AMBULANCES + HEARSES part XVII on Alphabet beginning with T till U

AMBULANCES + HEARSES part XVII on Alphabet beginning with T till U

Talbot Ambulances and Hearses

TAM 110 Ambulance Trucks

TATA Ambulances and Hearses

TATRA Krankenwagen – Ambulance and Hearse

TAZ Trnavské automobilové závody (Škoda) Ambulances and Hearses

TEMPO – Tempo Matador – DKW – Hansa – Tempo Hanomag  Ambulances, Krankenwagen, Hearses, Leichenwagen, Bestattungsvehicle e.s.o.

TESLA Hearses

201007311732000
201007311712000

My beautiful picture

Toyota Ambulances and Hearses

1924 Trojan RAF ambulance

1954 Trojan Perkins Diesel Ambulance

Trojan Ambulances

That were the T’s

up to the U

SUBARU

Subaru Corporation

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915

In 1932 it became: Nakajima Aircraft Company

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Coordinates: 36°17′51″N 139°22′05″E / 36.2975685°N 139.368058°E / 36.2975685; 139.368058

Subaru Corporation
Native name
スバル
Industry Automobile manufacturing
Founded July 15, 1953; 63 years ago (1953-07-15)
Founder Kenji Kita
Chikuhei Nakajima(predecessor)
Headquarters Ebisu, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Yasuyuki Yoshinaga, (Representative Director, President and CEO)
Jun Kondo, (Representative Director & Vice-President)
Products Automobiles
Divisions Subaru Tecnica International
Website Subaru Global

Subaru (スバル?) (/ˈsbər/ or /sᵿbˈɑːr/;Japanese pronunciation: [sɯ.ba.ɾɯ]) is the automobile manufacturing division of JapanesetransportationconglomerateSubaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI)), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.

Subaru cars are known for the use of a boxer engine layout in most vehicles above 1500 cc. Most Subaru models have used the Symmetrical All Wheel Drive drive-train layout since 1972. The flat/boxer engine and all-wheel-drive became standard equipment for mid-size and smaller cars in most international markets by 1996, and is now standard in most North American market Subaru vehicles. The lone exception is the BRZ, introduced in 2012, which uses the boxer engine but instead uses a rear-wheel-drive structure. Subaru also offers turbocharged versions of their passenger cars, such as the Impreza WRX and the Legacy 2.5GT. The 2.0XT trims of the Outback and Forester also include a turbocharged engine.

In Western markets, the Subaru brand has traditionally been popular among a dedicated core of buyers. Marketing is targeted towards specific niches centered on those who desire the company’s signature drive train engine, all-wheel/rough-road capabilities or affordable sports car markets.

Subaru is the Japanese name for the Pleiades star cluster M45, or “The Seven Sisters” (one of whom tradition says is invisible – hence only six stars in the Subaru logo), which in turn inspires the logo and alludes to the companies that merged to create FHI.

All pictures from my collection: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214689494617313&set=ms.c.eJxVWFkOHTEIu1GFwWz3v1jFU9VxfubDGpawxQTmYM1yWehA~%3BME~%3BJJzosHRBvBAm~%3BzgwaU7~_RzKiY3zxH8EOuWv7~%3BeOZMTb16TGU7c58UpNdm~%3BtZ5yy60f0g0WjRA2ea54r1ntnZVM1Rm~%3BNpRjtnvUyR9PXCg9R6STSmbVmeGo1s82iRCrP1DtUzXK~%3BPQxo901JiaM3tik9zBNDh~%3Bmgm14eP5llve3LR4xpDtO~%3BF~%3BslFj82nuayrDLGPrVmfz5~%3BcInZyRKroBhuVKluXnKbX7MA1zoRvGOTsju408dmBTkrecXWxw1Ipz077ouGcAlAS~_dmorSfvjLNeivhsmER~_J4JrWmNRa77fKbjcvvRIfHx7uwUpOtYyJBfJS5FU5kb49kBsua15Sr5yPWddusnCstO1EtJsw7VP7wyaQTq4SUHQidp4aiydG66VkO0b1L7IixI1p0XbSK2EHG6Qzz~_Xjkcqa6M0O7W10S~%3BiG63W6zSXetjkxtMXfZpHzzWopanmCV8~_ldDpG6PI~_HWrRmyGS6j12Vq6at6z9UR1u5Z8~%3BllfSj1j7GxlPv~_cVOs~%3B5FJn3cBm2Trr7KQ0hrtmu659YVcPpVJIX~_rZx1GrXYk53VzVgzvFPlJ~_9amanbapU2K8bBOq5~_ZY6pSYyBtbqjmM~_9T8xE31UA~_vuzNVKs~_fUc3l3DI~_yE0z9bmNW4~_tq59KtXW1UZqvmdOcj1T7Vqk~%3B18jV2u8ZbfGc4mqstMJvuG31qlSelNbG5s06nZlXLW16M1rWNrQ2rA9RKdRsa3f~%3BaqoZirRv60xYd27r2dejtlM1~_~%3Bkj1euRtTaPrTg9vQ8y25rBq~_4dlCK~%3Ba0bnKrd2tCu3UDsPt7FJ33qYg9tOj0odknr2OnbR6k~_fZrmtnLUB~_MOI0nchebc4pkBFEmGm3MbS0qz5IGsm~%3Be6We4xDpX6UzVRzRxukxk6qzVZ8TuPCYSp19zRVc88aqNanw1D6z1oaHp9n0iBxdttsg9Sq224b1B~%3BY3YNmihzXkuqNqkoC1H82zB0P0uZSCQ7vNi~_15QPzGkEugsriHHHW1WeQsDCVIsKU29w3LR4P02HhKlVMC~_0LVIRFKgOpWYvWaLSvKa9zNA9RdtoDi9VTTITx4TZDGPUUbpXGEp~%3B9ajW1Vn3QpvPQr02t1cNYW1tlywwCFuLPEuFPxMgBTHIRPy2lNU9OwrSiyG6Y5pTpCdOZycyG8l5nMmGjHLKOeGt8WDhEPSxP4GGebQs8J~_1KKKN2NhpwtT6nOfEgDWhUObOARpVruNVAkfPnOelyb09TpBuQvcCPMOLpr7S7G7RT8pYtjwch4JrBxABORdwvGA9yUsIPPSMDrvtghl14VCom4csHWbhsdp5EI3R3mPJLs0qxAN1zPSv6~_lmR32ap0bgMxqwidv~_o9cuXssroHDCeaAwX1Lmasw1ljF5mACnxKViCOkULtlCm5~_V15SO26qKqrMmLtchSKXYgdWJXR6M0y5UDpM6NupM~_~%3BV6TgZJ92WsHt098SBsTykC87be2SjQ67Ee9BWHEUVRBEo3R3pmrw51QZIBV6~_O8ApeonjV3Pft6t~_tdQLvKgH~%3B~%3BhB1XUM52Hh8i~%3B9zs9ZGOOyR9ZLYEuttnHwZy641k5zgJfHX63ZobprfelV3Y6rtNIUJnVHhZhq3sjMuI1aiGz9GUx~%3BotW5A75ZAMnS0R19ruL3Krp0iFzwVIThFVGSF3yiH3Eeu8FZay~_QZtO3SXyWDtBFQqNyKF~%3BwQ3Ikp26vgt66WRzztF6ynyXgtauE3knaL1FBmF6FGEGTHC6yJ~%3BS6RGIzMiJuSfCwaBF~_mbkTJJ3EGdoockXTh2tGXzYUQdcQ8aipDJkB6MvqencNVTG9Qtm2uGxs7zT1N38~_iupE7I6GOHdPV5Z0mJ6r06ZisjijHPc1IQ1I1DsT5EMOWujGElUytq8lcNUglXZnwqYcPBFoYfS4JjisQ2W7hoHLvn4kEGXHxSNFoeh1bEkfr~_U9YXV42G1a8WJfLWtxwLl~_AN1XTZknj3ZOocO6TzmWNgROpLV11Lmksv34tQJmVGMTu79OWE0R058rpL78os4TasuFVYz0UflGl8Mu6tR7JzUlnJ5xU0o0vuL2adP~%3BJGxLonvdRo3JNIQU~%3BhdR5CkTFkyQ1LXjeb2joOWcohGfdWOjIlyDYUpMIZZXl3vPxzDxMQ9p429nv~%3B~_v65~%3Bbn0tZDN7Brp5RybXQonYbNQIzc~_~_~_6PDX0tBHda3hjZy7uWHyneA5nEZ7LQJh3Hyey26b~%3BRouQc.bps.a.10214689172449259.1073742084.1422084541&type=3&theater

History

Former logo on a Subaru 360 showing six stars in an arrangement similar to the Pleiades open star cluster

Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI) and Subaru’s first cars

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915, headed by Chikuhei Nakajima. In 1932, the company was reorganized as Nakajima Aircraft Company, Ltd and soon became a major manufacturer of aircraft for Japan during World War II. At the end of the Second World War Nakajima Aircraft was again reorganized, this time as Fuji Sangyo Co, Ltd. In 1946, the company created the

Fuji Rabbitmotor scooter with spare aircraft parts from the war. In 1950, Fuji Sangyo was divided into 12 smaller corporations according to the Japanese Government’s 1950 Corporate Credit Rearrangement Act, anti-zaibatsu legislation. Between 1953 and 1955, four of these corporations and a newly formed corporation decided to merge to form Fuji Heavy Industries. These companies were: Fuji Kogyo, a scooter manufacturer; coachbuildersFuji Jidosha; engine manufacturers Omiya Fuji Kogyo; chassis builders Utsunomiya Sharyo and the Tokyo Fuji Dangyotrading company.

1955 Subaru 1500, a.k.a. the P-1

Kenji Kita, CEO of Fuji Heavy Industries at the time, wanted the new company to be involved in car manufacturing and soon began plans for building a car with the development code-name P-1. Mr. Kita canvassed the company for suggestions about naming the P1, but none of the proposals was appealing enough. In the end he gave the company a Japanese name that he had “been cherishing in his heart”: Subaru, which is the name of the Pleiades star cluster in Japanese. The first Subaru car was named the Subaru 1500. Only twenty were manufactured owing to multiple supply issues. Subsequently, the company designed and manufactured dozens of vehicles including the 1500 (1954), the tiny air-cooled 360 (1958), the Sambar (1961), and the 1000 (which saw the introduction of the Subaru boxer engine in 1965).

 1958 Subaru 360

Later partnerships

Nissan acquired a 20.4% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, Subaru’s parent company, in 1968 during a period of government-ordered merging of the Japanese auto industry in order to improve competitiveness under the administration of Prime MinisterEisaku Sato. Nissan would utilize FHI’s bus manufacturing capability and expertise for their Nissan Diesel line of buses. In turn many Subaru vehicles, even today, use parts from the Nissan manufacturing keiretsu. The Subaru automatic transmission, known as the 4EAT, is also used in the first generation Nissan Pathfinder. While under this arrangement with Nissan, Subaru introduced the R-2 (1969), the Rex and the Leone (1971), the BRAT (1978), Alcyone (1985), the Legacy (1989), the Impreza (1993) (and its WRX subtype), and the Forester (1997).

