide Series, and Camping World Truck Series. Major teams includeRoush Fenway Racing and Yates Racing and Richard Petty Motorsports. Ford is represented by the mid-size Fusion in the Sprint Cup, the Mustang in the Nationwide Series, and by the F-150 in the Camping World Truck Series. Some of the most successful NASCAR Fords were the aerodynamic fastback Ford Torino,Ford Torino TalladegaMercury Cyclone Spoiler II, and Mercury Montegos, and the aero-era Ford Thunderbirds. The Ford nameplate has won eight manufacturer’s championships in Sprint Cup, while Mercury has won one. In the Sprint Cup Series, Ford earned its 1,000th victory in the 2013 Quicken Loans 400. The Ford Fusion is also used in the ARCA Remax Series.

080

1938 Ford Kusters & Lemmens VADAH-bus 8 lijn Sittard- Echt-Roermond NL

Formula One

Ford was heavily involved in Formula One for many years, and supplied engines to a large number of teams from 1967 until 2004. These engines were designed and manufactured by Cosworth, the racing division that was owned by Ford from 1998 to 2004. Ford-badged engines won 176 Grands Prix between 1967 and 2003 for teams such as Team Lotus and McLaren. Ford entered Formula One as a constructor in 2000 under the Jaguar Racing name, after buying the Stewart Grand Prixteam which had been its primary ‘works’ team in the series since 1997. Jaguar achieved little success in Formula One, and after a turbulent five seasons, Ford withdrew from the category after the 2004 season, selling both Jaguar Racing (which became Red Bull Racing) and Cosworth (to Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven).

081

1938 Ford V8 COE B-15822 Hainje NL

Rally

082 Rally

Jari-Matti Latvala driving the Ford Focus RS WRC 09 in 2010.

Main article: Ford World Rally Team

083

1938 Ford V8, 798W, Hainje NL

Ford has a long history in rallying and has been active in the World Rally Championship since the beginning of the world championship, the 1973 season. Ford took the 1979 manufacturers’ title with Hannu MikkolaBjörn Waldegård and Ari Vatanen driving the Ford Escort RS1800. In the Group B era, Ford achieved success withFord RS200. Since the 1999 season, Ford has used various versions of the Ford Focus WRC to much success. In the 2006 seasonBP-Ford World Rally Teamsecured Ford its second manufacturers’ title, with the Focus RS WRC 06 built by M-Sport and driven by “Flying Finns“ Marcus Grönholm and Mikko Hirvonen.Continuing with Grönholm and Hirvonen, Ford successfully defended the manufacturers’ world championship in the 2007 season. Ford is the only manufacturer to score in the points for 92 consecutive races; since the 2002 season opener Monte Carlo Rally.

084

1938 FordBus

Sports cars

Main article: Ford GT#Racing

085

1939 Ford AA NL

Ford sports cars have been visible in the world of sports car racing since 1964. Most notably the GT40 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans four times in the 1960s and is the only American car to ever win overall at this prestigious event. Ford also won the 1968 International Championship for Makes with the GT40, which still stands today as one of the all-time greatest racing cars. Swiss team Matech GT Racing, in collaboration with Ford Racing, opened a new chapter with the Ford GT, winning the Teams title in the 2008 FIA GT3 European Championship.

086 Ford Mustang Barbers02

Ford Mustang GT (racing GT car)

Main article: Ford Mustang#Racing

087

1939 Ford op afsluitdijk B-21037a NL

The Ford Mustang has arguably been Ford’s most successful sports car. Jerry Titus won the 1965 SCCA Pro B National Championship with a Mustang and the model went on to earn Ford the SCCA Trans-Am Championship title in both 1966 and 1967. Ford won the Trans-Am Championship again in 1970 with Parnelli Jonesand George Folmer driving Boss 302 Mustangs for Bud Moore Engineering. Ford took the 1985 and 1986 IMSA GTO Championship with Mustangs driven by John Jones and Scott Pruett before returning to Trans-Am glory with a championship in 1989 with Dorsey Schroeder. Ford dominated Trans-Am in the 1990s with Tommy Kendal winning championships in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Paul Gentilozi adding yet another title in 1999. In 2005 the Ford Mustang FR500C took the championship in the Rolex Koni Challenge Series in its first year on the circuit. In 2007 Ford added a victory in the GT4 European Championship. 2008 was the first year of the Mustang Challenge for the Miller Cup, a series which pits a full field of identical factory built Ford Mustang race cars against each other. Also in 2008, Ford won the manufacturers championship in the Koni Challenge Series and HyperSport drivers Joe Foster and Steve Maxwell won the drivers title in a Mustang GT.

