Trucks SCANIA – VABIS (1911-1968) and SCANIA 1891- 2015…..

Scania-Vabis

1927 Scania-Vabis B3243 Bus

Scania-Vabis B3243 Bus 1927
1929 Scania-Vabis 2122

Scania-Vabis 2122 1929

Scania-Vabis was a Swedish truck and car manufacturer that existed from 1911 to 1968. The company was formed when Scania merged with Vabis. Car production ended in 1929. Ultimately, the name Vabis was dropped in 1968.

History

1957 Scania-Vabis L71

Scania-Vabis L71 1957
1962 Scania-Vabis Capitol

Scania-Vabis Capitol 1962

The company’s name resulted from the merger of Maskinfabriksaktiebolaget Scania, which started out by manufacturing bicycles, and Vabis (Vagnfabriks Aktiebolaget iSödertälje), in 1911. Until 1929 the company manufactured cars in Södertälje, as well as trucks and buses in Malmö. Over the succeeding years, the company, based in Södertälje, developed a reputation for the toughness, comfort and reliability of its commercial vehicles. The 1963 forward-control LB76 forged Scania-Vabis’s reputation outside Sweden, being one of the first exhaustively crash-tested truck cabs.

1967 Scania-Vabis LS5646

Scania-Vabis LS5646 1967

Because there were many inexpensive, imported cars in Sweden at the time, Scania-Vabis decided to build high-class, luxury cars, for instance the type III limousine from 1920 that had a top hat holder in the roof. Prince Carl of Sweden owned a 1913 Scania-Vabis 3S, a type which was fitted with in-car buttons so the passenger could communicate with the driver. Scania-Vabis also built two-seat sports cars (or “sportautomobil”).

The company was involved in bus production from its earliest days, producing mail buses in the 1920s. Post-war the company introduced their B-series of buses, followed by the BF-series in the late 1950s.

Scania-Vabis at some point in their history also manufactured trucks in Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, South-Korea, Tanzania, the Netherlands, Zimbabwe and the United States.

For some time Daimler-Benz waged a ‘logo war’ with Scania-Vabis, claiming a possible confusion between the Scania-Vabis ‘pedal crank’ design featuring on Scania bicycles around 1900 and the Mercedes ‘three-pointed star’. In 1968 Daimler-Benz won and the Scania-Vabis logo changed to a simple griffin’s head on a white background, and ‘Vabis’ was dropped from the name.

Trucks

Many historical Scania-Vabis vehicles (and also Vabis and Scania vehicles) are on display in the Marcus Wallenberg-hallen (the Scania Museum) in Södertälje.

Scania

Scania
Scania
Rechtsvorm Naamloze vennootschap
Oprichting 1891
Eigenaar Volkswagen AG
Sleutelfiguren Martin Lundstedt (CEO)
Land Zweden
Hoofdkantoor Södertälje
Werknemers 42.019 (2014)
Producten vrachtwagens
Sector Transport
Industrie Kapitaalgoederen
Omzet SEK 92.051 miljoen (2014)
Winst SEK 6.009 miljoen (2014)
Website Officiële website
Nederlandse website
PortaalPortaalicoon Economie
1909 SKF (waaruit later Volvo ontstond) test een nieuwe kogellager op een Scania

SKF (waaruit later Volvo ontstond) test een nieuwe kogellager op een Scania in 1909.
Scania b

Klassieke Scania
Scania R470 topline

Moderne Scania
ScaniaR500

Nieuwe R500 serie
Scania-fabriek in Zwolle Nederland

Scania-fabriek in Zwolle

Scania is een Zweeds merk van (motor)voertuigen, opgericht in 1891 in Malmö. Eerst bouwde het bedrijf fietsen, maar vanaf 1903 ook automobielen en in 1905 produceerde het zijn eerste vrachtwagen. In 1911 is het bedrijf samengegaan met Vagen Aktien Bolaget I Södertälje (Vabis) uit Södertälje.

Van 1969 tot 1995 maakte Scania samen met Saab deel uit van Saab-Scania AB.

Scania is een toonaangevende producent van zware bedrijfsauto’s, autobussen en motoren voor industrie en scheepvaart. De onderneming telt wereldwijd ruim 40.000 medewerkers, heeft meerdere productievestigingen in Europa en Latijns-Amerika en is vertegenwoordigd in meer dan 100 landen. De omzet over 2014 bedroeg ruim 90 miljard Zweedse kronen en de winst 6 miljard kronen. Er werden ruim 80.000 voertuigen verkocht. Het hoofdkantoor is gevestigd in Södertälje.

Geschiedenis

Vroege geschiedenis

In 1896 had de Engelse rijwielfabriek Humber & Co in Malmö een dochteronderneming opgericht, de Svenska Aktiebolaget Humber & Co. Rond 1900 werd deze overgenomen door een nieuw bedrijf Maskinfabrikaktiebolaget Scania i Malmö. Naast rijwielen werden andere producten geïntroduceerd waaronder ook de auto. Eerst assembleerde Scania vooral buitenlandse wagens, maar vanaf ongeveer 1905 kwamen er motoren en personen- en vrachtwagens van eigen ontwerp.

Het ontbrak aan financiële middelen om door te groeien en in 1910 ging de directie praten met concurrent Vabis, om tot een fusie te komen. Op 18 maart 1911 werd de fusie een feit. Het bedrijf kreeg de naam Scania-Vabis AB. De productie van vrachtwagens werd geconcentreerd in Malmö en Södertälje richtte zich op personenwagens. In 1913 verhuisde het hoofdkantoor naar Södertälje.

Tussen beide wereldoorlogen

Na het einde van de Eerste Wereldoorlog werd de markt overspoeld met oude militaire voertuigen. De verkoop van nieuwe voertuigen zakte in, Scania-Vabis kwam in financiële problemen en ging failliet. Onder Gunnar Lindmark maakte het bedrijf een doorstart en trad enig herstel op, maar de financiële draagkracht was beperkt en noodzaakte tot rationalisatie en specialisatie. In 1925 werd de productie van personenwagens beëindigd en in 1927 werd de fabriek in Malmö gesloten. Het accent werd ook verlegd van vrachtwagens naar autobussen. In de jaren dertig werden meer bussen dan vrachtwagens verkocht. In 1936 werden, in samenwerking met het Duitse bedrijf Magirus, de eerste eigen dieselmotoren uitgebracht. In de tweede helft van de jaren dertig was de familie Wallenberg de belangrijkste aandeelhouder van het bedrijf geworden. Carl-Bertel Nathhorst werd benoemd tot directeur en hij legde een ambitieus plan op tafel met focus op zware vrachtwagens, autobussen, standaardisering en export. Zijn plannen werden direct aanvaard maar door het uitbreken van de Tweede Wereldoorlog werd de uitvoering sterk vertraagd. De fabriek kreeg defensie opdrachten omdat Zweden neutraal was en geen wapens in het buitenland kon kopen. In juni 1941 kreeg Scania-Vabis opdracht voor de productie van 116 stuks Stridsvagn m/41. Deze tanks waren in licentie gebouwd en werden tussen december 1942 en juni 1943 geleverd.