Upon Nissan’s acquisition by Renault, its stake in FHI was sold to General Motors in 1999. Troy Clarke, of General Motors served as representative to Fuji Heavy Industries on their corporate board. During that time, Subaru introduced the Baja (2003), and the Tribeca (2005). The Subaru Forester was sold as a Chevrolet Forester in India in exchange for the Opel Zafira being sold as a Subaru Traviq in Japan. Also, the Chevrolet Borrego concept was presented in 2002, a crossover coupe/pickup truck being derived from the Japanese-market Legacy Turbo platform. During the brief General Motors period, a “badge engineeredImpreza was sold in the United States as the Saab 9-2X. An SUV (Subaru Tribeca / Saab 9-6X) was also planned but the Saab version did not proceed, and styling was recycled in the 2008 Tribeca refresh.

GM liquidated their holdings in FHI in 2005. Nearly all Saab-Subaru joint projects were dropped at that time, other than Subaru supplying parts for the Saab 9-2x.Toyota Motors bought a little over 40% of GM’s former FHI stock, amounting to 8.7% of FHI. (The rest of GM’s shares went to a Fuji stock buy-back program.) Toyota and Subaru have since collaborated on a number of projects, among them building the Toyota Camry in Subaru’s Indiana U.S. plant beginning in April 2007. Subaru introduced the Exiga in 2008.

Toyota increased their share of FHI to 16.5% in July 2008. Subsequently, Toyota and Subaru jointly developed the Toyota 86, first sold in January 2012 as the Subaru BRZ and by Toyota under various names.

Marketing efforts

Some of the advertising slogans Subaru has used in the past include “Inexpensive, and built to stay that way” (USA 1970s – early 1980s), “The World’s Favourite Four Wheel Drive” (in the UK), “Plus on y pense, plus on a le gout de la conduire” (Literally: “The more one thinks, the more one has the taste (or desire, impulse, drive) of driving it”) in French Quebec, “We built our reputation by building a better car”, “What to Drive”, “The Beauty of All-Wheel Drive”, “Driven by What’s Inside”, “Think, Feel, Drive”, “Love. It’s what makes Subaru, a Subaru” (USA early 2010s) and currently “Confidence in Motion” in North America, “All 4 The Driver” in Australia, and “Uncommon Engineering, Uncommon Stability, Uncommon Roadholding, Uncommon Sense” in the UK and “Technology that gives you Confidence in Motion” in Southeast Asia.

As a result of this refocused advertising campaign, Subaru products began to attract a following among the young and educated, who saw the car as a practical alternative to the SUV craze. Subaru has historically been popular in the Northeastern United States as well as the Pacific Northwest. According to Automotive Lease Guide, Subaru ranked second place in vehicles that have the highest overall predicted resale values among all industry and all luxury vehicles for MY 2009. The awards are derived after carefully studying segment competition, historical vehicle performance and industry trends. According to a study done by J.D. Power and Associates for the 2008 Customer Retention Study, Subaru ranked at 50.5%, which was above the national average of 48%.

Hōkago no Pleiades (Original net animation)

Subaru launched an animation series Hōkago no Pleiades (放課後のプレアデス?, Hōkago no Pureadesu, lit. ‘After School Pleiades’) developed jointly with Gainax. The 4-part mini episode series was released on YouTube on February 1, 2011. It featured a magical girl plot with Subaru as a leading protagonist.

Current operations

Subaru’s corporate headquarters are located in Ebisu, Tokyo.

Manufacturing facilities

Subaru is distinct from many of its Japanese competitors in that as of early 2016 it still made almost 75% of its cars sold internationally in Japan. Subaru’s facilities designated to automotive manufacturing are located in Ōta, Gunma Prefecture, consisting of four locations. Subaru-chō is where the Subaru BRZ/Toyota 86 is built, having been re-purposed from kei car production, Yajima Plant is where all current Subaru cars are built, Otakita Plant is where commercial kei trucks are built (originally a factory location of Nakajima Aircraft Company), and Oizumi Plant is where engines and transmissions are built.

Subaru’s only overseas manufacturing facility is located in Lafayette, Indiana; the factory is called Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc.. Due to continued sales growth in North American markets, vehicle production capacity at the Lafayette assembly plant is set to expand to 390,000 vehicles annually. Under the current strategic plan, Subaru will have a total production capacity of 1,026,000 vehicles per year at the end of 2016.

Subaru in Canada

Subaru Canada, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Fuji Heavy Industries of Japan. Headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of 88 authorized dealers throughout Canada.In 1976, Canadians got their first exposure to Subaru vehicles when Subaru Auto Canada Limited (SACL) began offering the Subaru Leone. In 1989, the privately owned SACL was purchased by the Toronto-based Subaru Canada, Inc. who, under the guidance of parent company Fuji Heavy Industries, began an expansion process that would eventually see over 100 Subaru Dealers in operation across the country.

Subaru in the Philippines

Subaru has entered the Philippine operations started in 1996 under the Columbian Motors Philippines ownership but withdrew in 2000. It returned in 2006 under a new ownership by Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc. Subaru has eleven dealerships in the country: Greenhills, Fort Bonifacio, Manila Bay, Alabang, Davao, Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Iloilo, Santa Rosa, Batangas, and Pampanga.

Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc., part of Motor Image Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hong Kong-based Tan Chong International Limited under businessman Glenn Tan, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of six dealerships in the Philippines.

Subaru in the United Kingdom

In 1974 Robert Edmiston was finance director at sports car manufacturer Jensen Motors. When the company went bankrupt, he used a £6,000 redundancy payout to set up International Motors, which acquired the UK franchise for Subaru and Isuzu. The Coleshill based company is still the parent for Subaru in the UK.

Subaru in the United States

Subaru of America was established in 1968 in Philadelphia by Malcolm Bricklin and Harvey Lamm. It relocated to Pennsauken, New Jersey shortly thereafter and moved to its current headquarters in Cherry Hill, New Jersey when Fuji Heavy Industries acquired full ownership. Subaru of America operates regional offices, zone offices and parts distribution centers throughout the United States. Subaru of America also operates port facilities on both the West and East coasts.

In 1989 Subaru and then-partner Isuzu opened a joint factory in Lafayette, Indiana called Subaru-Isuzu Automotive, or SIA, which initially manufactured the Subaru Legacy and Isuzu Rodeo. In 2001 Isuzu sold their stake in the plant to FHI for $1 due to flagging sales and it was renamed Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. SIA has been designated a backyard wildlife habitat by the National Wildlife Federation and has achieved a zero-landfill production designation (the first automotive assembly plant in the United States to earn that designation).

According to the Kelley Blue Book in 2015, two Subaru models Forester and the Outback in the United States had very short inventory time (the time between being received by a dealer to being sold).

Motorsports

Subaru Rally Team Japan led by Noriyuki Koseki (founder of Subaru Tecnica International, STI) ran Subaru Leone coupé, sedan DL, RX(SRX) and RX Turbo in the World Rally Championship between 1980 and 1989. Drivers for individual rallies included Ari Vatanen, Per Eklund, Shekhar Mehta, Mike Kirkland, Possum Bourne and Harald Demut. Mike Kirkland finished 6th overall and won the A Group at the 1986 Safari Rally. That year Subaru was one of the only manufacturers combining 4WD and turbo after Audi‘s successful quattro system had been introduced in 1980, but Audi withdrew from the WRC after safety concerns and Ford’s serious accident early in the 1986 season. Subaru changed the rally model to Legacy RS for the 1990–1992 period and took part in the first complete season in the World Rally Championship with the same model in 1993.

Modified versions of the Impreza WRX and WRX STi have been competing successfully in rallying. Drivers Colin McRae (1995), Richard Burns (2001) and Petter Solberg (2003) have won World Rally Championshipdrivers’ titles with the Subaru World Rally Team and Subaru took the manufacturers’ title three years in a row from 1995 to 1997. Subaru’s World Rally Championship cars are prepared and run by Prodrive, the highly successful British motorsport team. Several endurance records were set in the early and mid-nineties by the Subaru Legacy. The Subaru Justy also holds the world record for the fastest sub 1.0L car without a turbo: 123.224 mph average, it was set in 1989.

Subaru was briefly involved in Formula One circuit racing when it bought a controlling interest in the tiny Italian Coloni team for the 1990 season. The Coloni 3B’s 12-cylinder engine was badged as a Subaru and shared the boxer layout with the company’s own engines, but was an existing design built by Italian firm Motori Moderni. The cars were overweight and underpowered and the partnership broke down before the season finished. With the rise of rally racing and the Import scene in the US, the introduction of the highly anticipated Subaru Impreza WRX in 2001 was successful in bringing high-performance AWD compact cars into the sports car mainstream. Subaru supplies a factory-backed team, Subaru Rally Team USA for Rally America and has won the driver’s title six times, most recently in 2011 with David Higgins.Grassroots Motorsports awarded Subaru with the Editors’ Choice Award in 2002.

On 16 December 2008, it was announced that Subaru would no longer be competing in the World Rally Championships. The decision was made by Subaru’s parent company, Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI), partly as a result of the economic downturn but also because it was felt Subaru had achieved its sporting and marketing objectives. Mr Ikuo Mori denied that alterations to the WRC technical regulations in 2010 or a rumoured deterioration in the working relationship with Prodrive had any impact on the decision. He also said that the possibility of a Subaru car back in the top category of WRC in the future is not zero, but for this moment there can be no assumption of a comeback.

Since 2005, Cusco Racing have entered an Impreza sedan and a BRZ in the Super GT championship. In 2008, the Impreza was the first 4-door and first 4WD vehicle to win a race.

Starting in 2006, Subaru of America (SOA), as the official distributor of Subaru vehicles in the United States participates in the Subaru Road Racing Team (SRRT) with a Subaru Legacy 2.5 GT Spec-B in the Grand-Am Street Tuner class. In 2010, SRRT campaigns a Subaru Impreza WRX STI in the Grand Sport class. In 2011, SRRT switched from the hatchback to a 2011 Subaru Impreza WRX STI sedan.

On 4 May 2012, Subaru Rally Team USA announced that a new rallycross team, Subaru Puma Rallycross Team USA will participate in the 2012 Global RallyCross Championship season with Dave Mirra, Bucky Lasek, and Sverre Isachsen. They also competed in the 2014 FIA World Rallycross Championship.

In 2011, Mark Higgins used a stock Impreza to set a lap record at the Isle of Man TT course. In 2016, Higgins again broke the record in a modified WRX STI.

The impreza has won hillclimbs such as the Silverstone Race to the Sky and Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race.

