Mercury Turnpike Cruiser SPECIAL EXTRA

Mercury Turnpike Cruiser

The Mercury Turnpike Cruiser is a full-size automobile that was the flagship model of the Mercury division of Ford Motor Company for the 1957 and 1958 model years. Named after the 1956 creation of the Interstate Highway System, the Turnpike Cruiser was produced in two-door and four-door hardtop bodystyles. In 1957, a two-door convertible was also produced, serving as the pace car for the Indianapolis 500 of that year.
They are best known for the unique styling cues and wide array of gadgets including a “Breezeway” power rear window that could be lowered to improve ventilation, “twin jet” air intakes at upper corners of car’s windshield, “seat-o-matic” automatically adjusting seat, and an average speed “computer” (that would tell your average speed at any point along a trip).

Convertible Cruiser
External links


You Tube Videos:


rear view showing “Breezeway” window
For 1957, the Turnpike Cruiser was the premium model offering from Mercury. In addition to its unique features, the car was further differentiated from other Mercury models by a gold anodized trim strip in the car’s rear fin. It came standard with an automatic transmission and a 368-c.i.d. engine producing 290 horsepower (220 kW); this engine was optional on other Mercurys. A tachometer was available. Safety features such as an impact absorbing, deep-dish steering wheel, front seat stops (to keep the front seat from breaking away) and safety door locks were standard, while seat belts and a padded dash were optional.
The Turnpike Cruiser would comprise 8.47% of Mercury sales in 1957.[1] Motor Trend gave high marks for fuel economy (14.6mpg at 60mph) and comfort, low for handling.
Convertible Cruiser

1957 Mercury Turnpike Cruiser convertible

1957 Convertible Cruiser with “Continental Kit” spare tire
Later in the model year an open car named Convertible Cruiser was added to this series. From the beginning it was created only to be used as the official pace car of the 1957 Indianapolis 500. On January 7, 1957, it was announced that the Convertible Cruiser would be available as a production model as well. All Convertible cruisers had a continental tire kit and were painted yellow (Sun Glitter), similar to the original pace cars.

In 1958 the Turnpike Cruiser joined the mid-range Mercury Montclair line with only minor trim changes to the car from the previous year, but the convertible version was not offered this year. A further upgrade of luxury equipment and appearance of the Turnpike Cruiser became the Mercury Park Lane which replaced it entirely for 1959.
Standard engine became the 383-c.i.d. “Marauder” V8 engine, with the 430-c.i.d., 360 horsepower (270 kW) version available as an option. A triple-carburetor”Super Marauder” 400 horsepower (300 kW) version was available across the Mercury line. Self-adjusting brakes were added.
From 1963 to 1966 Mercury revived the most distinctive feature of the Turnpike Cruiser, returning a retractable “Breezeway” rear window, on its full-size Monterey, Montclair and Park Lane model ranges.

Cars Wallpapers

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a b c d Flory, Jr., J. “Kelly” (2008). American Cars, 1946-1959 Every Model Every Year. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7864-3229-5.
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^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1957 Mercury/album”. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
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^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1957 Mercury/1957_Mercury_Foldout”. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
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^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1957 Mercury/1957_Mercury_Brochure”. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
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^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1958 Mercury/1958_Mercury_Brochure”. Retrieved 2011-11-20.


1960s and 1970s Plymouth logo

Plymouth (automobile) 1928 – 2001 Auburn Hills, Michigan, United States

Industry Automobile
Fate Withdrawn from the market in 2001; models were either discontinued or rebranded as Chrysler
Founded July 7, 1928
Founder Walter Chrysler
Defunct June 29, 2001; 15 years ago
Headquarters Auburn Hills, Michigan
United States
Products Cars, Minivans
Parent Chrysler (1928–1998)
DaimlerChrysler (1998–2001)

Plymouth was a brand of automobiles based in the United States, produced by the Chrysler Corporation and its successor DaimlerChrysler. The brand first appeared in 1928 in the United States and was discontinued in 2001.



1928 Plymouth Model Q Coupe1928 Plymouth Model Q Coupe

The Plymouth automobile was introduced at Madison Square Garden on July 7, 1928. It was Chrysler Corporation’s first entry in the low-priced field, which at the time was already dominated by Chevrolet and Ford. Plymouths were actually priced slightly higher than their competition, but offered standard features such as internal expanding hydraulic brakes that the competition did not provide. Plymouths were originally sold exclusively through Chrysler dealerships, offering a low-cost alternative to the upscale Chrysler-brand cars. The logo featured a rear view of the ship Mayflower which landed at Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts. However, the inspiration for the Plymouth brand name came from Plymouth binder twine, produced by the Plymouth Cordage Company, also of Plymouth. The name was chosen by Joe Frazer due to the popularity of the twine among farmers.

The origins of Plymouth can be traced back to the Maxwell automobile. When Walter P. Chrysler took over control of the troubled Maxwell-Chalmers car company in the early 1920s, he inherited the Maxwell as part of the package. After he used the company’s facilities to help create and launch the six-cylinder Chrysler automobile in 1924, he decided to create a lower-priced companion car. So for 1926, the Maxwell was reworked and rebadged as the low-end four-cylinder Chrysler “52” model. In 1928, the “52” was once again redesigned to create the Chrysler-Plymouth Model Q. The “Chrysler” portion of the nameplate was dropped with the introduction of the Plymouth Model U in 1929.

Great Depression, 1940s–1950s

1939 Plymouth in a Swedish 1940s fashion photo1939 Plymouth in a Swedish 1940s fashion photo.

Plymouth Police Car 1947

1947 Plymouth police car property of the Glendale Police Dept. in Glendale, Arizona1948 Plymouth Special De Luxe Coupé1948 Plymouth Special De Luxe Coupé1949 Plymouth four-door sedan1949 Plymouth four-door sedan

While the original purpose of the Plymouth was to serve a lower-end marketing niche, during the Great Depression of the 1930s the division helped significantly in ensuring the survival of the Chrysler Corporation in a decade when many other car companies failed. Beginning in 1930, Plymouths were sold by all three Chrysler divisions (Chrysler, DeSoto, and Dodge). Plymouth sales were a bright spot during this dismal automotive period, and by 1931 Plymouth rose to number three in sales among all cars. In 1931 with the Model PA, the company introduced floating power and boasted, “The economy of a four; the smoothness of a six.”

Plymouth emblem

In 1933, Chrysler decided to catch up with Ford and Chevrolet with respect to engine cylinder count. The 190 cu in version of Chrysler’s flathead-six engine was equipped with a downdraft carburetor and installed in the new 1933 Plymouth PC, introduced on November 17, 1932. However, Chrysler had reduced the PC’s wheelbase from 112 to 107 in (284.5 to 271.8 cm), and the car sold poorly. By April 1933, the Dodge division’s Model DP chassis, with a 112-inch (284.5 cm) wheelbase, was put under the PC body with DP front fenders, hood, and radiator shell. The model designation was advanced to PD’ and the car was marketed as the “DeLuxe” 1933 Plymouth. This car sold very well and is the 1933 model most commonly found in collections. The PC became the ‘Standard Six’. It had been the ‘Plymouth Six’ at introduction, and was sold through to the end of 1933, but in much lower numbers. It is consequently in the minority in collectors’ hands today. In 1937, Plymouth (along with the other Chrysler makes) added safety features such as flat dash boards with recessed controls and the back of the front seat padded for the rear seat occupants.[4] The PC was shipped overseas to Sweden, Denmark, and the UK, as well as Australia. In the UK, it was sold as a ‘Chrysler Kew’, Kew Gardens being the location of the Chrysler factory outside London. The flathead six which started with the 1933 Model PC stayed in the Plymouth until the 1959 models.

In 1939, Plymouth produced 417,528 vehicles, of which 5,967 were two-door convertible coupes with rumble seats. The 1939 convertible coupe was prominently featured at Chrysler’s exhibit at the 1939 New York World’s Fair, advertised as the first mass-production convertible with a power folding top. It featured a 201 cu in, 82 hp version of the flathead six engine.

1954 Plymouth Belevedere Suburban Station Wagon 2-dA 1954 Plymouth two-door station wagon

For much of its life, Plymouth was one of the top-selling American automobile brands; it, together with Chevrolet and Ford, was commonly referred to as the “low-priced three” marques in the American market. Plymouth almost surpassed Ford in 1940 and 1941 as the second-most popular make of automobiles in the U.S. In 1957, Virgil Exner’s new Forward Look design theme, advertised by Plymouth with the tagline “Suddenly, it’s 1960”, produced cars with much more advanced styling than Chevrolet or Ford. The 1957 total production soared to 726,009, about 200,000 more than 1956, and the largest output yet for Plymouth. However, the 1957–1958 Forward Look models suffered from poor materials, spotty build quality, and inadequate corrosion protection; they were rust-prone and greatly damaged Chrysler’s reputation.

In 1954, Chrysler started its decade-long unsuccessful attempt to develop and market a viable car powered by turbine engine when it installed an experimental turbine developed specifically for vehicles in a Plymouth.


Although Plymouth sales suffered as a result of the quality control problems and excesses of Exner-styled models in the early 1960s, people bought enough of the cars to keep the division profitable. Starting in 1961, the Valiant compact became a Plymouth, further boosting sales. Under the impression that Chevrolet was about to “downsize” its 1962 models, Chrysler introduced a significantly smaller standard Plymouth for 1962. As is known, Chevrolet’s big cars were not downsized, catching Plymouth in a sales slump in a market where “bigger was better”. The ’63 Fury, Belvedere, and Savoy were slightly larger and more substantial, featuring a totally new body style, highlighted by prominent outboard front parking lights. For 1964, Plymouth got another major restyle, featuring a new “slantback” roofline for hardtop coupes that would prove extremely popular. Many enthusiasts consider the ’64s to be the most attractive of the early ’60s Plymouths.

For 1965, the Fury models were built on the new C-body platform. The Savoy line was discontinued and the Belvedere was classified an intermediate, retaining the B-body platform used starting 1962. The low-end series was Fury I, the mid-level model was Fury II, and the higher-end models were Fury IIIs. The Sport Fury, which featured bucket seats and console shifter, was a mix of luxury and sport. Ford and Chevrolet had introduced luxury editions of their big cars for 1965 and Plymouth responded in 1966 with the VIP, a more luxurious version of the Fury. Furys, Belvederes, and Valiants continued to sell well during the late-1960s and early-1970s.

1950 plymouth de Luxe1950 plymouth de Luxe

Of note are the Plymouth “muscle cars” of the late 1960s. As the performance car market segment expanded during the late 1960s and early 1970s, Plymouth participated and produced some of the most memorable models. Many consider the Barracuda fastback of 1964 to be the first of Plymouth’s sporty cars. Based on the Valiant, it was available with a durable Slant Six, or 273 cubic-inch small block V8. For 1967, Plymouth introduced the Belvedere GTX, a bucket-seat high-style hardtop coupe and convertible that could be ordered with either the Super Commando 440, or Hemi 426 V8. Looking for an advantage at the drag races, 1968 had a stripped-down Belvedere coupe, the Road Runner, which featured a bench seat and minimal interior and exterior trim, but was available with Chrysler’s big-block engines and a floor-mounted four-speed manual transmission. The Barracuda, originally a “compact sporty car”, became a top-tier muscle car in 1968-’69 when it was made available with the 426 Hemi and 440 big block engines, respectively, – putting it in contention with America’s most powerful muscle cars. With the success of their small- and big-block-powered sporty cars – principally among them the GTX, Barracuda (and the more muscular ‘Cuda), Road Runner, Sport Fury GT, and Valiant Duster 340, Plymouth unveiled the ‘Rapid Transit System’, which was similar to Dodge’s ‘Scat Pack’ concept- an all-inclusive club made up of Plymouth sports cars which provided further immersion into their performance automobiles. Throughout this period in Plymouth history, the brand also competed heavily in professional automobile racing. Their foremost success stories come from racing icon Richard Petty’s career with Plymouth in NASCAR; Dan Gurney, who raced a ‘Cuda as part of the All American Racers in numerous Trans Am events; and Sox and Martin, one of the most well-known drag-racing teams of the period, only raced Plymouths after 1964. The GTX, Barracuda/’Cuda, and Road Runner continued into the 1970s, but as that decade wore on, emissions and safety regulations, along with soaring gasoline prices and an economic downturn, spelled death for the majority of Plymouth’s muscle-car brands. Nonetheless, the compact Valiant sold well, built an enviable reputation for attractive styling, durability, economy, and value, and offered the hi-po 360-4 V8 right through the final year. Although the Valiant hardtop was discontinued for 1967, it was reintroduced as a virtual clone of the Dodge Dart Swinger for 1971 under the model name “Valiant Scamp”. The Scamp was produced along with the Valiant, Dodge Dart, and Swinger until 1976, when it was replaced with the Volaré. Featuring transverse-mounted torsion bars and a slightly larger body, the Volaré (and its Dodge twin, the Aspen) was an instant sales success. Available as coupe, sedan, or station wagon, the Volaré offered a smoother ride and better handling than the Dart/Valiant, but unfortunately suffered quality control problems and by 1980, was selling poorly.

