A.C.F. American+ C.C.F Canadian Car and Foundry Company — ACF BRILL

American Car and Foundry Company

1907 American Car and Foundry Company A 1907 postcard depicting the ACF plant at St. Charles, Missouri
1911 Reefers-shorty-Anheuser-Busch-Malt-Nutrine_ACF_builders_photo_pre-1911A refrigerator car built by ACF in 1911.

American Car and Foundry (often abbreviated as ACF) is a manufacturer of railroad rolling stock. One of its subsidiaries was once (1925–54) a manufacturer of motor coaches and trolley coaches under the brand names of (first) ACF and (later) ACF-Brill. Today ACF is known as ACF Industries LLC and is based in St. Charles, Missouri. It is owned by investor Carl Icahn.

History

American Car and Foundry was formed and incorporated in New Jersey in 1899 as the result of the merger of 13 smaller railroad car manufacturers. The company was made up of:

Company Founded Location
Buffalo Car Manufacturing Company 1872 Buffalo, New York
Ensign Manufacturing Company 1872 Huntington, West Virginia
Jackson and Woodin Manufacturing Company 1861 Berwick, Pennsylvania
Michigan-Peninsular Car Company 1892 Detroit, Michigan
Minerva Car Works 1882 Minerva, Ohio
Missouri Car and Foundry Company 1865 St. Louis, Missouri
Murray, Dougal and Company 1864 Milton, Pennsylvania
Niagara Car Wheel Company Buffalo, New York
Ohio Falls Car Manufacturing Company 1876 Jeffersonville, Indiana
St. Charles Car Company 1873 St. Charles, Missouri
Terre Haute Car and Manufacturing Company Terre Haute, Indiana
Union Car Company Depew, New York
Wells and French Company 1869 Chicago, Illinois

Later in 1899, ACF acquired Bloomsburg Car Manufacturing Company (of Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania). Two years later, ACF acquired Jackson and Sharp Company (founded 1863 inWilmington, Delaware), and the Common Sense Bolster Company (of Chicago, Illinois). The unified company made a great investment in the former Jackson & Woodin plant in Pennsylvania, spending about $3 million. It was at this plant that ACF built the first all-steel passenger car in the world in 1904. The car was built for the Interborough Rapid Transit system of New York City, the first of 300 such cars ordered by the railroad.

1904 and 1905 saw ACF build several motor cars and trailers for the London Underground. In these two years, ACF also acquired Southern Car and Foundry (founded 1899 in Memphis, Tennessee), Indianapolis Car and Foundry and Indianapolis Car Company.

ACF produced artillery gun mounts and ammunition, submarine chasers and other boats, railway cars and other equipment during World War I to support the Allies. ACF ranked 36th among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts.

Timeline

Products

1922 Norte_FCNC_boxcarExternal-braced wooden boxcar built for sugar service in Cuba by ACF. ca. 1922

Historically, ACF built passenger and freight cars and covered hopper cars for hauling items like corn or other grains. . One of the largest customers was Union Pacific, whose armour-yellow carbon steel lightweight passenger rolling stock was mostly built by ACF. The famous domeobservation carNative Son, was an ACF product. Today, the American passenger car market is erratic in production, and is mostly handled by specialty manufacturers. Competitors Budd, Pullman-Standard, and St. Louis Car have all either exited the market or gone out of business.

The manufacturing facility located in Milton, Pennsylvania is serviced by the Norfolk Southern railroad and is capable of manufacturing railcars and all related railcar components. The plant is capable of producing pressure vessels in sizes ranging from 18,000 – 61,000 gwc, to include propane tanks, compressed gas storage, LPG storage, and all related components including heads. The plant covers 48 acres providing 500,000 square feet of covered work area and 7 miles of railroad storage track. The Huntington, WV production site was closed in late 2009.

See also

American Car Company

1919 Fort_Collins_streetcar_21_at_City_Park_(1987)
 A Birney car made by the American Car Company, built in 1919, shown here in operation in 1987

The American Car Company was a streetcar manufacturing company based in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. It was one of the country’s leading streetcar builders during the heyday of streetcar operation. The company was founded in 1891 by William Sutton and Emil Alexander, who had previously founded the Laclede Car Company in 1883 also in St. Louis, and had both got their start working in the streetcar business at St. Louis’ horsecar manufacturer, the Brownell Car Company.

The American Car Company was a builder of electric powered streetcars. ACC was bought out by the J. G. Brill Company of Philadelphia in 1902. However, Brill continued to operate the American Car Co. under its own name until 1931, when it was reorganized as J. G. Brill of Missouri.

In 1915, American Car built the very first Birney-type trolley, the prototype of a new design then known as the “Safety Car”, and went on to build more Birney cars than any other manufacturer. The Fort Collins Municipal Railway, in Colorado, and the Fort Smith Trolley Museum, in Arkansas, are examples of operations where preserved Birney cars built by the American Car Company can still be seen running today.

In 1931, only four months after parent company J. G. Brill discontinued use of the American Car Company name, the ex-ACC factory in St. Louis closed permanently.

See also

Canadian Car and Foundry

1954 CCF-Brill trolley bus on the Edmonton trolley bus system Edmonton_CCF-Brill_trolleybus_202A preserved 1954 CCF-Brill trolley bus on the Edmonton trolley bus system.

Canadian Car and Foundry (CC&F) also variously known as “Canadian Car & Foundry,” or more familiarly as “Can Car,” manufactured buses,railroad rolling stock and later aircraft for the Canadian market. CC&F history goes back to 1897, but the main company was established in 1909 from an amalgamation of several companies and later became part of Hawker Siddeley Canada through the purchase by A.V. Roe Canada in 1957. Today the remaining factories are part of Bombardier Transportation Canada.

History

PortablePowerPlantSRMPortable power plant built by Canadian Car and Foundry

Canadian Car & Foundry (CC&F) was established in 1909 in Montreal as the result of an amalgamation of three companies:

In 1911 the CC&F Board of Directors recognized that the company could improve its efficiency if they were able to produce their own steel castings, a component that was becoming common to all their products. They purchased Montreal Steel Works Limited at Longue Pointe, QC, the largest producer of steel castings in Canada, and the Ontario Iron & Steel Company, Ltd. at Welland, ON, which included both a steel foundry and a rolling mill.

Buses were produced at Fort William, Ontario and railcars in Montreal and Amherst. Streetcars were manufactured between 1897 to 1913, however the company focused exclusively on rebuilding existing streetcars after 1913.

A few years later, CC&F acquired the assets of Pratt & Letchworth, a Brantford, ON, rail car manufacturer. In the latter part of World War I, the expanding company opened a new plant in Fort William (now Thunder Bay) to manufacture rail cars and ships which included the French minesweepers Inkerman and Cerisoles which were both lost in Lake Superior; the Amherst plant started by Rhodes & Curry in Amherst was closed in 1931. In an attempt to enter the aviation market, CC&F produced a small series of Grumman fighter aircraft under licence and developed an unsuccessful, indigenous-designed fighter aircraft, the Gregor FDB-1.

The Second World War

CC&F_HurricaneCC&F Hawker Hurricane X on a test flight over Fort William, Ontario

N.A._CCF_T-6J_20310_G-BSBG_WFD_23.06.96R_edited-3CC&F-built T-6J Harvard

By 1939, with war on the horizon, Canadian Car & Foundry and its Chief Engineer, Elsie MacGill, were contracted by the Royal Air Force to produce the Hawker Hurricane.Refinements introduced by MacGill on the Hurricane included skis and de-icing gear. When the production of the Hurricane was complete in 1943, CC&F’s workforce of 4,500 (half of them women) had built over 1,400 aircraft, about 10% of all Hurricanes built.