Technology

Diesel

The 2007 Frankfurt International Motor Show saw Subaru introduce a horizontally opposed, water-cooled, common railturbodiesel using a variable geometry turbocharger called the Subaru EE engine, the first of its type to be fitted to a passenger car. Volkswagen had experimented with this idea during the 1950s and made two air-cooled boxer prototype diesel engines that were not turbocharged. VW installed one engine in a Type 1 and another in a Type 2.

The Subaru engine was rated at 110 kW (150 PS; 148 hp) and 350 N·m (260 ft·lbf) with a displacement of 2.0 litres. In March 2008 Subaru offered the Legacy sedan and wagon and the Outback wagon with 2.0 litre turbodiesel in the EU with a 5-speed manual transmission.

In September 2008 Subaru announced that the diesel Forester and diesel Impreza will be introduced at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, with Forester sales to begin October 2008 and diesel Impreza sales to start January 2009. The Forester and Impreza will have a 6-speed manual transmission, whereas the Legacy and Outback have 5-speed manual transmissions.

United States Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy estimated is:

City Ranges
32.7 mpg‑US (7.2 L/100 km; 39.3 mpg‑imp)
33.6 mpg‑US (7.0 L/100 km; 40.4 mpg‑imp)
Highway Ranges
45.2 mpg‑US (5.20 L/100 km; 54.3 mpg‑imp)
49.0 mpg‑US (4.80 L/100 km; 58.8 mpg‑imp)

Electric vehicles

In June 2006, Fuji Heavy Industries, Inc. (FHI) launched its

Subaru StellaPlug-in electric vehicle which is a kei car equipped with a lithium-ion battery pack. The vehicle has a short range of 56 miles (90 km) but it actually costs more than the Mitsubishi iMiEV, at ¥4,380,000 (US$44,860), including Japanese Government consumption taxes with an exemption of $2,240. It will also qualify for a rebate from the Japanese Government of up to $14,200, bringing the price down to $30,660. The vehicle is much like the i-MiEV, with a 47-kilowatt motor and a quick-charge capability, but the two-door mini-car has a boxy shape. FHI plans to start delivery in late July and plans to sell 170 vehicles by March 2010.

In Japan, Subaru is currently testing two electric vehicles called the Subaru G4e and the Subaru R1e.

The Subaru Hybrid Tourer Concept is a four-seat vehicle with gull-wing doors that combines a 2-liter turbocharged direct-injection gasoline engine with a continuously variable transmission and two axle-mounted motors. A lithium-ion battery pack provides energy storage for the vehicle.

Electronics

Since the 2005 model year, Subaru has adopted the CAN bus technology for the USA and Canada markets. Starting in the 2007 model year, all Subaru vehicles use the CAN technology. Typically, two CAN-buses are used on vehicles: a high-speed CAN running at 500 kbit/s for powertrain communication, and a low-speed CAN running at 125 kbit/s for body control functions and instrument panels. A body-integrated unit (BIU) is used between these two networks.

Clarion and Harman Kardon are among the audio, video, and navigation technology suppliers for Subaru products in North America. Clarion announced in 2015 that it was introducing its “Smart Access” platform, formerly only offered on Clarion’s aftermarket products, to the units to be installed in certain Subaru 2015 models in North America. Smart Access is able to work with the driver’s smartphone (either iPhone or Android) and allows access to various car-safe apps running on the phone via the car’s built-in infotainment screen. Subaru and Clarion have also, with Liberty Mutual Insurance, introduced the “RightTrack” in-vehicle app which will be able to monitor the driver’s habits, make suggestions for safer driving, and possibly offer insurance discounts.

Environmental record

 2009 USA-spec Subaru Legacy PZEV

Subaru claims to have implemented advanced policies which include recycling, reducing harmful emissions, and educating their employees. Their efforts have helped them in their environmental initiatives. The Subaru plant in Lafayette, Indiana (SIA) was the first auto assembly plant to achieve zero landfill status; nothing from the manufacturing process goes into a landfill. The company has developed a recycling plan for the “end-of-life” of their cars. Most of their modern products use highly recyclable materials throughout the vehicle, in the engine, transmission, suspension and elsewhere in each vehicle leaving Subaru with a 97.3% recycling ratio rate for their end-of-life vehicles.

An excerpt from the Subaru website stated “In 2006, SIA was awarded the United States Environmental Protection Agency´s Gold Achievement Award as a top achiever in the agency’s WasteWise program to reduce waste and improve recycling.” The website also stated that “It also became the first U.S. automotive assembly plant to be designated a wildlife habitat.”

Subaru currently offers a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) certified Legacy, Outback, Impreza, XV/Crosstrek and Forester models which are available for sale anywhere in the U.S. Subaru PZEV vehicles meet California’s Super-Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle exhaust emission standard. All other models have been certified LEV2.

Current and former Subaru vehicles

1950s

360 (1958-1971)

1000 (1966-1969)

1500 (1954)

FF-1 G (1971-1972)

FF-1 Star (1969-1973)

R-2 (1969–1972)

1970s

1971 Subaru Leone hardtop coupé A22

Leone (1971-1994)

BRAT (1978-1994)

Rex (1972-1992)

1980s

Sumo / Libero / Domingo / Columbuss / E series / Estratto (1983-1998)

Justy / Tutto(1984-2010, 2016-present)


XT / Alcyone / Vortex (1985-1991)

Legacy / Liberty (1989-present)

1990s

Vivio (1992-1998)

Impreza (1992-present)

Impreza WRX (2001-2014)

and Impreza WRX STI (2001-2014)

Outback Sport / Gravel Express / RV (1994-present)

Alcyone / SVX (1991-1996)

Forester (1997-present)

Traviq (rebadged Opel Zafira) (1999-2005)

2000s

Baja (2003-2006)

R2 (2003-2010)

R1 (2005-2010)

Tribeca (2005-2014)

Trezia (2005-2017)

Exiga (2008-present)

2010s

BRZ( Toyota 86 ) (2012-present)

Subaru XV (2012-present)

Levorg (2014-present)

Subaru WRX (2015-present)

Other manufacturers

Subaru has partnered with various manufacturers over time – here are some of the models are sold in Asia and Europe. In Japan they are in the Kei car class with either front or all wheel drive and a straight engine. An article posted by Autoblog on April 16, 2008 stated that due to a corporate investment by Toyota, all Kei cars built by Subaru will be replaced by Daihatsu models beginning in 2010.

Lucra

Pleo

Sambar

Stella

Dex

Concept vehicles

The following concepts vehicles did not go forward as production vehicles:

Subaru SRD-1 (Experimental design study introduced in 1990)

Subaru Suiren ( Concept replacement for the BRAT/Brumby )

Subaru Exiga (1996, wagon)

Subaru B9 Scrambler

Subaru B11S

Subaru B5 TPH (Turbo Parallel Hybrid) (Japanese: Subaru B5-TPH)

Subaru Fleet-X

Subaru HS500

Subaru VIZIV

See also

Prodrive Motorsport team selected by Subaru to run their World Rally Team

Subaru Tecnica International (also known as STI)

List of Subaru engines

List of Subaru transmissions

Subaru EA engine series

Subaru EF engine series

Subaru EJ engine series

Symmetrical All Wheel Drive

References

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^ Jump up to: a b “Subaru’s company history, policies, attitudes, viewpoints, and basic info”. Subaru of America, Inc. Retrieved 2014-02-12. 

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Jump up ^ “Drivers & Teams”. Global Rally Cross. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 

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Jump up ^ “The Diesel Beetle”. ltv-vwc.org.uk. Retrieved 2008-04-03. 

Jump up ^ “Geneva Motor Show: Subaru diesel boxer engine”. autobloggreen.com. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 

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Jump up ^ “2016 Subaru Crosstrek Models & Specs – Crossover”. Retrieved 2016-02-03. 

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External links


Official website

Fuji Heavy Industries

Subaru Tecnica International

Subaru at DMOZ

Subaru at the Internet Movie Cars Databas
e

TOYOTA

Toyota Automobiles, Luxury and commercial Vehicles and engines, Japan

For other uses, see Toyota (disambiguation).
Toyota
Native name
トヨタ自動車株式会社
Romanized name
Toyota Jidosha KK
Public (K.K.)
Traded as
Industry Automotive
Founded August 28, 1937; 78 years ago
Founder Kiichiro Toyoda
Headquarters Toyota, Aichi, Japan
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products Automobiles, luxury vehiclescommercial vehicles, engines
Production output
Increase 9,909,440 units (CY 2012)
Services Banking, financing, leasing
Revenue Increase¥27.234 trillion (FY 2015)
Increase ¥2.750 trillion (FY 2015)
Profit Increase ¥2.173 trillion (FY 2015)
Total assets Increase ¥47.729 trillion (FY 2015)
Total equity Increase ¥16.788 trillion (FY 2015)
Owner
Number of employees
344,109 (2015)
Divisions
Subsidiaries 545

Slogan
  • Leads You Ahead
  • Drive Your Dreams
  • Quality Revolution (India)
  • Let’s Go Places
  • Moving Forward
  • Let’s Go Beyond
Website Toyota Global

Toyota Motor Corporation (Japanese: トヨタ自動車株式会社Hepburn: Toyota Jidōsha KK?, IPA: [toꜜjota], /tɔɪˈtə/) is a Japanese automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. In March 2014 the multinational corporation consisted of 338,875 employees worldwide and, as of February 2016, is the 13th-largest company in the world by revenue. Toyota was the largest automobile manufacturer in 2012 (by production) ahead of the Volkswagen Group and General Motors. In July of that year, the company reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle. Toyota is the world’s first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year. It did so in 2012 according to OICA, and in 2013 according to company data. As of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization (worth more than twice as much as #2-ranked SoftBank) and by revenue.

The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father’s company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under 5 brands, including the Toyota brand, Hino, Lexus, Ranz, and Scion. It also holds a 51.2% stake in Daihatsu, a 16.66% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, a 5.9% stake in Isuzu, a 3.58% stake in the Yamaha Motor Company, and a 0.27% stake in Tesla, as well as joint-ventures with two in China (GAC Toyota and Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor), one in India (Toyota Kirloskar), one in the Czech Republic (TPCA), along with several “nonautomotive” companies. TMC is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world.

Corporate governance

Headquarter_of_Toyota_Motor_Corporation_4Principal headquarters building of Toyota

Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi. The main headquarters of Toyota is located in a four-story building in Toyota. As of 2006 the head office has the “Toyopet” Toyota logo and the words “Toyota Motor”. The Toyota Technical Center, a 14-story building, and the Honsha plant, Toyota’s second plant engaging in mass production and formerly named the Koromo plant, are adjacent to one another in a location near the headquarters. Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the main headquarters building as “modest”. In 2013 company head Akio Toyoda reported that it had difficulties retaining foreign employees at the headquarters due to the lack of amenities in the city.