Internationale expansie

In de jaren vijftig werd het bedrijf actiever buiten Zweden. In 1957 werd meer dan de helft van de productie geëxporteerd en 10 jaar later lag dit zelfs boven de 70%. Met de oprichting van de Europese Economische Gemeenschap in 1957 wilde het bedrijf ook binnen de unie actief zijn. In 1965 werd een assemblagebedrijf in Zwolle gevestigd, maar in 1962 was al een fabriek bij São Paulo in Brazilië geopend. In 1968 fuseerde Scania-Vabis met Saab, een bedrijf wat ook in handen was van de grootaandeelhouder Wallenberg. De combinatie ging verder onder de naam Saab-Scania. Het bedrijf werd in 1995 weer gesplitst en Scania ging zelfstandig verder. In het jaar 2000 rolde de 1 miljoenste vrachtwagen van Scania uit de fabriek. Verder verkocht Investor AB in datzelfde jaar twee derde van haar belang, 37 miljoen aandelen, in Scania aan Volkswagen AG. Volkswagen kreeg hiermee 18,7% van het kapitaal en 34% van het stemrecht in handen en werd daarmee de grootste aandeelhouder.

Overname

In augustus 2000 bracht Volvo een bod uit van ruim 13 miljard gulden op Scania. Volvo had al inmiddels 45% procent van de Scania aandelen in handen.Europees commissaris Mario Monti blokkeerde de transactie. Hij vond dat de twee producenten een te grote macht zouden krijgen in een aantal Europese markten. In Zweden zou de combinatie 93% van de markt verkrijgen en ook in Denemarken, Finland, Engeland en Ierland waren de marktaandelen tussen de 40% en 50% te groot.

Concurrent MAN AG deed in september 2006 een overnamebod op Scania van 9,6 miljard euro. Dit bod werd afgewezen door het bedrijf en door de familie Wallenberg, met 30% grootaandeelhouder. In oktober 2006 had MAN al 14% van de aandelen in handen en bracht een nieuw bod uit van meer dan 10 miljard euro. Volkswagen AG nam een belang van 15,1% in MAN om de overname te ondersteunen. Als de overname was doorgegaan zou de combinatie de grootste vrachtwagenproducent van Europa zijn geweest. De vijandelijke overname door het Duitse MAN stuitte niet op weerstand van de Europese Commissie, dit tot ongenoegen van de Zweden. Uiteindelijk trok MAN het bod in. Op 9 november 2011 kreeg Volkswagen een meerderheidsbelang in MAN. De belangen van MAN en Volkswagen in Scania mochten bij elkaar opgeteld worden. Volkswagen had nu – direct en middellijk via MAN – 89,2% van het stemrecht en 62,6% van het aandelenkapitaal van Scania in handen. Volkswagen streefde naar een driehoeksfusie met MAN en Scania.

In februari 2014 deed Volkswagen een bod van 6,7 miljard euro op de aandelen Scania die het nog niet bezat. De Duitsers boden 200 kronen per aandeel. Medio mei 2014 heeft Volkswagen 90,5% van de aandelen Scania verworven en kan nu via een uitrookprocedure de Zweedse vrachtwagenfabrikant van de beurs te halen en volledig eigenaar worden. De bedoeling is Scania nauwer te laten samenwerken met de eigen vrachtwagenactiviteiten van VW en met MAN.

Scaniaproductie in Nederland

Scania Production Zwolle B.V. is het belangrijkste Europese productiecentrum voor Scania vrachtauto‘s. In de fabriek te Zwolle worden de Scania’s volgens specificatie ‘op maat’ gebouwd en geassembleerd, zowel voor de Nederlandse distributeur als voor klanten in meer dan 60 andere landen.

Scania Production Zwolle B.V. werd in 1964 opgericht en is met ca. 1600 medewerk(st)ers thans de grootste industriële werkgever in de wijde regio. In 2002 werden door de Zwolse fabriek meer dan 20.000 trucks afgeleverd. Wereldwijd leverde Scania in 2002 bijna 44.000 trucks en bussen. Scania Production Zwolle B.V. produceert uitsluitend op order. Dat houdt in dat alle vrachtauto’s specifiek volgens de klanteneisen worden gebouwd. Op 25 september 2006 kwam de 400.000e in Zwolle geproduceerde vrachtwagen van de productielijn en in december 2010 de 500.000e.

In Meppel werden tussen 1963 en 2002 ruim 300.000 Scania-cabines geproduceerd. Die activiteit werd in 2002 geconcentreerd in Oskarshamn. Scania heeft sinds 2005 een nieuwe lakstraat in Meppel, waar vrachtwagencabines van bedrijfsspecifieke kleuren kunnen worden voorzien.

In april 2015 opende Scania een fabriek in Hasselt, waar de in Zwolle afgebouwde vrachtwagens klaar gemaakt worden voor de export.

Trucks

Bedrijfswagens

De bedrijfswagens van Scania bestaan uit trucks voor het transport. De typen trucks die Scania levert onderscheiden zich vooral ten aanzien van het transportdoel; zo zijn er trucks voor bijvoorbeeld de algemene lading en het voertuigtransport. Verder zijn er trucks bedoeld voor volumineuze ladingen die maximale laadruimte bieden. Voor de specifieke transportdoelen zoals de distributie, produceert Scania ook bakwagens, platforms, tankwagens en andere complete voertuigen. Scania heeft in 2004 een nieuw modellen lijn geïntroduceerd. Hierbij werd de benaming veranderd; voorheen werd het model aangeduid met een cijfer. Voor de R-serie en P-serie worden de cabines gebruikt van de voorganger, de 4-serie. Het interieur is compleet nieuw, het exterieur is licht gewijzigd.

R-serie en P-serie

De R-serie is voor de lange afstand, met een hooggeplaatste cabine ten behoeve van veel en functionele cabineruimte. De P-serie heeft in grote lijnen dezelfde cabine, deze is lager geplaatst wat ten goede komt aan een makkelijke instap, en is daar door meer geschikt voor het distributiewerk waarbij veel in- en uitgestapt wordt.

De letters R en P werden in de voorgaande modellen ook al gebruikt maar waren niet zichtbaar op de cabine aanwezig als een typebenaming.

In 2009 introduceerde Scania een facelift voor de cabine van de R en de G serie. Hierbij veranderde onder andere het aangezicht van de grille, bumper, sideskirts en werd onder andere de accubak verplaatst. Met de aankondiging van de nieuwe V8 motoren in 2010 waren ook weer enkele minieme aanpassingen in het uiterlijk te zien.