Following the success of the Hurricane contract, CC&F sought out and received a production order for the troublesome Curtiss SB2C Helldiver. Eventually, 834 Helldivers were produced by CC&F in various versions from SBW-1, SBW-1B, SBW-3,SBW-4E and SBW-5. Some of the Curtiss divebombers were sent directly to the Royal Navy under Lend-Lease arrangements. CC&F also built the North American AT-6 Texan/Harvard under licence, many of the aircraft being supplied to European air forces to train post war military pilots.

In 1944, the Canadian Car & Foundry built a revolutionary new aircraft in its Montreal shops – the Burnelli CBY-3, also called the Loadmaster. There were two examples built of an aerofoil-fuselage design originally developed by Vincent J. Burnelli. The CBY-3 was never to enter full-scale production and was cancelled less than one year later.

The work of Canadian women building fighter and bomber aircraft at the plant during the Second World War is documented in the 1999 National Film Board of Canada documentary film Rosies of the North.

Postwar developments

After the Second World War, the CC&F returned to its roots as a rail car manufacturer. They also made a successful leap into the streetcar business, supplying Montreal, Toronto, Regina, Calgary, Vancouver, Edmonton, and the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo with various types of streetcars. The company concluded a licencing agreement with ACF-Brill (the successor to J. G. Brill) in 1944 to manufacture and sell throughout Canada buses and trolley coaches of ACF-Brill design as Canadian Car-Brill, in later years often written “CCF-Brill”, for short. CC&F built 1,114 trolley buses[5] and a few thousand buses under the name. Trolleybus production ended in 1954; Edmonton Transit System‘s No. 202, a 1954 CCF-Brill T48A, was the very last Brill trolleybus built for any city.

In 1957, wishing to diversify, the British Hawker Siddeley Group acquired CC&F through its Canadian subsidiary, A.V. Roe Canada Ltd.. In 1962, A.V. Roe Canada was dissolved and its assets became part of Hawker Siddeley Canada. During the 1970s they introduced the BiLevel Coach heavy railway passenger car, which would go on to great success.

CCF re-emerged as Can-Car Rail in 1983 as a joint division between Hawker Siddeley Canada and UTDC. The Can-Car Rail operations were based in Thunder Bay. Sold to SNC-Lavalin in 1986, a financial shakeup led to the firm being returned to the Government of Ontario, and then quickly re-sold to Bombardier Transportation. Through a series of further acquisitions, mergers and rationalisations, CC&F faded from the annals of significant Canadian manufacturers, although the company still exists today as the Bombardier Transportation Canada Inc.railcar facility in Thunder Bay, Ontario.

Products

Transit

Other

Aircraft

Customers

Preservation

Many CC&F-built buses have been preserved as historic vehicles, some in operating condition. For example, the Transit Museum Society, in Vancouver, has at least seven CC&F buses in its collection, including two CC&F-Brill trolleybuses.

See also

J. G. Brill Company

J. G. Brill Company
Private
Industry rail transport
Founded 1868
Founder John George Brill
Headquarters Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,United States
Products streetcars, motor buses, andtrolleybuses

1903 Sintra_tram_7_-_cropped

A 1903 Brill-built streetcar on a heritage streetcar line in Sintra, Portugal in 2010.

The J. G. Brill Company manufactured streetcars and buses in the United States. The company was founded by John George Brill in 1868 as ahorsecar manufacturing firm in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, merged with the American Car and Foundry Company (ACF) in 1944 to become ACF-Brill and ceased production in 1954. Brill manufactured over 45,000 streetcars (also known as trolleys or trolley cars in the U.S.), motor busestrolleybuses and railroad cars. At its height, it was the largest manufacturer of streetcars and interurbans in the U.S. It produced more streetcars and interurbans and gas electrics than any other manufacturer.

History

Brill-21E-Yokohama-Tram-Museum-01Brill-21E

J. G. Brill began operations in 1868 and operated with the Brill name until 1956.

In 1926, ACF Motors Company obtained a controlling interest in J. G. Brill. In 1944 the two companies merged, resulting in the ACF-Brill Motors Company. On January 31, 1946, controlling interest in ACF-Brill was acquired by Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation for $7.5 million. Consolidated Vultee was sold on November 6, 1947, to the Nashville Corporation, which sold its share to investment firm Allen & Co headed by Charles Allen, Jr. on June 11, 1951. In early 1954, ACF-Brill ceased production and subcontracted remaining orders. The properties were sold, and on December 30, 1955, the company was merged with supermarket companies into ACF-Wrigley Stores Inc.

ACF-Brill announced in 1944 that Canadian Car and Foundry of Montreal, Quebec were licensed to manufacture and sell throughout Canada motor buses and trolley coaches of their design as Canadian Car-Brill. The firm built about 1,100 trolley buses and a few thousand buses under the name.

Products

1962 Arhs_brill_057903

 Model 55 and Model 75 Brill Railcars stand at Adelaide, South Australia, in 1962
  • Steel heavy interurban cars built 1920-1930s. The Brill “Center Door” car was typical of suburban trolleys and interurbans built around 1920. These tended to be large, heavy, double-ended cars, with passengers entering and exiting via doors located at the center of the car. Many rebuilt into one man cars.[Springirth,p86-100]
  • Brill “Master Unit,” built 1930s. All-steel; had standard controller stand, capable of 70 mph.[p86-100]
  • Brilliner – Brill’s competitor to the PCC (Presidents’ Conference Car) looked somewhat like the first PCCs. The Brilliner was not successful when compared to the PCC. Underpowered. Few were sold, whereas PCCs were well sold worldwide. Twenty-four built for Atlantic City’s Miss America Fleet.[Springirth p86-100]
  • Brill “Bullet” car. 1929-1932. For suburban/interurban use.[Springirth, p86-100]

1947 Philadelphia_ACF-Brill_trolleybus_215_on_route_79_in_1978,_croppedA 1947 ACF-Brill trolley bus

  • Peter Witt streetcar
    • Large cars with trailers
    • Small cars
  • Numerous models of trolleybuses, including T30, T40, 40SMT, 44SMT and, as ACF-Brill, TC44 and T46/TC46
  • C-36 city bus
  • IC-41 intercity bus

The unique Bullet cars

Bullet Philadelphia_&_Western_Railway_206

 Later-model train from the P&W line, “Bullet” No. 206 on display at Steamtown in Scranton, Pennsylvania.

The lines that operated interurban passenger cars recognized in the mid-1920s that they needed faster and more efficient equipment. Up to that time, both the wood and the steel interurban cars were large, sat high, and were heavy. Car manufacturers such as Cincinnati Car Co., St. Louis Car Co., and Pullman worked to design equipment for a better ride at speed, improved passenger comfort, and reduce power consumption. This included designing trucks able to handle rough track. Brill, in conjunction with Westinghouse and General Electric, worked on a new design. The result was the 1929 aluminum and steel wind tunnel developed slope roof Bullet MU cars, the first of which were purchased by the Philadelphia and Western Railroad, a third rail line running from 69th Street Upper Darby to Norristown in the Philadelphia region. This line still runs as SEPTA’s Norristown High Speed Line. These Bullets were successful and operated until the 1980s, but not many others were sold. Only the central New York state interurban Fonda, Johnstown, and Gloversville Railroad ordered Bullets, albeit a single-ended, single-unit “trolley-ized” version. Five were procured in mid-Depression 1932. In 1936 the FJ&G sold its Bullets to the Bamberger Railroad in Utah, which ran them in high-speed service between Salt Lake City and Ogden until the mid-1950s. Three of the SEPTA cars are now at the Seashore Trolley Museum.

