Facel Vega Automobiles 1939-1964 Paris, France

Facel Vega car logo

Facel SA
Industry Automotive
Founded Facel SA 1939
Defunct 1964
Headquarters Paris, France
Key people
Jean Daninos
Products Automobiles from 1954
Website www.facel.de

Facel S.A. was a French manufacturer of steel furniture and pressed steel components, later complete automobiles to their own design, founded in 1939 to make components for Bronzavia’s military aircraft. In 1945 in conjunction with Metallon Facel began to make short-run special bodies, coupés or cabriolets, for Simca, Ford, Panhard and Delahaye.

Monocoque bodies without a chassis became general for mass-produced cars and Facel lost their big customers. French niche manufacturers ended production. Metallon left the partnership in 1953. Facel set about designing and making their own complete cars using engines made by Chrysler, Volvo and Austin. Their first design named Vega was shown to the public in 1954.

Though initially successful Facel closed its factory in October 1964. Their Facellia model introduced in 1959 was under-developed and losses brought about by its warranty problems became impossible to recoup. Prior to closure Facel had been placed under the control of Sud Aviation subsidiary SFERMA.

Business history

Facel, Forges et Ateliers de Constructions d’Eure-et-Loir, was founded 20 December 1939 by Bronzavia, a French manufacturer of military aircraft to make special components. Jean Daninos, technical director of Bronzavia, had begun his career with Citroen where he assisted in the design of the Traction coupés and cabriolets. He moved to Morane-Saulnier then to Bronzavia. During WW II he worked with General Aircraft in USA who were using Bronzavia patents but he returned in 1945 and took charge of Facel. Facel merged with Metallon, a tie maintained until January 1953.

Daninos put Facel to the manufacture of short-run and special complete finished bodies for the major French brands. In conjunction with l’Aluminium Français Facel designed the all-aluminium alloy Panhard Dyna X and then built around 45,000 examples for Panhard.

Luxury cars

A luxury car division was established in 1948. It made various models of Simca Sport and drew publicity by designing with Farina and then building a special body on a Bentley Mark VI chassis. The car was named Bentley Cresta. The exercise was repeated in 1951 and named Cresta II. September 1951 saw the introduction of their Ford Comète. Production of the Comète ended in 1955 when Simca took over Ford France. The styling of the Crestas and Comètes was developed into the shape of the first Vega.

Scooter bodies, truck bodies, tractor bodies, jeeps and smaller components

During the same period Facel-Metallon pressed out body panels for: Delahaye’s army jeeps (painted and upholstered) ; Simca, Delahaye and Somua’s trucks (painted and upholstered); scooters by Vespa, Piaggio and Motobécane; tractors by Massey-Ferguson and stainless-steel bumpers, hubcaps and grilles for Simca and Ford and for Renault.


In conjunction with Hispano-Suiza Facel-Metallon and Facel also turned out for Rolls-Royce combustion chambers in special metals for their jet engines.

Facel Vega

1951 Facel-Metallon bodied Bentley Mark VI

 Facel-Metallon bodied 1951 Bentley Mark VI

The marque Facel Vega was created in 1954 by Jean Daninos (brother of the humorist Pierre Daninos, who wrote Les Carnets du Major Thompson), although the Facel company had been established by the Bronzavia Company in 1939 as a subcontracting company for the aviation industry. FACEL (Forges et Ateliers de Construction d’Eure-et-Loir, in English: forge and construction workshop of the department of Eure-et-Loir) was initially a metal-stamping company but decided to expand into car manufacturing in the early 1950s. Facel entered the automobile business as a supplier of special bodies for Panhard, Delahaye and Simca.

Facel Vega FV, HK500 and Facel Vega II
Main article: Facel Vega FVS
Main article: Facel Vega Excellence
Main article: Facel Vega Facel II
1961 Facel Vega HK500 Castle Hedingham

 Facel Vega HK500 1961

The Vega production cars (FV, later and more famously the HK500) appeared in 1954 using Chrysler V8 engines, at first a 4.5-litre (275 cu in) DeSoto Hemi engine; the overall engineering was straightforward, with a tubular chassis, double wishbone suspension at the front and a live axle at the back, as in standard American practice. They were also as heavy as American cars, at about 1,800 kg (3,968 lb). Performance was brisk, with an approx 190 km/h (118 mph) top speed and 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in just under ten seconds.

Most cars were two-door hardtops with no centre pillar, but a few convertibles were built. Fully 77% of production was exported, due to the punitive Tax horsepower system in France.

The 1956 model was improved with a bigger 5.4-litre (330 cu in) Chrysler engine and updated transmission and other mechanicals. In the same year production began of a four-door model, the Excellence, with rear-hinged doors (suicide doors) at the back and no centre pillar. The pillarless design unfortunately made it less rigid and the handling was thus poorer than that of the two-door cars, and surviving examples are rare.

1959 models had even bigger engines, a 5.8-litre (354 cu in) and later a 6.28-litre (383 cu in) Chrysler V8, and were quite a bit faster despite their extra weight. The final evolution of the V8 models came in 1962 with the Facel Vega II, which was lighter, with sleeker, more modern lines, substantially faster still, and famously elegant.

Facel III av

 Facel III
1959-63 Facel Vega, french sportscar, made by Facel from 1954 to 1964 in different evolution steps, this model is one of the later cars (Facellia F-2)

 Facellia F-2, 1959 to 1963

In 1960, Facel entered the sports car market with the Facellia, a small car similar in size to the then popular Mercedes 190SL. Facellias were advertised in three body styles: cabriolet, 2+2 coupé and 4-seat coupé — all with the same mechanical parts and a 2,450 mm (96.5 in) wheelbase. Styling was similar to the Facel HK500, but with rather elegant (though fingernail-breaking) flush door handles. Following Facel Vega’s demise several of M Daninos’s styling cues were “borrowed” by Mercedes-Benz. Prices were roughly US$4,000 for the Facellia, US$5,500 for the Facel III and US$6,000 for the Facel 6.

With the idea of creating a mass-produced all-French sports car competing with the Alfa Romeos, Facel moved away from American engines. The Facellia had a 4-cylinder 1.6 L DOHC engine built in France by Paul Cavallier of the Pont-à-Mousson company (which already provided manual gear boxes for the company’s larger models). The engine had only two bearings supporting each camshaft, using special steels, as opposed to the usual four or five. Despite the metallurgical experience of Pont-à-Mousson, this resulted in excessive flex, timing problems and frequent failures. Famed engineers Charles Deutsch and Jean Bertin were called in to solve the issues, but it was not enough and the engine was pronounced a disaster and the Facellia with it. Company president, Jean Daninos having been obliged to resign in August 1961 in response to the company’s financial problems, the new boss, a former oil company executive called André Belin, gave strict instructions to the after-sales department to respond to customer complaints about broken Facellia engines by replacing the units free of charge without creating “difficulties”. The strategy was intended to restore confidence among the company’s customer base. It would certainly have created a large hole in the income statement under the “warranty costs” heading, but it may have been too late for customer confidence.

Volvo engine

The troublesome engine was replaced with a Volvo B18 powerplant in the Facel III, but the damage was done. Production was stopped in 1963 and despite the vision of it being a “volume” car only 1100 were produced – still enough to make this Facel’s highest production number. Facel lost money on every car they built, the luxury car side of the company being supported entirely by the other work done by Facel Metallon, Jean Daninos’s obsession being very similar to that of David Brown of Aston Martin.