Its Tokyo office is located in Bunkyo, Tokyo. Its Nagoya office is located in Nakamura-ku, Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its Toyota Financial Servicesdivision, and also builds robots.

Akio_ToyodaAkio Toyoda, CEO of Toyota, at the annual results press conference, May 11, 2011

Toyota_global_network.svg

 Toyota’s global network: Red – Japan
Green – Official dealership(s) present.
Blue – Localized manufacturing plant(s)
Cyan – Regional headquarters (HQ)
Dark Blue – Regional headquarters (HQ) and localized manufacturing plants

Toyota_sales

 Typical breakdown of sales by region

President of Toyota Motor Company:

In 1981, Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. announced plans to merge with its sales entity Toyota Motor Sales Co., Ltd. Since 1950, the two entities existed as separate companies due to a prerequisite for reconstruction in postwar Japan. Shoichiro Toyoda presided over Toyota Motor Sales in preparation for the consummation of the merger that occurred in 1982. Shoichiro then succeeded his uncle Eiji as the President of the combined organization that then became known as Toyota Motor Corporation.

President of Toyota Motor Corporation:

CEO of Toyota Motor Corporation:

Chairman of Toyota Motor Corporation:

On June 14, 2013, Toyota Motor Corp. announced the appointment of outside board members; the appointment was a first for the corporation and occurred following approval from general shareholders at a meeting on the same day. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, as the latter became an honorary chairman, while Toyoda remains in the post of President.

Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO: 7203. In addition, Toyota is foreign-listed on the New York Stock Exchange under NYSETM and on the London Stock Exchange under LSETYT. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since 1949 and internationally since 1999.

As reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has 540 consolidated subsidiaries and 226 affiliates.

Financial results

In 2011, the Toyota Group (including Daihatsu, Hino and Chinese joint ventures) fell to place three with 8,050,181 units produced globally. According to an unofficial count, based on unit production reported by major automakers, Toyota regained its top rank with 9,909,440 units produced globally in calendar year 2012. On May 8, 2013, Toyota announced plans to produce 10.1 million units in fiscal year 2013, which, if achieved, would make it the first auto manufacturer to cross the 10-million-unit threshold.

On May 8, 2009, Toyota reported a record annual net loss of US$4.2 billion, making it the latest automobile maker to be severely affected by the global financial crisis that started in 2007. Toyota’s financial unit had asked for an emergency loan from a state-backed lender on March 16, 2009, with reports putting the figure at more than A$3 billion. It said the international financial situation was squeezing its business, forcing it to ask for an emergency loan from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. This was the first time the state-backed bank has been asked to lend to a Japanese car manufacturer.

On May 8, 2013, Toyota Motor Corporation announced its financial results for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. Net revenues totaled ¥22.0 trillion (+18.7%). Operating income was ¥1.32 trillion (+371%), net income ¥962.1 billion (+239%).

History

Main article: History of Toyota

1930s

In 1924, Sakichi Toyoda invented the Toyoda Model G Automatic Loom. The principle of jidoka, which means the machine stops itself when a problem occurs, became later a part of the Toyota Production System. Looms were built on a small production line. In 1929, the patent for the automatic loom was sold to a British company, generating the starting capital for the automobile development.

Toyota_Loom_Mass_Production_Bertel_SchmittMass production of Toyoda automated loom, displayed at the Toyota Museum in Nagakute-cho, Aichi-gun, Aichi Pref. Japan

Toyota was started in 1933 as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works devoted to the production of automobiles under the direction of the founder’s son, Kiichiro Toyoda. Its first vehicles were the A1 passenger car and the G1 in 1935. The Toyota Motor Co. was established as an independent company in 1937. In 2008, Toyota’s sales surpassed General Motors, making Toyota number one in the world.

1936 Toyoda Standard Sedan AAToyoda Standard Sedan AA 1936

Vehicles were originally sold under the name “Toyoda” (トヨダ), from the family name of the company’s founder, Kiichirō Toyoda. In April 1936, Toyoda’s first passenger car, the Model AA, was completed. The sales price was 3,350 yen, 400 yen cheaper than Ford or GM cars.

Kiichiro_Toyoda_House_Bertel-SchmittHouse of Toyota founder Kiichiro Toyoda, near Toyota City.

In September 1936, the company ran a public competition to design a new logo. Of 27,000 entries, the winning entry was the three Japanese katakana letters for “Toyoda” in a circle. But Risaburō Toyoda, who had married into the family and was not born with that name, preferred “Toyota” (トヨタ) because it took eight brush strokes (a lucky number) to write in Japanese, was visually simpler (leaving off the diacritic at the end), and with avoiceless consonant instead of a voiced one (voiced consonants are considered to have a “murky” or “muddy” sound compared to voiceless consonants, which are “clear”).Kiichiro_Toyoda_House_Inside_Bertel-SchmittInside the house of Toyota founder Kiichiro Toyoda, near Toyota City

Since toyoda literally means “fertile rice paddies”, changing the name also prevented the company from being associated with old-fashioned farming. The newly formed word was trademarked and the company was registered in August 1937 as the Toyota Motor Company.1955 Toyopet Crown 03 First-generation Toyopet Crown Model RSD (1955-1 – 1958-10)First-generation Toyopet Crown Model RSD (1955/1 – 1958/10)1992 Dakar-rally-paris-1992Toyota at the Rally Dakar, 1992

1940s–1950s

From September 1947, Toyota’s small-sized vehicles were sold under the name “Toyopet” (トヨペット). The first vehicle sold under this name was the Toyopet SA, but it also included vehicles such as the Toyopet SB light truck, Toyopet Stout light truck, Toyopet Crown, Toyopet Master, and the Toyopet Corona. The word “Toyopet (Japanese article)” was a nickname given to the Toyota SA due to its small size, as the result of a naming contest the Toyota Company organized in 1947. However, when Toyota eventually entered the American market in 1957 with the Crown, the name was not well received due to connotations of toys and pets. The name was soon dropped for the American market, but continued in other markets until the mid-1960s.

1960s–1970s

By the early 1960s, the US had begun placing stiff import tariffs on certain vehicles. The so-called “chicken tax” of 1964 placed a 25% tax on imported light trucks. In response to the tariff, Toyota, Nissan Motor Co. and Honda Motor Co. began building plants in the US by the early 1980s.

1980s

2014 Toyota Corolla 1.8 LE (ZRE172), front leftWith over 40 million sold, the Corolla is one of the most popular and best selling cars in the world.

Toyota received its first Japanese Quality Control Award at the start of the 1980s and began participating in a wide variety of motorsports. Due to the 1973 oil crisis, consumers in the lucrative US market began turning to small cars with better fuel economy. American car manufacturers had considered small economy cars to be an entry-level product, and their small vehicles employed a low level of quality to keep the price low.

In 1982, the Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Motor Sales merged into one company, the Toyota Motor Corporation. Two years later, Toyota entered into a joint venture with General Motors called the New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc, NUMMI, operating an automobile-manufacturing plant in Fremont, California. The factory was an old General Motors plant that had been closed for two years. Toyota then started to establish new brands at the end of the 1980s, with the launch of their luxury division Lexus in 1989.

1990s

In the 1990s, Toyota began to branch out from producing mostly compact cars by adding many larger and more luxurious vehicles to its lineup, including a full-sized pickup, the T100 (and later the Tundra); several lines of SUVs; a sport version of the Camry, known as the Camry Solara; and the Scion brand, a group of several affordable, yet sporty, automobiles targeted specifically to young adults. Toyota also began production of the world’s best-selling hybrid car, the Prius, in 1997.

With a major presence in Europe, due to the success of Toyota Team Europe, the corporation decided to set up Toyota Motor Europe Marketing and Engineering, TMME, to help market vehicles in the continent. Two years later, Toyota set up a base in the United Kingdom, TMUK, as the company’s cars had become very popular among British drivers. Bases in Indiana, Virginia, and Tianjin were also set up. In 1999, the company decided to list itself on the New York and London Stock Exchanges.

2000s

In 2001, Toyota’s Toyo Trust and Banking merged with two other banks to form UFJ Bank, which was accused of corruption by Japan’s government for making bad loans to alleged Yakuza crime syndicates with executives accused of blocking Financial Service Agency inspections. The UFJ was listed among Fortune Magazine’s largest money-losing corporations in the world, with Toyota’s chairman serving as a director. At the time, the UFJ was one of the largest shareholders of Toyota. As a result of Japan’s banking crisis, UFJ merged with the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi to become the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.

In 2002, Toyota managed to enter a Formula One works team and establish joint ventures with French motoring companies Citroën and Peugeot a year after Toyota started producing cars in France.

Toyota ranked eighth on Forbes 2000 list of the world’s leading companies for the year 2005 but slid to 55 for 2011. The company was number one in global automobile sales for the first quarter of 2008.

In 2007, Toyota released an update of its full-sized truck, the Tundra, produced in two American factories, one in Texas and one in Indiana. Motor Trend named the Tundra “Truck of the Year”, and the 2007 Toyota Camry“Car of the Year” for 2007. It also began the construction of two new factories, one to build the RAV4 in Woodstock, Ontario, Canada, and the other to build the Toyota Prius in Blue Springs, Mississippi, USA. This plant was originally intended to build the Toyota Highlander, but Toyota decided to use the plant in Princeton, Indiana, USA, instead. The company has also found recent success with its smaller models—the Corolla and Yaris—as gasoline prices have risen rapidly in the last few years.

2010s

In 2011, Toyota, along with large parts of the Japanese automotive industry, suffered from a series of natural disasters. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami led to a severe disruption of the supplier base and a drop in production and exports. Severe flooding during the 2011 monsoon season in Thailand affected Japanese automakers that had chosen Thailand as a production base. Toyota is estimated to have lost production of 150,000 units to the tsunami and production of 240,000 units to the floods.

The automaker narrowly topped global sales for the first half of 2014, selling 5.1 million vehicles in the six months ending June 30, 2014, an increase of 3.8% on the same period the previous year. Volkswagen AG, which recorded sales of 5.07 million vehicles, was close behind.

In August 2014, Toyota announced it would be cutting its spare-parts prices in China by up to 35%. The company admitted the move was in response to a probe foreshadowed earlier in the month by China’s National Development and Reform Commission of Toyota’s Lexus spare-parts policies, as part of an industry-wide investigation into what the Chinese regulator considers exorbitantly high prices being charged by automakers for spare parts and after-sales servicing.

In November 2015, the company announced that it would invest US$1 billion over the next 5 years into artificial intelligence and robotics research.

Recalls

2009

From November 2009 through 2010, Toyota recalled more than 9 million cars and trucks worldwide in several recall campaigns, and briefly halted production and sales. Toyota initiated the recalls, the first two with the assistance of the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), after reports that several vehicles experienced unintended acceleration.