Clients

Companies

The American Car & Foundry Co. controlled, as of January 26, 1926:

  • The Brill Corporation, which controlled:
    1. American Car & Foundry Motors Co: owned Hall-Scott Motor Car Co (owned 100%) and Fageol Motors (Ohio) (controlled 90%)
    2. The J. G Brill Company, 62nd and Woodland Streets, Philadelphia. Absorbed and owned American Car Co. (not American Car and Foundry), Kuhlman Car Co. of Cleveland, Wason Mfg. Co. of Springfield, MA., Stephenson Car Co. of Elizabeth, NJ, Hall-Scott of San Francisco. In Europe, Cie. J. G. Brill of Gallardon, France, which was sold to Electroforge in 1935.

Other companies that built licensed versions of Brill vehicles:

Canadian railway car builder Preston Car Company was acquired in 1921 and operations were closed in 1923.

See also

References

  • 1. Middleton. List of U.S. interurban car manufacturers, pp416–417. Bullet design, p68-70.
  • 2. Volkmer. Photographs pf P&W Bullets and SEPTA Bullets. Brilliners, built 1932.
  • 3. Hilton. Development of improved interurban car design. (eight pages)
  • 4. Springirth. Development of Bullet design.
  • 5. Bradford, Francis H. Hall-Scott: The Untold Story of a Great American Engine Maker

Bibliography

  1. Jump up^ Young, Andrew D. (1997). Veteran & Vintage Transit, p. 101. St. Louis: Archway Publishing. ISBN 0-9647279-2-7.
  2. Jump up^ Sebree, Mac; and Ward, Paul (1973). Transit’s Stepchild: The Trolley Coach, p. 127. Los Angeles: Interurbans. LCCN 73-84356.
  3. Jump up^ Brill Railcars of the South Australian Railways Bird, K Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, October;November;December 1981 pp213-236;237-260;272-282 January 1982 pp1-8
  4. Jump up^ Brill (2001), p 165.
  • Brill, Debra (2001). History of the J. G. Brill Company. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33949-9. The author of this book is a direct descendant of company founder John George Brill of the JG Brill Company of Philadelphia, manufacturer for many years of street cars, interurban cars, the famous “Bullet” cars, and buses. The largest (number produced) manufacturer of such equipment in the world. Over time, absorbed other manufacturers of interurban cars and street cars.
  • Middleton, Wm. D (2000) [1962]. The Interurban Era. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Books. ISBN 978-0-89024-003-8.
  • Volkmer, Wm. D. Pennsylvania Trolleys in Color, Vol II, Philadelphia Region. 92pp. Morning Sun Books, Scotch Plains, NJ. 1998. ISBN 1-878887-99-8. Photographs of Brilliners and Bullets and other Brill designs on Philadelphia and Westernline and in shops.
  • Hilton, George and Due, John The Interurban Electric Railway in America, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. Reissue 2000.
  • Springirth, Kenneth. Suburban Philadelphia Trolleys 128pp. Arcadia Publishing, 2007. (ISBN 9780738550435)

External links

  1928 ACF Model 508-2-B-3

1930 ACF Brill 1930 ACF Bus Eight Mile Road & Livernois Detroit 1930 ACF E1 Trolley 1 on Cortelyou Rd 1931 ACF Model 508 1933 ACF Model P-516 1937 ACF(American Car & Foundry Motors Co.)Model H-9-P for Greyhound Hall-Scott 6-cylinder engine 1938 ACF Brill 37-P 1938 ACF Brill 37-Pa 1938 ACF BRILL H-9 1938 ACF Brill H-9-P SFe H9P 1939 ACF Brill Model 31-S transit 1940 ACF Brill 29-P 1940 ACF Brill Bus Brochure 1941 ACF Brill 37PB NorthernTrails 1941 ACF Greyhound to Macon hailed by woman unknown photomaker OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 1945 ACF Brill IC37 1945 ACF BRILL IC-41A CANADA 1946 A(C)CF Brill Canadian Car & Foundry IC-41 Selkirk-GWTC601 streamliner2-foto-William A luke 1946 Acf Brill C36 1946 ACF Brill IC37 American Bus Lines 1946 ACF Brill IC-37 P6 1946 ACF Brill IC-37 1946 ACF Brill IC-37a 1946 ACF Brill IC-37b 1946 ACF Brill IC-41 1946 ACF-Brill-opt 1947 ACF Brill Conversion Bus 1947 ACF Brill IC-37 P21 1947 ACF Brill IC-37 1947 ACF Brill IC-41 1947 ACF-Brill Model C-36 1947 ACF-Brill Model C-44 1948 ACF Brill ad 1948 ACF Brill IC-37 1948 ACF-Brill C-10 Jitney Bus 1948 ACF-Brill Model IC-41 1950 ACF Brill ICO-X-001 at Jackson, MS 1950 ACF Brill The Continental Oueen 1951 ACF-Brill C-44-S Carolina Coach Co C-4176 Norfolk Bus Corp 176 1978 ACF-Brill trolleybus 215 on route 79 ACF 170 front ACF Brill 2609 acf brill-bwsuburb-1 acf brill-trackless-1 acf brill-urban-1 ACF H-17-S ACF H-17-Sa ACF Model H-17S ACF onbekend ACF QUEENS NASSAU ACF SHOP ACF trolley ttc-trackless ACF-003 Springfield ACF-BRILL MOTORS COMPANY ACF-ETB Trolley Edmonton1940 ACF Brill Bus Brochure 1947 Brill Bus of  Canada 1952 Brill trolleybus 1955 brill trolley 1956 SAR Brill Bus at Wilderness, Cape Province 1957 Brill Bus 1958 Brill Bus Can 1962 Brill-Prentice 1965 Brill 2200 series of Canadian Car Brills 1965 brill 1966 Brill (1) 1967 Brill hastings-angusmcintyre1 1967 Brill trolleybus with the BC Hydro colours, operating as the Hastings 14 1968 04-14hastings return 1969 Brill hastings-angusmcintyre2 1973 Brill 2100 series of Canadian Car Brills operated by BC Hydro Transit 1978 Philadelphia ACF-Brill trolleybus 215 on route 79 A.C.F. Brill Model IC Coach ACF Brill AD ACF BRILL acfbrill-trackless-1 AFC Brill Brill a Brill acf brill an old acf brill bus Brill c brill company streetcars and buses postcard Brill highway Coaches 37 Brill Honolulu Brill trolley brill sau paulo Brill trolley tour Brill Trolleybus 3093 Canadian BRILL Logo download hsr757onkingatmcnabmain7-11-74 JG Brill History Trams Cartago line from J. G. Brill Co. in PhiladelphiaA Brill trolley with the BC Hydro colours, operating as the 14 Hastings in 1967 Bussen Canadian Car Brill highway coach Bussen Canadian Car IC-41 selkirk-BBL19 412-luke 1946 Bussen Canadian Car IC-41 Selkirk-GWTC601 streamliner2-foto-William A luke 1946 Canadian Brill- ACF Brill Canadian Brill Car of the South African Railways Road Services VV Knysna George 27 Canadian Brill Du Toit's Kloof Tunnel, Cape (1952) SA Canadian Car & Foundry delivered 30 Brill T48A trolley coaches to the City Canadian Car and Foundry Brill logo plate Canadian Car and Foundry C-36 1945-50 Edmonton Transit System 99 Canadian Car and Foundry IC-41 1945-52-Ottawa Electric Railway 300-a Canadian Car and Foundry T-44 Edmonton Transit System 148-a Canadian Car and Foundry T-48A Edmonton Transit System 202-a Canadian Car and Foundry TD-43 1960-62 Mississauga Transit 2021-a Canadian-built Brill Bus Canadian-Car-Brill Bus CC&F Brill-Canadian Car Brill C36's CCF-Brill IC-41 Five Can Brill Trolleys cross Hastings Street 04-14hastings Ford C model pulling a Canadian Car Brill bus  bob316 juin 2010 MT 6041 Canadian Brill Car - OTM - George - CK - 2004 SAR Road Transport Services 41-seater Canadian Brill Bus (1957) The OTC ordered 10 new CCF-Brill (Canada Car and Foundry Co) Two 1960 Canadian-Car-Brill Buses