1962 Plymouth Belvedere1962 Plymouth Belvedere

Realizing that front-wheel drive, four-cylinder engines, and rack-and-pinion steering would become the standards for the 1980s, Chrysler introduced a new compact car for 1978, the Plymouth Horizon/Dodge Omni twins, based on a Simca platform. Horizon sold well, but unfortunately suffered from a scathing report by Consumer Reports, which found its handling dangerous in certain situations. Plymouth continued to sell the Horizon until 1987, when a gaggle of front-wheel drive compact cars made up the line. Big Plymouths, including the Fury and Gran Fury, were sold until the early 1980s, but mostly as fleet vehicles. While attempting to compete with Ford and Chevrolet for big-car sales, Plymouth was hurt by Chrysler’s financial woes in the late 1970s, when both its competitors downsized their full-size models.

Final years

1960s and 1970s Plymouth logo

1960s logo

Most Plymouth models, especially those offered from the 1970s onward, such as the

1960 Plymouth Valiant side view showing the semi-fastback1960 Plymouth Valiant side view showing the semi-fastback Valiant,Plymouth Volaré two-door sedan coupéPlymouth Volaré two-door sedan coupé Volaré,Plymouth acclaimPlymouth acclaim Acclaim,1990 Plymouth Laser RS Turbo1990 Plymouth Laser,1995 Plymouth Neon Sport Coupe1995 Plymouth Neon Sport Coupe Neon, and1995-98 Plymouth Breeze1995-98 Plymouth Breeze Breeze,

were badge-engineered versions of Dodge or Mitsubishi models. By the 1990s, Plymouth had lost much of its identity, as its models continued to overlap in features and prices with Dodges and Eagles. In an attempt to fix this, Chrysler tried repositioning Plymouth to its traditional spot as the automaker’s entry-level brand. Part of this marketing strategy included giving Plymouth its own new sailboat logo and advertisements that focused solely on value. However, this only further narrowed Plymouth’s product offerings and buyer appeal, and sales continued to fall.

Chrysler considered giving Plymouth a variant of the highly successful new-for-1993 full-size LH platform, which would have been called the Accolade, but decided against it. By the late 1990s, only four vehicles were sold under the Plymouth name: the Voyager/Grand Voyager minivans, the Breeze mid-size sedan, the Neon compact car, and the Prowler sports car, which was to be the last model unique to Plymouth, though the Chrysler PT Cruiser was conceived as a concept unique to Plymouth before production commenced as a Chrysler model.

1990s letter emblem from a 1999 NeonThe late ’90s letter emblem from a 1999 Neon

Plymouth Prowler 01The 1999-2001 Plymouth Prowler and the 2001-2002 Chrysler Prowler

After discontinuing the Eagle brand in 1998, Chrysler was planning to expand the Plymouth line with a number of unique models before the corporation’s merger with Daimler-Benz AG. The first model was the Plymouth Prowler, a hot rod-styled sports car. The PT Cruiser was to have been the second. Both models had similar front-end styling, suggesting Chrysler intended a retro styling theme for the Plymouth brand. At the time of Daimler’s takeover of Chrysler, Plymouth had no models besides the Prowler not also offered in similar version by Dodge.

From a peak production of 973,000 for the 1973 model year, Plymouth rarely exceeded 200,000 cars per year after 1990. Even the Voyager sales were usually less than 50% that of Dodge Caravan. In Canada, the Plymouth name was defunct at the end of the 1999 model year. Consequently, DaimlerChrysler decided to drop the make after a limited run of 2001 models. This was announced on November 3, 1999.

The last new model sold under the Plymouth marque was the second-generation Neon for 2000. The PT Cruiser was ultimately launched as a Chrysler, and the Prowler and Voyager were absorbed into that make, as well. Following the 2001 model year, the Neon was sold only as a Dodge in the US, though it remained available as a Chrysler in Canadian and other markets. The Plymouth Breeze was dropped after 2001, before Chrysler introduced their redesigned 2001 Dodge Stratus and Chrysler Sebring sedan.


1949 Plymouth Special DeLuxe Station Wagon, advertisementA 1949 Plymouth Special DeLuxe Station Wagon, advertisement

1983-85 Plymouth Caravelle1984-1985 Plymouth Caravelle

1990-'91 Plymouth Laser1993 plymouth laser1990 Plymouth Laser

2000-01 2nd Plymouth Neon1995 Plymouth Neon

1997-00 Plymouth Grand Voyager1998 Plymouth Voyager (short wheelbase) SE1998 Plymouth Voyager Expresso

1998 Plymouth Voyager

2001 Plymouth the last automobile built, 2001, Belvidere, IL, USA, a NeonThe Last Plymouth built, 2001

  • 1955: Plymouth first offered a V-8 engine.
  • 1956: The automatic three-speed TorqueFlite transmission was introduced on some premium models. The Plymouth Fury was introduced.
  • 1957: As with all other Chrysler divisions, the Forward Look design made its debut on the 1957 Plymouths. Torsion-Aire front suspension was introduced on all models.
  • 1960: Dodge introduced the smaller, lower-priced Dart model that competed directly with Plymouth’s offerings. The new compact Valiant was introduced as a marque unto itself. All Plymouths now featured unit-body construction.
  • 1961: Valiant was repositioned as a Plymouth model for US market; Dodge got the badge-engineered Lancer version. Rambler and then Pontiac assumed third place in industry sales for the remainder of the 1960s.
  • 1962: Sales dropped dramatically with the introduction of a line of unpopularly styled, downsized full-sized models.
  • 1963: Valiant received a new, trim body resulting in a significant increase in sales. Full-sized models were restyled to look larger.
  • 1964: The new Barracuda fastback coupe was introduced in April. Full-sized models were restyled with a new “slantback” hardtop coupe roofline.
  • 1965: Plymouth rejoined the full-sized car market with the new Fury, based on the Chrysler C-body. The intermediate B-body model line became the Belvedere and Satellite for 1965. Push-button automatic transmission controls were replaced with a conventional column- or floor-mounted lever.
  • 1967: The GTX was introduced.
  • 1968: The Road Runner entered the Plymouth line-up.
  • 1970: Duster coupe was introduced in the Valiant line for 1970, along with the new E-body Barracuda.
  • 1971: The British Hillman Avenger was imported as the Plymouth Cricket; it was discontinued in mid-1973. The new Valiant Scamp two-door hardtop was a badge-engineered Dodge Dart Swinger.
  • 1973: Plymouth production hit an all-time peak of 973,000. The Plymouth Cricket in Canada was now based on the Dodge Colt.
  • 1974: The full-sized Plymouth Voyager van, based on the similar Dodge B-series van, and Trailduster SUV, based on the Dodge Ramcharger, were introduced. The Dodge Dart and Plymouth Valiant were, for the first time, different only in name and minor trim details (grille and tail lamps) as the two cars now shared the same 111-in wheelbase (both division’s fastbacks remain 108 in). Barracuda was discontinued.
  • 1975: The car that was to become the 1975 Plymouth Sebring was instead released as the new Chrysler Cordoba.[citation needed]
  • 1976: The Volaré was launched, and the Valiant was discontinued at year-end.
  • 1977: The large Gran Fury was discontinued.
  • 1978: The mid-sized Fury was discontinued at the end of the model year. The subcompact Horizon was introduced. Chrysler Canada introduced the Plymouth Caravelle based on the Dodge Diplomat.
  • 1979–1980: Chrysler made several thousand more Dodges than Plymouths for the first time. More Plymouths would be made than Dodges for 1981 and 1982, but from then on, always be more Dodges were made than Plymouths.
  • 1980: The Newport-based Gran Fury (R-body) was introduced. This was the last year for the Volaré and Road Runner.
  • 1981: The compact
  • 1988 Plymouth Reliant wagon 1983 Plymouth Reliant K coupe 1985-89 Plymouth Reliant K LE 1987 Plymouth ReliantPlymouth Reliant was introduced. The full-sized Gran Fury sedan and Trailduster SUV were discontinued.
  • 1982: The mid-sized Plymouth Gran Fury, a Dodge Diplomat with a Plymouth grille, was introduced in the United States.
  • 1983: The subcompact Plymouth Scamp pickup, based on the Dodge Rampage, was introduced and sold for one year only. The Caravelle four-door sedan based on the E-body and a two-door coupe based on the K-body were introduced in Canada. The sporty subcompact
  • 1979 Plymouth Horizon TC3Horizon TC3 was renamed Turismo. The full-sized Voyager van was discontinued.
  • 1984: The Voyager minivan and Mitsubishi-based Colt Vista multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) were introduced.
  • 1985: The E-body Plymouth Caravelle was introduced in the United States.
  • 1987: The compact P-body Plymouth Sundance entered the line-up with three- and five-door hatchbacks. The Turismo was discontinued.
  • 1989: The mid-sized Gran Fury (Caravelle in Canada), as well as the Reliant, are discontinued after this model year. The Reliant and E-body Caravelle are replaced by the Acclaim.
  • 1990: The Mitsubishi-based Plymouth Laser sport-compact was introduced. The L-body Horizon was discontinued.
  • 1992: The higher-priced Acclaim models were repositioned as Chrysler LeBarons. Total sales of Acclaim and LeBaron dropped. Total 1993 Plymouth model-year production dropped to 159,775, along with 237,875 Voyager models. Dodge built 300,666 Caravans.
  • 1994: The little-advertised Laser and the popular Sundance and Colt compacts all end production. They are replaced by a single car, the Neon, a car that Chrysler decided to offer as a Plymouth after dealers protested the loss of the Sundance and Colt with no replacement.
  • 1995: Plymouth’s lineup was at its all-time low, just three cars: the Acclaim, the Neon, and the Voyager/Grand Voyager. The number went up to four in 1997, with the introduction of the Prowler, but never got any higher.
  • 1996: Chrysler announced the new Plymouth Breeze six months after sister Dodge Stratus and Chrysler Cirrus models. Chrysler originally had no plans to replace the Acclaim model.[citation needed]
  • 1996: In an attempt to move Plymouth downmarket, Chrysler made the redesigned Voyager only available in base and mid-level SE models. All of the higher-end trim levels available on the previous generation were now only be found on the Dodge Caravan. The high-end trim levels could still be found in certain markets outside the US.
  • 1997: Production for the 1997 model year was 178,807 cars plus 187,347 Voyager models. Dodge built 448,394 cars and 355,400 Caravans.
  • 1999: Total 1999 production for Plymouth cars was to 195,714 with Dodge at 394,052. Voyager production numbered 197,020, compared to 354,641 Caravans. The redesigned 2000 Neon became the brand’s last new model.
  • 2000: The mid-sized Breeze ended production. This was also the last year for the Voyager minivan as a Plymouth. All 2000 Voyagers built in December 1999 and beyond were badged as Chrysler Voyagers. In Canada, the redesigned Neon was sold under the Chrysler name and both the Plymouth and Dodge names were dropped on all car models, save for the Prowler and Viper. The Voyager name was dropped in Canada as all Chrysler dealers sold Dodge trucks, including the Caravan. Total 2000 model year production for Plymouth was 108,546 compared to 459,988 Dodge cars. Voyager production totalled 123,869 versus 330,370 Caravan models.
  • 2001: In Plymouth’s final model year, only the Neon remains. The Prowler and the Voyager became Chryslers. The Voyager gained a high-end LX trim, as well as a base eC trim, and it retained the SE trim. The Breeze was dropped as Chrysler issued the Chrysler Sebring sedan to replace the Chrysler Cirrus. The PT Cruiser was launched as a Chrysler, though it was originally planned to be a Plymouth. The final Plymouth, a Neon, was assembled on 28 June 2001, with a total of 38,657 built for the model year.