In 2013 werd het uiterlijk opnieuw aangepast met de introducering van de nieuwe “Streamline” cabine. Deels als eerbetoon aan de voorloper uit eind jaren 80, deels als poging de stroomlijn en het verbruik te reduceren. Waar het Streamline pakket ooit een optie was op de Scania 3-serie, zullen de aanpassingen aan de R-serie cabines standaard zijn.

Motoren

  • 9 liter vijf cilinder lijnmotor: 230pk/1050Nm, 280pk/1400Nm en 320pk/1600Nm. (euro 5 motoren)
  • 11 liter zes cilinder lijnmotor: 340pk/1600Nm
  • 12 liter zes cilinder lijnmotor: 380pk/1900Nm,420pk/2100Nm en 470pk/2200Nm.
  • 13 liter zes cilinder lijnmotor: 360pk/1850Nm,400pk/2100Nm,440pk/2300Nm en 480pk/2500Nm
  • 16 liter acht cilinder V-motor: 500pk/2500Nm, 560pk/2700Nm en 620pk/3000Nm.
  • 16,4 liter acht cilinder V-motor: 730pk/3.500Nm, ook al als EEV-motor leverbaar.

De 16 liter motor is voorbehouden aan de R-serie, vanwege ruimtegebrek in de motorruimte van de P-serie.

Cabines

Voor de P-serie is er een dagcabine, een slaapcabine met een plat dak en een slaapcabine met normaal dak. Voor de R-serie komt daarbij een slaapcabine met een verhoogd dak, de Highline, en een slaapcabine met een extra verhoogd dak, de Topline. Er zijn ook speciale cabine’s beschikbaar voor de dienstensector waaronder huisvuilwagens en brandweerwagens. De cabine’s worden gemaakt in de fabriek in Zweden, dit gebeurde voorheen in Meppel. Daarna gaan ze op transport naar Zwolle waar ze worden afgebouwd.

Bussen

1953 Zescilinder Scania-Vabis Medema van de DAM, nummer 119.

Zescilinder Scania-Vabis /Medema uit 1953 van de DAM, nummer 119.
1956 Viercilinder Scania-Vabis Hainje van de NACO, nummer 2570.

Viercilinder Scania-Vabis /Hainje uit 1956 van de NACO, nummer 2570.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Scania OmniLink van Arriva, nummer 7870.

Nederland

Scania Vabis-bussen hielpen direct na 1945 mee aan de wederopbouw van het Nederlands openbaar vervoer. Grote aantallen bussen van dit merk hebben in Nederland dienstgedaan. De vroegste exemplaren waren compleet opgebouwd in Zweden met carrosserieën van Hägglund; andere hadden een Nederlandse carrosserie, waarvan enkele honderden gebouwd waren door de vliegtuigfabriek Fokker naar een ontwerp van Verheul.

Ook in de jaren vijftig bleef Scania Vabis een geliefd merk voor bussen in het streekvervoer. Het ging daarbij zowel om het trambusmodel (BF-series) als om voorbesturingsbussen (B-series). Er werden motoren van 4, 5 en 6 cilinders toegepast. Carrosserieën werden vooral geleverd door Berkhof te Valkenswaard, Hainje, Den Oudsten en Verheul, maar ook door tal van kleinere carrosseriebedrijven.

In de jaren zestig raakte Scania in het Nederlandse openbaar vervoer buiten beeld. Pas in de jaren negentig ging Scania weer een (eerst nog bescheiden) rol spelen. In het eerste decennium van de 21ste eeuw begon Arriva weer op grotere schaal gebruik te maken van dit merk.

Via importeur Beers hebben touringcars van het merk Scania (Vabis) eveneens aftrek gevonden in Nederland.

N-serie en K-serie

De N-serie is de vervanger van de N94, waar de K-serie de L94/K94/K114 en K124 vervangt. Beide zijn geïntroduceerd in 2005. Hiermee werd de 60 graden gekanteld in de lengte richting geplaatste motor configuratie (L94) uit productie genomen. Tevens is bij de N-serie de motor rechtop geplaatst terwijl deze bij de N94 ook 60 gekanteld was.

De bussen werden op L94 en N94 chassis gebouwd, tegenwoordig op serie N en serie K chassis. De carrosserieën werden vroeger vervaardigd door Scania Katrineholm te Katrineholm en geasembleerd bij DAB te Silkeborg, Denemarken.

De carrosserieën worden vervaardigd door OMNI te Słupsk, Polen, Sint-Petersburg, Rusland en te Katrineholm, Sweden. Scania bouwt carrosserieën onder de naam Scania OmniCity, Scania OmniLink en Scania OmniExpress. Hiervoor worden de chassis N230, N270, N310, K230, K270 en K310 gebruikt. Producten voor zowel het stadsbus– als het streekbus-segment zijn verkrijgbaar.

Motoren

  • 9 liter vijf cilinder lijnmotor: 230pk/1050Nm, 270pk/1250Nm en 310pk/1550Nm (N en K-serie).
  • 12 liter zes cilinder lijnmotor: 340pk/1700Nm, 380pk/1900Nm, 420pk/2100Nm en 470pk/2200Nm (K-serie).

Motorfietsen

1903 Scania motorbike

Scania motorfiets uit 1903

Scania produceerde in 1902 en 1903 een kleine motorfiets met een 143 cc Clement-Garrardclip-on motor. Vanwege het geringe succes duurde de productie slechts ruim een jaar.

Resultaten

Scania produceert de laatste jaren zo’n 80.000 vrachtwagen en autobussen. In 2009 daalden de verkopen en winst scherp als een gevolg van de financieel economische crisis. Europa is de grootste afzetmarkt en vertegenwoordigt ongeveer de helft van de omzet van het bedrijf.

Hieronder een overzicht van de productie en financiële resultaten van het bedrijf sinds 2005:

Jaar Vrachtwagen
productie
Bus
productie
Omzet
(x SEK miljoen)
Nettoresultaat
(x SEK miljoen)
Aantal
werknemers
2005 53.368 6.141 63.328 4.665 30.765
2006 60.867 5.870 70.738 5.939 32.820
2007 71.017 7.314 84.486 8.554 35.096
2008 72.656 7.709 88.977 8.890 34.777
2009 29.573 6.236 62.074 1.129 32.330
2010 60.963 6.700 78.168 9.103 35.514
2011 75.349 8.708 87.686 9.422 37.496
2012 60.647 6.283 79.603 6.640 38.597
2013 75.957 6.897 86.847 6.194 40.953
2014 75.287 6.921 92.051 6.009 42.129

Scania AB

Scania Aktiebolag (publ)
Publicly traded Aktiebolag
Industry Automotive
Founded Malmö, Sweden (1900)
Founder Gustaf Erikson
Headquarters Södertälje, Sweden
Number of locations
10
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Martin Winterkorn (Chairman), Martin Lundstedt (President and CEO), Jan Ytterberg (CFO)
Products Commercial vehicles,
diesel engines
Services Financial services
Revenue Increase SEK 94.880 billion (2014)
Increase SEK 8.72 billion (2014)
Profit Decrease SEK 6.009 billion (2014)
Total assets Increase SEK 133.037 billion(2014)
Total equity Increase SEK 41.801 billion (2014)
Number of employees
42,129 (2014)
Parent Volkswagen Group
Website scania.com

Scania Aktiebolag (publ), commonly referred to as Scania AB or just Scania, is a major Swedish automotive industry manufacturer of commercial vehicles – specifically heavy trucks and buses. It also manufactures diesel engines for motive power of heavy vehicles, marine, and general industrial applications.