1918 Brill, 4x4 1920 brill ambulance 1952 Brill trolleybus 1953 Brill ХМ148 Gull, 6x6

01_Christchurch_178_Brill_car 1901 Horse_drawn_tramcars,_Honolulu,_Hawaii,_1901 1903 Council_Crest_streetcar_504,_Portland,_Oregon_-_1918 1903 Sintra_tram_7_-_cropped 1904 Council_Crest_streetcar_507,_Portland,_Oregon_-_1910 1907 American Car and Foundry Company 1911 Reefers-shorty-Anheuser-Busch-Malt-Nutrine_ACF_builders_photo_pre-1911 1913 Brill18 1916 Seattle_Car_and_Foundry_Renton_Works_1916 1919 Fort_Collins_streetcar_21_at_City_Park_(1987) 1922 Norte_FCNC_boxcar 1926 Electric_City_Trolley_Museum_76 1927 ACF bus 2 1927 ACF bus 3, American Car and Foundry 1928 ACF truck 1931 ACF truck 1 1931 ACF truck 2 1931 American Car & Foundry-built R-1 number 107, being delivered at 207th Street Yard in August, 1931 1932 Gauge_(55249195) 1997-04-25 by Steve Morgan 1932 Portland_813_at_Willamette_Shore_Trolley's_Bancroft_St_terminus,_May_2010 1940 King_County_Metro_Brill_Trolley 1940 Seattle_1940_Brill_trolleybus_798_in_1990 1942 acf-eaglet_andrews-03 1946 Pw_4_bryn_mawr_Aug_80cr_-_Flickr_-_drewj1946 1946 Red_arrow_2_media 1946 SEPTA_3_arr_Upper_Darby_on_Garrett 1946 SEPTA_6_Springfield_Rd_at_Woodlawn 1946 SEPTA_88_Sharon_Hill_May76xRP 1947 Montreal_CCF-Brill_trolleybus_4042_at_the_Canadian_Railway_Museum_in_1971 1947 Philadelphia_ACF-Brill_trolleybus_215_on_route_79_in_1978,_cropped 1947 PTC_1947_ACF-Brill_trolley_bus_in_route_79_short-turn_loop,_8th_&_Wolf,_in_1968 1947 Vancouver_CCF-Brill_T44_2040_at_VTC 1947 Vancouver_CCF-Brill_T44_2040_at_VTC_II 1948 ACF_Bril_3093 1948 Chicago_ACF-Brill_trolley_buses_at_North_Station_(garage) Toronto Brill trolleybus in 1968 1948-Ad-Rolling-Stock-Road-Rail-Canadian-Car 1950's Brill 1952 Johnstown_ACF-Brill_trolleybus_734_at_Coopersdale_terminus,_1967 1952 Johnstown_trolley_coach_732_on_Main_at_Franklin_on_Nov-11-1967 1952 Johnstown_trolleybus_734_in_Coopersdale_Loop,_Nov-10-1967 1952 Restored_Montreal_Transit_comission_1952_Canadian_Car_Brill 1953 ACF Brill M56 R2 Dodge Emergenancy Crash Truck a 1953 ACF Brill M56 R2 Dodge Emergenancy Crash Truck b 1953 ACF Brill M56 R2 Dodge Emergenancy Crash Truck c ??????????????????? 1953 Dodge R-2 ACF-BRILL Truck a 1953 Dodge R-2 ACF-BRILL Truck 1953 R-2 Chassis by Dodge & ACF Brill - Oneida Body Works a 1953 R-2 Chassis by Dodge & ACF Brill - Oneida Body Works 1953 R-2 second ACF Brill Armoured Dodge 1954 Edmonton_CCF-Brill_trolleybus_202 1962 Arhs_brill_057903 1968 0623_29_ PTC_228_Snyder_Ave._@_9th_St. 7th & Snyder 1968 Philadelphia_Brill_trolley_bus_228_turning_at_23rd_&_Snyder 1969 0104_28_PST_4_Drexel_Hill_(6792816545) Acf Brill Car 01-gobron-brillie acf brill logo ACF Brill xm148 5530 ACF H-13 ACF tt160 tt175 5528 ACF XM148 Gull Amphibie Arden66 Astoria_Riverfront_Trolley_-_Old_300_at_12th_Street Astoria_Riverfront_Trolley_car_300_at_Maritime_Museum,_July_1999 Brill_(55249169) Brill_Car_with_People BRILL_GE_tram_76_Helsinki Brill-21E-Yokohama-Tram-Museum-01 Bullet Philadelphia_&_Western_Railway_206 C.C.F Ottawa_Electric_Railway_300-a Canadian Car and Foundry TD-43 Mississauga_Transit_2021-a Canadian Car and Foundry CC&F_Hurricane Christchurch_178_Brill_car Christchurch_178_Brill_car_closeup First_EMU_in_Japan_1890 Fremantle_tram_11 FSB_FGC_Cotxe_M-301_Brill- Interior_tranvía_Brill_(Lacroze_-_Tramway_Rural) Japanese_First_Tram_(01)_Scan10044 Japanese_First_Tram_(02)_Scan10044-2 N.A._CCF_T-6J_20310_G-BSBG_WFD_23.06.96R_edited-3 PA_Trolley_Museum PA_Trolley_Museum_071907_003 PA_Trolley_Museum_071907_007 Philadelphia_Tram_78 PortablePowerPlantSRM PTM080 Toronto_CCF-Brill_trolleybus_passing_PCC_streetcar_on_Oakwood_St,_1968 Tranvía_2_Tetepilco_STE_Museo Tranvía_Brill_Semi-Convertible_(truck_Radiax_11ft_wheelbase)_-_Revista_Brill_(Lacroze_-_Tramway_Rural) Tranvía_dormitorio_-_Brill_(Lacroze_-_Tramway_Rural) TTC_9142_4442_Oakwood_&_St._Clair_Toronto_1968 Two_Phila._Brill_trolleybuses_at_Tasker_&_32nd,_route_29,_in_1968 Vancouver_trolleybus_2302_eastbound_on_Robson_Street,_late_1970s

TATRA Kopřivnice Moravia Czech Republic

Tatra (company)Tatra logo

TATRA, a. s.
Type Private
Industry Automotive
Founded 1850
1897 as a car manufacturer
Founders Ignác Šustala
Headquarters Kopřivnice, Moravia, Czech Republic
Key people Ronald Adams (CEO)
Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstamm (designer)
Hans Ledwinka (designer)
Julius Mackerle (designer)
Products Automobiles, wagons,carriages, trucks
Revenue Increase CZK 7.87 billion (2008)
Owners DAF Trucks (19%)
Employees 2,000 (2011)
Parent Paccar Inc (19%)
Website tatratrucks.com

Tatra Präsident on the Kopřivnice coat of arms.

Tatra is a vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice, Czech Republic. The company was founded in 1850 as Schustala & Company, later renamed Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft when it became a wagon and carriage manufacturer. In 1897, Tatra produced the first motor car in central Europe, and one of the first cars in world, the Präsident automobile. In 1918, it changed its name to Kopřivnická vozovka a.s., and in 1919 started to use the Tatra badge named after the nearby Tatra mountains in Slovakia.