The small Facellia met with little success and the losses from this, due to strong competition at the luxury end of the market, killed off the business which closed its doors at the end of October 1964. What was, according to some, the best small Facel, the Facel 6, which used an Austin-Healey 2.8-litre engine, came too late to save the company with fewer than 30 having been produced when the financial guarantors withdrew their support.


Prominent owners of Facel Vegas (mainly of Facel IIs) included Pablo Picasso, Ava Gardner, Christian Dior, Herb Alpert, Joan Collins, Ringo Starr, Max Factor Jr, Joan Fontaine, Stirling Moss, Tony Curtis, several Saudi princes, Dean Martin, Fred Astaire, Danny Kaye, Louis Malle, The President of Mexico, François Truffaut, Robert Wagner, Anthony Quinn, Hassan II, King of Morocco, Debbie Reynolds, the Shah of Persia, Frank Sinatra, Maurice Trintignant, Brian Rix and French Embassies around the world. Race-car driver Stirling Moss would drive his HK500 from event to event rather than fly.

The French writer Albert Camus died in a Facel Vega FV3B driven by his publisher, Michel Gallimard. At the time of his death, Camus had planned to travel by train, with his wife and children, but at the last minute accepted his publisher’s proposal to travel with him.

In the 1989 film “Dealers”, Paul McGann, as Daniel Pascoe, drove a Facel ll.

A Facel Vega HK500 appears in computer-animated form in the film Ratatouille (Pixar, 2007), driven by one of the main characters.

A Facel Vega Facellia appeared in the music video for Caravan Palace‘s Dramophone.

A 1958 Facel Vega HK500 appeared in the 1961 Movie Goodbye Again starring Ingrid Bergman, Yves Montand and Anthony Perkins.


Facel Vega FVVega FV1956 Early Facel Vega FVS (1956 FV2B), combining the first front design with panoramic windshieldFacel Vega FVSFacel Vega HK500 HK KidFacel Vega HK500Facel Vega Facel II Coupé 89Facel Vega IIFacel-Vega Excellence front 14

1959 Facel Vega Excellence

Facel Vega Excellence EX2 Berline 2xFacel Vega ExcellenceFacel Vega Facellia                     Facel Vega Facellia


1954-1964-facel-vega-6a - kopie1964 Facel Vega Facel 6 - kopie1964 Facel Vega Facel 6 a - kopie1964 Facel Vega Facel 6 facel 6 - kopie1964 Facel Vega Facel 6, Paris Motor Show - kopieFACEL 6 Brochure - kopieFacel VI Pub2 - kopieFacel 6

1950 Simca 8 Sport Cabriolet 0011951 Facel-Metallon bodied Bentley Mark VI1954 facel vega paris1954-1964-facel-vega-6a1955 facel vega fv 1 cabrio1955 Facel Vega FV21955 Facel Vega1956 Early Facel Vega FVS (1956 FV2B), combining the first front design with panoramic windshield1956 facel excellence paris1956 facel fv-56 coupe1956 facel vega 1956 coupe1956 facel vega fvb2 convertible1957 facel excellence1957 facel vega fv31957 Facel Vega FV4 Typhoon1957 Facel Vega FVS Coupe Factory Photo1957-58 facel vega1958 facel coupe1958 facel excellence1958 Facel Vega Excellence!1958 Facel Vega Excellence1958 Facel Vega Hardtop Sedan1958-61 Facel Vega HK 500, french sportscar, made by Facel1959 facel AAI176 facel vega1959 facel excellence ad1959 facel hk 5001959 Facel Vega Excellence1959-63 Facel Vega, french sportscar, made by Facel from 1954 to 1964 in different evolution steps, this model is one of the later cars (Facellia F-2)1960 facel excellence1960 facel facellia 1600 ad1960 Facel Vega Excellence gr1960 facel vega facellia paris1960 facel vega hk 500 adv1960 Facel Vega HK500 ana 45a1960 Facel Vega HK500 Saloon b1961 facel vega facel 21961 Facel Vega Facellia F21961 Facel Vega HK500 Castle Hedingham1962 facel 1962 facel II1962 facel 1962 facellia f21962 facel 1962 facellia1962 Facel Vega 21962 facel vega facellia cabrio1962 facel vega facellia tyl1963 facel vega 1963 facel III1963 facel vega facellia 2+21963 Facel Vega, Facel II

1963 Facel Vega1964 facel vega 1964 f6 coupe1964 Facel Vega Facel 6 - kopie1964 Facel Vega Facel 6 a1964 Facel Vega Facel 6 facel 61964 Facel Vega Facel 6, Paris Motor Show1964 facel vega facel II1964 Facel Vega Facel III de 1964, avant.1965 Facel Vega FX112322651_1244391632254206_2265457341616462859_o12339496_1244391968920839_1742041421457936550_o12356685_1244392115587491_226191231649501934_o12356704_1244392168920819_6115796892618100695_oFACEL 6 BrochureFacel III avFacel IIIFacel Vega 6.3 l Chrysler Typhoon engineFacel Vega ArtcuralFacel vega ArtcurialFacel Vega ArteriorFacel Vega backFacel Vega car logoFacel Vega club meeting. Impressive!Facel Vega concept.Facel Vega Excellence EX2 Berline 2xFacel Vega Excellence EX2, in front of earlier Excellence with more pronounced tailfinsFacel Vega Excellence IF-67-04 €165000Facel Vega Facel II Coupé 89Facel Vega Facel II in front of the Facel-Metallon factoryFacel Vega Facel II rearFacel Vega FacelliaFacel Vega french sportscar FFacel Vega FVFacel vega FV2B €225000Facel Vega GK-82-97 NLFacel Vega HeaderFacel Vega HF-95-YJFACEL VEGA HK500 - coachwork by Carrozzeria Zagato of MilanFacel Vega HK500 adfacel vega hk500 extFacel Vega HK500 HK KidFacel Vega HK700Facel Vega InteriorFacel Vega LogoFacel Vega SymboolFacel VegaFacel VI Pub2FacelFacel-Vega Excellence front 14Facel-Vega FV Rear-viewFord CometeIntroductie HK500Logo



  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e L’Histoire Facel-Vega accessed 25 August 2015
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Sedgwick, Michael. “The Facel Vega 1954 – 1964”.
  3. Jump up^ “New Car Prices and Used Car Book Values”. NADAguides. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
  4. Jump up^ Björklund, Bengt, ed. (March 1962). “Från skilda fronter” [From different fronts]. Illustrerad Motor Sport (in Swedish). No. 3 (Lerum, Sweden). p. 28.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b “Automobilia”. Toutes les voitures françaises 1962 (salon Paris oct 1961) (Paris: Histoire & collections). Nr. 19: Page 34. 1200.
  6. Jump up^ Hervé Alphand, the French Ambassador to the United States, used theirs, an Excellence, from 1956 to 1965. It was sold @ Bonhams in Philadelphia 8 Oct 2012 for $159,000.
  7. Jump up^ “Top Gear Facel Vega HK500”. YouTube. 2009-07-26. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
  8. Jump up^ Tegler, Eric (March 1, 2007). “1959 Facel Vega HK500: For the Few Who Own the Finest”. Autoweek.
  9. Jump up^ de Gaudemar, Antoine (1994-04-16), This one’s had a good start born in the middle of a move, Guardian, retrieved 2008-12-21
  10. Jump up^ “KIAD MA in Fine Art: a student run seminar”. Raimes.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
  11. Jump up^ “Caravan Palace – Dramophone”. YouTube. 2012-10-23. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
  12. Jump up^ “”Goodbye Again, 1961″: cars, bikes, trucks and other vehicles”. IMCDb.org. Retrieved 2016-05-15.