(All production numbers – Ward’s Automotive Yearbook, various issues, 1973 to 2002)[citation needed]

Plymouth car models

Plymouth trucks

Plymouth built various trucks and vans over the years, mainly rebadged Dodge or Chrysler vehicles. Early pickups, delivery trucks, and other commercial trucks were available, and later an SUV, full-sized vans, and minivans. Plymouth had supplied components to the Fargo vehicles, another member of the Chrysler family, but entered the commercial market in 1937 with the PT50.

Truck models

Plymouth concept cars

1952 Plymouth Explorer Ghia Sport Coupe fvl1952 Plymouth Explorer

1960 Plymouth XNR concept car at the 2014 Lime Rock Concours d'Élegance1960 Plymouth XNR1960 Plymouth XNR

1973 Plymouth (Rapid Transit System) Duster 3401973 Plymouth (Rapid Transit System) Duster 340

1988 Plymouth Slingshot Concept Car1988 Plymouth Slingshot

1999-01 Plymouth Prowler and the 2001-02 Chrysler Prowler2001 Plymouth ProwlerPlymouth Prowler

1928 Plymouth Model Q Coupe 1928 Plymouth Model Q, in Auckland New Zealand 1929 Plymouth P2 Deluxe o 1929 Plymouth Phaeton Argentina 1930 Plymouth 30-U 4-Door Sedan 1930 1930-45 Plymouth Valiant dealer Ross Cort, Inc., 392 Sunrise Highway, Rockville Center,NY 1932 plymouth ceurvorst 1933 Plymouth coupe 1933 Plymouth taxi 1934 Plymouth Truck 1936 Plymouth 1937 Plymouth Coupe gebruikt door Humphrey Bogart in de film High Sierra 1937 Plymouth express pickup truck red and black Baltimore MD 1937 Plymouth photographed in Seattle, Washington 1937 Plymouth PT50 Delivery truck


1939 Plymouth in a Swedish 1940s fashion photo 1939 Plymouth P8 Sedan 1939 Plymouth 1940 De Luxe Plymouth Station Wagon 1941 plymouth sedan delivery 1941 Plymouth Special De Luxe 1941 Plymouth Special Deluxe 1946 Plymouth Special Deluxe P15C Club Coupe 1946-49 Plymouth


1947 Plymouth Special Deluxe


1948 Plymouth coupe on street in Miami Beach, Florida 1948 Plymouth Special De Luxe Coupé 1948 Plymouth Special De luxe Woody (front left) 1949 Plymouth four-door sedan 1949 Plymouth Special Deluxe Four Door Sedan 1949 Plymouth Special DeLuxe Station Wagon, advertisement 1949 Plymouth voiture a Cuba 1949 Plymouth 1949-50 Plymouth 1950 Plymouth Concord NYPD 1950 Plymouth De Luxe Suburban 1950 plymouth de Luxe 1950 Plymouth Deluxe coupe OCJ-679 1950 Plymouth Deluxe Coupé 1950 Plymouth Suburban ad 1950 Plymouth Suburban 1950-plymouth-ad 1951 Plymouth Cambridge [P-23] 1951 Plymouth Cambridge 2-Door Lot G133 Indianap 1951 Plymouth Cambridge a 1951 Plymouth cambridge policecar 1951 Plymouth Cambridge Sedan plus. Concord Business Coupe and Suburban 1951 Plymouth cambridge 1951 plymouth cambridge_sedan_ho_sm_51_03 1951 Plymouth Concern Cambridge Cranbrook Dealer Sales Brochure ORIGINAL 1951 Plymouth Cranbrook at a local storage yard 1951 Plymouth Cranbrook interior 1951 Plymouth Cranbrook Sedan 1951 Plymouth P25 Cranbrook as built by Chrysler Australia 1952 Plymouth 1 1952 plymouth 1952 convert 1952 Plymouth Cambridge [P-23] 1952 Plymouth Cambridge 2dr 1952 plymouth cambridge 4dr sedan 1952 Plymouth Cambridge 4dr 1952 Plymouth Cambridge Four Door Sedan [P-23] 1952 plymouth cambridge yellow cab classic 1952 Plymouth Cambridge 1952 plymouth concord 3p 1952 plymouth concord 1952 Plymouth Cranbrook Cambridge Concord ORIGI 1952 Plymouth Cranbrook Cambridge Concord ORIGINAL Dealer Sales Brochure 1952 Plymouth Cranbrook Four Door Sedan 1952 Plymouth cranbrook-belvedere 1952 Plymouth Explorer Ghia Sport Coupe fvl 1952 plymouth 1952 Plymouth-09-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17 1952-53 Plymouth Cranbrook Club Coupé 1953 plymouth 1953 06 1953 plymouth 1953 cambridge sedan 1953 Plymouth Brochure Cranbrook Cambridge C 1953 Plymouth Brochure Cranbrook Cambridge Club 1953 PLYMOUTH CAMBRIDGE 2 1953 Plymouth cambridge-2 1953 Plymouth Cranbrook Cambridge Dealer Sales Brochure ORIGI 1953 Plymouth Cranbrook Cambridge Dealer Sales Brochure ORIGINAL 1953 Plymouth Cranbrook cars 1953 Plymouth Cranbrook Convertible Club Coupe 1953 Plymouth ROM 1953 Plymouth1953 1953 Plymouth-cranbrook 1953-Plymouth-Cambridge-Club-Sedan 1954 plymouth a 1954 Plymouth Belevedere Suburban Station Wagon 2-d 1954 Plymouth Belm. 1954 plymouth belvedere 1954 plymouth explorer ghia 1954 PLYMOUTH Explorer 1954 Plymouth Plaza 2-door Suburban 1954 Plymouth Savoy 1955 Plymouth Belvedere 2d htp - aqua black - 841 1955 Plymouth Belvedere 4dr Sedan 1955 Plymouth Belvedere 1955 Plymouth Plaza Six Sedan in Havana 1955 plymouth savoy 1956 Plymouth Belvedere Fury 1956 Plymouth Belvedere 1956 Plymouth longroof 1956 Plymouth Plainsman concept wagon 1956 Plymouth Savoy 1 1956 Plymouth Savoy Coupe Utility 1956 plymouth savoy 1956 Plymouth wagon 1956 Plymouth 1957 Plymouth Belvedere a 1957 Plymouth Belvedere Sport Coupe 1957 Plymouth Belvedere 1957 plymouth convertable 1957 Plymouth Fury Hardtop Coupe 1957 Plymouth Fury 1957 Plymouth future ad 1957 Plymouth Suburbans 1958 Plymouth Belvedere 4 dr htop also oz asmbld 58,59== 1958 Plymouth Belvedere Sport Coupe 1958 Plymouth Belvedere 1958 Plymouth Custom Suburban 1958 Plymouth Fury Christine 1958 Plymouth Suburban 1958 Plymouth Tornado Concept a 1958 Plymouth Tornado Concept 1958_Plymouth_Plaza_(Rassemblement_Mopar_Valleyfield_'10) 1959 Plymouth Belvedere 2-door Hardtop 1959 Plymouth Belvedere 4-door Hardtop 1959 Plymouth DeLuxe Suburban 4-door 1959 Plymouth Fury at the Auto & Technik Museum, Sinsheim

DCF 1.0
DCF 1.0

1959 Plymouth Sport Fury, photographed on the premises of the Louwman museum, The Hague, The Netherlands. Olympus E-520 digital camera 1960 Plymouth Belvedere Sedan 1960 plymouth belvedere 1960 plymouth fury (2) 1960 Plymouth Fury convertible a 1960 Plymouth Fury Convertible 1960 Plymouth Fury police car 1960 Plymouth Fury Station Wagon LSideRear 1960 Plymouth Fury Suburban 1960 Plymouth Fury 1960 Plymouth Savoy 4-door Sedan 1960 Plymouth Valiant automobile 1960 Plymouth Valiant back 1960 Plymouth Valiant side view showing the semi-fastback 1960 Plymouth XNR concept car at the 2014 Lime Rock Concours d'Élegance 1960 Plymouth XNR Virgil Exner Sr.'s 1960 Plymouth XNR 1960 Vailiant On Display At The Chicago Auto Show 1960 Valiant V100 1960 Valiant V100a 1960 Valiant V100b 1960 Valiant 1960-61 tail lamp with reversing lamp Valiant cat 1960s and 1970s Plymouth logo 1961 Plymouth ad 1961 plymouth belvedere 1961 Plymouth Fury 4dr sedan from the rear 1961 Plymouth Fury sedan 1961 plymouth fury 1961 Plymouth Solid Beauty 1961 Plymouth Station Wagon 1961 Plymouth styling 1961 Plymouth Valiant V-200 Station Wagon 1961 Plymouth Valiant V-200 Suburban 1961 Plymouth Valiant V200 1961 Plymouth Valiant V-200 1961 Plymouth Valiant Wagon 1961 Valiant V-100 Two Door 1961 Valiant V100 1962 Plymouth Belvedere four-door sedan finished in white with red interior 1962 Plymouth Belvedere Sedan (Orange Julep) 1962 Plymouth Belvedere 1962 Plymouth Sport Fury - white - fvr 1962 Plymouth Valiant 2-door with Hyper Pak 1962 Plymouth Valiant instrument cluster 1962 Plymouth Valiant taillight 1962 Plymouth Valiant This is a 4 bbl Slant-6 Hyper-Pak reproduction by Clifford Performance in a 1962 Plymouth Valiant. 1962 Plymouth 1963 Plymouth Belvedere (13867644073) 1963 Plymouth Valiant Signet (Les chauds vendredis '10) 1964 Plymouth Savoy four-door sedan 1964 Plymouth Valiant Convertible 1965 Canadian Valiant Custom 200 sedan 1965 Plymouth Barracuda Formula S 1965 Plymouth Belvedere II Station Wagon, in Silver Lake (LA,CA) 1965 Plymouth Satellite FR-38-09 1965 Plymouth Sport Fury, Wheels Day, Apr 2009 1965 Plymouth Valiant 100 black front

Photo of my 1965 Plymouth Satellite. Photo taken c. 1966
Photo of my 1965 Plymouth Satellite.
Photo taken c. 1966

1966 Plymouth Barracuda 1966 Plymouth Belvedere Sedan 1966 Plymouth Satellite Convertible 1966 Plymouth Satellite 1966 Plymouth Sport Fury 1966 Plymouth Valiant Signet Convertible front right 1967 Plymouth Belvedere (Cruisin' At The Boardwalk '11) 1967 Plymouth Fury Station Wagon 2 1967 Plymouth GTX a 1967 Plymouth GTX 1967 Plymouth Satelitte 2-door hardtop 1967 Plymouth Sport Fury III 2-door Fast Top 1968 Plymouth Ad 1968 Plymouth Fury 1968 Plymouth satellite 1968 Plymouth VIP 1969 Plymouth Barracuda 1969 Plymouth Fury III Convertible 1969 Plymouth Sport Fury Convertible (Rigaud) 1969 Plymouth Valiant Signet 4-Door Sedan 1969 Plymouth Valiant Signet 1970 Duster 340 with logo 1970 Plymouth Duster 340 1970 Plymouth Fury III Convertible (Orange Julep) 1970 Plymouth red GTX 1970 Plymouth Road Runner 440+6 - 2-pillar coupe body 1970 Plymouth Road Runner a 1970 Plymouth Road Runner Superbird 1970 Plymouth Roadrunner Superbird SUperbirdEyes 1970 Plymouth Sport Suburban 1970 Plymouth Valiant 1971 Plymouth Cricket, winner of the 1971 Press-on-Regardless Rally 1971 Plymouth Rapid Transit System 1971 Plymouth Valiant Scamp 1971-Plymouth-Duster-Valiant-02 1972 Plymouth Fury Sport Suburban 1 1972 Plymouth Fury Sport Suburban 1972 Plymouth Scamp - Mopar Muscle Magazine 1972 Plymouth Scamp in Red Deer 1972 Plymouth Scamp s 1972 plymouth scamp 1972 plymouth-models-72a 1972 plymouth-models-72b 1973 Plymouth (Rapid Transit System) Duster 340 Classic American Muscle Car Photography Stock Image 1973 Plymouth Scamp Grey 1973 Plymouth Scamp Y 1973-plymouth-scamp-340- 1974 Plymouth Fury II 2-door hardtop 1974 Plymouth Fury sedan C-body 1974 Plymouth Valiant Swedish police car 1974 Valiant VH Charger 1975 Plymouth Fury 2-Door Hardtop 1975 Plymouth Valiant Brougham in brown, by night 1975-77 Plymouth Gran Fury VIP (1966–1969) 1977 Plymouth Gran Fury Sport Suburban 1977-80 Plymouth Trail Duster 1978 Plymouth Fury 1979 Plymouth Horizon TC3 1980-81 Plymouth Gran Fury Salon 4dr 1982-89 3rd Plymouth Gran Fury 1983 Plymouth Scamp GT 1983 Plymouth Turismo, - Scamp pg 11_jpg 1983 plymouth-scamp-GT 1983-85 Plymouth Caravelle 1985 L-body Plymouth Duster, 1985 or 1986 Plymouth Duster EEK 1985 Plymouth Voyager LE. The alloy wheels are from a 1989 Voyager LX 1987 Plymouth Reliant 1988 Plymouth Slingshot Concept Car 1990 Plymouth Laser RS Turbo 1990-'91 Plymouth Laser 1990s letter emblem from a 1999 Neon 1991 Plymouth Grand Voyager LE minivan 1991-92 Plymouth Acclaim 1992 Plymouth Laser RS Turbo 1992-94 Plymouth Laser specs 1993 plymouth laser 1995 Plymouth Neon Sport Coupe 1995-98 Plymouth Breeze 1996 Plymouth Breeze Green 1997-00 Plymouth Grand Voyager 1998 Plymouth Voyager (short wheelbase) SE 1998 Plymouth Voyager Expresso 1999-01 Plymouth Prowler and the 2001-02 Chrysler Prowler 2000-01 2nd Plymouth Neon 2001 Plymouth Prowler 2001 Plymouth the last automobile built, 2001, Belvidere, IL, USA, a Neon