Tatra is the third oldest car maker in the world after Daimler and Peugeot. During World War II Tatra was instrumental in the production of trucks, and tank engines for the German war effort. Production of passenger cars ceased in 1999, but the company still produces a range of primarily all-wheel-drive 4×4, 6×6, 8×8, 10×10, and 12×12 trucks. The brand is mainly known as a result of the legendary Czech truck racer Karel Loprais: in 1988–2001 he won the world’s hardest off-road race Dakar Rally as many as six times with the Tatra 815. At the time of his sixth victory, he was the most successful driver in the history of the Dakar.

Early years

 Ignác Šustala, founder of the company

PresidentFirstCar

 Präsident, the first factory made car in Central and Eastern Europe in 1897
1900 NW Rennzweier 1
 Rennzweier, the first race car made by the company in 1900

Ignác Šustala (1822–1891), founder of the company in Kopřivnice, Moravia, started the production of horse-drawn vehicles in 1850. In 1891 he branched out into railroad car manufacture, naming the company Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, and employed Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstamm as technical director in 1890. After the death of Šustala, von Roeslerstamm took over running the company and in 1897 he bought a Benz automobile. Using this for inspiration, the company made its first car, the Präsident, which was exhibited in 1897 in Vienna. Orders were obtained for more cars and under the direction of engineers Hans Ledwinka and Edmund Rumpler, ten improved cars were made.

The first car to be totally designed by Ledwinka came in 1900 with the Type A with rear-mounted 2714 cc engine and top speed of 40 kilometres per hour (25 mph), 22 units were built. This was followed by the Type B with central engine in 1902 but then Ledwinka left the company to concentrate on steam engine development. He returned in 1905 and designed a completely new car, the Type S with 3308 cc 4-cylinder engine. Production was badly hit in 1912 with a 23-week strike and Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstam left the company.

Tatra concept

1924 Tatra T-11

 1924 Tatra T11

Tatra T-11 of 1924

Main article: Backbone chassis

After World War I Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau was renamed Kopřivnická vozovka, and in 1919 the name Tatra was given to the car range. Leopold Pasching took over control and in 1921 Hans Ledwinka returned again to develop the revolutionary Tatra 11. The new car, launched in 1923 featured a rigid backbone tube with swinging semi-axles at the rear giving independent suspension. The engine, front-mounted, was an air-cooled two-cylinder unit of 1056 cc.

1924 Tatra T12 convertible1926 Tatra T 12

The Tatra 11 was replaced in 1926 by the similar Tatra 12 which had four-wheel brakes.

1926 Tatra T17

1926 Tatra t17-31

A further development was the 1926 Tatra 17 with a 1,930 cc water-cooled six-cylinder engine and fully independent suspension. In 1927 the company was renamed Závody Ringhoffer-Tatra a.s..

Tatra 87-old

 Streamlined Tatras
 Tatra v570Tatra V570 1931, 1933
Tatra T77 Advertising-2 Tatra T77i
Tatra T77 1933–1938
Tatra T87 adTatra T87 1936–1950
Tatra T97 ad Tatra T97
Tatra T97 1936–1939
1961 Tatra 603 tatra-t603-02 Tatra-603-advert Tatra T603-1 tatra t603 7 Tatra T2 603 Rallye Monte Carlo Tatra 603b Tatra 603A Ambulance tatra 603 Tatra 603 b Tatra 603- Aerodynamické automobily Tatra 603 (3) Tatra 603 (2) 1969 Tatra 2 603 1968-75 Tatra 2 603 II Engine 2474 cc V8 1961 Tatra T603 1961 Tatra T603 MockUp 1961 Tatra T603 III 1961 Tatra T603 and T600 Tatraplan 1961 Tatra T603 (2) 1961 Tatra dTatra T603 1956–1975
TatraT97-frontTatra T97

Prewar streamliners

Tatra’s specialty was luxury cars of a technically advanced nature, going from aircooled flat-twins to fours and sixes, culminating (briefly) with the OHC 6 litre V12 in 1931. In the 1930s, under the supervision of Austrian engineer Hans Ledwinka, his son Erich and German engineer Erich Übelacker, and protected by high tariffs and absence of foreign assemblers, Tatra began building advanced, streamlined cars after obtaining licences from Paul Jaray, which started in 1934 with the large Tatra T77, the world’s first production aerodynamic car. The average drag coefficient of a 1:5 model of the fastback Tatra T77 was recorded as 0.2455. It featured (as did almost all subsequent big Tatras) a rear-mounted, air-cooled V8 engine, which was in technical terms very sophisticated for the time.

Tatra and the conception of the Volkswagen Beetle

Both Hitler and Porsche were influenced by the Tatras. Hitler was a keen automotive enthusiast, and had ridden in Tatras during political tours of Czechoslovakia. He had also dined numerous times with Ledwinka. After one of these dinners Hitler remarked to Porsche, “This is the car for my roads”. From 1933 onwards, Ledwinka and Porsche met regularly to discuss their designs, and Porsche admitted “Well, sometimes I looked over his shoulder and sometimes he looked over mine” while designing the Volkswagen. There is no doubt that the Beetle bore a striking resemblance to the Tatras, particularly the Tatra V570. The Tatra T97 of 1936 had a rear-located, rear-wheel drive, air-cooled four-cylinder boxer engine accommodating four passengers and providing luggage storage under the front bonnet and behind the rear seat. Another similarity between this Tatra and the Beetle is the central structural tunnel. Tatra launched a lawsuit, but this was stopped when Germany invaded Czechoslovakia. At the same time, Tatra was forced to stop producing the T97. The matter was re-opened after World War II and in 1961 Volkswagen paid Ringhoffer-Tatra 3,000,000 Deutsche Marks in an out of court settlement.

War years

After the 1938 invasion of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany, Tatras continued in production, largely because Germans liked the cars. Many German officers met their deaths driving heavy, rear-engined Tatras faster around corners than they could handle. At the time, as an anecdote, Tatra became known as the ‘Czech Secret Weapon’ for the scores of officers who died behind the wheel; at one point official orders were issued forbidding German officers from driving Tatras.

1961 Tatra T600 TatraplanTatra T600 Tatraplan

Postwar management

The factory was nationalised in 1945 almost three years before the Communist Party came to power and renamed to Tatra Národní Podnik. Although production of prewar models continued, a new model, the Tatra T600 Tatraplan was designed—the name celebrating the new Communist planned economy and the aeroplane inspiration (Colloq. Czech: aeroplán). It went into production in 1948. In 1951, the state planning department decided that the Tatraplan should henceforth be built at the Skoda plant in Mladá Boleslav, leaving Tatra free to concentrate on trucks, buses and railway equipment.

The Tatra T603

Main article: Tatra 603
1961 Tatra T603 (2)Tatra T603

A mere three years later, amid much dissatisfaction among officialdom about the poor-quality official cars imported from Russia, Tatra was again given permission to produce a luxury car, the Tatra T603. A fair successor to the prewar cars, it was also driven by a rear-mounted, air-cooled V8 and had the company’s trademark aerodynamic styling. Uniquely, the Tatra T603 featured three headlights, and the first prototypes had a central rear stabilising fin, though this was lost for production. It was also fitted with almost American-style thick chrome bumpers with bullets (a.k.a. Dagmar bumpers). Almost entirely hand-built, Tatras were not for everybody; normal citizens could not buy them. They were reserved for Party elites, communist officials, factory presidents and other notables, as well as being exported to most other communist nations as official cars. Even Cuban president Fidel Castro had a white Tatra T603, custom-fitted with air conditioning.