External links

Facel Vega car logo



Somua machinery and trucks and buses, France

Somua, an acronym for Société d’outillage mécanique et d’usinage d’artillerie, was a French company that manufactured machinery and vehicles. A subsidiary of Schneider-Creusot, Somua was based in Saint-Ouen, a suburb of Paris.

In 1930 Somua introduced several models of trucks equipped with advanced diesel engines, half cabins and three axles and with payloads from 10 to 13 tonnes. Somua also produced a lighter range with five to eight tonnes payload, equipped with gasoline engines. In 1936 Somua produced a railcar for PLM, the XS 1 to 11.


Arguably the most famous product in Somua’s history was its 20-ton World War II tank, the Somua S35 and the Somua S40. Furthermore, France’s first tank in 1916, the Schneider CA1, as well as later in 1918 some Renault FT tanks, were manufactured by Somua in their Saint-Ouen facility during World War I.

Somua’s production of trucks practically ceased between 1943 and 1946. However, in 1944 the company developed a truck under license from the Swedish Hesselman company. Named the JL 12 and equipped with a flex-fuel four cylinder engine, the vehicle did not impress the “Commission des plans de modernisation de l’automobile”, which decided in 1946 to merge Somua with Willème and Panhard to form a new company, the Générale française de l’automobile (GFA).


In 1946 Somua launched a new range of trucks, named JL 15, with a five-speed transmission to exploit the 130 horsepower delivered by the 8.6 liter six-cylinder diesel engine. It was available with six choices of chassis: 6.30 meters to 10.89 meters and 2 or 3 axles, supporting 11 to 16 tonnes payload. The JL 15 was available in truck or bus configuration – the models were respectively the JL 15T and JL 15LO.

In 1948 Somua built two double 1500V DC EMU rail engines for SNCF. They mainly operated in the South West region of France.


In 1955 Somua introduced the JL 19, available with two or three axles and powered by a six-cylinder diesel engine, the D615 9.3 liter engine, producing 180 hp and with a manual ten speed transmission. The JL 19 was available as a carrier or tractor, with five different chassis, and bore a payload of up to 26 tonnes. Around this time Latil, the heavyweight vehicle division of Renault, and Somua were merged under the LRS brand, which later became Saviem.

In 1962, Somua introduced a new JL range, with a new cab with four headlights (which came from the Saviem group). The base JL model had a 6.8 to 12.75 tonnes payload. The JL20 tractor had a 520D6T Henschel direct-injection six-cylinder 204 horsepower diesel engine and a 10 speed transmission and 35 tonnes gross weight.


The company was a minor manufacturer of trolleybuses, building a total of just 55, one in 1938 and the others in the period 1947–55. Another French manufacturer, Vétra, supplied the “overwhelming majority” of trolleybuses in use on French systems during the relevant period. Somua-built trolleybuses used electrical propulsion equipment from Westinghouse.



1929 SOMUA-Kegresse MCG-4

1929 SOMUA-Kegresse MCG-4

1930 Somua Pumper Fire Truck Sales Brochure France wj7916-WSRCRZ

1930 Somua Pumper Fire Truck Sales Brochure France wj7916-WSRCRZ

1934 SOMUA MCG-4 bolster-type tractor

1934 SOMUA MCG-4 bolster-type tractor1935 S Somua 1

1935 S Somua 1

1935 SOMUA MCG-5

1935 SOMUA MCG-51936 SOMUA MCG Saumur 011936 SOMUA MCG Saumur 011936 SOMUA MCG5, in the Musée des Blindés, France

1936 SOMUA MCG5, in the Musée des Blindés, France1935 Somua MCL 5

PANHARD (LEVASSOR) since 1981 Paris France


Industry Manufacturing
Founded 1891
Founder(s) René PanhardEmile Levassor
Headquarters ParisFrance
Products Cars
02 Panhard-levassor

Panhard et Levassor (1890-1895). This model was the first automobile in Portugal
03 1894 Panhard & Levassor

Panhard et Levassor’s

Daimler Motor Carriage, 1894

04 1933 PanhardLevassorX74

1933 Panhard et Levassor X74
06 1955 DB Panhard HBR

1955 DB Panhard HBR
07 1960 Panhard DB Le Mans 2 cyl 850 ccm 60 PS

1960 Panhard DB Le Mans
08 Panhard 24

1963-1967 Panhard 24

Panhard is a French manufacturer of light tactical and military vehicles. Its current incarnation was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005. Panhard had been under Citroën ownership, then PSA (after the 1974 Peugeot Citroën merger), for 40 years. The combined company now uses the Panhard name; this was decided based on studies indicating that the Panhard name had better brand recognition worldwide than the Auverland name. Panhard once built civilian cars but ceased production of those in 1968. Many of its military products however end up on the civilian market via third sources and as military/government surplus vehicles. Panhard also built railbuses between the wars.


Panhard was originally called Panhard et Levassor, and was established as a car manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887.

Early Years

Panhard et Levassor sold their first automobile in 1890. based on a Daimler engine license. Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimler’s interests in France. Following Sarazin’s 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazin’s widow Louise to carry on her late husband’s agency. The Panhard et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890. Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, and shared improvements with one another.

These first vehicles set many modern standards, but each was a one-off design. They used a clutch pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox. The vehicle also featured a front-mounted radiator. An 1895 Panhard et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower (3.0 kW; 4.1 PS) with a steering wheel, believed to be one of the earliest employments of the principle.

In 1891, the company built its first all-Levassor design, a “state of the art” model: the Systeme Panhard consisted of four wheels, a front-mounted engine with rear wheel drive, and a crude sliding-gear transmission, sold at 3500 francs. (It would remain the standard until Cadillac introducedsynchromesh in 1928.) This was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, who formed his own car company.

In 1895, 1,205 cc (74 cu in) Panhard et Levassors finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr. Arthur Krebs succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, and held the job until 1916. He turned the Panhard et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturer of automobiles before World War I.

Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard et Levassor developed the Panhard rod, which became used in many other types of automobiles as well.

From 1910 Panhard worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology that had been patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard & Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, but these were offered alongside cars powered by sleeve valve power units. Following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhard’s own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard cars used sleeve valve engines.

The First World War

Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, Panhard & Levassor’s 18CV and 20CV models were the official presidential cars.

During the war Panhard, like other leading automobile producers, concentrated on war production, including large numbers of military trucks, V12-cylinder aero-engines, gun components, and large 75 and 105 diameter shells.

The military were also keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP. General Joffre himself (not, till December 1916, promoted Marshal of France) used two 35HP Panhard Type X35s with massive 4-cylinder 7,360cc engines for his personal transport, and these were frequently to be seen by Parisians carrying military leaders between the front-line and the Élysée Palace.

Between two world wars

Following the outbreak of peace in 1918, Panhard resumed passenger car production in March 1919 with the 10HP Panhard Type X19 which used a 4-cylinder 2,140cc engine. This was followed three months later by three more 4-cylinder models which will have been familiar to any customers whose memories pre-dated the war, but they now incorporated ungraded electrics and a number of other modifications. For the 15th Paris Motor Show, in October 1919, Panhard were displaying four models, all with four cylinder engines, as follows:

  • Panhard Type X19 2,150 cc / 10 HP
  • Panhard Type X31 2,275 cc / 12 HP
(This replaced the 12 HP Panhard Type 25 for 1920.)
  • Panhard Type X28 3,175 cc / 16 HP
  • Panhard Type X29 4,850 cc / 20 HP

By 1925, all Panhard’s cars were powered by Knight sleeve valve engines that used steel sleeves. The steel sleeves were thinner and lighter than the cast iron ones that had been fitted in Panhard sleeve valve engines since 1910, and this already gave rise to an improved friction coefficient permitting engines to run at higher speeds. To reduce further the risk of engines jamming, the outer sleeves, which are less thermally stressed than the inner sleeves, were coated on their inner sides with an anti-friction material, employing a patented technique with which Panhard engineers had been working since 1923. This was one of several improvements applied by Panhard engineers to the basic Knight sleeve-valve engine concept.