20600323464_d7b01d58f0_o Chrysler Valiant GLX (CM) Cpjec-_XEAABjVk 1952 Plymouth Cambridge [P-23] in Bigger Th 1952 Plymouth Cambridge [P-23] in Kiss Plymouth 1000 Plymouth acclaim Plymouth Ad Plymouth Belvedere, Belgian p3 Plymouth convertible Photo - 1 Plymouth Duster EEK Plymouth emblem Plymouth Fury


Plymouth Horizon-1 Plymouth logo.svg Plymouth P 2 Plymouth P 12 coupe 2 Plymouth P 12 coupe Plymouth P Plymouth P25 Cranbrook Plymouth Portland police car Plymouth Prowler 01 Plymouth Road Runner Superbird Plymouth Satellite front policecar Plymouth Satellite Sebring (16305406701) Plymouth Sport Fury Plymouth VALIANT SCAMP a Plymouth Valiant Scamp Plymouth Valiant Plymouth Valiant-Logo Plymouth Volaré two-door sedan coupé Plymouth_GTX_('10_Centropolis_Laval)

Model Year Type Specifications Features
XX-500 1951 Sedan
Belmont c.1953 2-seaterConvertible 3.9L 150 hp V8
Explorer 1954 Coupé 3.7L 110 hp Straight-six engine
Cabana 1958 Station wagon Non-runner Unique glass roof for the rear portion of the car.
XNR 1960 2-seaterconvertible 2.8L 250 hp Straight-six engine
Asimmetrica 1961 3.7L 145 hp Straight-six engine
Valiant St. Regis 1962 Coupé
V.I.P. 1965 4-seaterconvertible Unique roof bar from the top of the windshield to the rear deck.
Barracuda Formula SX 1966 Coupé
Duster I Road Runner 1969 340 hp V8
426 hp V8
All features of the Road Runner plus flaps on top and sides and adjustable spoilers on the side of the rear fender, all to reduce lift.
Rapid Transit System ‘Cuda (440) 1970 Convertible
Rapid Transit System Road Runner Coupé Three-colored tail lights: red for “braking”, yellow for “coasting” and green for “on the gas”.
Rapid Transit System Duster 340 5.6L c.300 hp V8
Concept Voyager II 1986 Minivan
Slingshot 1988 2-seater coupé 2.2L 225 hp turbocharged Straight-four engine Canopy that swings upwards to open the car
Adjustable four-wheel independent suspension
Keyless credit card-like entry
Combined headlight and rear-view mirror pods
Exposed engine and suspension
Speedster 1989 2-seaterconvertible No opening doors, to make getting in more fun
Voyager 3 Minivan The front of the car could be driven by itself or driven when attached to a “miniature tractor-trailer
Glass roof
X2S Coupé
2.0L (turbocharged) 167 hp V6
Breeze c.1990 Sedan 2.0L 132 hp 4 cylinder engine
2.4L 150 hp Straight-four engine
Prowler 1993 Convertible 3.5L 214 hp V6
Expresso 1994 Compact car
Backpack 1995 2-seat truck 2.0L 135 hp Inline-four engine Space for a laptop on a small table
Built-in bike rack on the back
Pronto 1997 Sedan 1.6L 115 hp Inline-four engine The front of the car resembled that of the Prowler
Roll-back fabric top
Pronto Spyder 1998 Convertible 2.4L 225 hp Straight-four engine
Howler 1999 3.5L c.250 hp V6
4.7L c.250 hp V8
Voyager XG[19] Minivan 2.5L 115 hp turbocharged diesel engine Powered retractable sunroof.


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Kimes, Beverly Rae; Clark, Jr., Henry A. Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1942 (second edition). Krause publications. p. 1156. ISBN 0-87341-111-0.
  2. Jump up^ Gunnell, John; Schrimpf, Dennis; Buttolph, Ken. Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975 (second edition). Krause publications. p. 534. ISBN 0-87341-096-3.
  3. Jump up^ “What’s in a Name? (How Plymouth Was Named)”. 1928-01-11. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  4. Jump up^
  5. Jump up^ “1939 Plymouth – history”. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  6. Jump up^ Vincent Curcio (2001), Chrysler: The Life and Times of an Automotive Genius, p.472
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Benjaminson, Jim. “Plymouth cars 1957: Three Years Ahead”. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  8. Jump up^ “Insider’s history of Plymouth – Part V”. 1956-10-30. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  9. Jump up^ “Turbo Plymouth Threatens Future of Standard.” Popular Science, July 1954, p. 102, mid page, p. 103, bottom page.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b “How Plymouth Works: 1990, 1991, 1992 Plymouths” by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, retrieved on 2011–01–20.
  11. Jump up^ Yates, Brock (1996). The Critical Path: Inventing an Automobile and Reinventing a Corporation “Showtime in St.Louis” p.209-11. Little, Brown.
  12. Jump up^ “How Plymouth Works: 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 Plymouths” by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, retrieved on 2011–01–20.
  13. Jump up^ “Dodge Intrepid, Eagle Vision, Chrysler 300M, New Yorker, and LHS – the LH cars, with reviews”. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  14. Jump up^ Benjaminson, Jim. “Plymouth commercial vehicles”. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  15. Jump up^
  16. Jump up^
  17. Jump up^
  18. Jump up^
  19. Jump up^
  • Kimes, Beverly Rae (Historian and Author) and Clark, Henry Austin, Jr. (Chief of Research) (MCMLXXXIX). Standard Catalog of American Cars, 1805-1942 (Second edition). Krause Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-87341-111-0.



Navistar International Coorporation -International Harvester Company (II) 1902 – present Lisle Illinois United States of America

Navistar International Corporation
Traded as NYSENAV
Industry Automotive
Predecessor International Harvester Company
Founded 1902
Headquarters Lisle, Illinois, United States
Area served
North America, South America, Russia, UK, Greece, Eastern Europe, India, Middle East, China, Singapore, South Korea
Key people
Troy A. Clarke, President, Chief Executive Officer
Walter G. Borst, Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Steven K. Covey, Senior Vice President, General Counsel & Chief Ethics Officer
Products Trucks
Buses and School buses,
Diesel engines
Revenue 10.775 billion USD(2013)
Number of employees

Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Corporation (for­merly In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Com­pany) is an Amer­i­can hold­ing com­pany that owns the man­u­fac­turer of In­ter­na­tional brand com­mer­cial trucks, IC Bus school and com­mer­cial buses, Work­horse brand chas­sis for motor homes and step vans, and is a pri­vate label de­signer and man­u­fac­turer of diesel en­gines for the pickup truck, van, hoes and SUV mar­kets. The com­pany is also a provider of truck and diesel en­gine parts and service.

Head­quar­tered in Lisle, Illi­nois, Nav­is­tar has 16,500 em­ploy­ees and an an­nual rev­enue of $10.775 bil­lion (in 2013). The com­pany’s prod­ucts, parts, and ser­vices are sold through a net­work of nearly 1,000 dealer out­lets in the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Mex­ico and more than 60 deal­ers in 90 coun­tries through­out the world. The com­pany also pro­vides fi­nanc­ing for its cus­tomers and dis­trib­u­tors prin­ci­pally through its wholly owned sub­sidiary, Nav­is­tar Fi­nan­cial Corporation.


The merger of Mc­Cormick Har­vest­ing Ma­chine Com­pany and the Deer­ing Har­vester Com­pany in 1902 re­sulted in the for­ma­tion of the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Com­pany (IH) of Chicago, Illi­nois, which over the next three-quar­ters of a cen­tury evolved to be­come a di­ver­si­fied man­u­fac­turer of farm­ing equip­ment, con­struc­tion equip­ment, gas tur­bines, trucks, buses, and re­lated com­po­nents. Dur­ing World War II, In­ter­na­tional Har­vester pro­duced the M-se­ries of mil­i­tary trucks that served the Ma­rine Corps and the U.S. Navy as weapons car­ri­ers, cargo trans­porters and light ar­tillery move­ment. Today, Nav­is­tar pro­duces In­ter­na­tional brand mil­i­tary ve­hi­cles through its af­fil­i­ate Nav­is­tar Defense.

1986-1991: Transition from agricultural roots

In­ter­na­tional Har­vester fell on hard times dur­ing the poor agri­cul­tural econ­omy in the early to mid-1980s and the ef­fects of a long strike with the UAW over pro­posed work rule changes. IH’s new CEO, Don­ald Lennox, di­rected the man­age­ment or­ga­ni­za­tion to begin ex­it­ing many of its IH’s his­tor­i­cal busi­ness sec­tors in an ef­fort to sur­vive. Some of the sales of prof­itable busi­ness en­deav­ors were ex­e­cuted to raise cash for short-term sur­vival, while other di­vi­sions were sold due to lack of im­me­di­ate prof­itabil­ity. Dur­ing this pe­riod of ques­tion­able eco­nomic sur­vival, in an ef­fort to raise needed cash and to re­duce losses, the man­age­ment team led by Mr. Lennox at IH shed many of its op­er­at­ing di­vi­sions: Con­struc­tion Equip­ment Di­vi­sion to Dresser In­dus­tries; Solar (gas tur­bines) Di­vi­sion to Cater­pil­lar; Cub Cadet (lawn and gar­den equip­ment) to MTD Prod­ucts and, lastly, the Agri­cul­tural Di­vi­sion to Ten­neco, which merged it with their J.I. Case sub­sidiary. The Scout and Light Truck Parts Busi­ness was sold to Scout/Light Line Dis­trib­u­tors, Inc. in 1991.

After the Agri­cul­tural Di­vi­sion sale in 1985, all that re­mained of IH was the Truck and En­gine Di­vi­sions. The com­pany changed its name in 1986 to Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Cor­po­ra­tion. (The In­ter­na­tional Har­vester name and IH logo were as­sets of the Agri­cul­tural Di­vi­sion and con­se­quently were part of the sale to Ten­neco; the IH name and logo are still in use, hav­ing been in­cor­po­rated into the Case IH brand name). In the early 1980s, IH de­vel­oped a se­ries of re­li­able large-dis­place­ment V8 diesel en­gines that were sold as an op­tion for heavy-duty Ford 3/4-ton and 1-ton pickup trucks.

Nav­is­tar still uses the “In­ter­na­tional” brand in its diesel en­gine and truck prod­uct lines, and the brand name con­tin­ues on in prod­uct lines of Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional’s In­ter­na­tional Truck and En­gine Cor­po­ra­tion subsidiary.

1990s-early 2000s: Rediversification

Dur­ing the 1980s and 1990s, the pop­u­lar­ity of diesel en­gines had made Nav­is­tar a lead­ing man­u­fac­turer of bus chas­sis, par­tic­u­larly school buses. The com­pany pur­chased one-third of Amer­i­can Trans­porta­tion Cor­po­ra­tion (Am­Tran), an Arkansas-based man­u­fac­turer in 1991, and the re­main­ing two-thirds in April 1995. By be­com­ing both a body and chas­sis man­u­fac­turer at the same time, Nav­is­tar gained sig­nif­i­cant mar­ket share in the in­dus­try. In 2002, Am­Tran was re­branded as IC (In­te­grated Coach) after a few months as In­ter­na­tional Truck and Bus.