2012

In October 2012, Toyota announced a recall of 7.43 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning power window switches, the largest recall since that of Ford Motor Company in 1996. The move came after a series of recalls between 2009 and 2011 in which it pulled back around 10 million cars amidst claims of faulty mechanics. In March 2014, Toyota agreed to pay a fine of US$1.2 billion for concealing information and misleading the public about the safety issues behind the recalls on Toyota and Lexus vehicles affected by unintended acceleration.

2014

In early November 2014, Toyota USA enlisted a recall involving defective inflaters and propellant devices that may deploy improperly in the event of a crash, shooting metal fragments into vehicle occupants. More than 7 million vehicles are potentially affected in the United States. This recall only effects vehicles equipped with Takata airbags released after the year 2000 in North America. The airbags were manufactured by Takata automotive manufacturing. Toyota is offering a free repair to all affected vehicles worldwide.The fault in the Takata air bags also affected other North American automobile manufacturers.

Logo and branding

Toyota_Sign_Development_Bertel_SchmittEmployee at Toyota Museum explains development of Toyota name and brand

In 1936, Toyota entered the passenger car market with its Model AA and held a competition to establish a new logo emphasizing speed for its new product line. After receiving 27,000 entries, one was selected that additionally resulted in a change of its moniker to “Toyota” from the family name “Toyoda”. The new name was believed to sound better, and its eight-stroke count in the Japanese language was associated with wealth and good fortune. The original logo is no longer found on its vehicles, but remains the corporate emblem used in Japan.

Still, no guidelines existed for the use of the brand name, so “TOYOTA”, which was used throughout most of the world, led to inconsistencies in its worldwide marketing campaigns.

To remedy this, Toyota introduced a new worldwide logo in October 1989 to commemorate the 50th year of the company, and to differentiate it from the newly released luxury Lexus brand. The logo made its debut on the 1989 Toyota Celsior and quickly gained worldwide recognition. The three ovals in the new logo combine to form the letter “T”, which stands for Toyota. The overlapping of the two perpendicular ovals inside the larger oval represent the mutually beneficial relationship and trust between the customer and the company, while the larger oval surrounding both of these inner ovals represents the “global expansion of Toyota’s technology and unlimited potential for the future.”1936 Toyota AA HubcapHubcap of 1936 Toyota AA, with the old “Toyoda” name

The new logo started appearing on all printed material, advertisements, dealer signage, and the vehicles themselves in 1990.

In predominantly Chinese-speaking countries or regions using traditional Chinese characters, e.g. Hong Kong and Taiwan, Toyota is known as “豐田”. In Chinese-speaking countries using simplified Chinese characters (e.g. China), Toyota is known as “丰田” (pronounced as Fēngtián in Mandarin Chinese and Hɔng Tshan in Minnanese). These are the same characters as the founding family’s name “Toyoda” in Japanese.

Marketing

MEGAWEB_05MEGAWEB, Toyota’s permanent exhibition showroom and museum in Odaiba, Tokyo

Toyota_TOYOPET_Japan_Car_dealership_Saitama_1Toyopet Store, SaitamaNets TOYOTAToyota Netz Store, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka

Currently, the “Toyota Corolla Store” (トヨタカローラ店 Toyota Karōra-ten) was renamed from the “Toyota Publica Store” (トヨタパブリカ店 Toyota Paburika-ten), which was established to sell the Toyota Publica in 1961, then renamed to sell the Toyota Corolla in 1966.In Japan, Toyota currently maintains separate dealership sales channels. The first sales channel established in 1946 called “Toyota Store” (トヨタ店 Toyota Mise) sells large luxury sedans such as the Toyota Century, and the Toyota Crown. In 1955 the “Toyopet Store” (トヨペット店 Toyopetto-ten) arrived, originally established to sell the Toyota Corona and the Toyopet ToyoAce truck. (Toyota’s five channel dealerships in Japan chronology in Japanese.) Toyota also operated a commercial dealership called Toyota Diesel Shop (トヨタディーゼル店 Toyota Dīzeru-ten) from 1957 until 1988, that sold various commercial platform trucks, buses, and forklifts, such as the Toyota Dyna and the Toyota Coaster. Hino products were sold at specific Hino locations, and shared at Toyota Diesel Store locations after Toyota acquired the company in 1967. Starting in 1980, the Diesel Shop also sold the Starlet, Corolla, Corona, Vista and Crown installed with diesel engines. When the Toyota Diesel Store was disbanded, commercial products were divided between Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations.

In 1980, the “Toyota Vista Store” replaced the “Toyota Auto Store” (トヨタオート店 Toyota Ōto-ten) sales network that sold the Corolla companion, called the Toyota Sprinter established in 1967. The “Vista” name was used on a new Camry-clone, called the Toyota Vista. The Toyota Vista network was replaced with two networks; “Toyota NETZ” (ネッツ店 Nettsu-ten) in August 1998, and Lexus in 2004. Some former Vista models were rebranded as Lexus (レクサス Rekusasu), such as the Altezza and the Aristo, while other products have been taken over by the “Toyota NETZ”, which was already selling the Toyota ist and the Toyota RAV4. “NETZ” is an acronym for “Network of Energetic Teams for Zenith”.

NETZ locations have been repositioned to resemble the North American Toyota network, called Scion, and sells the Toyota 86. Most models were exclusive to particular retail chains, while some models, like the Prius, are available at all sales channels.

Toyota Slogans

United States

  • You asked for it, You got it! (1975-1979)
  • Oh What a feeling! (1979-1985)
  • Who could ask for anything more? (1985-1989)
  • I love what you do for me (1989-1997)
  • Everyday (1997-2001)
  • Get The Feeling (2001-2004)
  • Moving Forward (2004-2012)
  • Let’s Go Places (2012-present)

Japan

  • ファミリーカーのトヨタ (Roma-ji:Famirika no Toyota, English:Toyota Family Car, 1966-1969)
  • 進歩のマーク (Roma-ji:Shinpo no Maku, English:Mark of Progress, 1967-1970)
  • 愛される車をめざして (Roma-ji:Aisareru-sha no Mezashite, English:Toward the car be loved, 1971-1980)
  • 安全はトヨタの願い (Roma-ji:Anzen wa Toyota no Negai, English:Safety Wish of Toyota, 1978-1982)
  • 新技術-時代はTOYOTA (Roma-ji:Shingijutsu jidai wa TOYOTA, English:The New Era of Toyota Technology, 1982-1988)
  • Fun To Drive (1984-1990)
  • 新しいトヨタが走りはじめます。 (Roma-ji:Atarashi Toyota ga Hashiri Hajimemasu, English:The New Toyota Will Begin Running, 1989-1990)
  • シートベルトを忘れずに (Roma-ji:Shītoberuto o wasurezu ni, English:Don’t Forget Your Seatbelt, 1989-1991)
  • 人へ。社会へ。地球へ。 (Roma-ji:Hito e, Shakai e, Chikyuu e, English:For People, For Society, For The Earth, 1990-1999)
  • BIG CHALLENGE (1993-1996)
    • Sedan Innovation (1993-1998)
  • ACTION TOYOTA (1997-1998)
  • クルマが未来になっていく。 (Roma-ji:Kuruma ga Mirai ni Natte iku, English:The car is Gradually Turned to The Future, 1998-1999)
  • Drive Your Dreams. (2000-2011)
  • FUN TO DRIVE, AGAIN. (2011-present)

Indonesia

  • Choice Of Trust (1984-1989)
  • Leads You Ahead (1989-2004)
  • Moving Forward (2004-2015)
  • Let’s Go Beyond (2015-present)

Malaysia

  • Leads You Ahead (1989-2001)
  • Passion (2001-2004)
  • Get The Feeling (2001-2004)
  • Moving Forward (2004-2015)
  • Let’s Go Beyond (2015-present)

Singapore & the Philippines

  • Leads You Ahead (1989-2001)
  • Passion (2001-2004)
  • Moving Forward (2004-2012, 2004-present in the Philippines)
  • Always Better (2012-present)

Thailand

  • Leads You Ahead (1989-2001)
  • Passion (2001-2004)
  • Moving Forward (2004-2012)
  • Mobility Of Happiness (2012-present)

India

  • Leads You Ahead (1997-2001)
  • Passion (2001-2004)
  • Moving Forward (2004-2012)
  • Quality Revolution (2012-present)

Toyota Store

Vehicles sold at Toyota Store (nationally)

The following is a list of all past and present models and where they were available at retail channels nationally, as retail chains in Tokyo and Osaka are different.

Toyota-Dealer-Toyota.png

Century, Crown Majesta, Crown, Master, SAI, Mirai, Prius, Aqua, Allion, Succeed, Blade, Corolla RunX, Porte, Estima, Isis, FJ Cruiser, Comfort, Land Cruiser, Hilux Surf, Land Cruiser Prado, Dyna, Stout, Coaster, QuickDelivery, 2000GT, Carina, Carina ED, Brevis,Gaia, Cavalier, Classic, MasterAce, Hilux, Mega Cruiser, Soarer, Origin, Caldina.

Vehicles sold at Toyopet Store (nationally)

Toyota-Dealer-Toyopet.png

Mark X, SAI, Mirai, Premio, Prius, Aqua, Belta, Mark X ZiO, Succeed, Ractis, Blade, Porte, Harrier, Vanguard, Rush, Alphard, Comfort, HiAce, ToyoAce, Pixis Space, Mark II-Mark II Qualis-Mark II Blit, Corona, Corona EXiV, Corona Coupe, Corsa, Opa, Avalon,Progrès, Cami, ist, Platz, Soarer, Hilux, Cynos, Regius, Celsior, Origin, Caldina, Ipsum.

Vehicles sold at Toyota Corolla Store (starting 1966), formerly Toyota Publica Store (nationally)

Toyota-Dealer-Corolla.png

SAI, Camry, Prius, Aqua, Corolla Axio, GT-86, Belta, Probox, Corolla Rumion, Ractis, Passo, Sera, Vanguard, Estima, Noah, Sienta, TownAce, all Daihatsu products, Publica, Tercel, Windom, Scepter, Corolla Ceres, Origin, Nadia, WiLL, RAV4, Sports 800, Celica,Supra, Corolla Levin, Celica XX.

Vehicles sold at Netz Store (starting 1998), formerly Toyota Vista Store (starting 1980), formerly Toyota Auto Store (starting 1967) (nationally)

Toyota-Dealer-Netz.png

Vitz, SAI, Prius, Aqua, ist, Auris, bB, Avensis, Raum, Wish, Voxy, RAV4, Kluger, Vellfire, iQ, Allex, Fun Cargo, Altezza, Verossa, Curren, Aristo, MR-S, MR2, Starlet, Vista, Cresta, Sprinter, Voltz, Blizzard, Chaser, Sprinter Marino, Carib, Granvia, Sprinter Trueno,LiteAce, Ipsum, GT-86, WiLL (1999-2004).