In 1925 a 4.8 litre (292ci) model set the world record for the fastest hour run, an average of 185.51 km/h (115.26 mph).

A surprise appeared on the Panhard stand at the 20th Paris Motor Show in October 1926, in the shape of the manufacturer’s first six cylinder model since before the war. The new Panhard 16CV “Six” came with a 3445cc engine and sat on a 3540 mm wheelbase. At the show it was priced, in bare chassis form, at 58,000 francs. Of the nine models displayed for the 1927 model year, seven featured four cylinder engines, ranging in capacity from 1480cc (10CV) to 4845cc (20CV), and in price from 31,000 francs to 75,000 francs (all in bare chassis form). Also on show was an example of the 8-cylinder 6350cc (35CV) “Huit” model which Panhard had offered since 1921 and which at the 1926 show was priced by the manufacturer in bare chassis form at 99,000 francs.

Panhard et Levassor’s last pre-war car was the unusually styled monocoque Dynamic series, first introduced in 1936.

Panhard et Levassor also produced railbuses, including some for the metre gauge Chemin de Fer du Finistère.

Post-war era

After World War II the company was renamed Panhard (without “Levassor”), and produced light cars such as the Dyna XDyna ZPL 1724 CT and 24 BT. The company had long noted the weight advantages of aluminum, and this as well as postwar government steel rationing (designed to limit new car models to ensure an orderly return to production at the major firms), encouraged the firm to proceed with the expensive alternative of making the bodies and several other components out of aluminum; thus the Dyna X and early Dyna Z series 1 had aluminum bodies. Unfortunately, cost calculations by Jean Panhard himself, inheriting son and managing director of the firm, failed to account fully for all of the extra cost of aluminum vs steel, as his calculation were made for the sheet metal panel area actually utilized per body shell, and erroneously did not account for the cut offs and scrap of each of the stampings making up the shell. Once in production, a re-examination cost analysis showed a cost of 55,700fr for aluminum shells and only 15,600fr for steel. The use of aluminum had pushed the firm perilously close to bankruptcy, and a rush engineering job saw the firm return to steel. Thus, the later Dyna Z (from mid September 1955) and the successor PL 17 bodies were steel, and the major stampings retained the heavier gauge intended for durability with aluminum, so as to avoid complete replacement of the stamping dies.

The air-cooled flat-twin engine of the Dyna was also used by Georges Irat for his “Voiture du Bled” (VdB) off-road vehicle, built in Morocco in small numbers in the early 1950s.

The styling of the Dyna Z was distinctively smooth and rounded, with an emphasis on aerodynamics and an overall minimalist design. The 24 CT was a later (fr summer 1963-on) stylish 2+2 seater; the 24 BT being a version of the same with a longer wheelbase and space for four.

For a period after the war, the Panhard-based Monopole racing cars received unofficial support from Panhard (as did DB and other clients such as Robert Chancel), using it to good effect in winning the “Index of Performance” class at Le Mans in 1950, 1951, and 1952. In 1953, Panhard moved on to a more direct involvement with Chancel, which however came to an end after the deadly 1955 Le Mans. In the latter half of the fifties and the early sixties, the Deutsch Bonnet racers (“DB Panhard”) picked up this mantle and went on to dominate the “Index of Performance” as well as other small-engine racing classes.

The last Panhard passenger car was built in 1967. After assembling 2CV panel trucks for Citroen in order to utilize capacity in face of falling sales, and raising operating cash by selling ownership progressively to Citroën (full control as of 1965), in fall of 1967 the civilian branch was absorbed by Citroën, and the marque was retired. Since 1968 Panhard has only made armored vehicles.

In 2004, Panhard lost a competition to another manufacturer of military vehicles, Auverland, for the choice of the future PVP of the French Army. This allowed Auverland to purchase Panhard in 2005, then a subsidiary of PSA Peugeot Citroën. However, the fame of Panhard being greater, it was decided to retain the name; the PVP designed by Auverland would bear a Panhard badge.

Car models

Panhard models

Type Construction period
Panhard Dyna X 1945–1954
Panhard Junior 1951–1956
Panhard Dyna Z 1953–1959
Panhard PL 17 1959–1965
Panhard CD 1962–1965
Panhard 24 1963–1967

Models with Panhard technology

Type Construction period
Dyna Veritas 1949–1954
Rosengart Scarlette 1952
DB HBR 5 1954–1961
DB Le Mans 1958–1964
Sera-Panhard 1959–1961

Current military models

09 French VBL

VBL of the French Army



PVPXL / AVXL: an enlarged AVL

TC 54

TC 10

TC 24


Peugeot P4

ERC 90 Sagaie

VBR: enlarged VBL multipurpose armored vehicle

VAP: Véhicule d’Action dans la Profondeur (deep penetration vehicle), VBL based special operations vehicle

VPS: P4 based SAS Patrol vehicle

Vehicles in service

Panhard has supplied more than 18,000 military wheeled vehicles to over 50 countries with a range of combat vehicles weighing less than 10 tonnes, as follows:

5,400 armoured wheeled vehicles (AMLERC 90 Sagaie, and LYNX VCR 6×6)

2,300 VBL in 16 countries which includes 1600 in service with the French Army

933 A4 AVL—PVP—selected by the French Army

9,500 vehicles under 7 tonnes; most being jeep-like vehicles produced under the Auverland name.


10 1996 110 ans de l'automobile au Grand Palais Panhard et Levassor Wagonette 2cyl 4 CV
Panhard et Levassor 4 CV with Wagonette body (1896)
11 1898 Panhard-Levassor Landaulet type AL
Panhard et Levassor Landaulette type AL (1898)
12 PSM V57 D609 Panhard and levassor vehicle
Panhard et Levassor automobile circa 1900
13 PSM V57 D609 Motor of vehicle
Panhard et Levassor water-cooled 2-cylinder automobile engine, circa 1900
14 1901 Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton à conduite avancée Carosserie Kellner
Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton coachwork by Kellner (1901)
15 1902 Panhard et Levassor 7 CV bicylindre Voiturette par Clément-Rothschild
Panhard et Levassor 7 CV Voiturette (1902)
16 1903 Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc
Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc (1903)
17 1914 Panhard-Levassor
Panhard et Levassor 10 CV (1914)
18 Castle Hill, Lincoln Vehicle
Panhard et Levassor X46 2300cc (1924) Saloon by Salmons and Son, Tickford
1930 Panhard Cabrio-Coupé - Pourtout
Panhard et Levassor Cabrio-Coupé Pourtout
20 1934 Panhard - 1ère Eclipse, nov. 1934 PourtoutPanhard et Levassor Eclipse (1934) Pourtout
21 1952 Panhard X 86
Panhard Dyna X 86 Saloon (1952)
22 Panhard Dyna Allemano
Panhard Dyna 750 Coupé Allemano (1952)
23 Panhard Dyna Z 3
Panhard Dyna Z (1953)
24 Panhard 24 1ct
Panhard 24 CT, (1966)
25 AMD Panhard 178 Saumur
26 Panhard EBR in the Musée des Blindés, France, pic-4
27 SATORY 9 JANVIER 2014 094
26 Peugeot P4 dsc06852

See also

Panhard et Levassor Dynamic


Panhard et Levassor Dynamic 130, 140, 160

1 1937 MHV P&L Dynamic 011937-mhv-pl-dynamic

Manufacturer Société des Anciens Etablissements Panhard et Levassor
Production 1936 – 1940
Assembly Porte d’Ivry districtParis
Designer Louis Bionier
Body and chassis
Class Large car
Body style 4-door saloon
4-door “6-light” saloon
2-door coupé
2-door cabriolet
Layout Front enginerear-wheel drive
Engine 2,516 cc – 3,834 cc sleeve-valve I6
Wheelbase 2,600 mm (102 in)
2,800 mm (110 in)
3,000 mm (118 in)
Length 4,750 mm (187 in) to 5,150 mm (203 in)
Width 1,900 mm (75 in)

The Panhard et Levassor Dynamic is a large car introduced by the French auto-maker Panhard et Levassor as a replacement for the company’s CS model at the Paris Motor Show in October 1936.