After nearly a cen­tury of busi­ness in Chicago, Nav­is­tar an­nounced its plans on 30 Sep­tem­ber 2000 to leave the city and re­lo­cate its cor­po­rate of­fices to west sub­ur­ban War­renville, Illi­nois. The com­pany’s Mel­rose Park, Illi­nois plant is no­table for a sig­nif­i­cant work­place shoot­ing on Feb­ru­ary 5, 2001.

International MXT
International MXT, the smallest of the
2004-08 International CXT Commercial Extreme Truck 1
XT pickup trucks

In 2004, Nav­is­tar re-en­tered the re­tail ve­hi­cle mar­ket for the first time since 1980. The In­ter­na­tional XT (Ex­treme Truck) pickup truck was a se­ries of three pickup trucks. It was (by far) the largest pickup truck avail­able for re­tail sale and two of the three ver­sions (the CXT and RXT) were es­sen­tially2002 International DuraStar MuncyTruck

In­ter­na­tional Duras­tar medium-duty trucks fit­ted with pickup beds. The third ver­sion (the MXT) was es­sen­tially a street-le­gal ver­sion of a2006 International MXT-MV HuskyNav­is­tar-de­signed mil­i­tary ve­hi­cle. The three XT trucks were sold until 2008.

In 2005, Nav­is­tar pur­chased the Work­horse com­pany (started in 1998 by in­vestors who took over pro­duc­tion and sales of Gen­eral Mo­tors’ pop­u­lar P-se­ries Step­van chas­sis when GM dropped it), a man­u­fac­turer of step-van and motor home chas­sis, to seem­ingly re-en­ter the de­liv­ery van market. It ap­peared that the new sub­sidiary might also ben­e­fit by its as­so­ci­a­tion with a com­pany whose his­tory from the 1930s into the ’60s in­cluded the pop­u­lar1938-1975 Preserved International Harvester Metro Van in Portland in 2012Metro van. For a short time Work­horse of­fered an in­te­grated chas­sis-body prod­uct called Met­roStar. In Sept. of 2012, Nav­is­tar an­nounced the shut down of Work­horse and the clo­sure of the plant in Union City, IN in order to cut costs.


Accounting issues

In Jan­u­ary 2006, the com­pany de­clared it would not file its form 10-K an­nual re­port with the U.S. Se­cu­ri­ties and Ex­change Com­mis­sion on time. The delay was caused by the dis­agree­ment with its au­di­tors, De­loitte and Touche, over com­plex ac­count­ing is­sues. In April, Nav­is­tar fired De­loitte, its in­de­pen­dent au­di­tor for 98 years, and hired KPMG to help re­state earn­ings back to 2002 to fix ac­count­ing er­rors. On De­cem­ber 15, 2006, Nav­is­tar ex­ec­u­tives an­nounced fur­ther delay of its re­state­ment and 2006 re­sults. The an­nounce­ment prompted the New York Stock Ex­change (NYSE) to an­nounce the delist­ing of the com­pany, after 98 years of trad­ing, al­though the NYSE sub­se­quently de­layed the delist­ing pend­ing an ap­peal by Nav­is­tar. How­ever, Nav­is­tar was re­moved from the S&P 500 Index, and the NYSE even­tu­ally de­nied Nav­is­tar’s ap­peal and delisted the stock; it traded on the Pink Sheets until 30 June 2008, when it was relisted on the NYSE, under its pre­vi­ous ticker sym­bol, NAV, after catch­ing up with its filings. Christo­pher An­der­son, the De­loitte part­ner re­spon­si­ble for the 2003 audit, ac­cepted a one-year sus­pen­sion from pub­lic au­dits in 2008, and be­came the first in­di­vid­ual to be fined by the PCAOB.

CEO Daniel Us­t­ian agreed to sur­ren­der to Nav­is­tar shares worth $1.3 mil­lion, while for­mer Chief Fi­nan­cial Of­fi­cer Robert C. Lan­nert con­sented to repay $1.05 mil­lion, each sum re­flect­ing mon­e­tary bonuses they had re­ceived dur­ing the re­state­ment pe­riod, the SEC said. Four other com­pany ex­ec­u­tives paid civil penal­ties with­out ad­mit­ting liability.

In De­cem­ber 2014, Nav­is­tar dis­closed more ac­count­ing prob­lems. These in­volved out-of-pe­riod ad­just­ments, which were cor­rec­tions of prior pe­riod er­rors re­lat­ing to prod­uct war­ranties. This re­sulted in a $36 mil­lion in­crease in Cost of Prod­ucts Sold. In ad­di­tion, a ma­te­r­ial weak­ness was dis­closed. In the com­pany’s an­nual 10K, they re­ported that weak­ness was “sur­round­ing val­i­da­tion of the com­plete­ness and ac­cu­racy of un­der­ly­ing data used in the de­ter­mi­na­tion of sig­nif­i­cant ac­count­ing es­ti­mates and ac­count­ing trans­ac­tions. Specif­i­cally, con­trols were not de­signed to iden­tify er­rors in the un­der­ly­ing data which was used to cal­cu­late war­ranty cost es­ti­mates and other sig­nif­i­cant ac­count­ing es­ti­mates and the ac­count­ing ef­fects of sig­nif­i­cant transactions.

Hybrids and Navistar Defense LLC, 2003-present

In Oc­to­ber 2003, Nav­is­tar CEO Dan Us­t­ian an­nounced the com­pany would be form­ing a de­fense busi­ness unit in order to sell mil­i­tary ve­hi­cles. Nav­is­tar De­fense would be led by Archie Mas­si­cotte, a 26 year vet­eran of the com­pany. Us­t­ian stated “This is a nat­ural area of growth for In­ter­na­tional. We al­ready have all the plat­forms that the U.S. mil­i­tary and other NATO coun­tries could lever­age for prod­ucts and services.”

In 2007, Nav­is­tar’s In­ter­na­tional Truck and En­gine Cor­po­ra­tion be­came the first com­pany to enter hy­brid com­mer­cial truck pro­duc­tion, with theUPSIntl4000In­ter­na­tional DuraS­tar Hy­brid diesel-elec­trictruck.

Nav­is­tar De­fense LLC is the prime sup­plier of2007-present International MaxxPro MRAPMRAP ar­mored ve­hi­cles to the US mil­i­tary. The Navistar 7000 seriesNav­is­tar 7000 se­ries has been fielded by the Cana­dian Forces for do­mes­tic op­er­a­tions. In 2005, the U.S. Army or­dered 2,900 7000-MVs for the Afghan Na­tional Army and Iraqi Min­istry of De­fense and an ad­di­tional order of 7,000 was added in 2008.

Nav­is­tar De­fense also has a small Cana­dian branch, named Nav­is­tar De­fence Canada.

Nav­is­tar De­fense re­ported sales of $3.9 bil­lion in 2008 and $2.8 bil­lion in 2009.

In Oc­to­ber 2009, the com­pany en­tered into a strate­gic agree­ment with Czech-based com­pany Tatra to jointly de­velop, pro­duce and mar­ket new mil­i­tary vehicles.

In De­cem­ber 2009, an­a­lysts were skep­ti­cal of the com­pany’s long-term po­ten­tial. “Nav­is­tar came out of nowhere and be­came a big player with MRAP, in what was a short-term pro­gram,” said Dean Lock­wood, an an­a­lyst at Fore­cast In­ter­na­tional Inc., a Con­necti­cut-based de­fense con­sul­tant. “They didn’t prove them­selves to be a long-term major player.”

In 2010, Nav­is­tar De­fense’s sales were $1.8 bil­lion. The com­pany’s 2010 An­nual 10K re­port stated “we con­tinue to ex­pect that over the long term our mil­i­tary busi­ness will gen­er­ate ap­prox­i­mately $1.5 bil­lion to $2 bil­lion in an­nual sales.”

In 2011, Nav­is­tar De­fense’s sales were $2.0 billion.

In 2012, Nav­is­tar De­fense re­ported $1.0 bil­lion in sales. Busi­ness In­sider ranked Nav­is­tar De­fense at 22 in the top 25 US de­fense companies.

In 2013, Nav­is­tar De­fense re­ported $543 mil­lion in sales. In the com­pany’s 10K fil­ing, they pro­jected mil­i­tary sales to con­tinue to de­cline, cit­ing U.S. bud­getary constraints.

In 2014, Nav­is­tar De­fense re­ported $149 mil­lion in sales. The com­pany pro­jected 2015 mil­i­tary sales to be slightly higher due to re­cent con­tract awards re­lat­ing to the gov­ern­ment’s MRAP fleet.

Contract awards, losses and other events

On Au­gust 22, 2012, Nav­is­tar De­fense lost their bid for the En­gi­neer­ing, Man­u­fac­tur­ing & De­vel­op­ment (EMD) con­tract worth $187 mil­lion for the Army and Ma­rine Corps’ Joint Light Tac­ti­cal Ve­hi­cle (JLTV) pro­gram. Nav­is­tar had pro­posed its Saratoga ve­hi­cle for the com­pe­ti­tion. On Fri­day Au­gust 28, 2012, Nav­is­tar filed a protest with the Gov­ern­ment Ac­count­abil­ity Of­fice (GAO), but pulled their protest on Tues­day, Sep­tem­ber 4, 2012.

On June 20, 2013, Nav­is­tar De­fense idled pro­duc­tion at their West Point, MS pro­duc­tion plant. 80 work­ers were no­ti­fied that July 5, 2013 would be their last day. West Point was best known for man­u­fac­tur­ing MRAP ve­hi­cles. The com­pany cited se­ques­tra­tion, the draw­down in Afghanistan and a chal­leng­ing en­vi­ron­ment in the de­fense in­dus­try as factors.


On Au­gust 22, 2013, Nav­is­tar De­fense lost their bid for the Ground Mo­bil­ity Ve­hi­cle (GMV) 1.1 con­tract, po­ten­tially val­ued at $562 million. Nav­is­tar had pro­posed its Spe­cial Op­er­a­tions Tac­ti­cal Ve­hi­cle (SOTV) for the com­pe­ti­tion. On Tues­day Sep­tem­ber 1, 2013, Nav­is­tar De­fense and AM Gen­eral filed a protest. On De­cem­ber 19, 2013, the Gov­ern­ment Ac­count­abil­ity Of­fice (GAO) de­nied Nav­is­tar and AM Gen­eral’s protests.

In Jan­u­ary 2014, the Pen­ta­gon an­nounced they had no­ti­fied al­lies of their in­tent to give away or scrap 13,000 used MRAPs. This was due to the war in Afghanistan wind­ing down, the mil­i­tary want­ing a lighter ve­hi­cle and high cost to ship them from the mid­dle east back to the U.S. Re­cip­i­ents have in­cluded var­i­ous po­lice de­part­ments and some uni­ver­si­ties. Nav­is­tar De­fense built 9,000 of the 27,000 ve­hi­cles bought by the Pen­ta­gon. Giv­ing away the MRAPs was seen as a blow to Nav­is­tar De­fense’s parts sales.

In De­cem­ber 2014, Nav­is­tar De­fense lost their bid for the En­gi­neer­ing, Man­u­fac­tur­ing De­vel­op­ment (EMD) con­tract for the Ar­mored Multi-Pur­pose Ve­hi­cle (AMPV). BAE was awarded the $382 mil­lion con­tract on De­cem­ber 23, 2014.

Nav­is­tar De­fense lost their bid for Canada’s De­part­ment of Na­tional De­fence (DND) MSVS (Medium Sup­port Ve­hi­cle Sys­tem) Pro­ject – SMP (Stan­dard Mil­i­tary Pat­tern) ve­hi­cles con­tracts. They pro­posed their ATX8 ve­hi­cle as part of an agree­ment with Czech-based com­pany Tatra. The con­tract was for ac­qui­si­tion and in-ser­vice sup­port (ISS) of a fleet of up to 1,500 SMP ve­hi­cles, up to 150 Ar­mour Pro­tec­tion Sys­tems (APS) kits, and 300 Load Han­dling Sys­tem (LHS) trailers. Com­peti­tors in­clude Oshkosh (MTVR), BAE Sys­tems (FMTV), Daim­ler AG (Zet­ros), Re­nault Trucks (Kerax 8×8) and Rhein­metall/ MAN (HX77 8×8). A con­tract award de­ci­sion is ex­pected in June 2015. On July 16, 2015, Canada awarded the Ac­qui­si­tion and In Ser­vice Sup­port con­tracts to Mack De­fense, LLC (Re­nault Trucks).