Founded in 1891 in Malmö, in the Swedish province of Skåne, the company’s head office has been in Södertälje, in the province of Södermanland, since 1912. Today, Scania has production facilities in Sweden, France,Netherlands, Argentina, Brazil, Poland, and Russia. In addition, there are assembly plants in ten countries in Africa, Asia and Europe. Scania’s sales and service organisation and finance companies are worldwide. In 2012, the company employed approximately 42,100 people around the world. Scania was listed on the NASDAQ OMX Stockholm stock exchange from 1996 to 2014.

Scania’s logo shows a Griffin, from the coat of arms of the province of Scania (Swedish: Skåne).

History

1901 Scania A1

Scania A1 1901

1903 Scania Type A Tonneau

Scania Type A Tonneau 1903

Scania b

A vintage Scania truck (L80 successor to the Scania-Vabis L56)

Scania AB (Scania is Latin for the province of Skåne) came from a merger between the two companies; Vabis and Scania.

Vabis and Scania

Main article: Scania-Vabis

Vabis (Vagnsfabriksaktiebolaget i Södertälje) was founded in 1891 as a subsidiary of Södertälje based steel company Surahammars Bruk, manufacturing railway carriages. In 1902, engineer Gustaf Erikson designed the company’s first truck, powered by a petrol engine and two-speed gearbox. A year later, the first order was placed for a Vabis commercial vehicle. By 1907, the company had developed a 3-ton truck, however, though it won a Swedish Royal Automobile Club award in 1909, the new range was a financial disaster for the company, failing to attract more than a handful of orders.

Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania was founded in 1900 in Malmö in the south of Sweden, and was in the beginning a manufacturer of bicycles, but by 1903 the first cars left the factory. Two years later, Scania built their first truck.

Following the financial problems at Vabis, the companies merged in 1911, creating AB Scania-Vabis. Engine and car production was moved to Södertälje, and truck production took place in Malmö.

First World War and 1920s

For the next few years the company’s profits stagnated, with around a third of their orders coming from abroad. The outbreak of the First World War, however, changed the company, with almost all output being diverted to the Swedish Army. By 1916, Scania-Vabis was making enough profit to invest in redeveloping both of their production facilities.

Following the war, in 1919, Scania decided to focus completely on building trucks, abandoning other outputs including cars and buses. However, they were hurt by the swamping of the market with decommissioned military vehicles from the war, and by 1921 the company was bankrupt.

After some economic difficulties in 1921, new capital came from Stockholms Enskilda Bank owned by the Wallenberg family, and Scania-Vabis became a solid and technically, high standing, company.

Denmark

Towards the end of 1913, the company established a subsidiary in Denmark. The following year the first Danish-built car, a four-seater Phaeton, was built at the company’s Frederiksberg factory in Copenhagen. In 1914, the factory produced Denmark’s first Scania-Vabis truck, and following this developed a V8 engine, one of the first in the world. In 1921, having sold around 175 trucks, and 75 cars, the Danish operation was closed down.

1930s and 1940s

During the Second World War Scania produced a variety of military vehicles for the Swedish Army, including Stridsvagn m/41 light tanks produced under license.

1950s and 1960s

During the 1950s, the company expanded its operations into new customer segments, becoming agents for the Willys Jeep and the Volkswagen Beetle, the latter being very profitable for Scania-Vabis. It also started to become a genuine competitor to Volvo with their new Regent truck which was introduced in 1954.

During this period, Scania-Vabis expanded its dealer network and country-wide specialist workshop facilities. By the end of the 1950s, their market-share in Sweden was between 40 to 50%, and was achieving 70% in the heaviest truck sector – helped by the entrepreneurial efforts of their dealers into the haulier market.

Scania Vabis ad Beers

Probably their largest impact was in export markets. Before 1950, exports accounted for only 10 percent of production output, but a decade later, exports were now at 50% of output. Beers in the Netherlands became a very important partner. Beers became official importers for Scania-Vabis in the Netherlands, and established a dealer network, along with training programmes for both mechanics and drivers. Beers also offered free twice-yearly overhauls of their customers vehicles, and offered a mobile service throughout the Netherlands with their custom-equipped service trucks. Due to Beers concerted efforts, Scania-Vabis market share in the country remained at a consistent 20% throughout this period. Scania-Vabis were to adopt the business model of Beers in their own overseas sales operations.

NCA001000398, 13-08-2007, 16:24,  8C, 7336x8262 (662+884), 100%, NCAD,  1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9
NCA001000398, 13-08-2007, 16:24, 8C, 7336×8262 (662+884), 100%, NCAD, 1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9

The 1960s saw Scania-Vabis expanding its production operations into overseas locations. Until now, all Scania-Vabis production had been carried out solely at Södertälje, but the 1960s saw the need to expand production overseas. Brazil was becoming a notable market for heavy trucks, and was also dependent on inter-urban buses, with particular requirement for Brazil’s mountainous roads which became nigh-on impassable at times. Scania-Vabis products had already been assembled in Brazil by a local company called Vemag, but Scania Vabis do Brasil, S.A. became an independent operation in July 1960. Scania-Vabis established its first production plant outside Södertälje, by building a new facility at São Bernardo do Campo in Brazil, which was completed in 1962, and this was to set the standard for Scania-Vabis international operations.

Closer to home, the recently formed European Economic Community (EEC) offered further opportunities. Based on their now strong presence in the Dutch markets, Scania-Vabis constructed a new plant in Zwolle, which was completed in 1964. This new Dutch facility provided Scania-Vabis with a stepping stone into the other five EEC countries, particularly the German and French markets.

In 1966, Scania-Vabis acquired ownership of a then valuable competitor – Be-Ge Karosserifabrik, who were based in Oskarshamn. Be-Ge had been making truck cabs since 1946, and had been supplying cabs not only to Scania-Vabis, but also to their Swedish competitors Volvo. It was normal practice for truck manufacturers to outsource production of cabs to independent bodybuilders, so their acquisition by Scania-Vabis seemed a good move. Be-Ge owner Bror Göthe Persson had also established an additional cab factory at Meppel.