Tatra T603s were built until 1975, a twenty-year era as one of Communism’s finest cars. Numerous improvements were made over this time, but not all the new cars built in this period were actually new but rather reconditioned. When a new Tatra replaced an old, the old vehicle was returned to the factory. There, it was upgraded to modern condition, refinished, dubbed new and sent out again as a putatively new vehicle to replace another older Tatra. This makes it hard to trace the history of surviving vehicles.

1976 Tatra 613 2ITatra T613 (1976)

1970s makeover—the Tatra T613

Main article: Tatra T613

In 1968 a replacement was developed; the Tatra T613. It was styled by the Italian styling house of Vignale and was a more modern, less rounded shape. It was not until 1973 that the car went into production, and volume production did not begin until the following year. Although the layout remained the same, the body was all new, as was the engine, being equipped with four overhead camshafts, a higher capacity motor (3495 cc) and an output close to 165 bhp (123 kW; 167 PS). In addition, it had been moved somewhat forward for improved balance. These cars were built in five series and went through several modifications until production ceased in 1996. It is a tribute to Vignale’s styling that they did not look dated until rather late in that time period. Over 11,000 cars were built, and sales slowed to a trickle of just a few dozen per year towards the end of production as Tatras began to seem more and more outdated.

1996 Tatra 700 sTatra 700 in museum

1990s Tatra T700

Main article: Tatra T700

The Tatra T700 was a large luxury car released in 1996 by Tatra, essentially a heavily restyled version of the Tatra T613 model it replaced. The T700 was offered as both a saloon and coupé with either a 3.5 or 4.4 litre 90° air-cooled V8 petrol engine. The model was neither successful nor produced in large numbers, and production halted in 1999. The T700 was the last passenger car made by Tatra, which then concentrated on commercial vehicles.

1990s Tatra MTX V8

The Tatra MTX V8 was the fastest Czech car of all time. Production started in 1991 in Kopřivnice. Under the hood lies a Tatra 623 V8 motor, injection version making 225 kW at 6500 rpm. 0–100 km/h will take 5.6 seconds. Maximum speed is 265 km/h. It is the work of legendary Czech designer Václav Král. Only 5 units of this car were ever produced.

Tatra MTXTatra MTX V8

Tatra in the West

Unlike most Soviet Bloc manufacturers, Tatra enjoyed modest sales success in Western Europe, where its truck line had a reputation for simplicity and durability. No effort was made to distribute Tatra’s unusual automobiles in the West, though a small number did find their way to collectors in Western Europe, and even to the United States. The fall of the Soviet Union did not help Tatra’s fortunes, as the company made no inroads in Western Europe’s already crowded automobile market. Worse, the introduction of competitors, such as Mercedes-Benz and Peugeot into the Czech Republic, further eroded Tatra’s sales. Production of the T700 ended in 1999.

Among western collectors, Tatra automobiles remain largely unknown. The largest display of Tatra vehicles in the United States is at the Lane Motor Museum in Nashville, Tennessee. The museum’s eclectic automobile collection contains 12 Tatra models, including a T-613 ambulance. When talk show host and car collector Jay Leno visited the museum, the founder picked him up in a 1947 Tatra T-87, prompting Leno to purchase one himself. Leno soon become an advocate for the brand. In the United States, the few Tatra clubs are closely associated with Citroen clubs, as many Tatra collectors also collect Citroën DS series cars.

A Tatra T87 is on exhibit at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

Trucks

1898–1914 Beginning

1898 Tatra NW 1st lorry2The replica of the first truckmanufactured at Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau

The first truck manufactured at Kopřivnice in 1898 was a flatbed with 2 liquid-cooled side-by-side-mounted two-cylinder Benz engines each at 2.7 L capacity with total power output of 8.8 kW (12 hp) placed after the rear axle and cargo capacity of 2.5 ton. The unique feature of the engines setup was that the engines could be operated sequentially depending on the load requirements. No 1 engine was started via a cranking handle and had a flywheel attached and No 2 engine without the flywheel was connected via a gear clutch and started by the first engine already running. The second truck manufactured was once again a flatbed R type of 2.5 ton cargo capacity built in 1909. Powered by liquid-cooled petrol four-cylinder engine of 4.1 L capacity and power output of 18.4 kW (25 hp) with the engine placed above front axle which is the conventional design to this day. The vehicle featured solid rubber tyres and semi-elliptic leaf spring suspension. In 1910 Tatra manufactured its first bus the Omnibus type SO with total production of 5 units.

1914–1922 Serial Production

The first true serial truck production at Tatra was instigated by the beginning of World War I. In the year 1914 there were only 2 trucks made, type T 14/40 HP, however by the 1915 end the production jumped to the total of 105 TL-2 units and the following year 1916 the numbers rose to total of 196 TL-2 and 30 TL-4 truthe time peaked in 1917 with 19 TL-2 and 303 TL-4 models, after that production declined and the similar amount of vehicles of one type manufactured in a year was not achieved or surpassed until 1936 with the T 27 model. Technically models TL-2 and TL-4 were almost identically designed, in fact TL-4 evolved from TL-2 where both had liquid-cooled OHC engines of max power output of 25.7 kW (35 PS; 34 hp). The TL-2 had a GVM 2,100 kg (4,630 lb) and 4,000 kg (8,818 lb) GCM, TL-4 had 2,700 kg (5,952 lb) GVM and 6,700 kg (14,771 lb) GCM respectively. Both types remained in production in small series until 1927. The TL-4 is considered the first truck to come out of NW (Nesselsdorfer Wagen-bau) to carry the name Tatra in 1919.

1923–1938 Tatra Concept

1937 Tatra 93, klimpercentage tot 55%Tatra T93

1932 Marxzell-TatraTatra, year 1932, 1155 ccm, 20 PS

After the introduction of Tatra 11 and Tatra 12 cars with their distinctive backbone tube design and swing axles, Tatra introduced its first truck on the same basis, the light utility Tatra 13 powered by 2-cylinder air-cooled petrol engine with power output 8.8 kW (12 hp) and 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) cargo capacity. Further models followed and in 1926 T23 and T24 were introduced nicknamed “bulldogs” which could be considered Tatra’s precursors to COE designed trucks. Improved version T13 introduced as T26 with more powerful 4-cylinder flat air-cooled engine and in six-wheeler chassis created capable offroad light utility truck which later evolved into T72 model which was heavily used by Czechoslovakian army at the time and was also manufactured under license by the French company Lorraine-Dietrich. In 1933 Tatra build limited series of T25 heavy artillery hauler with 4 and 6-cylinder petrol engines. The most popular Tatra truck before World War II was type T27 powered by 4-cylinder petrol or diesel engines and remained in production for nearly 17 years (1930–1947) with total production of 7,620 units, by adding an extra axle to the rear the type T28 was created however, it was not successful and only limited production resulted in a mainly bus chassis. In the period from 1931 to 1938 Tatra also built a small utility truck based on the chassis from T30 named Tatra T43 which remain popular with small business owners. T72 model successfully continued the line to T82 built mainly for military in cargo and personnel transport between 1935 and 1938 and further to T92 and T93 built for Romanian army from 1938 to 1941 which were identical except T93 had also a driven front axle.