On July 25, 2014, the DOD awarded a $27.6 mil­lion mod­i­fi­ca­tion to an ex­ist­ing con­tract to ac­quire mine-re­sis­tant, am­bush-pro­tected hard­ware kits to up­grade MaxxPro Dash and long-wheel base am­bu­lances to their final con­fig­u­ra­tion. Es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date is May 30, 2015.


On Au­gust 27, 2014, the DOD awarded a $38 mil­lion con­tract to Nav­is­tar De­fense to re­store MRAP Maxx Pro Dash ve­hi­cles to “like-new” stan­dards. The DOD re­ported that Nav­is­tar was the only bid­der. The work in­cludes adding in­de­pen­dent sus­pen­sion sys­tems and re­place­ment of manda­tory parts, with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of June 30, 2016. Work will be per­formed in West Point, MS.

In Sep­tem­ber 2014, Nav­is­tar De­fense an­nounced they would hire 200 work­ers and re-open op­er­a­tions at their West Point, MS pro­duc­tion plant. West Point had been idle since June 2013 due to se­ques­tra­tion, the draw­down in Afghanistan and de­clin­ing orders.

In Sep­tem­ber 2014, amidst nu­mer­ous di­vesti­tures, Nav­is­tar Inc. CEO Troy Clark gave Nav­is­tar De­fense a vote of con­fi­dence, not­ing that the mil­i­tary busi­ness unit would be re­tained. In a Sep­tem­ber 2014 in­ter­view with Reuters he said “it’s not a bil­lion-dol­lar growth op­por­tu­nity, but it’s not some­thing that’s bleed­ing off the fu­ture for­tunes of our company.”

On Oc­to­ber 14, 2014, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $9.2 mil­lion firm-fixed price for­eign mil­i­tary sale (FMS) con­tract to Jor­dan for one hun­dred 4-ton 4×4 cargo trucks and twenty days of op­er­a­tor and main­te­nance train­ing. Work will be per­formed in New Carlisle, Ohio with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of May 20, 2015. Bids were so­licited via the in­ter­net with nine­teen received.

On Feb­ru­ary 2, 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $15,381,152 firm-fixed-price con­tract with op­tions for eight MRAP MaxxPro Hard­ware Kits to sup­port MaxxPro ve­hi­cle stan­dard­iza­tion and reset. Work will be per­formed in Lisle, Illi­nois, with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of July 16, 2016. Bids were so­licited via the In­ter­net with one re­ceived. Fis­cal 2015 other pro­cure­ment (Army) funds in the amount of $15,381,152 are being ob­lig­ated at the time of the award. Army Con­tract­ing Com­mand, War­ren, Michi­gan, is the con­tract­ing ac­tiv­ity (W56HZV-15-C-0070).

On March 18, 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $83,424,223 cost-plus-fixed-fee multi-year con­tract for sys­tem tech­ni­cal sup­port and sys­tem sus­tain­ment tech­ni­cal sup­port for MRAP MaxxPro ve­hi­cles. Fund­ing and work lo­ca­tion will be de­ter­mined with each order with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of March 31, 2019. One bid was so­licited with one re­ceived. Army Con­tract­ing Com­mand, War­ren, Michi­gan, is the con­tract­ing ac­tiv­ity (W56HZV-15-D-0037).


On April 13, 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $17,522,057 firm-fixed-price con­tract with op­tions to pro­cure seven Mine Re­sis­tant Am­bush Pro­tec­tion MaxxPro Dash hard­ware kits for MaxxPro ve­hi­cle stan­dard­iza­tion and reset. Work will be per­formed in Lisle, Illi­nois, with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of Dec. 31, 2015. One bid was so­licited with one re­ceived. Fis­cal 2014 and 2015 other funds in the amount of $17,522,057 are being ob­lig­ated at the time of the award. Army Con­tract­ing Com­mand, War­ren, Michi­gan, is the con­tract­ing ac­tiv­ity (W56HZV-15-C-0092).

On April 30, 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $31,199,783 mod­i­fi­ca­tion (P00004) to con­tract W56HZV-14-C-0102 for reset and up­grade of the MRAP (mine-re­sis­tant am­bush pro­tected) fam­ily of ve­hi­cles to Code-A stan­dards. Work will be per­formed in West Point, Mis­sis­sippi, with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of July 31, 2016. Fis­cal 2013 and 2015 other pro­cure­ment (Army) and op­er­a­tions and main­te­nance (Army) funds in the amount of $17,990,419 were ob­lig­ated at the time of the award. Army Con­tract­ing Com­mand, War­ren, Michi­gan, is the con­tract­ing activity.

In April 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense Pres­i­dent Bob Walsh re­signed. On May 19, Kevin Thomas was pro­moted to President.

2001-Present: Failed engine strategy, layoffs, consolidation and turnaround

Failed Engine Strategy

In 2001, then CEO Dan Us­t­ian faced nu­mer­ous EPA reg­u­la­tions to re­duce the amount of ni­tro­gen ox­ides and soot em­a­nat­ing from diesel en­gines. De­spite the change in the com­pli­ance arena, the reg­u­la­tions would not begin to be phased in until 2007, with full im­ple­men­ta­tion slated for 2010.


Us­t­ian had mul­ti­ple en­gi­neer­ing paths avail­able. Among them were Se­lec­tive Cat­alytic Re­duc­tion (SCR), Ex­haust Gas Re­cir­cu­la­tion (EGR) or the use of ni­tro­gen oxide ab­sorbers. All re­quired more en­gi­neer­ing and de­vel­op­ment to achieve com­pli­ance. Us­t­ian be­lieved truck­ers did not want to bother with an extra tank of fluid af­tertreat­ment. As a re­sult, he con­vinced the com­pany to spend $700 mil­lion to fund EGR development.

On Oc­to­ber 31, 2007, Nav­is­tar for­mally an­nounced their in­tent to move for­ward with EGR as the com­pany’s strat­egy. The com­pany state­ment in­cluded Us­t­ian men­tion­ing “I have pub­licly been an ad­vo­cate of cus­tomer friendly emis­sions con­trol so­lu­tions which do not add ad­di­tional costs to our truck and bus cus­tomers. While SCR is a means to achieve the NOx re­duc­tion re­quire­ment for 2010, it comes with a steep cost to our cus­tomers. Our abil­ity to achieve our goals with­out adding cus­tomer cost and in­con­ve­nience is a com­pet­i­tive ad­van­tage for International.”

On No­vem­ber 24, 2008, Nav­is­tar re­vealed it would use EPA Cred­its in order to com­ply with the 2010 legislation.

In Feb­ru­ary 2009, Us­t­ian touted the ben­e­fits of EGR tech­nol­ogy as a key dif­fer­en­tia­tor for the com­pany’s en­gines. How­ever, by now, the rest of the in­dus­try had cho­sen to use the com­pli­ant SCR tech­nol­ogy. Us­t­ian dis­agreed with SCR, say­ing “the other thing that EGR avoids is the risks of an SCR strat­egy. Read the label on this and it will show you that there are chal­lenges with keep­ing con­trol of using this tech­nol­ogy: ‘Store be­tween 23 de­grees and 68 de­grees.’ So es­sen­tially it says you can’t throw it out­side. You can’t op­er­ate it in con­di­tions above 85 [de­grees] or below 12 [de­grees]. You can, but, it will put the bur­den onto the cus­tomers.”

Non-Conformance Penalties

The EPA rec­og­nized Nav­is­tar’s im­mi­nent non-com­pli­ance and cre­ated a sys­tem of Non-Con­for­mance Penal­ties (NCPs) that in­cluded a $1,919 dol­lar fine for every non-com­pli­ant en­gine that Nav­is­tar sold. To bridge the gap, Nav­is­tar began using EPA cred­its it had pre­vi­ously earned for being com­pli­ant in lieu of pay­ing fines. In Au­gust 2012, Nav­is­tar stated they would run out of EPA cred­its soon. Only days ear­lier the EPA an­nounced in­creased new penal­ties of $3,744 per engine.


In March 2009, Nav­is­tar sued the EPA, claim­ing that the agency’s guid­ance doc­u­ments for SCR im­ple­men­ta­tion were in­valid be­cause they were adopted with­out a pub­lic process and with input only from the SCR en­gine mak­ers. Nav­is­tar and the EPA set­tled the law­suit a year later.

Fur­ther mask­ing the EGR prob­lem were high mil­i­tary sales. In the com­pany’s 2010 10K re­port, Nav­is­tar cited or­ders for MRAPs as off­set­ting flat com­mer­cial sales due to the recession.

Move to Lisle, IL

In Sep­tem­ber 2010, de­spite un­cer­tainty over EGR and a slug­gish econ­omy, Nav­is­tar lead­er­ship re­vived an ef­fort to re­lo­cate the com­pany head­quar­ters from War­renville, IL, to nearby Lisle, IL. The new head­quar­ters was ex­pected to re­tain or cre­ate 3,000 per­ma­nent jobs and about 400 con­struc­tion jobs. Nav­is­tar Pres­i­dent Dan Us­t­ian said roughly 500 en­gi­neers would be hired im­me­di­ately. Nav­is­tar aimed to in­vest $110 mil­lion in the 1.2 mil­lion-square-foot Lisle cam­pus, which would in­clude prod­uct de­vel­op­ment. The state gave Nav­is­tar in­cen­tives of nearly $65 mil­lion, in­clud­ing tax credits.

In March 2011, Nav­is­tar an­nounced the move to Lisle. Ren­o­va­tions were com­pleted in the fall, but the com­pany grad­u­ally moved from War­renville to Lisle in sum­mer 2011. “You can’t build a cam­pus like this any­where for any­where near the price we paid for this, and even though you might get more in­cen­tives, when you look at the whole pic­ture, you re­ally can’t beat it,” said Don Sharp, Nav­is­tar vice president.

In 2011, Nav­is­tar began phas­ing out its Truck De­vel­op­ment and Tech­nol­ogy Cen­ter (TDTC) in Fort Wayne, In­di­ana. In early De­cem­ber 2011, the com­pany laid off 130 em­ploy­ees, mostly en­gi­neers and de­sign­ers who were United Auto Work­ers members. In total, 300 out of 1,400 Fort Wayne em­ploy­ees even­tu­ally ac­cepted of­fers to re­lo­cate to Illi­nois. The other 1,100 work­ers ei­ther re­tired or chose to re­main in In­di­ana and find work elsewhere. The cost to move em­ploy­ees and con­sol­i­date op­er­a­tions was es­ti­mated to be $75 mil­lion. The only Nav­is­tar em­ploy­ees re­main­ing after De­cem­ber 2012 were 20-25 peo­ple man­ning the com­pany’s test track on Ox­ford Street. In late July 2015, the TDTC closed and the re­main­ing work­ers were let go.


In Jan­u­ary 2012, the EPA adopted an in­terim final rule that al­lowed Nav­is­tar to con­tinue sell­ing the en­gines sub­ject to NCPs. Sev­eral Nav­is­tar com­peti­tors sued, and in June 2012 the same ap­peals court ruled that EPA’s in­terim rule was in­valid be­cause it did not give the pub­lic no­tice and an op­por­tu­nity for comment.

In the mean time, Nav­is­tar’s EGR de­ci­sion had led to sig­nif­i­cant re­li­a­bil­ity and qual­ity prob­lems. Truck dri­vers began los­ing trust and con­fi­dence as Nav­is­tar ve­hi­cles were break­ing down fre­quently. Con­se­quently, they aban­doned Nav­is­tar trucks in favor of com­peti­tor’s trucks.

Tension Mounts

In June 2012, spec­u­la­tion mounted about a pos­si­ble takeover of the strug­gling truck maker. This came as hedge fund MHR Fund Man­age­ment LLC dis­closed a 13.6% stake in the com­pany, slightly higher than bil­lion­aire ac­tivist in­vestor Carl Icahn’s 11.9% stake. As a re­sult, Nav­is­tar adopted a poi­son pill de­fense. If the plan were trig­gered by an out­side in­vestor tak­ing a stake of 15 per­cent or more in the com­pany, then Nav­is­tar would issue its share­hold­ers rights that would let them buy new com­mon stock in the com­pany at a dis­count of 50 per­cent: For each share held, the in­vestor could buy $280 worth of new shares for $140. The in­vestor who took the 15 per­cent stake or more would not have the right to buy ad­di­tional shares.