Scania-Vabis continued their expansion of production facilities through acquisitions. In 1967, they acquired Katrineholm based coachwork company Svenska Karosseri Verkstäderna, and created a new subsidiary, Scania-Bussar. A year later, all bus production, along with R&D was moved to Katrineholm. Further production locations were added at Sibbhult and Falun, and Scania’s employee numbers rose, particularly at Södertälje, which was to help double the town’s population.

Saab-Scania AB (1969–1995)

In 1969, Scania-VABIS merged with Saab AB, and formed Saab-Scania AB. When Saab-Scania was split in 1995, the name of the truck and bus division changed simply to Scania AB. One year later, Scania AB was introduced on the stock exchange, which resulted in a minor change of name to Scania AB (publ).

Many examples of Scania, Vabis and Scania-Vabis commercial and military vehicles can be seen at the Marcus Wallenberg-hallen (the Scania Museum) in Södertälje.

Ownership

Aborted Volvo takeover

On 7 August 1999, Volvo announced it had agreed to acquire a majority share in Scania. Volvo was to buy the 49.3% stake in Scania that was owned by Investor AB, Scania’s then main shareholder. The acquisition, for $7.5 billion (60.7 billion SEK), would have created the world’s second-largest manufacturer of heavy trucks, behind DaimlerChrysler. The cash for the deal came from Volvo selling its car division to Ford Motor Company in January 1999, but the deal had yet to be approved by the European Union.

The deal eventually failed, after the European Union had disapproved of the affair, saying it would create a company with almost 100% market share in the Nordic markets.

Aborted MAN takeover

In September 2006, the German truckmaker MAN AG launched a 10.3bn hostile offer to acquire Scania AB. Scania’s CEO Leif Östling was forced to apologise for comparing the bid of MAN to a “Blitzkrieg“. MAN AG later dropped its hostile offer, but in January 2008, MAN increased their voting rights in Scania up to 17%.

Scania ownership today

The two major stockholders of Scania AB (publ) are:

  • The German automotive company Volkswagen AG is Scania’s biggest shareholder, with a 70.94% voting stake (equity) in Scania. It gained this by first buying Volvo’s stake in 2000, after the latter’s aborted takeover attempt, increasing it to 36.4% in the first quarter 2007, and then buying the remainder from Investor AB in March 2008. The deal was approved by regulatory bodies in July 2008. Scania then became the ninth marque in the Volkswagen Group.
  • The German truck manufacturer MAN SE holds a 17.37% voting stake in Scania. Notably, Volkswagen AG also owns 75.03% of MAN.

Current shareholders

Scania AB (publ) has a total issue of 400 million ‘A shares’ and 400 million ‘B shares’, with a total capitalised value of SEK 72,880 million. In terms of voting rights, one ‘A share’ is eligible for one vote, whereas 10 ‘B shares’ are required for one vote.

As of 29 January 2010, these shares, as published by Swedish Central Securities Depository and Clearing Organisation (“Euroclear“), are allocated to 119,973 owners, and the table below details the top ten shareholders.

Scania AB (publ) principal shareholders
shareholder name A shares B shares % of capital % of votes
Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft * 306,232,239 59,037,822 45.66 70.94
MAN SE 73,047,179 33,718,857 13.35 17.37
Clearstream Banking 1,170,514 32,973,450 4.27 1.02
JP Morgan Chase Bank 461,584 36,220,219 4.59 0.93
Swedbank Robur Fonder 0 29,043,665 3.63 0.66
Skandia Liv 974,374 9,646,318 1.33 0.44
Alecta Pensionsförsäkring 0 19,085,000 2.39 0.33
AMF Försäkring och fonder 650,000 9,678,411 1.23 0.36
Handelsbanken fonder 0 7,202,362 0.90 0.16
The Government Pension Fund of Norway 0 6,937,665 0.87 0.16
largest 10 owners 382,535,890 243,021,708 78.19 92.46
Others 17,464,110 156,978,292 21.81 7.54
total ownership 400,000,000 400,000,000 100.00 100.00

* Further to the shares listed above, Volkswagen AG also holds shares in trust by a credit institution of Scania, which gives additional voting rights amounting to 0.87 percent and an equity interest of 3.63 percent attributable to Volkswagen AG, as disclosed in January 2009.

Products

Scania develops, manufactures and sells trucks with a gross vehicle weight of more than 16 tonnes (Class 8), intended for long-distance haulage, regional, and local distribution of goods, as well as construction haulage.

Scania’s bus range is concentrated on bus chassis, intended for use in tourist coaches, as well as urban and intercity traffic.

Scania’s industrial and marine engines are used in generator sets and in earthmoving and agricultural machinery, as well as on board ships and pleasure crafts.

Scania also designs and manufacture clothes especially designed for truckers under the label Scania Truck Gear.

Current

Scania R470 topline

Scania R470 truck

Scania R500

The new Scania R500

Scania P270 Fire Engine, Dublin Fire Brigade, Ireland

Scania P270 Fire Engine, Dublin Fire Brigade, Ireland

Scania K230UB owned by SBS Transit Pte Ltd.

Scania K230UB owned by SBS Transit Pte Ltd.

Trucks and special vehicles

  • P-series – typical applications are regional and local distribution, construction, and various specialised operations associated with locally based transportation and services. P-series trucks have the new P cabs, which are available in three variations: a single-berth sleeper, a spacious day cab and a short cab
  • G-series – the G-series models offer an enlarged range of options for operators engaged in national long haul and virtually all types of construction applications. All models have a G cab, and each is available as a tractor or rigid. The G-series truck comes with five cab variants: three sleepers, a day cab and a short cab. There are different axle configurations, and in most cases a choice of chassis height and suspension
  • R-series – the R-series model range debuted in 2004, and won the prestigious International Truck of the Year award in 2005 and again in 2010. The range offers various trucks optimised for long haulage. All models have a Scania R cab, and each vehicle is available as a tractor or rigid. There are different axle configurations and a choice of chassis height and suspension. The Scania R730 is the most powerful variant of the R-series. Its 16.4 Liter DC16 Turbo Diesel V8 engine produces 730 PS (540 kW; 720 hp) at 1,900 rpm and 3,500 N·m (2,600 lb·ft) of torque at 1,000–1,350 rpm.

The R series also came as a limited edition ‘+’ the most common being the R420+ with 100 being sold across Europe. This came with a newer opti-cruise gearbox with a trial gear ratio. It also came with an added microwave from the dealer. It’s believed the sales were mainly in Sweden, but as many as 10 per country elsewhere.

  • T-series – the T-series is the R-series with nose, and have the same engine.