Sports

Toyota sponsors several teams and has purchased naming rights for several venues, including:

Company strategy

Main article: The Toyota Way

Toyota’s management philosophy has evolved from the company’s origins and has been reflected in the terms “Lean Manufacturing” and Just In Time Production, which it was instrumental in developing. Toyota’s managerial values and business methods are known collectively as the Toyota Way.

In April 2001, Toyota adopted the “Toyota Way 2001”, an expression of values and conduct guidelines that all Toyota employees should embrace. Under the two headings of Respect for People and Continuous Improvement, Toyota summarizes its values and conduct guidelines with these five principles:

  • Challenge
  • Kaizen (improvement)
  • Genchi genbutsu (go and see)
  • Respect
  • Teamwork

According to external observers, the Toyota Way has four components:

  1. Long-term thinking as a basis for management decisions
  2. A process for problem-solving
  3. Adding value to the organization by developing its people
  4. Recognizing that continuously solving root problems drives organizational learning

The Toyota Way incorporates the Toyota Production System.

Operations

Toyota Plant Ohira SendaiNew Toyota factory in Ohira, near Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan: A month after this picture was taken, the region was devastated by the March 11 earthquake and tsunami. The plant was only lightly damaged, but remained closed for more than a month, mainly due to lack of supplies and energy, in addition to a badly damaged Sendai port.

Toyota has long been recognized as an industry leader in manufacturing and production. Three stories of its origin have been found, one that they studied Piggly-Wiggly’sjust-in-time distribution system, one that they followed the writings of W. Edwards Deming, and one that they were given the principles from a WWII US government training program (Training Within Industry).

As described by external observers of Toyota, the principles of the Toyota Way are:

  1. Base your management decisions on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term goals
  2. Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface
  3. Use “pull” systems to avoid overproduction
  4. Level out the workload
  5. Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right the first time
  6. Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment
  7. Use visual control so no problems are hidden
  8. Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes
  9. Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others
  10. Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company’s philosophy
  11. Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve
  12. Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (genchi genbutsu)
  13. Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly considering all options; implement decisions rapidly
  14. Become a learning organization through relentless reflection and continuous improvement (kaizen)

Toyota Group PavilionToyota Pavilion at the Expo in Aichi

Toyota has grown from its origins in Japan during the 1930s to become a large multinational corporation. It displaced GM and became the world’s largest automobile maker for the year 2008. It held the title of the most profitable automobile maker (US$11 billion in 2006) along with increasing sales in, among other countries, the United States. The world headquarters of Toyota are located in its home country in Toyota City, Japan. Its subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services sells financing and participates in other lines of business. Toyota brands include Scion and Lexus and the corporation is part of the Toyota Group. Toyota also owns 51% of Daihatsu, and 16.7% of Fuji Heavy Industries, which manufactures Subaru vehicles. They also acquired 5.9% of Isuzu Motors Ltd. on November 7, 2006 and will be introducing Isuzu diesel technology into their products.

Toyota has introduced new technologies, including one of the first mass-produced hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles, of which it says it has sold 2 million globally as of 2010, Advanced Parking Guidance System (automatic parking), a four-speed electronically controlled automatic with buttons for power and economy shifting, and an eight-speed automatic transmission. Toyota, and Toyota-produced Lexus and Scion automobiles, consistently rank near the top in certain quality and reliability surveys, primarily J.D. Power and Consumer Reports although they led in automobile recalls for the first time in 2009.

In 2005, Toyota, combined with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu Motor Company, produced 8.54 million vehicles, about 500,000 fewer than the number produced by GM that year. Toyota has a large market share in the United States, but a small market share in Europe. It also sells vehicles in Africa and is a market leader in Australia. Due to its Daihatsu subsidiary it has significant market shares in several fast-growing Southeast Asian countries.

According to the 2008 Fortune Global 500, Toyota is the fifth largest company in the world. Since the recession of 2001, it has gained market share in the United States. Toyota’s market share struggles in Europe where its Lexus brand has 0.3% market share, compared to nearly 2% market share as the US luxury segment leader.

In the first three months of 2007, Toyota together with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu reported number one sales of 2.348 million units. Toyota’s brand sales had risen 9.2% largely on demand for Corolla and Camry sedans. The difference in performance was largely attributed to surging demand for fuel-efficient vehicles. In November 2006, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas added a facility in San Antonio. Toyota has experienced quality problems and was reprimanded by the government in Japan for its recall practices. In 2007, Toyota maintained over 16% of the US market share and was listed second only to GM in terms of volume. Toyota Century Royal is the official state car of the Japanese imperial family, namely for the current Emperor of Japan.

Toyota was hit by the global financial crisis of 2008 as it was forced in December 2008 to forecast its first annual loss in 70 years. In January 2009, it announced the closure of all of its Japanese plants for 11 days to reduce output and stocks of unsold vehicles.

Akio Toyoda became the new president and CEO of the company on June 23, 2009, by replacing Katsuaki Watanabe, who became the new vice chairman by replacing Katsuhiro Nakagawa.

Worldwide presence

2012 Toyota Camry -- Cockspur Island (GA) July 2012The Toyota Camry is assembled in several facilities around the world including Australia, China, Taiwan, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Pakistan, Russia, Thailand, India, Vietnam and the United States

Toyota has factories in most parts of the world, manufacturing or assembling vehicles for local markets in Japan, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, Canada, Indonesia, Poland, South Africa, Turkey, Colombia, the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Brazil, Portugal, and more recently, Argentina, Czech Republic, Mexico, Malaysia, Thailand, Pakistan, Egypt, China, Vietnam, Venezuela, the Philippines, and Russia.

Toyota’s net revenue by geographical regions for the year ended March 31, 2007:

Geographic region Total sales ( Yen in millions)
Japan 8,152,884
North America 8,771,495
Europe 3,346,013
Asia 1,969,957
Others 1,707,742

In 2002, Toyota initiated the Innovative International Multi-purpose Vehicle project (IIMV) to optimize global manufacturing and supply systems for pickup trucks and multipurpose vehicles, and to satisfy market demand in more than 140 countries worldwide. IIMV called for diesel engines to be made in Thailand, gasoline engines in Indonesia, and manual transmissions in India and the Philippines, for supply to the countries charged with vehicle production. For vehicle assembly, Toyota would use plants in Thailand, Indonesia, Argentina, and South Africa. These four main IIMV production and export bases supply Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Latin America, and the Middle East with three vehicles: The Toyota Hilux (Vigo), the Fortuner, and the Toyota Innova.

North America

Toyota Motor North America headquarters is located in New York City, NY, and operates as a holding company in North America. Its manufacturing headquarters is located in Erlanger, Kentucky, and is known as Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America.

ToyotadealershipA Toyota dealership in Fremont, California

Toyota Canada Inc. has been in production in Canada since 1983 with an aluminium wheel plant in Delta, British Columbia, which currently employs a workforce of roughly 260. Its first vehicle assembly plant, in Cambridge, Ontario, since 1988, now produces Corolla compact cars, Matrix crossover vehicles, and Lexus RX 350 luxury SUVs, with a workforce of 4,300 workers. Its second assembly operation in Woodstock, Ontario, began manufacturing the RAV4 late in 2008. In 2006, Toyota’s subsidiary Hino Motors opened a heavy duty truck plant, also in Woodstock, employing 45 people and producing 2000 trucks annually.Toyota_Technical_Center_Ann_Arbor_TwpToyota Technical Center, Ann Arbor Charter Township, Michigan

Toyota has a large presence in the United States with six major assembly plants in Huntsville, Alabama, Georgetown, Kentucky, Princeton, Indiana, San Antonio, Texas, Buffalo, West Virginia, and Blue Springs, Mississippi. Toyota had a joint-venture operation with General Motors at New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. in Fremont, California, which began in 1984 and ended in 2009. It still has a joint venture with Subaru at Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. in Lafayette, Indiana, which started in 2006. In these assembly plants, the Camry and theTundra are manufactured, among others.

Toyota marketing, sales, and distribution in the US are conducted through a separate subsidiary, Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. It has started producing larger trucks, such as the new Tundra, to go after the large truck market in the United States. Toyota is also pushing hybrid vehicles in the US such as the Prius, Camry Hybrid, Highlander Hybrid, and various Lexus products. Currently, Toyota has no plans to offer diesel motor options in its North American products, including the light-duty pickup trucks.

Australia

Main article: Toyota Australia

In 1963, Australia was one of the first countries to assemble Toyotas outside Japan. However, in February 2014, Toyota was the last of Australia’s major automakers to announce the end of production in Australia. The closure of Toyota’s Australian plant will be completed by 2017. Before Toyota, Ford and GM’s Holden had announced similar moves, all citing an unfavorable currency and attendant high manufacturing costs.

Product line

Electric technology

2010 Toyota Prius frontToyota Prius, flagship of Toyota’s hybrid technology, and the best selling hybrid car in the world

Hybrid electric vehicles

Toyota is one of the largest companies to push hybrid electric vehicles in the market and the first to commercially mass-produce and sell such vehicles, with the introduction of the Toyota Prius in 1997. The company eventually began providing this option on the main smaller cars such as Camry and later with the Lexus divisions, producing some hybrid luxury vehicles. It labeled such technology in Toyota cars as “Hybrid Synergy Drive” and in Lexus versions as “Lexus Hybrid Drive.”

As of July 2015, Toyota Motor Corporation sells 30 Toyota and Lexus hybrid models and one plug-in hybrid in over 90 countries and regions around the world, and the carmaker has plans to introduce other new hybrid models such as the Corolla Hybrid and Levin Hybrid (China only) and RAV4 Hybrid. The Prius liftback is the top selling hybrid gasoline-electric car in world, sales reached the 3 million unit milestone in June 2013, and cumulative sales since 1997 reached 3,527,100 units in July 2015. The Prius liftback ranks as the top selling hybrid car in the U.S. market, and passed the 1 million milestone in April 2011. Cumulative sales of the Prius in Japan reached the 1 million mark in August 2011. As of July 2015, sales of the Prius liftback in both Japan and the U.S. had exceeded the 1.5 million mark. Cumulative TMC hybrid sales since the Prius introduction in Europe in 2000 passed the 1 million unit milestone in November 2015,

2012 Toyota Prius C on the HutchThe Toyota Prius c is the second spin-off of the Prius family, and the second most sold TMC hybrid after the Prius liftback.

Worldwide sales of hybrid vehicles produced by Toyota reached 1 million vehicles by May 31, 2007, and the 2 million mark was reached by August 2009, with hybrids sold in 50 countries. The 5 million hybrid sales milestone was reached in March 2013, During 2012, Toyota and Lexus hybrid models sold more than 1 million units a year for the first time, with 1.219 million units sold. During 2013, TMC sold 1.279 million units, and the 6 million sales milestone was achieved in December 2013, just nine months after its latest million unit milestone. The 7 million sales mark was reached in September 2014, again, selling one million hybrids in ninth months, and the 8 million sales milestone was achieved in July 2015, just 10 months after the previous million-unit milestone. Toyota estimates that up to 31 July 2015, its hybrids have saved about 5.8 billion gallons of gasoline (22 billion liters) compared to the amount used by gasoline-powered vehicles of similar size, and have emitted approximately 58 million fewer tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than would have been emitted by gasoline-powered vehicles of similar size and driving performance.