088

1939 Ford-Verheul  2 foto via Frank vd Boogert KLM NL

Touring cars

089 Winterbottom2008

Ford Performance Racing Ford Falcon V8 Supercar at Eastern Creek in Australia in 2008.

Ford has campaigned touring cars such as the FocusFalcon, and Contour/Mondeo and the Sierra Cosworth in many different series throughout the years. Notably, Mondeo drivers finished 1,2,3 in the 2000 British Touring Car Championship and Falcon drivers placed 1,2,3 in the 2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series.

090

1940 Ford met carrosserie van Hainje NL

Other

In the Indianapolis 500, Ford powered IndyCars won 17 times between 1965 and 1996[citation needed]. Ford has also branched out into drifting with the introduction of the new model Mustang. Most noticeable is the Turquoise and Blue Falken Tires Mustang driven by Vaughn Gittin Jr, A.K.A. “JR”. with 750 RWHP (Rear Wheel Horsepower). In drag racingJohn Force Racing drivers John ForceTony Pedregon, and Robert Hight have piloted Ford Mustang Funny Cars to several NHRA titles in recent seasons. Teammates Tim Wilkerson and Bob Tasca III also drive Mustangs in Funny Car. Formula Ford, a formula for single-seater cars without wings and originally on road tires were conceived in 1966 in the UK as an entry-level formula for racing drivers. Many of today’s racing drivers started their car racing careers in this category.

091

1940 Ford O98W158 carr v Eerten GTW197 M-15291 NL

Environmental initiatives

092 Ford_leaf_road_logo

All Ford’s alternative fuel and hybridmodels are identified by Ford’s leaf road logo badge.

093

1940 Ford O98W158 carr v Eerten GTW198 M-15292 M-15068 NL

Compressed natural gas

The alternative fossil fuel vehicles, such as some versions of the Crown Victoria especially in fleet and taxi service, operate on compressed natural gas—or CNG. Some CNG vehicles have dual fuel tanks – one for gasoline, the other for CNG – the same engine can operate on either fuel via a selector switch.

094

1940 Ford V8 Werkspoor met verduisterde koplampen. ATO-13 NL

Flexible fuel vehicles

095 Ford_Focus_Flexifuel_in_Madrid_with_flexifuel_badging

The Ford Focus Flexifuel was the first E85 flexible fuel vehicle commercially available in the European market.

Flexible fuel vehicles are designed to operate smoothly using a wide range of available ethanol fuel mixtures—from pure gasoline, to bioethanol-gasoline blends such as E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) or E100 (neat hydrous ethanol) in Brazil. Part of the challenge of successful marketing alternative and flexible fuel vehicles in the U.S., is the general lack of establishment of sufficient fueling stations, which would be essential for these vehicles to be attractive to a wide range of consumers. Significant efforts to ramp up production and distribution of E85 fuels are underway and expanding. Current Ford E100 Flex sold in the Brazilian market are the CourierFord EcoSportFord FiestaFord Focus and Ford Ka.

096

1940 Frederiks Ford bus de TET 28 NL

Electric vehicles

Ford expects electric vehicles will represent a “major portion” of its lineup a decade from now as the automaker breaks away from a recent reliance on pickup trucks and SUVs. The stakes are high because Ford’s stepped-up investment is coming at a time when the U.S. government is demanding steep increases in fuel economy and has put money forward to help automakers adopt new fuel-saving technologies.