1939–1956 The Legend Born

Main article: Tatra T111
1952 Tatra T111 Vojenská TatraTatra T111

Following the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia the production at Kopřivnice was annexed by the Germans for the supply of trucks needed by the Wehrmacht. Apart from the existing line up of T27, T92/92 a new heavy truck the T81 commenced production featuring liquid-cooled 12.5 L V8 diesel engine with a power output of 118 kW (160 PS; 158 hp), in 6×4 axle configuration. This vehicle evolved in 1942 into the legendary T111 which continued in production until 1962, with the total of 33,690 units made. The T111 also featured Tatra’s first air-cooled diesel engine, a massive V12 originally designed for the armoured SdKfz 234 Puma. In the latter stages of World War II Tatra was instrumental in the development of air-cooled diesel engines for German tanks. In late 1944 General Heinz Guderian ordered that production of the Type 38(t) Hetzer tank be modified to incorporate a Tatra Type 928 V-8 air-cooled diesel engine, though this order was delayed so production could continue uninterrupted. After the war the T111 contributed heavily to the rebuilding effort in Central and Eastern Europe and a memorial was built at Magadan, Siberia for its exploits in the Far East of the USSR.

1957–1982 Eastern Block Finest

Main articles: Tatra T138, Tatra T148 and Tatra T813
2002 Tatra T 813 8x8 ArmeeTatra T813 ‘KOLOS’

The decision to replace the reliable but ageing T111 was taken in 1952 based on central planning economy of socialist government where directive was made to Tatra N.P. that it should concentrate on the manufacture of 7 to 10 ton capacity commercial vehicles and in 1956 first T137 and T138 trucks were exhibited at Czechoslovak machinery expo in Brno. The production of T111 however continued alongside T138 series until 1962. T138 itself continued in production until 1969 when it was replaced by improved T148 where designers main target was increase in power output, reliability and product improvements.

In 1967 Tatra began production of one of its famous off-road trucks the T813 using its modular construction technology; the model incorporated the latest trends in commercial vehicle design such as cab-over-engine (COE) and wide profile tyres. It featured a new V12 engine and all military versions had a central tyre inflation/deflation system as standard equipment. The T813 was designed to tow loads up to 100 ton GCM and it was a familiar sight on the roads in Czechoslovakia hauling large often over-sized loads.

1982–2008 T815 and Beyond

Main article: Tatra T815
Tatra 1021Tatra 815, multiple winner of Dakar Rally
Tatra TerrNo1Tatra TerrNo1

Tatra T815 was designed for extreme off-road conditions, and its road versions are derived from the off-road original. After the 53-rd session of CMEA council a directive that Tatra N.P. would be a sole supplier of off road commercial vehicles of <12 ton capacity for Eastern Block countries, led to a modernization of company and its production models. Following extensive testing at different sites, including Siberia, the type T815 was introduced in 1982 and production started in 1983. Comparing to previous models T815 was made of 142 main assembly components as opposed to 219 main assembly components of its predecessor. The engines power output was increased up to 45% and a new COE tilt-able cabin was introduced. Modular engine designed resulted in V8, V10 and V12 engines with or without turbocharger.

T815 was upgraded to T815-2 with minor cosmetic changes and improved ergonomics and safety – the biggest change was the engine emissions accordance the “Euro 0” limits and to Euro1 limits in 1993 (turbocharged V8 engine only since this time for the full legislation. As alternative was offered also the Deutz 513 aircooled V8 engine). The next facelift in 1997 brought in the new exterior design cabin TerrNo1 with all new interior with better sound and heat insulation however the cabin design is based on the original so it can actually be retrofitted to all T815 built since 1993. In 2000 the TerrNo1 cabin is face-lifted again and for the first time there is an option to fit liquid-cooled engines.

The TerrNo1 model introduced the “KingFrame” rear axles suspension. Another evolution step T3B engine came with the Euro2 emission limit. Following further improvements in 2003 T815 gets new Euro3 T3C V8 engine mated to all new 14-speed range+split gearbox as well as option for engines from other suppliers most notably CAT, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Deutz and MTU with its “monster” 22.5 Litre V12 and up to 610 kW (829 PS; 818 hp) power output! In September 2006 Tatra introduced its Euro4 compliant turbocharged T3D engine with the SCR exhaust technology and in February 2008 the worlds’s first Euro 5 compliant aircooled diesel engine based on T3D engine

The evolution of Tatra T815 would not be complete without mentioning its derivates T816 (T815-6) Armax and Force series which had its origin back in 1993 when Tatra participated in the tender process for heavy duty off road trucks for UAE army and after two years of bidding the company was successful in securing a contract worth $180 million.

2005 Tatra JamalTatra 163 Jamal

The resulting model became known as T816 “LIWA” (Arabic for “desert”). The latest model for the military customers is T817(T815-7) marketed as high-mobility heavy-duty tactical truck with low profile cabin for C-130 Hercules transportability for NATO member countries armed services.

Tatra also went back to its roots and decided to produce once again a bonneted CBE heavy duty off road truck to continue the successful line started with T111, so in 1999 the T163 Jamal was put into full production after first prototypes were built in 1997 and followed extensive testing including at Siberia, as a heavy duty dump truck, once again based on proven backbone tube chassis construction with the cabin designed by Jiří Španihel TheT163 6×6 is used mainly on construction sites and in quarries.

2008 TatraTatra T-810 for Czech Army

Tatra was also a successful bidder for the Czech Army replacement of aging Praga V3S (with the Tatra I6 aircooled engine – one half of the T111 V12 one) medium off-road truck with T810 which technically is not a “genuine” Tatra as its origin goes back to when former Czech company ROSS, in partnership with Renault Trucks, obtained a contract to supply the army with medium size off-road trucks, the “ROSS R210 6×6”. The company however went bankrupt in 1998 and Tatra bought full rights to the design, then modernized and reintroduced it as T810 while continuing cooperation with Renault. Under the deal Renault supplies the cabins and the engines and Praga supplied axles and transmissions for the prototypes; however the whole project has been dogged by controversy due to the way Tatra had obtained the contract, its relationship with supplier Praga and the subsequent court case brought on against it by Praga. The serial T810 vehicles are than finally equipped with the new design Tatra rigid axles with the WABCO disc brakes, with the ZF Ecolite transmission and Steyr drop box.

Recent years

With orders and production almost at a standstill after the fall of Communism, Tatra decided to stop building the T613 automobile in 1996. An attempt was made to produce an updated version, the Tatra T700; it was largely based on the old car, with updated body panels and detail. Sales were poor, and having in its history produced a total of 90,000 cars, Tatra finally abandoned automobile manufacturing in 1999 in order to concentrate on trucks.

The United States Terex Corporation acquired the majority ownership (71%) of Tatra in late 2003. As of late 2006, however, majority ownership (80.51%) lies in the hands of Tatra Holdings s.r.o., an international consortium comprising Vectra Limited of UK, Sam Eyde of the U.S., KBC Private Equity of Belgium, Meadowhill s.r.o. of Czech Republic and Ronald Adams of the U.S. On 15 December 2006, a contract was signed between Tatra and the Czech Republic for 556 trucks at roughly $130 million, or 2.6 billion Czech crowns. This contract was signed in lieu of replacement of older military vehicles.

In April 2007, Tatra announced that it had already matched its production in 2006 and produced 1,600 vehicles. In 2007, Tatra plans to produce between 2,300 and 2,500 vehicles. In contrast to previous years, Tatra has increased employment by the hundreds within the past two quarters, has reversed previous errors, and is growing again. Although there have been many struggles in the past decade, the company still remains one of the great prides of Czech industry, and has proven to be a valuable asset to international engineering, with its unique assembly and production methods and designs.

In August 2011, DAF Trucks announced it had built up a 19% stake in Tatra, which will use DAF cabs and PACCAR engines. DAF dealers will sell Tatra off-road trucks.

In March 2013, Tatra was sold in auction for 176 mil CZK (ca. 7 mil euro) due to its debts. Production continues. In 2013 Tatra sold 722 trucks, the most since 2008. Approximately two-thirds of units were exported.