As of August 2015, besides the three generations of Prius liftback, Toyota’s hybrid lineup includes the Prius α/Prius v/Prius +, Aqua/Prius c, Camry Hybrid (1st and 2nd generation), Toyota Highlander Hybrid (Kluger Hybrid in Japan), Toyota Avalon Hybrid, Toyota Auris Hybrid, Toyota Yaris Hybrid (Europe only), and the following models sold only in Japan: Alphard Hybrid/Vellfire Hybrid, Estima Hybrid, Toyota Sai, Toyota Harrier, Toyota Crown Hybrid, Toyota Crown Mild Hybrid, Toyota Crown Majesta, Corolla Axio, Corolla Fielder, Toyota Voxy/Noah/Esquire and Toyota Sienta.

2014 Lexus RX 450h (GYL15R) Luxury wagon (2015-07-03) 01The Lexus RX 450h is the top selling hybrid of the Lexus brand.

Beginning in 2011, TMC introduced three new members to the Prius family, the Prius v (Prius α in Japan and Prius + in Europe), the Prius c (Toyota Aqua in Japan), and the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, released in 2012 in Japan, the U.S. and Europe. With a total of 247,230 vehicles sold during the first quarter of 2012, the Toyota Prius family became the third top selling nameplate in the world in terms of total global sales, after the Toyota Corolla (300,800 units) and the Ford Focus (277,000 units). Until September 2012, the Prius liftback was the top selling new car in Japan for 16 months in a row, until it was surpassed by the Toyota Aqua (Prius c) in October 2012. With 266,567 units sold in Japan in 2012, the Aqua is considered the most successful nameplate launch in the Japanese market in the last 20 years. The Prius c/Aqua model, with global sales of 1,081,332 units through July 2015, is TMC’s second best selling hybrid after the Prius liftback, followed the Prius α/v/+ with 582,379 units, and the two generations of the Camry Hybrid, with 528,217 units sold worldwide. For both Prius family variants Japan is the top selling market, while the U.S. is the top selling Camry market. Ranking next is the Auris with 240,218 units sold in Europe.

Lexus also has their own hybrid lineup, and as of August 2015, consist of the LS 600h/LS 600h L, GS 450h, RX 400h/RX 450h, Lexus HS 250h, Lexus CT 200h, Lexus ES 300h, Lexus IS 300h, Lexus NX 300h, and Lexus RC 300h. Global cumulative sales of Lexus brand hybrids reached the 500 thousand mark in November 2012. As of July 2015, a total of 895,330 Lexus hybrids have been sold worldwide, with the Lexus RX 400h/RX 450h ranking as the top selling Lexus hybrid with 317,560 units, followed by the Lexus CT 200h with 242,003 units.

Plug-in hybrids

11-09-04-iaa-by-RalfR-111Production version of the 2012 Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid.

Toyota’s plug-in hybrid electric vehicle project began in 2007, with road trials of the prototype vehicle in France and the UK in 2008. Toyota made 600 Prius plug-in demonstration vehicles for lease to fleet and government customers. 230 were delivered in Japan beginning in late December 2009, 125 models released in the U.S. by early 2010, and 200 units in 18 European countries in 2010. France, the UK and Germany had the largest fleets with 150 PHEVs. Canada, China, Australia, and New Zealand also participated in the global demonstration program.

The production version of the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was released in Japan in January 2012, followed by the United States in late February, and deliveries in Europe began in late June 2012. As of July 2015, about 73,600 Prius PHVs had been sold worldwide since 2012, with North America as the leading regional market with 42,000 units, followed by Japan with about 21,700 units, Europe with around 9,900 units, and only about 100 units in the rest of the world. The United States is the country market leader with 41,576 units delivered. The Netherlands is the leading European market with 4,073 units registered as of July 2015.

During its first year in the market, a total of 27,279 Prius PHVs were sold worldwide, allowing the plug-in version to rank as the second most sold plug-in electric car for 2012. As of May 2015, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranked as the world’s second top selling plug-in hybrid after the Volt/Ampera family. Accounting for cumulative sales since its inception, the Prius PHV was the world’s third best selling plug-in electric car by December 2014, but by May 2015 fell to fourth place after the Tesla Model S.

All-electric vehicles

The first generation Toyota RAV4 EV was leased in the United States from 1997 to 2003, and at the lessees’ request, many units were sold after the vehicle was discontinued. A total of 1,484 were leased and/or sold in California to meet the state’s CARB mandate for zero-emissions vehicles. As of mid-2012, there were almost 500 units still in use.

In May 2010, Toyota launched a collaboration with Tesla Motors to create electric vehicles. Toyota agreed to purchase US$50 million of Tesla common stock subsequent to the closing of Tesla’s planned initial public offering. Toyota, with the assistance of Tesla, built 35 converted RAV4s (Phase Zero vehicles) for a demonstration and evaluation program that ran through 2011. The lithium metal-oxide battery and other power train components were supplied by Tesla Motors.

The Toyota RAV4 EV Concept was released in September 2012. The RAV4 EV is assembled at Toyota’s facility in Woodstock, Ontario along with the regular gasoline version. Tesla is building the electric powertrain at its plant at Tesla Factory in Fremont, California, and then ship them to Canada. The RAV4 EV is sold only in California, beginning with the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles/Orange County and San Diego. Production will be limited to 2,600 during the first three years. As of 31 March 2013, a total of 402 RAV4 EVs have been sold in the U.S.

A prototype of the Toyota iQ EV (Scion iQ EV in the US) was exhibited at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show. The Scion iQ EV is the successor to the FT-EV II as an electric vehicle based on the Toyota iQ chassis. Toyota produced three generations of FT-EV concept cars, and the iQ EV is a production version of those concepts, incorporating the technological and design strengths of all three models. The exterior of the production version is based on the FT-EV III concept shown at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show.2011 Toyota_FT-EV_IIIThe Toyota iQ/Scion iQ EV is based on Toyota’s three generations of FT-EV concept. Shown the Toyota FT-EV IIIconcept car at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show.

The U.S. launch of the Scion iQ EV was announced for 2012, and according to Toyota, for the initial roll-out the iQ EV would not be available to individual consumers, instead the carmaker decided to focus on fleet customers and car sharing programs. The iQ EV was scheduled to be produced at Toyota’s Takaoka Plant in Toyota City beginning in August 2012 and the initial production was planned to be limited to 600 units, with 400 staying in Japan, 100 units destined to the U.S. and the other 100 for Europe. In September 2012 Toyota announced that due to customers’ concerns about range and charging time, the production of the Scion iQ (Toyota eQ in Japan) will be limited to about 100 units for special fleet use in Japan and the U.S. only. The iQ EV/eQ was scheduled to be released in both countries in December 2012.

2014 I-road - GrenobleToyota I-Road in Grenoble

The first 30 iQ EVs were delivered in the U.S. to the University of California, Irvine in March 2013 for use in its Zero Emission Vehicle-Network Enabled Transport (ZEV-NET) carsharingfleet. Since 2002 the ZEV-NET program has been serving the transport needs of the Irvine community with all-electric vehicles for the critical last mile of commutes from the Irvine train station to the UC campus and local business offices.

In addition, Toyota announced that is backing away from fully electric vehicles. The company’s vice chairman, Takeshi Uchiyamada, said “The current capabilities of electric vehicles do not meet society’s needs, whether it may be the distance the cars can run, or the costs, or how it takes a long time to charge.” Toyota’s emphasis would be re-focused on the hybrid concept, and 21 new hybrid gas-electric models scheduled to be on the market by 2015.

Toyota’s project called Ha:mo (Harmonious Mobility Network), is using the Toyota i-Road, an all electric vehicle which combines the potential of both cars and motorbikes. The project is being run in Grenoble, France; Toyota City, Japan; and also Tokyo, Japan.

Hydrogen fuel-cell

In 2002 Toyota began a development and demonstration program to test the Toyota FCHV, a hybridhydrogenfuel cell vehicle based on the Toyota Highlander production SUV. Toyota also built a FCHV bus based on the Hino Blue Ribbon City low-floor bus.Toyota has built several prototypes/concepts of the FCHV since 1997, including the Toyota FCHV-1, FCHV-2, FCHV-3, FCHV-4, and Toyota FCHV-adv. The Toyota FCV-R fuel cell concept car was unveiled at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show. The FCV-R sedan seats four and has a fuel cell stack including a 70 MPa high-pressure hydrogen tank, which can deliver a range of 435 mi (700 km) under the Japanese JC08 test cycle. Toyota said the car was planned for launch in about 2015.

2014 Mirai trimmedThe Toyota Mirai fuel-cell vehicle

In August 2012 Toyota announced its plans to start retail sales of a hydrogen fuel-cell sedan in California in 2015. Toyota expects to become a leader in this technology. The prototype of its first hydrogen fuel cell vehicle will be exhibited at the November 2013 Tokyo Motor Show, and in the United States at the January 2014 Consumer Electronics Show.

Toyota’s first hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles to be sold commercially, the Toyota Mirai (Japanese for “future”), was unveiled at the November 2014 Los Angeles Auto Show. In January 2015 it was announced that production of the Mirai fuel cell vehicle would increase from 700 units in 2015 to approximately 2,000 in 2016 and 3,000 in 2017. Sales in Japan began on 15 December 2014 at a price of ¥6.7 million (~US$57,400). The Japanese government plans to support the commercialization of fuel-cell vehicles with a subsidy of ¥2 million (~US$19,600). Retail sales in the U.S. began in August 2015 at a price of US$57,500 before any government incentives. Initially the Mirai will only be available in California. The market release in Europe is slated for September 2015, and initially will be available only in the UK, Germany and Denmark, followed by other countries in 2017. Pricing in Germany starts at €60,000 (~US$75,140) plus VAT (€78,540) .

Cars

Further information: List of Toyota vehicles

As of 2009, Toyota officially lists approximately 70 different models sold under its namesake brand, including sedans, coupes, vans, trucks, hybrids, and crossovers. Many of these models are produced as passenger sedans, which range from the subcompact Toyota Yaris, to compact Corolla, to mid-size Camry, and full-size Avalon. Vans include the Previa/Estima, Sienna, and others. Several small cars, such as the xB and tC, are sold under the Scion brand.

SUVs and crossovers

Toyota crossovers range from the compact Matrix and RAV4, to midsize Venza and Kluger/Highlander. Toyota SUVs range from the midsize 4Runner to full-size Land Cruiser. Other SUVs include the Prado, FJ Cruiser, Fortuner, and Sequoia.