097

1942 Ford Q163 UK

Ford will partner with Coulomb Technologies to provide nearly 5,000 free in-home charging stations for some of the automaker’s first electric vehicle customers, under the Ford Blue Oval ChargePoint Program.

Hybrid electric vehicles

098 Ford_Escape_plug-in_hybrid

Ford Escape plug-in hybrid test vehicle.

099 George_Bush_visit_Kansas_City_Assembly

Mulally (second from left) with then-President George W. Bush at the Kansas City Assembly plant in Claycomo, Missouri on March 20, 2007, touting Ford’s new hybrid cars.

Main article: Hybrid electric vehicle

100

1942 Ford Transit model 29-B FORD GRAY COACH LINES © William A Luke

In 2004 Ford and Toyota agreed a patent sharing accord which granted Ford access to certain hybrid technology patented by Toyota; in exchange Ford licensed Toyota some of its own patents. In 2005 Ford introduced the Hybrid-Electric Escape. With this vehicle, Ford was third to the automotive market with ahybrid electric vehicle and the first hybrid electric SUV to market. This was also the first hybrid electric vehicle with a flexible fuel capability to run on E85. The Escape’s platform mate Mercury Mariner was also available with the hybrid-electric system in the 2006 model year—a full year ahead of schedule. The similarMazda Tribute will also receive a hybrid-electric powertrain option, along with many other vehicles in the Ford vehicle line.

101

1943 Ford abc tour Auckland Au

In 2005 Ford announced a goal to make 250,000 hybrids a year by 2010, but by mid-2006 announced that it would not meet that goal, due to excessively high costs and the lack of sufficient supplies of the hybrid-electric batteries and drivetrain system components. Instead, Ford has committed to accelerating development of next-generation hybrid-electric power plants in Britain, in collaboration with Volvo. This engineering study is expected to yield more than 100 new hybrid-electric vehicle models and derivatives.

102

1943 Ford F60 eigen opbouw B-33023 NL During the 2nd WW

In September 2007 Ford announced a partnership with Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine how plug-in hybrids will work with the electrical grid. Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility’s electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated “in typical customer settings”, according to Ford.

On June 12, 2008 USDOE expanded its own fleet of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles with the addition of a Ford Escape Plug-In Hybrid Flex-Fuel Vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with a 10-kilowatt (13 hp) lithium-ion battery supplied by Johnson Controls-Saft that stores enough electric energy to drive up to 30 miles (48 km) at speeds of up to 40 mph (64 km/h)

103

1943 FORD Transit Model 29-B PS194329-B NL

In March 2009 Ford launched hybrid versions of the Ford Fusion Hybrid and the Mercury Milan Hybrid in the United States, both as 2010 models.

Current and planned Ford hybrid electric vehicles include the Ford Escape Hybrid (2004–present), Mercury Mariner (2006–present), Ford Fusion Hybrid/Mercury Milan (2009–present) and Ford Edge/Lincoln MKX (2009/10–present).

104

1944 Ford 342 NL

All-electric vehicles

Ford ended the Think City experiment and ordered all the cars repossessed and destroyed, even as many of the people leasing them begged to be able to buy the cars from Ford. After outcry from the lessees and activists in the US and Norway, Ford returned the cars to Norway for sale.

105

1944 Ford Bus

Bill Ford was one of the first top industry executives to make regular use of an battery electric vehicle, a Ford Ranger EV, while the company contracted with the United States Postal Service to deliver electric postal vans based on the Ranger EV platform..Ford discontinued a line of electric Ranger pickup trucks and ordered them destroyed, though it reversed in January 2005, after environmentalist protest.

The North American Focus EV is based on next generation Focus fuel vehicle, converted to an electric propulsion system as a Production EV by Magna International, and is planned to be launched in late 2011. Ford plans to have 10,000 Focus EVs on the road beginning in late 2011 in partnership with Magna International and it will be a global vehicle that will be sold in the three key markets of North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. The Focus EV has a maximum range of about 160 kilometers or 100 miles, and a top speed of about 120+ kilometers or 75+ miles per hour.