Buses

Main article: Scania buses
  • F-series – front engine bus chassis with Euro III and Euro V compliant engines
  • K-series – rear engine bus chassis (longitudinal mounted) with Euro III – Euro VI compliant engines
  • N-series – rear engine bus chassis (transversal mounted) with Euro III – Euro VI compliant engines
  • OmniLink (CK-series) – citybus using the K-series chassis
  • OmniCity (CN-series) – citybus using the N-series chassis
  • OmniExpress (LK-series) – intercity coach using the K-series chassis
  • Citywide LE/Citywide LF – new citybus range superseded the OmniCity and OmniLink in left-hand-drive markets, using respectively the N-series and K-series chassis

Diesel engines

Scania’s involvement with internal combustion engine production dates back to 1897, when engineer Gustav Erickson designed the engine for the company’s first motor car. Over the subsequent years, Scania has grown to be one of the world’s most experienced engine manufacturers, building engines not only for trucks and buses, but also for marine and general industrial applications, which are exported across the globe.

Historical

https://myntransportblog.com/2014/05/27/buses-scania-vabis-sweden/

Scania K113TRBL 14.5m quad-axle coach

Scania K113TRBL 14.5m quad-axle coach

Ikarus E99 on Scania K124EB chassis

Ikarus E99 on Scania K124EB chassis

Buses

Trucks and special vehicles

Diesel engines

Production sites

The table below shows the locations of the current and former production facilities of Scania AB. As Scania is now majority owned by Volkswagen AG, making it part of Volkswagen Group, the table also includes Volkswagen Group references.

Notes: the second column of the table, the ‘factory VIN ID code’, is indicated in the 11th digit of the vehicles’ 17 digit Vehicle Identification Number, and this factory code is only assigned to plants which produce actual vehicles. Component factories which do not produce complete vehicles do not have this factory ID code.

Next follows my collection of photographs:

1901 Scania A1 1902 scania VABIS 1903 Scania motorbike 1903 Scania Type A Tonneau 1903-11 Scania 1908 SCANIA a 1908 SCANIA b 1909 SCANIA LAITIER 1909 SKF (waaruit later Volvo ontstond) test een nieuwe kogellager op een Scania 1910 SCANIA IL 1911 Scania-Vabis Firetruck 1911-68 Scania-Vabis 1913 SCANIA-VABIS 1914 SCANIA-VABIS CLC 1915 SCANIA-VABIS 1917 SCANIA-VABIS S3 1917 SCANIA-VABIS 1924 SCANIA-VABIS BENNE 1927 Scania-Vabis B3243 Bus 1927 Scania-Vabis limousine 1928 SCANIA-VABIS 1929 Scania-Vabis 2122 1929 SCANIA-VABIS GAZOGENE 1933 SCANIA-VABIS 3556 1935 SCANIA-VABIS 34-511 1936 SCANIA-VABIS 35-511 1942 SCANIA VABIS 1942 SCANIA-VABIS 335 1948 SCANIA-VABIS L 13 1949 SCANIA-VABIS L 21 1951 SCANIA-VABIS L 63 1952 SCANIA VABIS 1953 scania-vabis-l51-pj-64-08 1953 Zescilinder Scania-Vabis Medema van de DAM, nummer 119. 1954 SCANIA-VABIS L 43 1954-Scania-Vabis-L51-Brochure-English 1955 SCANIA L50 petit porteur citerne 1956 Scania Vabis Solo Distributie 1956 Viercilinder Scania-Vabis Hainje van de NACO, nummer 2570. 1957 SCANIA-VABIS L 51 1957 Scania-Vabis L71 1960 SCANIA-VABIS a 1960 SCANIA-VABIS LT 75 1960 SCANIA-VABIS 1960s SCANIA LBS 76 tracteur 6x2 dans le milieu 1961 SCANIA VABIS L 36 porteur de petit tonnage 1961 Scania-Vabis De Spar TF-25-07 1961 Scania-Vabis LV 75 TB-46-79 1962 SCANIA LT 66 1962 Scania-Vabis Capitol 1962 SCANIA-VABIS L 56 1963 SCANIA LB 76 cabine avancée courte 1963 Scania Vabis LBS76 1963 SCANIA-VABIS L 76 1963 Scania-Vabis L36tanker 1963 SCANIA-VABIS LB 76 1963 Scania-Vabis LB76 1967 Scania Vabis LB76 Super Engine 3000cc  RDA 1967 Scania Vabis LB76 Super Engine 3000cc 1967 Scania Vabis LBS76 1967 Scania-Vabis LS5646 1968 Scania AB 1968 SCANIA LBS 110 222 1968 Scania-Vabis L 76 Chemikalien-Tankwagen 1968 Scania-Vabis L76.08 1970 SCANIA LBS 110 551 1970 SCANIA LBT 140 1970s Scania L110 1971 SCANIA 85 super cabine 1972 SCANIA 85 Super 1972 Scania L8054 1973 SCANIA LBS 85 141 1973 Scania LS 110 Super Pritschensattelzug mit Ladekran 1974 SCANIA LT 111 P33 1976 SCANIA LB 141 159 1976 SCANIA LBS 140 596 1976 SCANIA LS 140 222 1977 SCANIA 140 1978 SCANIA 111 Super 1978 Scania 141 V8 Tractor VVW 1980 SCANIA 142 M 1980 SCANIA R 92 M 1980 SCANIA T 82 M 214 1982 SCANIA R 112 M 809 1984 SCANIA T 112 H 187 1985-88 SCANIA P 92 H F44 1986 Scania Super 142E Engine 5840cc V8 Inter-cooler 1987 Scania 142M Tractor Engine 14000cc Parker 1988 Scania 142M Articulated Engine 14200cc 1990 SCANIA 112 M [8 x 2]15 1990 SCANIA R 113 M 546 1990 SCANIA R 143 MA 347 1993 SCANIA P 93 H 237 1994 Scania 143M 450 Engine 14200cc Streamline 1994 SCANIA T 113 360 1995 Scania 113M Low Loader Engine 11000cc Lawrence 1995 SCANIA R 124 LA 346 1995 SCANIA R 144 LA KJY 1996 Scania 143M Tractor Engine 14190cc JFA 1996 SCANIA T 124 LA 171 1998 SCANIA P 114 CB 8x4 1998 SCANIA P 124 654 1998 SCANIA R 144 GB 453 1999 Scania 144L Tractor Engine 14190cc Murdoch 2005 Scania HP Cleveland DDC1 evers-scania Ikarus E99 on Scania K124EB chassis Scania + SCANIA 6X4 142  Arianne Scania 8x4 SCANIA 12x4 Scania 50 SCANIA 76 831 Scania 76 combi Folmer Scania 76 Fa Vermey Schiedam Scania 76 Super BEO Scania 76LB Scania 80 Super Scania 80 truck L80 successor to the Scania - Vabis L56 SCANIA 81 755 Scania 92M Scania 110 met Torpedo Cabine Scania 110 super (2) Scania 110 Super Scania 110 Torpedo Super SCANIA 111 783 Scania 111 Scania 113M 360 Scania 114L Horse Box SCANIA 124 L SCANIA 124G 420 SCANIA 140 (Cabine Museau) Scania 141 2 SCANIA 141 j Scania 141 Jawico SCANIA 141 UB15 Scania 141 Scania 142 SCANIA 143 M ORE SCANIA 144G 530 cv Scania 144G 530 SCANIA 144G TDW SCANIA 164 G 480 SCANIA 164 L couchette allongée SCANIA 164 L T10 SCANIA 164 Ln Scania 420 Scania AB Scania Ad Scania Bil Scania Brandweervoertuig Scania Bronto Scania c Scania Cambridgeshire fire engine Scania Combi Disselkoen De Lier Scania Denmark Lundgren Scania dieplader Looms&Alberts Scania Disselkoen De Lier Scania Douwe Egberts - Joure  B-12186 Scania F a Scania F Scania Frontstuur RSK Scania Futuristic-truck-cab-concept-probably-wont-thrill-Optimus-Prime Scania G82M Scania Jawico (25) Scania K Timmer Velsen Scania K113TRBL 14.5m quad-axle coach Scania K230UB owned by SBS Transit Pte Ltd. Scania L 110 Super Sattelschlepper Scania L(S) 110 Schausteller-Zugmaschine Scania Ladderwagen Norwegian fire engine scania LB 76 Scania LB 110 Super Pritschen-Lkw Scania LB 111 Schausteller-Zugmaschine Scania LB 141 Schausteller-Zugmaschine Scania LB81 brochure2 Scania LBS 140 Sattelschlepper Scania LBS 140 Super Sattelschlepper Scania LBS 141 Sattelschlepper Scania LV75 Scania Metz Australië SCANIA Monster