Pickup trucks

2012 Tundra Double Cab2012 Tundra Double Cab

2015 Toyota HiLux (GUN136R) SR5 4-door utility2015 Toyota Hilux SR5 4-door utility

Toyota first entered the pickup truck market in 1947 with the SB that was only sold in Japan and limited Asian markets. It was followed in 1954 by the RK (renamed in 1959 as the Stout) and in 1968 by the compact Hilux. With continued refinement, the Hilux (simply known as the Pickup in some markets) became famous for being extremely durable and reliable, and many of these trucks from as early as the late 1970s are still on the road today, some with over 300,000 miles. Extended- and crew-cab versions of these small haulers were eventually added, and Toyota continues to produce them today under various names depending on the market.

Riding on the success of the compact pickups in the US, Toyota decided to attempt to enter the traditionally domestic-dominated full-size pickup market, introducing the T100 for the 1993 US model year, with production ending in 1998. While having a bed at the traditional full-size length of 8 feet, the suspension and engine characteristics were still similar to that of a compact pickup. It proved to be as economical and reliable as any typical Toyota pickup, but sales never became what Toyota brass had hoped for. It was criticized as being too small to appeal to the traditional American full-size pickup buyer. Another popular full-size truck essential, a V8 engine, was never available. Additionally, the truck was at first only available as a regular cab, though Toyota addressed this shortcoming and added the Xtracab version in mid-1995.

In 1999 for the 2000 model year, Toyota replaced the T100 with the larger Tundra. The Tundra addressed criticisms that the T100 did not have the look and feel of a legitimate American-style full-size pickup. It also added the V8 engine that the T100 was criticized for not having. However, the Tundra still came up short in towing capacity as well as still feeling slightly carlike. These concerns were addressed with an even larger 2007 redesign. A stronger V6 and a second V8 engine among other things were added to the option list. As of early 2010, the Tundra has captured 16% of the full-size half-ton market in the US. The all-new Tundra was assembled in San Antonio, Texas, US. Toyota assembled around 150,000 Standard and Double Cabs, and only 70,000 Crew Max’s in 2007. The smaller Tacoma (which traces its roots back to the original Hilux) was also produced at the company’s San Antonio facility.

Outside the United States, Toyota produced the Hilux in Standard and Double Cab, gasoline and diesel engine, and 2WD and 4WD versions. The BBC’s Top Gear TV show featured two episodes of a Hilux that was deemed “virtually indestructible”.

Luxury-type vehicles

Further information: List of Lexus vehicles

As of 2009, the company sold nine luxury-branded models under its Lexus division, ranging from the LS sedan to RX crossover and LX SUV. Luxury-type sedans produced under the Toyota brand included the Century, Crown, and Crown Majesta. A limited-edition model produced for the Emperor of Japan was the Century Royal.

Motorsports

Toyota has been involved in many global motorsports series. They also represent their Lexus brand in other sports car racing categories. Toyota also makes engines and other auto parts for other Japanese motorsports including formula Nippon, Super GT, formula 3 and formula Toyota series. Toyota also runs a driver development programme known as the Toyota Young Drivers Program, which they made for funding and educating future Japanese motorsports talent. Toyota Motorsport GmbH, with headquarters in Cologne, Germany, has been responsible for Toyota’s major motorsports development including Formula One, the World Rally Championship, the Le Mans Series, and most recently the FIA World Endurance Championship. Toyota enjoyed success in all these motorsports categories. In 2002, Toyota entered Formula One as a constructor and engine supplier; however, despite having experienced drivers and a larger budget than many other teams, they failed to match their success in other categories, with five second-place finishes as their best results. On November 4, 2009, Toyota announced they were pulling out of the sport due to the global economic situation.

Toyota’s nationwide driver hunt of drivers for Etios Motor Racing Series ended up with selection of 25 drivers, who will participate in the race in 2013.

TRD

Toyota Racing Development (TRD) was brought about to help develop true high-performance racing parts for many Toyota vehicles. TRD has often had much success with their aftermarket tuning parts, as well as designing technology for vehicles used in all forms of racing. TRD is also responsible for Toyota’s involvement in NASCAR motorsports. TRD also made Lexus’s performance division “F-Sport”.

Nonautomotive activities

Aerospace

Toyota is a minority shareholder in Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation, having invested US$67.2 million in the new venture which will produce the Mitsubishi Regional Jet, slated for first deliveries in 2017. Toyota has also studied participation in the general aviationmarket and contracted with Scaled Composites to produce a proof of concept aircraft, the TAA-1, in 2002.

Philanthropy

Toyota_museum_026The Toyota Municipal Museum of Art in Aichi, sponsored by the manufacturer

Toyota supports a variety of philanthropic work in areas such as education, conservation, safety, and disaster relief.

Some of the organizations that Toyota has worked with in the US include the American Red Cross, the Boys and Girls Club, Leaders in Environmental Action for the Future (LEAF), and the National Center for Family Literacy.

The Toyota USA Foundation exists to support education in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

In addition Toyota works with nonprofits to improve their processes and operations such as the Food Bank For New York City.

Toyota also supports a variety of work in Japan.

The Toyota Foundation takes a global perspective providing grants in the three areas of human and natural environments, social welfare, and education and culture.

Higher education

Toyota established the Toyota Technological Institute in 1981, as Sakichi Toyoda had planned to establish a university as soon as he and Toyota became successful. Toyota Technological Institute founded the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago in 2003. Toyota is supporter of the Toyota Driving Expectations Program, Toyota Youth for Understanding Summer Exchange Scholarship Program, Toyota International Teacher Program, Toyota TAPESTRY, Toyota Community Scholars (scholarship for high school students), United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Internship Program, and Toyota Funded Scholarship. It has contributed to a number of local education and scholarship programs for the University of KentuckyIndiana, and others.

Robotics

Main article: Toyota Partner Robot

Toyota_Robot_at_Toyota_Kaikan_fToyota trumpet-playing robot

In 2004, Toyota showcased its trumpet-playing robot. Toyota has been developing multitask robots destined for elderly care, manufacturing, and entertainment. A specific example of Toyota’s involvement in robotics for the elderly is the Brain Machine Interface. Designed for use with wheelchairs, it “allows a person to control an electric wheelchair accurately, almost in real-time”, with his or her mind. The thought controls allow the wheelchair to go left, right, and forward with a delay between thought and movement of just 125 milliseconds. Toyota also played a part in the development of Kirobo, the world’s first ‘robot astronaut’.

Agricultural biotechnology

Toyota invests in several small start-up businesses and partnerships in biotechnology, including:

Sewing machine technology

Toyota developed an oekaki-style sewing machine called the Oekaki Renaissance, which, like others of its type, is designed to allow the user to be able to draw ideas directly onto fabric using the art of free-motion embroidery.

Environmental record

Toyota has been a leader in environmentally friendly vehicle technologies, most notably the RAV4 EV (produced from 1997 to 2003) and the Toyota Prius (1997 to present). Toyota is now working on their next generation Prius and second generation RAV4 EV both due out in 2012.

Toyota implemented its fifth Environmental Action Plan in 2005. The plan contains four major themes involving the environment and the corporation’s development, design, production, and sales. The five-year plan is directed at the, “arrival of a revitalized recycling and reduction based society.” Toyota had previously released its Eco-Vehicle Assessment System (Eco-VAS) which is a systematic life cycle assessment of the effect a vehicle will have on the environment including production, usage, and disposal. The assessment includes, “… fuel efficiency, emissions and noise during vehicle use, the disposal recovery rate, the reduction of substances of environmental concern, and CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the vehicle from production to disposal.” 2008 marks the ninth year for Toyota’s Environmental Activities Grant Program which has been implemented every year since 2001. Themes of the 2008 program consist of “Global Warming Countermeasures” and “Biodiversity Conservation.”

Since October 2006, Toyota’s new Japanese-market vehicle models with automatic transmissions are equipped with an Eco Drive Indicator. The system takes into consideration rate of acceleration, engine and transmission efficiency, and speed. When the vehicle is operated in a fuel-efficient manner, the Eco Drive Indicator on the instrument panel, lights up. Individual results vary depending on traffic issues, starting and stopping the vehicle, and total distance traveled, but the Eco Drive Indicator may improve fuel efficiency by as much as 4%. Along with Toyota’s eco-friendly objectives on production and use, the company plans to donate US$1 million and five vehicles to the Everglades National Park. The money will be used to fund environmental programs at the park. This donation is part of a program which provides US$5 million and 23 vehicles for five national parks and the National Parks Foundation. However new figures from the United States National Research Council show that the continuing hidden health costs of the auto industry to the US economy in 2005 amounted to US$56 million.

The United States EPA has awarded Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc (TEMA) with an ENERGY STAR Sustained Excellence Award in 2007, 2008 and 2009.

In 2007, Toyota’s Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) fleet average of 26.69 mpg-US (8.81 L/100 km; 32.05 mpg-imp) exceeded all other major manufacturers selling cars within the United States. Only Lotus Cars, which sold the Elise and Exige (powered by Toyota’s 2ZZ-GE engine), did better with an average of 30.2 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36.3 mpg-imp).

Current vehicles

2010 Toyota 4RunnerToyota 4Runner (1984–present, also sold as the Toyota Hilux Surf in Japan)2012 Toyota 86 Scion FR-S (8229692108)Toyota 86 (2012–present, sold as the Scion FR-S in the United States, as the Toyota GT-86 in Europe and as the Subaru BRZ)2013 Daihatsu AylaToyota Agya (2013-present, sold as the Daihatsu Ayla, in Philippines as the Toyota Wigo and in Malaysia as the Perodua Axia)2007-10 Toyota Allion T260Toyota Allion (2001–present)2008 Toyota Alphard 2nd gen. 01Toyota Alphard (2002–present)2006-09 Toyota Aurion_(GSV40R)_Sportivo_ZR6_sedan_01Toyota Aurion (2006–present, Australia)2014 Toyota Auris HSD_Hybrid_ConceptToyota Auris (2007–present)2013 Toyota Avalon NYIASToyota Avalon (1995–present, previously sold in Japan as the Toyota Pronard)2015 Toyota Avanza VelozToyota Avanza (2003–present, sold as the Daihatsu Xenia)2009 Toyota Avensis_front_20090814Toyota Avensis (1998–present, shares chassis with the Scion tC)2015 Toyota Aygo_1.0_VVT-i_x-wave_(II)_–_Frontansicht,_18._Oktober_2015,_DüsseldorfToyota Aygo (2005–present, Europe only)2005 Toyota bB 03Toyota bB (2000–present, sold as the Scion xB in the United States from 2003-2007)2008-10 Toyota Yaris (NCP93R)_YRS_sedan_(2010-12-28)Toyota Belta (2006–present, also sold as the Toyota Yaris)