2 1939 PanhardLevassorDynamic140TypX81

1939 Dynamic 140 six-light Berline(X81)
3 1936 MHV P&L Dynamic 05

A Dynamic 140 Coupé Major

The bodies

For the Dynamic, Panhard et Levassor’s in-house designer Louis Bionier came up with a streamlined design, featuring half-covered rear wheel arches, an eye-catching three-piece front windscreen with three wipers, and headlights integrated into the front wings. All these features caught on with other auto-makers in subsequent years, and headlights integrated into the bodywork became mainstream, but in 1936 they gave the car a very modern look.

The bodies were also of great technical interest. Despite its size, the Dynamic offered little comfort to traditional coachbuilders, being the first French car in the luxury class to feature a steel body electrically welded together and constructed as a monocoque, without a separate chassis.

A “six-light” four-door saloon/sedan bodied version was offered with a long passenger cabin, but no trunk/boot. This version, introduced in the fall of 1937, could seat nine. A four-door saloon/sedan (“berline”) was also available with a shorter passenger cabin, but with a protruding boot/trunk. The car was also unusually wide, allowing for three abreast seating: on early cars, Panhard et Levassor positioned the steering wheel in the middle of the front panel. It was hoped that this would provide a superior view out. The centrally mounted steering was probably the feature that attracted the most comment when the car appeared at the 1936 Paris Motor Show, and Panhard et Levassor advertised it as a “common sense” solution during a period when French automakers were switching over from right hand drive (which had been virtually universal in France twenty years earlier) to left hand drive (which would be virtually universal in France twenty years later). However, the market-place found the central steering wheel an innovation too far and drivers complained about the contortions necessary to slide from the side of the wide car to the central position necessary to control it. From 1938 the Panhard et Levassor Dynamic featured a conventionally positioned steering wheel.

There were also two-seater coupé versions and a cabriolet version offered, but by the end of 1938 these “minority“ models had accounted for only 358 cars.


A first prototype, known as the Dynamic 20 CV, was presented in March 1936. This was powered by a six-cylinder in-line engine of 3,485 cm3 with cylinder diameters that indeed corresponded with the French 20 hp taxation class. However, the car that entered production and was offered for sale from May 1935 as the Dynamic 130 came with the six-cylinder in-line sleeve-valve engine of 2,516 cc from the predecessor model, the Panhard et Levassor CS. This placed it in the French 14 CV taxation class. The “130” in the name was to indicate a claimed top speed of 130 km/h (81 mph).

Along with the Dynamic 130, Panhard et Levassor offered a Dynamic 140, which shared its engine with the (initially still in production) “CS Spécial” model. The engine size on this version was 2.861 cc (16 CV). Actual claimed horsepower was 75 hp (55 kW) and it was this “Dynamic 140” that was the most popular with customers, 2,230 having been produced by 1940 when war brought production to an end. By this time the car had become the last production sleeve-valve-engined car in the world.


While three wheelbases were available, the shortest was largely restricted to the (soon discontinued) Coupé Junior model and the longest to the Berline. Most Dynamics (Majors) ended up having the 280 cm wheelbase. In 1937 Panhard et Levassor introduced a range topping “Dynamic 160”, as a successor to the Panhard et Levassor DS. This car was fitted with a 3,834 cc (22 CV) version of the Panhard et Levassor six-cylinder in-line engine, with 100 PS (74 kW). 153 had been produced by 1938.


Panhard et Levassor Dynamics were never particularly cheap, which reflected the technological progress that they represented. However, less than six months after the October 1936 launch Panhard et Levassor updated their price list, many the prices published in February 1937 involving eye-watering increases of more than 20%. After February 1937 the short wheelbase “Junior 130” (coupe) 14CV Dynamic was priced at 53,850 Francs while prices for the four door “Berline 130” started at 58,850 Francs. For comparison, the Renault Primaquatre, admittedly an older and less flamboyant design from a manufacturer who still fitted side-valve engines in all its models, but nonetheless with an engine size and wheelbase length that also placed it squarely in the same 14CV category as the Panhard et Levassor, was priced at 22,500 Francs for a “Berline” (saloon/sedan) in October 1936, which had risen to 25,500 Francs in October 1937 Price lists from Talbot, whose Minor was launched in October 1937 with a list of 42,500 Francs for a 13CV four seater compact four door “Berline” from a manufacturer with a more modern model range, also left the listed prices for the Panhard et Levassor Dynamic looking optimistically high.

Wartime production

In September 1939 France declared war on Germany and in June 1940 the German army rapidly invaded and occupied Northern France. Before September 1939, unlike Renault, Panhard et Levassor had not supplied cars to the French army, but with the outbreak of war Panhard et Levassor received an order for 180 of the larger-engined Dynamics, with the emphasis on the long cabined “six-light” sedans/salons. The army cars, generally reserved for senior ranks, are in most instances recognisable from the spare wheel mounted on the outside of the rear panel. Civilian versions, even with the long cabin body, kept the spare wheel inside the car.

As the war progressed, Panhard et Levassor found it prudent to transfer production to their site at Tarbes in the extreme southwest, and a gazogene powered version of the Dynamic was produced albeit only in small numbers. However, following the defeat of France in June 1940 Panhard et Levassor, along with other auto-makers was increasingly obliged to manufacture military supplies.

01 27 SATORY 9 JANVIER 2014 094 1894 Panhard & Levassor 1896 110 ans de l'automobile au Grand Palais Panhard et Levassor Wagonette 2cyl 4 CV 1898 Panhard-Levassor Landaulet type AL 1901 Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton à conduite avancée Carosserie Kellner 1902 Panhard et Levassor 7 CV bicylindre Voiturette par Clément-Rothschild 1903 Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc 1914 Panhard-Levassor 1916 Panhard special 1925 Panhard & Levassor 16CV Char-à-Bancs 1930 Panhard Cabrio-Coupé - Pourtout 1930 Panhard-Levassor K34 19 1931 Panhard 1933 PanhardLevassorX74 1934 MHV Panhard&Levassor K63 1934 Panhard - 1ère Eclipse,  Pourtout 1936 MHV P&L Dynamic 05 1936 Panhard Bus gazogene 1936 1937 MHV P&L Dynamic 01 1937 MHV P&L Dynamic 1938 PANHARD équivalent du camion PANHARD K93 1939 PanhardLevassorDynamic140TypX81 1947 Verney LP Panhard 4HL Dieselmotor 5700cc 1948 Isobloc Panhard w947 DP2 1948 Isobloc W 947DP Panhard Diesel 5700cc 85ps 1948 Panhard 4HL Touringcar Lourdes 1950 Panhard B-39110a Den Oudsten Woerden 1952 Panhard X 86 1955 DB Panhard HBR 1960 Panhard DB Le Mans 2 cyl 850 ccm 60 PS AMD Panhard 178 Saumur bus-salta-stahv-panhard-salta-img Bussen PANHARD Sla Lourdes 8570463 orig Castle Hill, Lincoln Vehicle French VBL Panhard & Levassor K61 Zuroc Panhard 4HL Touringcar Lourdes Panhard 24 1ct Panhard 24 Panhard Adrien Panhard Autobus Panhard Dyna Allemano Panhard Dyna Z 3 Panhard EBR in the Musée des Blindés, France, pic-4 Panhard IE21 Panhard IE24 gd Panhard Lourdes Panhard Micheline Panhard-levassor panhard-levassor-bus-parisien-900 Peugeot P4 dsc06852 PSM V57 D609 Motor of vehicle PSM V57 D609 Panhard and levassor vehicle Somua-Panhard OP5