106

1944 Ford Transit

Current and planned Ford electric vehicles include the all-electric Transit Connect (2010–present), the Ford Focus EV (2011–present), the C-MAX Energi (on sale from third quarter 2012) and the Ford Fusion EV (on sale from third quarter 2012).

107

1944 Ford Transit

Ford battery electric vehicle (BEV) demonstrators are included in a British project that is part of the UK government’s zero carbon vehicle fleet of Focus BEVs. The BEV demonstrator fleet is being developed partly with public funding from the government’s Technology Strategy Board (TSB), which promotes innovative industry-led projects that reduce CO2 while benefiting the UK’s transport system.

108

1944 V-03-Hercules Ford bus C49133

Hydrogen

Ford also continues to study Fuel Cell-powered electric powertrains, and has demonstrated hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine technologies, as well as developing the next-generation hybrid-electric systems. Compared with conventional vehicles, hybrid vehicles and/or fuel cell vehicles decrease air pollution emissions as well as sound levels, with favorable impacts upon respiratory health and decrease of noise health effects.

109

1945 Ford NL

Ford has launched the production of hydrogen-powered shuttle buses, using hydrogen instead of gasoline in a standard internal combustion engine, for use at airports and convention centers. At the 2006Greater Los Angeles Auto Show, Ford showcased a hydrogen fuel cell version of its Explorer SUV. The Fuel cell Explorer has a combined output of 174 hp (130 kW). It has a large hydrogen storage tank which is situated in the center of the car taking the original place of the conventional model’s automatic transmission. The centered position of the tank assists the vehicle reach a notable range of 350 miles (563 km), the farthest for a fuel cell vehicle so far. The fuel cell Explorer the first in a series of prototypes partly funded by the United States Department of Energy to expand efforts to determine the feasibility of hydrogen- powered vehicles. The fuel cell Explorer is one of several vehicles with green technology being featured at the L.A. show, including the 2008 Ford Escape Hybrid, PZEV emissions compliant Fusion and Focus models and a 2008 Ford F-Series Super Duty outfitted with Ford’s clean diesel technology.

110

1946 ABC Ford V8 number 82 as a Movan

1946 Hist Bus FordThames

1946 Hist Bus FordThames

Increased fuel efficiency

111

All Ford’s models with EcoBoost engines are identified by Ford’s leaf road logo badge.

Ford Motor Company announced it will accelerate its plans to produce more fuel-efficient cars, changing both its North American manufacturing plans and its lineup of vehicles available in the United States. In terms of North American manufacturing, the company will convert three existing truck and sport utility vehicle (SUV) plants for small car production, with the first conversion at its Michigan Truck Plant. In addition, Ford’s assembly plants near Mexico City, Mexico, and in Louisville, Kentucky, will convert from pickups and SUVs to small cars, including the Ford Fiesta, by 2011. Ford will also introduce to North America six of its European small vehicles, including two versions of the Ford Fiesta, by the end of 2012. And last but not least, Ford is stepping up its production of fuel-efficient “EcoBoost” V-6 and four-cylinder engines, while increasing its production of hybrid vehicles.

112

1946 Ford 69-B

Ford of Europe developed the ECOnetic programme to address the market and legislative need for higher fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. As opposed to the hybrid engine technology used in competitor products such as the Toyota Prius, ECOnetic improves existing technology. Using lower consuming Duratorq TDCi diesel engines, and based on a combination of improved aerodynamics, lower resistance and improved efficiency, the Ford Fiesta is currently the lowest emitting mass-produced car in Europe, while the 2012 Ford Focus ECOnetic will have better fuel consumption that the Prius or the Volkswagen Golf BlueMotion.ECOnetic is not presently planned to be sold in North American due to current perceived lower consumer demand.

113

1946 Ford CAP carr. De Haas 18 NL

Ford has challenged University teams to create a vehicle that is simple, durable, lightweight and come equipped with a base target price of only $7,000 The students from Aachen University created the “2015 Ford Model T“.