Current truck models

2002 Tatra T810Tatra 810

Tatra 815-7Tatra 815-7

2002 Tatra T815Terrn°1

2008 Tatra JamalTatra 163 Jamal

India

Tatra had a truck-building joint venture in India called Tatra Vectra Motors Ltd, formerly called Tatra Trucks India Ltd. It is a joint venture between Tatra and the Vectra Group from England. In 2009, Vectra announced a new joint venture with Russia’s Kamaz to form Kamaz Vectra Motors Limited to manufacture Kamaz trucks in India., This joint venture replaced the former Tatra Vectra venture. The manufacturing plant is located in Hosur, Tamil Nadu, around 40 km from Bangalore. The fully integrated manufacturing facility includes an engine assembly and testing plant, a cabin welding shop, a frame fabrication shop and a test track. Most Tatra trucks for sale in India are manufactured in collaboration with Bharat Earth Movers Limited.

In 2002, the company received a 1,070 trucks order from the Government of India Tatra’s growing involvement in India’s defense industry is often cited as an example of growing relations between Czech Republic and India.

In 2010 the Indian Government ordered 788 vehicles from public sector defence equipment manufacturer BEML. The order comprises supply of 498 8×8 vehicles, 278 6×6 vehicles without winch and 12 6×6 with winch.

Tatra JalandharTatra Recovery Vehicle of the Indian Army

Tatra truckA Tatra Truck at India Gate, New Delhi on India Republic Day on 26 January

Tatra Smerch 30MM hemant rawatIndian Army Tatra truck mounting BM-30 Smerch.

Israel

2003 Tatra SPYDERSPYDER anti-aircraft missile system developed by the Israeli company Rafael, fitted atop a TATRA truck.

Reportedly following one of Israeli-Arab conflicts, Israel tested some Tatras captured from neighbour Arab armed forces (Egypt). Israel Defense Forces‘s command was apparently quite impressed with their performance, independence of cooling by air only and their capabilities as military trucks in desert and in wars for long-range raiding operations in such terrains etc., and felt necessary to include these trucks in their arsenal. As direct purchase from oppositely aligned Czechoslovakia was impossible, the lore has it that Israelis used some well-paid services of Nicolae Ceauşescu‘sRomania in cooperation with an American Company called ATC (American Truck Company) to purchase sand-coloured and military trucks, desert-equipped Tatra trucks too, leading to jokes along the line “Romania has a new desert”. Current photos of various Israeli weapon systems, e.g.,SPYDER slated, e.g., for India, show new Tatras as the carrier vehicles.

A number of Tatra trucks entered service in the Israeli Army also in many army sectors and as for example anti aircraft missile launcher, with the brand mark of “American Truck Company”, under which Tatras were sold on U.S. market and exported to Israel.

Future

In February 2008, Tatra announced the world’s first (and so far the only) air-cooled engine meeting the new Euro 5 standards. The press release claims 7.5 times lower emissions of particulates and 3.5 times lower emission of nitrogen oxides compared to the previous engine. Further, production of air-cooled engines should significantly reduce the production of greenhouse gasses due to the absence of liquid cooling systems. All Tatra vehicles from February 2008 onwards should use the new engine.
A month later, Tatra CEO Ronald Adams told The Prague Post Tatra could return to producing passenger cars, saying: ‘We would not come back to compete with the large automobile mass producers such as Volkswagen, Škoda, Toyota etc. But we might come back with a replica of the old Tatra cars using a current undercarriage and driveline from one of the major automotive producers.’ The company has launched a feasibility study, hoping to produce one thousand replicas of their legendary Tatraplan and 603 cars in 2010.

In July 2008 pictures of a fuel cell concept car designed by Mike Jelinek, the Tatra 903, were shown.

Navistar & Tatra

2002 Tatra-T815 780R59Tatra T815-7 (T817)

Tatra and Navistar Defence introduced at Eurosatory Exposition in Paris, France (Jun 14-18 2010) the results of their strategic alliance since October 2009, the models ATX6 (universal container carrier) and ATX8 (troop carrier)[48] The vehicles appear to be based on Tatra T815-7 (T817) 6×6, 8×8 chassis(see pics here),[49] suspension and cabins while using Navistar engines and other componets.[50] Under the deal Navistar Defence and Tatra A.S. will market the vehicles in North America, which includes sales to the United States military and foreign military sales financed by the United States government. Tatra will source parts and components through Navistar’s global parts and support network for Tatra trucks delivered in markets outside of North America as well as market Navistar-Tatra vehicles around the world in their primary markets.

Tatra aircraft[edit]

Tatra T.131, a licence-built Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann.

Tatra T.101 two-seater touring aircraft

Trucks

1959 Tatra T805 hasiči

 “baby” Tatra T805
2002 T813 army2

Buses

1928 Tatra typ 24

1928 Tatra typ 24 Tatra 24

Trolleybuses

Tatra T86 Tatra T86a

  • Tatra T86 (1936–38)

Ostrava, Tatra T 400

Ostrava, Tatra T 400 Tatra T400 (1949–55)

  • Tatra T 401 - T 402 - T 403
  • Tatra T401 (1958; only 1 built)

From now only Pictures:

1897 PresidentFirstCar tatra-phoenix t158-8p5s46 Tatra 817-2 8x8 Tatra 817-2 6x6 TATRA 816 8X8 tatra-t603-02 TatraT97-front TATRAg Tatra-603-advert Tatra-500hb tatra-27-11 Tatra v570 Tatra truck Tatra TerrNo1 Tatra T613 a Tatra t613 07 Tatra T603MB Tatra T603-1 tatra t603 7 Tatra T600 Tatraplan Tatra T600 Tatraplan met carrosserie van Sodowka, geschonken aan Stalin voor zijn 70ste verjaardag Tatra T97 Tatra T97 ad Tatra T87 Tatra T87 rear Tatra T87 ad Tatra T87 (2) Tatra T86a Tatra T86 Tatra T77i Tatra T77 Advertising-2 Tatra T75 Tatra T72 by kitchener.lord Tatra T72 bus Tatra T57B Tatra T43 Tatra t43 09 Tatra t43 02 Tatra T-27a bus Tatra T26-30 Tatra T3 Plzen Tatra T2 603 Rallye Monte Carlo TATRA T 815 Tatra T 603 MB Bus Tatra T 600 Monte Carlo Tatra T 600 Kabriolet1 TATRA T 500 HB Tatra T 401 - T 402 - T 403 Tatra Superbe Tatra Sport Tatra Smerch 30MM hemant rawat Tatra Ro80 Tatra MTX Tatra Minibus T 603 MB Tatra logo Tatra Jalandhar Tatra Folder TATRA DU RALLYE PARIS-DAKARb tatra dakar Tatra Bus Zakopane EOS 200 coach in Kraków, Poland. Tatra bus Val AVD 6x6 Tatra Brothers & Heart Tatra boekje tatra ballast trucktor Tatra A.S 1923- Tjechië Tatra 1021 Tatra 1011 tatra 903 Tatra 815-7 TATRA 815-2 ZO R45 12.400 4x4.1 Tatra 815 TATRA 815 Tankauto Tatra 815 militaire vrachtwagen, gebasseerd op Tatra 813 Tatra 815 low profile crane 6 6. Prague. Prague TATRA 815 320 Tatra 815 (2) Tatra 813-815 R Tatra 603b Tatra 603A Ambulance tatra 603 Tatra 603 b Tatra 603- Aerodynamické automobily Tatra 603 (3) Tatra 603 (2) tatra 600 w2 Tatra 600 Tatraplan- Samochody aerody Tatra 600 Kabriolet Sodomka Tatra 500hb 0 Tatra 500 HB TATRA 148 tatra 141 pub Tatra 114a Tatra 114 Tatra 111 Tatra 102 Tatra 101.2