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1912 tracteur Latil electr trolley


1912 tracteur Latil electr trolley



1912 Latil1912 Renard-Latil

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1913 latil electrique

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1913 Latil-TAR-essais

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1913 tractor latil

1913-22 Trateur Latil + images (2)

1913-22 Trateur Latil + images

1914 Camion Latil Port Sainte Marie

1914 Camion Latil Port Sainte Marie



Salon Niort 2012

1937 Forest tractor Latil
A forest tractor made by Latil in 1937.
Nordeuropa, Soldaten beim Start eines Ballons

Latil truck used by the GermanWehrmacht in 1941.

Latil was a French automaker specializing in heavy duty vehicles, such as truckstractors and buses, from 1898 to 1955.

 History of the Compagnie Latil

In 1897, Auguste Joseph Frederic Georges Latil patented a system of “broken transmission”, allowing the steerable wheels to be also the driving wheels (front-wheel drive).

He exploited his idea through different companies :

  • In 1898 La société Korn et Latil was founded by the engineer Georges Latil and the mechanic Alois Korn in Marseille. They invented a system that could easily replace the steering axle part of horse towed wagons by a fully motorised part.
  • In 1903 the firm moved to Levallois-Perret, changed the name to “Avant-train Latil” and had great success transforming all kinds of horse powered wagons.
  • 1908, Charles Blum joined the company. The company becomes “Compagnie Française de Mécanique et d’Automobile – Avant-Train Latil” and begins to build trucks of 3 tons loading capacity.

Latil TAR

After the World War I, Latil began to build tractors for agriculture and forest exploitation and trucks for civil engineering.In 1911, Latil designed and built its first four-wheel drive vehicle. This type of vehicle interested the French Army in 1913 for its ability to tow heavy artillery on every field and the TAR (Tracteur d’Artillerie Roulante) was built. The buyers of this vehicle could benefit from a 30 percent rebate in compensation for mobilization in case of war.


In 1955, Latil was merged with Somua and Renault’s truck and bus producing operations to form Saviem.

See also


External links



1914 latil TH

1914 latil TH

1914 latil-m6-tl2-02

1914 latil-m6-tl2-02

1914 Latil-TAR-18-soldats

1914 Latil-TAR-18-soldats



1915 Latil 261-03-300x144

1915 Latil 261-03-300×144

1915 latil TAR cazes

1915 latil TAR cazes

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1915 latil tar


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1920 latil Frank

1923 Latil P3(via Snitsler & Co., 's-Gravenhage) - Geesink, Weesp A'dam

1923 Latil P3(via Snitsler & Co., ‘s-Gravenhage) – Geesink, Weesp A’dam

1934 latil TL

1924 latil TL

1924 Latil (via Snitsler & Co., 's-Gravenhage) - Pennock & CO., 's-Gravenhage busserie 5

1924 Latil (via Snitsler & Co., ‘s-Gravenhage) – Pennock & CO., ‘s-Gravenhage busserie 5

1925 Latil  Autobus - lijn  Dinteloord Roosendaal

1925 Latil Autobus – lijn Dinteloord Roosendaal © Piet Pietjouw

1925 Latil in Rotterdam om gekeurd te worden, latil

1925 Latil in Rotterdam om gekeurd te worden

1925 latil Vreewijk

1925 latil Vreewijk

1925 Latil Wijngaard vd L-7167

1925 Latil Wijngaard vd L-7167

1925 Particuliere busonderneming Brugman & Kleinjan B&K, Latil-Quist, dienst Coolsingel-Riederlaan

1925 Particuliere busonderneming Brugman & Kleinjan B&K, Latil-Quist, dienst Coolsingel-Riederlaan

1926 latil-tar-4-03

1926 latil-tar-4-03

1926 latil autobus

1926 latil autobus

1926 Latil B 1923-30 4x2 1,5t truck 10caphotolatil Bay OmarFacelli

1926 Latil B 1923-30 4×2 1,5t truck 10caphoto latil Bay Omar Facelli

1926 Latil brandweer

1926 Latil brandweer

1927 latil autobus 14pl

1927 latil autobus 14pl

1928 Latil Verheul Boskoop Nederland

1928 Latil Verheul Boskoop Nederland

1937 latil bus

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1929 caravan-latil1

1929 caravan-latil © Pascal Orsini



1929 Latil Pompenburg Katendrecht

1929 Latil Pompenburg Katendrecht

1934 latil-m14-a1-tl12ch-12

1934 latil-m14-a1-tl12ch-12

1935 latil (1)

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1935 latil 2 Bay Omar Facelli

1935 latil 2 Bay Omar Facelli

1935 Latil 10caphotolatil1 Bay OmarFacelli

1935 Latil 10 ca photo latil 1 Bay OmarFacelli

1935 latil 13

1935 latil 13


1935 Latil ad

1935 Latil ad

1935 Latil all terrain tracteur M4TX 1

1935 Latil all terrain tracteur M4TX 1

1935 latil B6

1935 latil B6

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1935 Latil Baumstamm traktor

1935 latil M1B1 cote

1935 latil M1B1 cote


1935 latil-tl-10-06

1935 Latil V3AB3, 1933-1938, 4x2 35- or 45-place bus

1935 Latil V3AB3, 1933-1938, 4×2 35- or 45-place bus

1935 latil-m2-b1-01

1935 latil-m2-b1 © Traveller Dave

1935 latil-m2-b1-05

1935 latil-m2-b1

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1936 bus Latil

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1936 Latil 71

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1936 latil autobus gazogene

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1936 latil Tractor logo phpBB

1936 latil Tractor logo phpBB

1936 Latil VAA258 05Fi 01695 W 01

1936 Latil VAA258 05Fi 01695 W 01

1936 Latil

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1937 Latil 2

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1937 Latil carr Remorque Caravane M2 Bus

1937 Latil carr Remorque Caravane M2 Bus

1937 latil LkwWH-842089OrtskommandaturNewel1 Y

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1937 Latil M2TZ 6x6

1937 Latil M2TZ 6×6

1937 Latil m7tz 001

1937 Latil m7tz 001

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1937 Latil Streamline Hotel bus