In 2000, under the leadership of the current Ford chairman, William Clay Ford, the Company announced a planned 25 percent improvement in the average mileage of its light truck fleet – including its popular SUVs – to be completed by the 2005 calendar year. In 2003, Ford announced that competitive market conditions and technological and cost challenges would prevent the company from achieving this goal.

114

1946 Ford F5 V8 carr.Heida Wolvega B-33225 NL

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have, however, listed Ford as the seventh-worst corporate producer of air pollution, primarily because of the manganese compounds, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and glycol ethers released from its casting, truck, and assembly plants. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has linked Ford to 54 Superfund toxic waste sites, twelve of which have been cleaned up and deleted from the list.

For the 2007 model year, Ford had thirteen U.S. models that achieve 30 miles per gallon or better (based on the highway fuel economy estimates of the EPA) and several of Ford’s vehicles were recognized in the EPA and Department of Energy Fuel Economy Guide for best-in-class fuel economy. Ford claimed to have eliminated nearly three million pounds of smog-forming emissions from their U.S. cars and light trucks over the 2004 to 2006 model years.

115

1946 Ford nr 40 Hengelo Tet 004 NL

PC power management

116

1946 Ford Tour Buses at The River Rouge ©THEOldMotor.COM

On March 2010, Ford announced its PC power management system which it developed with NightWatchman software from 1E. The company is expected to save $1.2m on power cost and reduce carbon footprint by an estimated 16,000 to 25,000 metric tons annually when the system is fully implemented.

PC power management is being rolled out to all Ford computer users in US this month and it will be used in Ford operations around the world later in the year. Computers with this power profile enabled will monitor its usage patterns and decides when it can be turned off. PC user will be alerted of the approaching power down time and given the opportunity to delay it.

117

1946 Ford V8 Cupido B-27189 NL

According to company reduction in carbon footprint and power cost will be achieved by developing ‘Power Profiles’ for every PC in the company.

118

1946 Ford v8 carr.Jonckheere B ©Groep Waaslandia

119

1946 Ford V8 carr.Postma Rottevalle

120

1946 Ford carr.Verheul

121

1946 Ford 59b Bus

122

1946 Ford-Thames noodautobussen voor 31 personen, carr.Verheul mei 1946 NL

123

1946-1952 Ford carr. De Groot door © Bramani NB-21-81

124

1947 Ford 15 Rotterdam carr. Allan  NL

125

1947 Ford 59B Bus  BBA (SVA) carr. Jongerius NL

126

1947 Ford B59 Transit Ford 100pk carr Jongerius GTW 998 NL

127

1947 Ford B59 Transit Ford 100pk carr Jongerius GTW 998 NL

128

1945 Ford B-21037b carr. Den Oudsten-Domburg NL

129

1947 Ford carr. onb

130

1947 Ford carr Jongerius Huisstijl BBA Stadsbus 353 NB-33-79 NL

131

1947 Ford F5 C 694 B carr. Wayne GTW 25 NL

132

1947 Ford carr.Jongerius NL

132

1947 Ford Trambus B-31898 NL

133

1947 Ford V8 carr. Brouwers NL

134

1947 Ford, 59 B carr.Verheul NL

135

1947 Ford, 59B carr.Jongerius NL

136

1947 Ford, 59B carr.Jongerius NL

137

1947 Ford-carr.Hoogeveen (trambus) 046 NL

138

1947 Ford-carr.Verheul (trambus) 056 NL

139

1947-1952 Ford 6G-C694B carr. Roset NB-36-90 NL

140

1948 Ford 6 600 Perkins 6cyl motor Carr. Agosti Hecha de Madera por artesanos ¡Un espectaculo el interior!

141

1948 Ford Bus School Old

142

1948 Ford carr.Hoogeveen (trambus) 042a NL

143

1948 Ford Schoolbus carr.Jongerius bus-7 NL

144

1948 Ford Schoolbussen

145

1948 Ford Schoolbussen

146

1948 Ford Wayne schoolbus Cupido B-27186 NB-50-80 NL

147

1949 Ford-Highlander

148

1949 Ford-Wayne-Hercules-Cambell

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This is the end of part I

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