In Au­gust 2012, Nav­is­tar an­nounced it would use Cum­mins en­gines and SCR technology. After 37 years with the com­pany, Dan Us­t­ian re­tired im­me­di­ately in Au­gust 2012 and left his po­si­tion on the board as well. For­mer Tex­tron CEO Lewis Camp­bell was named in­terim CEO and Troy Clarke was pro­moted to Chief Op­er­at­ing Officer. Us­t­ian’s sev­er­ance pack­age began at $7.9 mil­lion. The com­pany’s proxy state­ment dur­ing this time es­ti­mated the total pack­age to be $14.6 mil­lion, con­tin­gent on a share price of $42.07 on Oct. 31, 2011, the end of the com­pany’s fis­cal year.

On Sep­tem­ber 9, 2012, bil­lion­aire and key stock holder Carl Icahn sent an open let­ter to Nav­is­tar’s board, blast­ing them for “abysmal busi­ness de­ci­sions” and “poor cor­po­rate gov­er­nance.” Icahn noted from 2009-2012, that “this Board has au­tho­rized spend­ing share­holder money on law­suits against sup­pli­ers, com­peti­tors and reg­u­la­tors, mar­ket­ing plans to con­vince cus­tomers that non-com­pli­ant en­gines are ac­tu­ally com­pli­ant, ac­cu­mu­lat­ing non-core as­sets such as a Recre­ational Ve­hi­cle man­u­fac­turer, and a “gold-plated” cor­po­rate head­quar­ters that cost over $100 mil­lion. The one thing this Board re­fused to spend money on was a back-up plan in­volv­ing the in­dus­try stan­dard tech­nol­ogy Nav­is­tar now must rely on.”

navistar_logo (1)

In a Sep­tem­ber 2012 in­ter­view, Cum­mins CEO Tom Linebarger said, “all we did was act nice to them (Nav­is­tar) even when they didn’t talk nicely about us,” he smiled, re­call­ing harsh com­ments that Nav­is­tar ex­ec­u­tives had made about SCR being used by all its competitors.

In Oc­to­ber 2012, Chief Prod­uct Of­fi­cer Deepak Kapur stepped down, fol­lowed by Group Vice Pres­i­dent of Prod­uct De­vel­op­ment Ramin Younessi in De­cem­ber 2012. CIO Don Sharp also left the com­pany in April 2013.

Layoffs and consolidation

Au­gust 2012 fea­tured a Vol­un­tary Sep­a­ra­tion Pro­gram (VSP) as well as in­vol­un­tary lay­offs. This was due to the failed en­gine strat­egy, ris­ing war­ranty costs and de­clines in com­mer­cial and mil­i­tary sales. The com­pany let go 500 em­ploy­ees and in Sep­tem­ber 2012, an­nounced plans to lay off 200 more salaried employees.

In ad­di­tion, the com­pany an­nounced it would close its Gar­land, Texas man­u­fac­tur­ing fa­cil­ity by mid-2013, re­sult­ing in the loss of 900 jobs.

In March 2013, Nav­is­tar an­nounced that in­terim CEO Lewis Camp­bell would step down and COO Troy Clarke would be named CEO and Chair­man of the Board. Jack Allen was named COO. In June 2013, CFO A.J. Cederoth stepped down and James M. Moran, Nav­is­tar se­nior vice pres­i­dent and trea­surer, would act as in­terim CFO until a suc­ces­sor could be found. In late June 2013, for­mer Gen­eral Mo­tors ex­ec­u­tive Wal­ter Borst was named Ex­ec­u­tive VP and CFO.

In Sep­tem­ber 2013, Nav­is­tar an­nounced it would cut 500 more jobs amid a larger than ex­pected third quar­ter loss. Nav­is­tar re­ported a slower than ex­pected re­turn to prof­itabil­ity due to large mar­ket share losses, de­clin­ing sales and weak mar­ket conditions.

In May 2014, a third round of lay-offs in as many years oc­curred at the cor­po­rate head­quar­ters as part of on­go­ing cost cut­ting measures.

On July 31, 2015, Nav­is­tar ceased op­er­a­tions and laid off the re­main­ing 15 em­ploy­ees at the Truck De­vel­op­ment and Tech­nol­ogy Cen­ter (TDTC) in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

Cost-cutting and divestitures

As part of the turn­around plan, Nav­is­tar ex­ec­u­tives cut costs ag­gres­sively. They cut SG&A costs by 16% in 2013 and cut prod­uct de­vel­op­ment spend­ing by 24%. In­terim CEO Lewis Camp­bell’s pri­or­i­ties in­cluded a focus on qual­ity, re­duc­ing the com­pany’s cost struc­ture and par­ing back its prod­uct line.


Nav­is­tar also sold sev­eral busi­nesses that it deemed were not pro­vid­ing enough of a Re­turn On In­vested Cap­i­tal (ROIC). Among them were their Monaco RV busi­ness as well as Work­horse Chassis. They also ex­ited their joint ven­ture with Mahin­dra  and sold off their E-Z Pack unit, which made bod­ies for garbage trucks, as well as its Con­ti­nen­tal Mixer unit, which made con­crete mix­ers, for prices the com­pany char­ac­ter­ized as “not material.”

In Jan­u­ary 2014, Forbes re­ported sev­eral key chal­lenges fac­ing Nav­is­tar, which in­clude de­clin­ing mil­i­tary sales, a pen­sion plan un­der­funded by $2.7 bil­lion, two self-dis­closed weak­nesses in ac­count­ing prac­tices and a new col­lec­tive bar­gain­ing agree­ment for the com­pany’s 6,000 full and part-time work­ers who are rep­re­sented by labor unions.

In Feb­ru­ary 2014, Nav­is­tar an­nounced it would move some en­gine pro­duc­tion op­er­a­tions from Huntsville, AL, to Mel­rose Park, IL by sum­mer 2014. The move elim­i­nated 280 jobs in Al­abama and saved an es­ti­mated $22 mil­lion. Nav­is­tar said it would keep two other diesel en­gine plants op­er­at­ing in Huntsville.

In Sep­tem­ber 2014, Nav­is­tar re­ported its best quar­ter in years. It an­nounced a third quar­ter net loss of $2 mil­lion, or $0.02 per di­luted share, com­pared to a third quar­ter 2013 net loss of $247 mil­lion, or $3.06 per di­luted share. It was also in Sep­tem­ber that CEO Troy Clarke an­nounced that the com­pany’s biggest di­vesti­tures were com­plete, and that the focus would now be on re­gain­ing lost mar­ket share.

On No­vem­ber 6, 2014, lead­er­ship changes con­tin­ued at Nav­is­tar, with Ex­ec­u­tive VP and COO Jack Allen re­tir­ing im­me­di­ately. Rather than hire a new COO, CEO Troy Clarke split the COO du­ties among three other executives.

Legal issues and struggle for profitability

In De­cem­ber 2014, the United States Ju­di­cial Panel on Mul­ti­dis­trict Lit­i­ga­tion or­dered that 13 of 14 civil law­suits brought against Nav­is­tar for MaxxForce en­gines would be con­sol­i­dated into one case. The con­sol­i­dated law­suits say Nav­is­tar’s use of Ad­vanced Ex­haust Gas Re­cir­cu­la­tion emis­sion con­trol sys­tem, or EGR, was de­fec­tive and re­sulted in re­peated en­gine fail­ures and fre­quent re­pairs and downtime.

On De­cem­ber 16, 2014, Nav­is­tar re­ported a larger than ex­pected 4th quar­ter net loss of $72 mil­lion. While sales rose 9 per­cent to $3 bil­lion, the com­pany cited re­struc­tur­ing and war­ranty costs as the main rea­sons for the loss. A day ear­lier, the com­pany an­nounced it would be clos­ing its en­gine foundry in In­di­anapo­lis, re­sult­ing in the loss of 100 jobs and cost­ing $11 mil­lion. The com­pany es­ti­mated an­nual sav­ings of $13 mil­lion in op­er­at­ing costs.

In March 2015, Nav­is­tar re­ported a first quar­ter 2015 net loss of $42 mil­lion, or $0.52 per di­luted share, com­pared to a first quar­ter 2014 net loss of $248 mil­lion, or $3.05 per di­luted share. Rev­enues in the quar­ter were $2.4 bil­lion, up $213 mil­lion or 10 per­cent, ver­sus the first quar­ter of 2014. The higher rev­enues in the quar­ter were dri­ven by a 17 per­cent year-over-year in­crease in char­ge­outs for Class 6-8 trucks and buses in the United States and Canada. This in­cluded a 42 per­cent in­crease in school buses; a 25 per­cent in­crease in Class 6/7 medium trucks; a 7 per­cent in­crease in Class 8 heavy trucks; and a 5 per­cent in­crease in Class 8 se­vere ser­vice trucks. Higher sales in the com­pany’s ex­port truck op­er­a­tions also con­tributed to the in­crease, par­tially off­set by a de­crease in used truck sales. The com­pany fin­ished the first quar­ter with a 27 per­cent year-over-year in­crease in order back­log for Class 6-8 trucks.

On June 4, 2015, Nav­is­tar re­ported a sec­ond quar­ter net loss of $64 mil­lion, or 78 cents a share, com­pared with a year-ear­lier loss of $297 mil­lion, or $3.65 a share. Rev­enue fell to $2.69 bil­lion from $2.75 bil­lion. An­a­lysts had ex­pected a loss of 18 cents a share and rev­enue of $2.82 billion.

On June 9, 2015, Nav­is­tar named Jeff Sass as the new Se­nior VP of North Amer­i­can Truck Sales. Sass pre­vi­ously worked 20 years for rival Paccar.

On June 12, 2015, Mark Rachesky’s MHR Fund Man­age­ment LLC dis­closed a 6% in­creased stake in Nav­is­tar, up to 15,446,562 shares. The firm now owns 18.9% of Navistar.

In July 2015, the En­vi­ron­men­tal Pro­tec­tion Agency filed a civil law­suit against Nav­is­tar seek­ing $300 mil­lion in fines over its use of non-com­pli­ant en­gines in its 2010-model trucks – en­gines that did not meet the agency’s ex­haust emis­sion standards. “Be­cause (Nav­is­tar) com­pleted man­u­fac­tur­ing and as­sem­bling processes for the sub­ject en­gines in 2010 … each and every en­gine was ‘pro­duced’ in 2010 and is there­fore not a model 2009 en­gine,” the com­plaint said. Nav­is­tar clas­si­fied the en­gines as 2009 model year en­gines be­cause it began as­sem­bling them in 2009. Nav­is­tar has stated they dis­pute the al­le­ga­tions and would “ag­gres­sively de­fend” their position.

On July 20, 2015, Nav­is­tar an­nounced that it was re­fi­nanc­ing the $697.5 mil­lion se­nior se­cured term loan fa­cil­ity of Nav­is­tar, Inc., which ma­tures in Au­gust 2017, with a new $1.040 bil­lion se­nior se­cured term loan, which will ma­ture in Au­gust 2020. The re­fi­nanc­ing will ex­tend the ma­tu­rity of the term loan fa­cil­ity and pro­vide ad­di­tional liq­uid­ity and fi­nan­cial flex­i­bil­ity for the company.


International Trucks

 DuraStar Box (van body) truck
Navistar International Prostar
 ProStar® Semi tractor
FEMA - 38851 - County Road crew cleans storm drainage ditches
 WorkStar Dump truck

In 1986, after the tran­si­tion from In­ter­na­tional Har­vester to Nav­is­tar, the truck prod­uct line (es­sen­tially all that was left) dropped the “Har­vester” por­tion of the brand name. In­ter­na­tional pro­duces a va­ri­ety of medium-duty, over-the-road, and se­vere-ser­vice trucks.