1937 Latil Streamline Hotel bus

1937 Latil tractor

1937 Latil tractor UK

1937 latil V3U6

1937 latil V3U6


1938 0701CM-Latil

1938 0701CM-Latil



1938 latil M2TZ

1938 latil M2TZ

1938 Latil tracteur

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1938 Latil Truck

1938 Latil Truck


1939 h-fourgon-latil-1939

1939 h-fourgon-latil

1939 Latil Jeep images

1939 Latil Jeep images

1939 Latil M7Z1, 1939-1940, 6x6 tractor, 31k b-w photo

1939 Latil M7Z1, 1939-1940, 6×6 tractor, 31k b-w photo

Nordeuropa, Soldaten beim Start eines Ballons

1941 Latil truck used by the German Wehrmacht

1942 Lettre-LATIL-Camion-BUS-CAR

1942 Lettre-LATIL-Camion-BUS-CAR

1944 latil-m7t1-01

1944 latil-m7t1

1948 Somua 2832175090

1948 Somua(Latil)

1949 Latil a tanker

1949 Latil

1949 Van Hool Latil

1949 Van Hool Latil

1950 Latil 6x6 Pompiers Aeroport de Paris

1950 Latil 6×6 Pompiers Aeroport de Paris

1950 latil 14a

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1951 latil10

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Buses CHAUSSON France

Buses CHAUSSON France

001 logo

Chausson Autobussen

1947 Chausson APH 47

1947 Chausson APH

In 1907 werd door drie broers Jules, Gaston en Paul Chausson te Asnières-sur-Seine opgericht de Firma Ateliers Chausson Frères, in latere jaren werd de naam gewijzigd in Société des Usines Chausson. In deze eerste beginjaren hield men zich bezig met de opbouw van koetswerken op wagens, van echte carrosserieën zoals wij dat tegenwoordig kennen was nog geen sprake. Naast de koetswerken hield Chausson zich ook bezig met de bouw van water gekoelde radiateurs, brandstoftanks, buizen, inlaatspruitstukken en uitlaten. In 1942 waren er twee belangrijke aandeelhouders in het bedrijf, t.w. Renault en Peugeot.
Hoewel men in 1945 begon aan de ontwikkeling van een kleine personenauto voorzien van een water gekoelde één cilinder-tweetact motor van 10 PK, waarbij de open carrosserie plaats bood aan twee personen, kwam de serie productie niet op gang, en werd het project afgeblazen.
Men ging zich vanaf 1946 richten op de bouw van autobussen, en niet zonder succes. Door hun uiterlijk met de voor uitstekende radiateur (koeler grill), maakte deze bussen wereld beroemd. In Frankrijk kregen ze naam „nez de cochon“, vrij vertaald tot „varkensneus“. Deze grill vond men ook terug in de Peugeot 1 tons bestelwagen.

003Bussen Chausson 47-270348 Hotschkiss 1947 Groote Markt Den Haag

In de latere modellen werd de radiateur binnen de carrosserie verwerkt, en kreeg de grill meer de vorm van een visbek.
De Firma Chausson genoot vooral in het begin van de jaren 1950 een groot succes, in vrijwel geheel Frankrijk waren deze bussen gemeengoed geworden. Door dit succes kon de firma zich expanderen en kon men de firma Chenard & Walcker overnemen. Ook werd er van de Locomotiefbouwer Brissonneau & Lotz nog een afdeling, die auto onderdelen fabriceerde, overgenomen.
In de goede jaren werkten bij Chausson 15.000 medewerkers, werkzaam in de hoofdvestiging Asnières-sur-Seine, en in de nevenvestigingen Creil, Gennevilliers, Laval, Maubeuge, Meudon en Reims.

004CHAUSSON EMA 48 Mercedes Benz

In 1959/1960 werd Chausson geheel overgenomen door Renault, eerst nog onder de naam Saviem-Chausson, doch na een paar jaar onder de naam Saviem. Dit merk was al reeds door Renault overgenomen. Maar in de jaren zeventig verdween ook de naam Saviem, en werd Renault zo langzamerhand de enige fabriek van zware bedrijfswagens en autobussen in Frankrijk. Daarmee was niet alleen de tijd van Chausson en Saviem voorbij, maar ook die van Berliet, Citroën (alleen zwaar materieel), Somua ,Unic en Willéme. De Chausson bussen waren vlak na de oorlog zo populair in Nederland omdat het nogal „grote“ bussen waren ten opzichte van al het beschikbare „nood“ materieel. Bovendien liet de Nederlandse importeur Adriaan Beers uit Den Haag in een advertentie weten dat Chausson bussen binnen 3 weken, of wellicht nog korter, leverbaar waren.

005CHAUSSON HTM 48 uit 1946

In het boek „La grande aventure des cars Chausson“ in 1988 geschreven door Nicolas Tellier, werd beschreven dat er in 1947 110 stuks complete Chausson autobussen aan Nederlandse bedrijven zijn geleverd. Nu wou ik gaan uitzoeken welke bussen dat zijn geweest, en dan op volgorde van de eerste eigenaar, maar zo U ziet is mijn lijst niet compleet. Ik heb er zelfs meer dan 110 stuks, maar kennelijk is niet altijd de 1e eigenaar bekend, of het kan ook heel goed zijn dat de schrijver misschien circa 110 stuks bedoelde. Opmerkelijk is de afwijkende Snelle Vliet 23 met zijn bergruiten. De meeste Chausson’s in Nederlanden werden geleverd met een Hotchkiss motor (type AH), een enkele kreeg een Panhard (AP) motor. EMA in Valkenswaard, die tevens Mercedes dealer was, verving de Franse motoren door er een Mercedes-Diesel in te plaatsen. Omdat deze motoren veel compacter waren kon de radiateur binnen de carrosserie gebouwd worden, en verviel het authentieke varkensneusje die deze Chausson’s zo kenmerkten. Een ander opvallend detail waren de achterwielen, die waren n.l. enkellucht gemonteerd, d.w.z. de achteras bevat slechts twee wielen, aan beide zijden slechts één wiel. Dit kwam echter op meerdere Franse bussen voor, o.a. bijv. Saviem, Renault, Somua en Isobloc.  Met dank aanhttp://www.openbaarvervoerinboskoop.nl/rubrieken/gerritgunnink/Deel167.html voor deze info in het nederlands.



De Franse Chausson, een bus die zijn tijd ver vooruit was.

Op verzoek van diverse bezoeker/lezers, een uitleg over deze toch zeer bijzondere bus.

In dit geval schrijven we over een heel bijzondere bus, een type dat bij HTM kwam als een pleister op de wonde, toen men een chronisch gebrek had aan materieel.

Na de oorlog werd door HTM zeer veel moeite gedaan de volledig ontmantelde busdienst zo snel mogelijk weer op gang te brengen. Nu was de grote moeilijkheid hierbij dat vrijwel het gehele wagenpark of geroofd of onbruikbaar was. En….dit was niet alleen bij HTM het geval, bijna alle vervoersbedrijven hadden met de zelfde problemen te kampen.

Zo stonden in de garage een aantal bussen zonder banden en andere belangrijke onderdelen. Men stond dus voor een vrijwel hopeloze taak, temeer daar de onderdelenvoorziening zo vlak na de oorlog ook niet of nauwelijks functioneerde.


GTW 47 Chausson-2

HTM was dus zeer verheugd dat zij erin slaagde in Frankrijk een aantal bussen te bestellen. Deze bestelling vond plaats in december 1945 en toen in februari 1946 als eerste lijn ’T’ weer op straat verscheen waren reeds 4 Chaussons voor deze dienst beschikbaar.

Deze Chaussons hadden een typisch Frans uiterlijk met een klein neusje en waren nog voorzien van een benzinemotor die wist waar de brandstof moest blijven.

Hoewel HTM al voor de oorlog haar wagenpark gestandaardiseerd had op dieseltractie had men gewoon geen keus en was men al met al toch zeer verheugd met deze helpers uit de nood.


Chausson  APH252 Nantes

De 41 t/m 50 werden afgeleverd in een grijze kleur.