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Scania P94 - HAZMAT Response, Australia Scania P270 Fire Engine, Dublin Fire Brigade, Ireland Scania P310 Perth Scania P340 BAS4 Växjö SCANIA R 113 M 233 SCANIA R 143 HL 3BK SCANIA R 143 MA 749 SCANIA R 500 795 Scania R serie Scania R470 topline Scania R500 Scania R620. Lockyer. Scania Super Dendermonde Scania Super SCANIA T 113 M 790 SCANIA T 580 T65 Scania T Cab BLOOM demolition Scania T124 6x2 420, T-Met Scrap Metals scania T-143 Scania touf Scania Transneerlandia Scania Uitvaart  (3) Scania Uitvaart (1) Scania Uitvaart (2) Scania Uitvaart (4) Scania Uitvaart (5) Scania Uitvaart (6) Scania Uitvaart animatie2 (1) Scania USA Cat12-vi Scania Vabis 2.5-tonner Scania Vabis 55 (2) Scania Vabis 55 Scania Vabis 76 Scania Vabis 80 Scania Vabis 110 Scania Vabis ad Beers

NCA001000398, 13-08-2007, 16:24,  8C, 7336x8262 (662+884), 100%, NCAD,  1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9
NCA001000398, 13-08-2007, 16:24, 8C, 7336×8262 (662+884), 100%, NCAD, 1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9

Scania Vabis B56 Scania Vabis Beauty Scania Vabis Buitelaar Scania Vabis Cement Scania Vabis embleem Scania Vabis G&G UB-22-56 Scania Vabis JdW UB-96-50 003 foto WV(WAT) Scania Vabis js Scania Vabis LB 76 Super Scania Vabis LB 76 SCANIA VABIS LV 75 RTT VD 43 18 Scania Vabis LV75 Scania Vabis Serie 335 Scania Vabis Trekker Scania Vabis UB-38-78-2 SCANIA VABIS VB-64-49 only build in holland, this polyester cab is from different factory Scania Vabis scania vabis-blomfield Scania Veewagen extra Scania verzameling Schmid Scania with exceptional load Scania wordmark.svg Scania Scania.svg Scania-fabriek in Zwolle Nederland ScaniaR500 Scania-Vabis 75 adv Scania-vabis Disselkoen Scania-Vabis L 60 Kühllastzug Scania-Vabis L 75 Langmaterial-Lastzug Scania-Vabis LB 76 Super Lkw-Abschleppwagen Scania-Vabis LBS 76 Super Sattelschlepper a Scania-Vabis LBS 76 Super Sattelschlepper b Scania-Vabis LBS 76 Super Sattelschlepper Scania-Vabis LS 76 Super Sattelschlepper Scania-Vabis tractor unit Volkswagen Group.svg

IRMãOS Mota e Cª Lda, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal

IRMãOS Mota e Cª Lda

Coach and Bus Bodybuilders

Portugal

irmaos-mota_logotipo

history

presentation
Formed in January 1980, the company Mota Brothers and Company Ltd, based in Vila Nova de Gaia, whose main activity is the construction of bodies for heavy transportation of passengers. Its range includes products that fall in the sectors of tourism, suburban, and urban schools. With an output of more than 200 units /year and a business volume of about twenty-two million is a leading national companies in the sector. Besides the domestic market also bet on export.
The capital of Mota Brothers is composed of the aggregate private capital and 50% owned by three brothers and the remaining capital is composed of 29enterprises of passenger transport.

characterization
The Brothers Mota is a company that prides itself on being socially and environmentally responsible and which currently has more than two hundred workers.
The company Mota Brothers & C ª, Inc. consists of two production units.

The Mission
Providing solutions for bodies of quality that will enhance the competitiveness, efficiency, reliability and security to our customers.

view
For the Brothers Mota & C ª, Inc., customers are real business partners with whom he maintains solid relationships.
The commitment to always exceed the expectations of its partners, through the Planners catalog for an adequate supply and delivery of integrated solutions, are components that will lead to achieving all its objectives.

strategy
The guidance for the provision of global solutions in a highly competitive market requires that the position of Brothers Mota & C ª, Inc. focuses on the ability to understand client’s business processes and identifying their needs.
Our concern is to create bodies innovative, safe and eficientes.Acreditamos that by focusing on these points will differentiate us and be a benchmark company.