Pickups (XT-Series)
International CXT pickupMXT (2004–2008)
International MXT Wayco.caCXT
International MXT on dealer delivery trailerRXT
Medium Duty
International TerraStarInternational TerraStar Class 4-5 conventional
Ford LCF (and its International CF-CityStar counterpart)International CityStar LCF (low-cab forward) cab-over
International durastarInternational DuraStar Class 6-7 conventional
Class 8
2008-present International LoneStarInternational LoneStar conventional
2006-present International ProStarInternational ProStar+ conventional
International 9400i RedInternational 9000 Series conventional
2002-present International TranStar tractorInternational TranStar conventional
International PayStarInternational PayStar conventional
2008-present International WorkStarInternational WorkStar conventional

Navistar Defense

Pickup trucks
  • International SOTV-A
  • International SOTV-B
  • International MXT-MV
  • International MXT-MVU
Class 8
  • International ATX -6
  • International ATX -8
  • International 5000-MV
  • International 7000-MV

IC Bus

Further information: IC Bus and AmTran
IC BE school bus
 IC Bus BE-Series school bus

In­ter­na­tional has a long his­tory in the school bus in­dus­try as a chas­sis provider, dat­ing to when school buses first be­came mo­tor­ized. In 1991, Nav­is­tar en­tered the school bus in­dus­try as a body man­u­fac­turer when it began its ac­qui­si­tion of Am­Tran, an Arkansas-based com­pany founded as Ward Body Works in 1933. Today, IC Bus pro­duces sev­eral mod­els of full-sized school buses along with buses for com­mer­cial use.

School/activity buses
Ford cutaway van chassis with a modular body Ambulance NY CityAE-Series cutaway-cab conventional (based on International TerraStar)
BE-Series conventional (International 3300LP chassis)
2005-present International 3300 HCS bus49CE-Series conventional (International 3300 chassis)
available in diesel-electric hybrid configuration
2007 International 3000-3900 IC RE 300 Of Fairfax County Public Schools Fairfax, VirginiaRE-Series rear-engine transit-style (International 3000 chassis)
Commercial buses

Along with com­mer­cial-use de­riv­a­tives of the school bus prod­uct lines, IC of­fers these dis­tinct products:


IC Bus has in­tro­duced con­cept ve­hi­cles in both 40 feet (12 m) and 45 feet (14 m) lengths.

International Harvester/Navistar diesel engines

In­ter­na­tional Truck and En­gine re­cently launched the “MaxxForce” brand name for its line of diesel en­gines. En­gines were re­branded as “MaxxForce” fol­lowed by a num­ber cor­re­spond­ing to the en­gine’s dis­place­ment, rounded up. So the 4.5L VT275 be­came the “MaxxForce 5. The Maxxforce Diesel en­gine line has re­cently been dis­con­tin­ued as a re­sult of Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional hav­ing many is­sues and re­ports of prob­lems with the en­gine. Ford con­tin­ued to use the Power Stroke brand name on their In­ter­na­tional-sourced en­gines. How­ever, the new 6.7L Power Stroke is not an In­ter­na­tional de­signed engine.

Joint ventures

Ford Motor Company

Since the 1980s, Nav­is­tar has had a close re­la­tion­ship with Ford Motor Com­pany. The re­la­tion­ship started out as an en­gine-shar­ing deal, but evolved into the pro­duc­tion of en­tire ve­hi­cles. How­ever, in May 2014, Ford cut Nav­is­tar out of the busi­ness of the F-650 and F-750 com­mer­cial trucks. Nav­is­tar had built them for Ford since 2001. Be­gin­ning in 2015, Ford plans to start mak­ing the trucks them­selves. It is ap­prox­i­mately a $400 mil­lion a year business.

 Ford F-650, a product of Blue Diamond Truck
Ford F-650, a product of Blue Diamond Truck

Ford PowerStroke diesel

As a re­sult of the gas crises of the 1970s, big-block gaso­line V8 en­gines (such as the Ford 460) had begun to fall out of favor with pickup-truck buy­ers. In the 1980s, diesel en­gines in Amer­i­can pickup trucks (in­tro­duced by Gen­eral Mo­tors in 1978) had be­come pop­u­lar, as they of­fered the power of a big-block V8 with the fuel econ­omy of a smaller en­gine. Ford en­tered into a sup­ply agree­ment with In­ter­na­tional Har­vester to re­ceive its 6.9 L IDI V8 en­gine. The first diesel-pow­ered Ford pickup trucks de­buted for 1982; it was avail­able for 3/4 and 1-ton mod­els. GM at the time had a De­troit Diesel V8 en­gine also on its debut, prior to that GM used a 350 Diesel. Dodge started using a Cum­mins six-cylin­der in 1988.

In 1994, when the In­ter­na­tional 7.3 L IDI V8 was re­placed by the T444E, the diesel op­tion was branded “Ford Pow­er­Stroke” to em­pha­size the switch to di­rect in­jec­tion. Through­out the 1990s and 2000s, Ford of­fered In­ter­na­tional/Nav­is­tar V8 (as the DT in­line-6 was far too large to pack­age in a pickup truck) in the2011 Ford Super Duty Ford F-250 XLTFord Super Duty pickup trucks.2004-15 F-750 Super Duty in use servicing a water pump

2004-15 F-750 Super Duty in use servicing a water pump

As of 2010, the 6.4 L Ford Pow­er­Stroke V8 was the last of the In­ter­na­tional/Nav­is­tar diesels used in Ford’s F-Se­ries Super Duty lineup. When Ford re­designed the Super Duty in 2011, it was fit­ted with a 6.7 L V8 de­signed and pro­duced by Ford.

Blue Diamond Truck

In 2001, Nav­is­tar formed a joint ven­ture with long­time (20 years) cus­tomer Ford Motor Com­pany to man­u­fac­ture medium-duty trucks and parts, in­clud­ing diesel en­gines for both par­ent com­pa­nies. The new com­pany, Blue Di­a­mond Truck Co. LLC, op­er­ates in the Nav­is­tar plant in Gen­eral Es­cobedo, Mex­ico. Its first prod­ucts were the2008 MHV Ford F650 01

2004 Ford F-650 and F-750 medium-duty trucks.

Anhui Jianghuai Navistar

On 16 Sep­tem­ber 2010, Anhui Jianghuai Au­to­mo­bile Co., Ltd. (JAC) an­nounced joint ven­tures with NC2 Global and Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Cor­po­ra­tion that will de­velop, build, and mar­ket heavy duty trucks and diesel en­gines in China.

Mahindra Navistar

Main article: Mahindra Navistar

Nav­is­tar formed a joint ven­ture with Mahin­dra & Mahin­dra to build heavy trucks in India under the “Mahin­dra In­ter­na­tional” brand, which has since been re­named Mahin­dra Nav­is­tar. These trucks were dis­played at Auto Expo 2010 in Delhi, India.

The Joint Ven­ture ceased as Nav­is­tar ex­ited the joint ven­ture in 2013.


Tatra and Nav­is­tar De­fence in­tro­duced at Eu­rosatory Ex­po­si­tion in Paris, France (June 14–18, 2010) the re­sults of their strate­gic al­liance since Oc­to­ber 2009, the mod­els ATX6 (uni­ver­sal con­tainer car­rier) and ATX8 (troop carrier) The ve­hi­cles ap­pear to be based on2010 Tatra T815 TERRno2Tatra T815-7 (T817) 6×6, 8×8 chassis, sus­pen­sion and cab­ins while using Nav­is­tar en­gines and other components. Under the deal Nav­is­tar De­fence and Tatra A.S. will mar­ket the ve­hi­cles in North Amer­ica, which in­cludes sales to the United States mil­i­tary and for­eign mil­i­tary sales fi­nanced by the United States gov­ern­ment. Tatra will source parts and com­po­nents through Nav­is­tar’s global parts and sup­port net­work for Tatra trucks de­liv­ered in mar­kets out­side of North Amer­ica, as well as mar­ket Nav­is­tar-Tatra ve­hi­cles around the world in their pri­mary markets.


  • In 2005, Navistar purchased MWM International Motores, a Brazilian engine manufacturer formerly associated with Deutz AG.
  • Navistar International has a contract with Budget Truck Rental to produce their rental trucks.
  • Navistar entered into an agreement to purchase General Motors’ medium duty truck unit in 2007, but because of changing market conditions, the purchase was not concluded.

Plug-in electric vehicles

Modec FedEx truck, LA
 eStar electric van in Los Angeles in 2010. The vehicle was manufactured in the U.S. under license from Modec.
Coca Cola eStar electric truck at Washington D.C.
 eStar delivery truck in Washington. D.C. in 2012

Plug-in hybrid electric bus

The U.S. De­part­ment of the En­ergy an­nounced the se­lec­tion of Nav­is­tar Cor­po­ra­tion for a cost-shared award of up to US$10 mil­lion to de­velop, test, and de­ploy plug-in hy­brid elec­tric ve­hi­cle(PHEV) school buses. The pro­ject aims to de­ploy 60 ve­hi­cles for a three-year pe­riod in school bus fleets across the na­tion. The ve­hi­cles will be ca­pa­ble of run­ning in ei­ther elec­tric-only or hy­brid modes that can be recharged from stan­dard elec­tri­cal out­lets. Be­cause elec­tric­ity will be their pri­mary fuel, they will con­sume less pe­tro­leum than stan­dard ve­hi­cles. To de­velop the PHEV school bus, Nav­is­tar will ex­am­ine a range of hy­brid ar­chi­tec­tures and eval­u­ate ad­vanced en­ergy stor­age de­vices, with the goal of de­vel­op­ing a ve­hi­cle with a 40-mile (64 km) range. Travel be­yond the range will be fa­cil­i­tated by a clean diesel en­gine ca­pa­ble of run­ning on re­new­able fuels. The DOE fund­ing will cover up to half of the pro­ject’s cost and will be pro­vided over three years, sub­ject to an­nual ap­pro­pri­a­tions.

eStar electric van

The eStar is an all-elec­tric van man­u­fac­tured in Wakarusa, In­di­ana. Pro­duc­tion began in March 2010 and first de­liv­er­ies began two months later. The tech­nol­ogy used in eStar was li­censed to Nav­is­tar in 2009 in a joint ven­ture with Modec and Nav­is­tar bought the in­tel­lec­tual prop­erty rights from the Modec’s bank­ruptcy ad­min­is­tra­tors in 2011. The in­tro­duc­tion of the eStar was sup­ported by a US$39.2 mil­lion U.S. De­part­ment of En­ergy stim­u­lus grant under the 2009 Amer­i­can Re­cov­ery and Rein­vest­ment Act.

The eStar has a 5,100 lb (2,300 kg) pay­load ca­pac­ity and is avail­able with a 14- or 16-foot cargo box. The ve­hi­cle is pow­ered by a 70 kW 102 hp elec­tric motor pow­ered by an 80kWhr lithium-ion bat­tery pack sup­plied by A123 Sys­tems, and also uses re­gen­er­a­tive brak­ing. The elec­tric van has a range of 100 mi (160 km), and a full charge takes be­tween 6 and 8 hours. By May 2010 the eStar had re­ceived U.S. En­vi­ron­men­tal Pro­tec­tion Agency (EPA) and CARB cer­ti­fi­ca­tions. The eStar also meets all Fed­eral Motor Ve­hi­cle Safety Stan­dards (FMVSS).

The first vans were de­liv­ered in May 2010 to FedEx Ex­press for use in Los Angeles. Other cus­tomers in­clude Pa­cific Gas and Elec­tric Com­pany (PG&E), The Coca-Cola Com­pany, and Canada Post. The eStar has a price of US$150,000.


In De­cem­ber 2011, the non­par­ti­san or­ga­ni­za­tion Pub­lic Cam­paign crit­i­cized Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional for spend­ing $6.31 mil­lion on lob­by­ingand not pay­ing any taxes dur­ing 2008-2010, in­stead get­ting $18 mil­lion in tax re­bates, de­spite mak­ing a profit of $896 mil­lion and in­creas­ing ex­ec­u­tive pay by 81%. On Jan 31, 2005, Nav­is­tar Fi­nan­cial said it would re­state fi­nan­cial state­ments for fis­cal years 2002 and 2003 and the first three quar­ters of fis­cal 2004, be­cause it did not take into con­sid­er­a­tion po­ten­tial changes to fu­ture in­come. On April 7, 2006, Nav­is­tar re­stated fi­nan­cial re­sults from 2002 through 2004, and for the first three quar­ters of 2005, due to ac­count­ing prac­tices that are the sub­ject of a con­tin­u­ing review.


Navistar International Vehicles

International LoneStar

2010 International LoneStarTractor Trailer


IDF Custom International.


IC Bus CE300 school bus

2008-11-11 Unloading dumspter from a truck

International DuraStar medium-duty truck

2016-Straszenszenen-Mexico-RalfR-WMA 1084

International 4700 SCD

1908 International highwheel pickup