Deze wagens hadden aanvankelijk een lopende conducteur en er werd ingestapt door een klapdeur aan de achterzijde van de bus.

In juli en augustus 1946 werd een vervolgserie afgeleverd met de nummers 51 t/m 54.

Deze waren in een groene kleur bij HTM afgeleverd.

De toenmalige pers bezong deze Franse bussen als een zee van ruimte waarin maar liefst 70 passagiers vervoerd konden worden.

Eind mei 1946 waren voor de lijnen ‘G’, ‘K’ en ‘T’ 22 Kromhout-bussen en 10 Chaussons beschikbaar met nog enige Kromhouts in herstelling.

HTM besloot de Franse bussen, die tot nu toe provisorisch voor de dienst geschikt waren gemaakt, te verbouwen tot volwaardige stadsbussen.

Begin 1946 verscheen de ‘41′ in de bekende HTM-uitmonstering. Deze wagen had nu een zitplaats voor de conducteur tegenover de ingang. Van deze ingang was de klapdeur vervangen door de gebruikelijke vouwdeuren. Tevens was een optische signaalinrichting aangebracht.

Hoewel daar wel de mogelijkheden toe aanwezig was werden deze bussen niet voorzien van richtingsfilms. Nadat eerst alleen aan de voorzijde door middel van een bordje de lijnaanduiding werd aangegeven, kregen de 41 t/m 54 tijdens de verbouwing aan de blinde zijde, achterop en vlak voor de achteringang eveneens het bekende bordje met de lijnletter.

009 Ad


Als laatste verbouwde Chausson kwam de 46 op 11 januari 1947 weer in dienst.

Voor het stadsbedrijf bleken deze benzinebussen echter toch weinig geschikt.

Er deden zich zeer veel storingen voor. Vooral in de strenge winter van 1946/1947 was het voor de passagiers duwen geblazen. Een constant gebrek aan onderdelen was er de oorzaak van dat vele Chaussons vaak langere tijd gedwongen buiten dienst stonden.

In november 1947 waren deze problemen opgelost en reden alle Chaussons weer, uitgezonderd van de ‘48′ die pas begin 1948 weer rijvaardig was.

HTM bracht in het najaar van 1947 nog richtingsaanduidingen aan boven de voorruit van deze bussen. Vlak onder de niet gebruikte filmkast werd een frame gemonteerd waar de lijnletter- en bestemmingsborden ingeschoven konden worden.

Deze richtingsborden waren bruin van kleur met witte- en gele letters.

Toen er nieuwe bussen voor de dienst beschikbaar kwamen verhuisden de Chaussons al snel naar het tweede plan. Een grote handicap van deze wagens was het zeer grote benzineverbruik waardoor het niet mogelijk was dat deze bussen een hele dienst reden. Onderweg moest dan worden bijgetankt bij de garage of bijvoorbeeld op lijn ‘G’ bij het tankstation op de Sportlaan bij de Houtrustbrug.

De Chaussons kwamen nu op de “korte” lijn ‘N’ (Vreeswijkstraat-Grote Markt), op spitsuurdiensten en later op lijn ’Y’ (Hollandse Spoor- Ypenburg).

In november 1949 kwam het moment dat HTM de gewaardeerde Franse hulpen kon missen en werden zij verkocht aan diverse touringcarondernemers in het gehele land die nog jaren plezier van deze wagens hebben gehad. Voordat deze ondernemingen de ex-HTM-Chaussons in dienst stelden werden zij grondig verbouwd en van een toerwageninterieur voorzien.

Hoewel deze serie uiteindelijk toch niet zo’n grote rol in het HTM-gebeuren heeft gespeeld waren zij zo vlak na de oorlog toch van onschatbare waarde.

Het Haags Bus Museum was dan ook zeer verheugd dat zij in 1980 in Frankrijk een dergelijke bus konden aankopen, een wagen die ooit als HTM-48 de Haagse straten zo nu en dan weer zal mogen sieren.

Deze bus werd toentertijd in Bourges in Frankrijk aangekocht en werd ruim dertig jaar later op een dieplader van de firma Gordijn naar Nederland gehaald.

Het heeft veel energie en vakmanschap gekost om deze bus weer in oude luister bij te zetten en heden ten dage horen we bij de regelmaat van de klok deze bus weer, met zijn typische rokende dieselmotor, weer door ons Haagje rijden.

B. Boomsma, Nick Roestenburg, Peter Nijbakker en Bart Rijnhouthttp://www.openbaarvervoerinboskoop.nl/delaatstebusopdolledinsdag/HTM27-04.htm


 Chausson AP48 Brebach 1a 1957


Schon 1948 wird der 2.000ste Bus ausgeliefert. Chausson Produktiepalette


1948 Chausson bus in a difficult situation

Chausson logo


Im Jahr 1907 gründeten die Brüder Gaston und Jules Chausson in France




Chausson 1a Saarpost Bus 1958




Chausson 48 b.j. 1946


Chausson 44 Hotschkiss 1946


Chausson AGB  APH52 Tekening




Chausson 1947






Hazeleger, Saviem CHAUSSON BF-XL-08






Chausson APH 2.50 de 1952


Chausson-vbc-01 Trolleybus


 Chausson APVU

030 tekening



Chausson AP52 f


Chausson K-17653  [1946]  NB-34-13 Guy [1947]

001 logo






 Chausson-apu-03 Chili






Chausson APH 2.52 n°106 et 108 de 1953


 Chausson APVU4 + Diesel moteur SOMUA


Chausson APH 2.52 n°287 de 1962


Chausson Bus WBX-Madagascar © John Veerkamp


 Chausson AH – Hotchkiss HTM 41 en 121 1946 Eiberplein




Chausson APH 2-50 (grün), Jahrgang 1951


Chausson aph2-50-1949


 Chausson 1946 Balk B-29020 NL


Chausson 1946 Balk B-29020 NL

Chausson logo






Chausson wizual

051 4x



 CTF cover1949




Chausson APH 2.52 n°189 de 1956


Chausson APVU


Chausson APH 2-522


CHAUSSON APH 522 (1961)




CHAUSSON APH 48 (1949)


CHAUSSON-Saviem boekje


Chausson DenHaag HOVM HBM 1948


Chausson-vbc-02 Trolleybus




Bussen Chausson


Chausson Hispano Suiza 1959 Spanje





001 logo


 Chausson Nederland

Chausson 242septub8

Chausson sept 1984 ub8 ©Ph. Willaert

Chausson 1949 APH 49

Chausson 1949 APH 49

Chausson AMZ-de Muynck 32

Chausson AMZ-de Muynck 32

CHAUSSON APU53 Sculptuur

CHAUSSON APU53 Sculptuur

Chausson buses 59

Chausson buses 1959



Chausson Excursion Toulouse

Chausson Excursion Toulouse

Chausson nr 22 GEBRU

Chausson nr 22 GEBRU

Chausson Poland

Chausson Poland

CHAUSSON Ringelberg 6

CHAUSSON Ringelberg 6


chausson et 215d Etoile gd

chausson18 garejunlisterbus 1955 lux-echternach

chausson18  gare junlister bus 1955 luxembourg-echternach

Chausson-bus Wernhout-Breda ca 1948

Chausson-bus Wernhout-Breda ca 1948

Chausson logo

GTW 47 Chausson-2

GTW 47 Chausson


Filed Under: BERLIETCHAUSSONChenard & WalckerCitroënFRANCEHispano Suiza,HotchkissISOBLOCMercedes BenzOLD BUSESPanhardPeugeotRENAULTSAVIEM,SOMUAUnicWilléme