37 1980 Jao Carlos Soares AEC Irmaos Mota-bodied coach at Guimaraes 1982 Irmaos mota Volvo UTC102 1983 Volvo B10M-60-Irmãos Mota DIGITAL CAMERA 1994 Scania Resende(1) 1996 DAF SB3000WS Irmãos Mota Atomic MK IX #899 1997 Mercedes-Benz O405-Irmãos Mota 1998 Nissan images 2002 Scania vimeca369 2004 40 unidades Mercedes-Benz Sprinter (carroçaria Irmãos Mota), numeradas de 201 a 240  2004 Atomic, Scania, dos Irmãos Mota, parqueado em Boelhe 2005 Carroçaria Irmãos Mota chassi Iveco 65 C18 2007 azoren005 2007 Irmaos Mota Atomic Midi UR2007 Portugal Vimeca 655 – Irmãos Mota Atomic UR 2007 2007 2008 40019602_m 2008 Irmaos Mota Atomic Midi UR2008 MAN Portugal 2008 IVECO TREVO-5 2008 MAN e carroçaria Atomic de Irmãos Mota 2009 Carris 2942 – Irmãos Mota Atomic Polis Midi 2011 211502601A – VT Bus 98 – Irmãos Mota Atomic VIIIm 2011 Cityrama 3050 – Irmãos Mota Atomic Mk X Isidoro Duarte 330 – Irmãos Mota Atomic Urb 2011 Man NL 18.250 Irmãos Mota Atomic UR 2011 VOLVO IRMAOS MOTA ATOMIC IX LUI TRAVEL 2012 211503901A – Rodonorte 347 – Irmãos Mota Atomic Mk V AVIC 327 – Irmãos Mota Atomic 8 2013 Carroçaria Irmãos Mota Chassi MAN 14.280 2013 MB Isidoro Duarte 330 – Irmãos Mota Atomic Urb 2014 Auto Viação Feirense 181 – Irmãos Mota Atomic 7 2014 Irmãos Mota Atomic 7 184964391512263912221 DIGITAL CAMERA Irmaos Mota Atomic 7  O-500 RS Irmaos Mota Atomic Mk IX Lui Travel, Beograd Irmaos Mota Atomic Mk V Irmaos Mota Atomic Mk VI MAN Irmaos Mota Atomic Mk VII Irmaos Mota MAN P1020430 Irmaos Mota radi buseve Volvo irmaos-de-sangue-3 irmaos-mota_logotipo MAN P1050771 Volvo Barbados006 Irmãos Mota Atomic IX Volvo Сербия, № BG 199-WP — Irmãos Mota Atomic Mk IX Y gallery_650_s334_1328007219_441 Z Empresa de Transportes da Lourosa

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WRIGHT Bus and coach manufacturer Ballymena Nothern Ireland UK

Wrightbus

Wrightbus Limited
Type Private
Industry Automotive
Founded 1946
Headquarters Ballymena, Northern Ireland
Products Bus and coach manufacturer
Employees 1,800 (2014)
Website www.wrightbus.com

Wrightbus is a British coachbuilder and pioneer of the low-floor bus based in Ballymena, Northern Ireland, it was established in 1946 by Robert Wright and currently run by his son William Wright.

History

GHA Coaches Wright Handybus bodied Dennis Dart in Wrexham in March 2009

Wrightbus was founded in 1946 as Robert Wright & Son Coachbuilders. In its early years it rebodied lorries. In 1978, the company released its first aluminium-structured bus bodywork.

Wright’s breakthrough into the mainstream bus bodybuilding sector came in the early 1990s. The Handybus was a midibus body offered on a variety of chassis but was most successful on the emerging Dennis Dart attracting reasonably sized orders from a variety of operators including London Buses, Go Ahead Northern, Ulsterbus and Citybus (Belfast). This was followed by a move into the full size single deck market with the Endeavourbody which was fitted to Dennis Javelin, Leyland Tiger and Scania K93 chassis, and enabled Wright to develop its highly successful Endurance body which competed with the Alexander Strider and Northern Counties Paladin for orders on Volvo B10B and Scania N113 CRB chassis.

Other Wright products introduced in this period included two Mercedes-Benz-based products, the O405 based Cityranger and the OH1416 based Urbanranger. This was launched around the time bus operators in the UK began switching to low floor chassis. As a consequence the Urbanranger only attracted a handful of orders. However Wright had become well established in the bus bodybuilding sector by then and was more than able to exploit the opportunities the low-floor revolution would offer it from mid-1990s onwards.

Low-floor

In 1993, the Pathfinder on low floor Dennis Lance SLF and Scania N113 CRL chassis was unveiled.

The Axcess-Ultralow was introduced in 1995 and offered on the Scania L113 chassis. At this time it was selling in reasonable numbers to UK bus operators, but unlike other bodybuilders who could only offer the L113 with step-entrance bodies, Wright modified it by removing the middle section of the chassis and thus offered UK bus operators one of the first mainstream low-floor body/chassis combinations. A major customer for the Axcess-Ultralow was FirstGroup taking approximately 240.

Next up was the Volvo B10L-based Liberator introduced at the end of 1995. Notable came from the National Express Group who ordered 120 Liberators in 1997.

Next came the Renown body built on the Volvo B10BLE which went on to become the standard bus of the Blazefield Group. However Renown production was stopped when the B10BLE was replaced by the Volvo B7L on the new Wright Eclipse (now Wright Eclipse Metro), which due to its vertical rear engine wasn’t popular with many operators. However Wright didn’t lose custom and many operators including the likes of Ulsterbus simply switched to the incline-engined Scania L94UB, on a similar Wright Solar body. Another bodywork, which resembles the current Solar/Eclipse range is the Meridian, which is bodied on the new MAN A22 full low-floor single-deck chassis.

Present

The most distinctive product of Wright is the New Routemaster London bus, introduced on 27 February 2012 as an update of the AEC Routemaster.

The first Wright Eclipse Gemini double-decker was first built on the Volvo B7TL chassis in 2001. A similarly styled bus entered service with Arriva London in August 2001 as the Wright Pulsar Gemini on the VDL DB250 chassis. Large operators of Gemini-bodied buses include Arriva, FirstGroupGo-Ahead Group, Lothian Buses and National Express.

Since May 2013, Wrightbus has also built its own chassis.

Exports

In 1997, an order for 25 Wright Crusader bodied Dennis Darts were delivered to Australian operator ACTION. Between 2003 and 2006, Kowloon Motor Bus received a total of 164 Wrightbus three-axle double-deckers, 100 of them were on Volvo Super Olympian and 64 of them were on Volvo B9TL chassis. In 2009, Kowloon Motor Bus had order a total 291 buses which including one demonstrator with 2-axle and all buses were in service in 2012. In 2010, the first of 450 Wright Eclipse Gemini 2 bodied Volvo B9TLs was delivered to SBS Transit, Singapore till end 2012.

In 2011, Wrightbus International was established. A contract was awarded by SBS Transit for 550 Wright Eclipse Gemini 2 bodied Volvo B9TLs and delivered since January 2013 till Mid 2015. In November 2012, a contract for 50 Wright Eclipse Gemini 2 bodied Volvos was awarded by Kowloon Motor Bus. These are being sent in ckd form from Ireland and assembled in China and followed by another 85, including two 12.8-metre-long demonstrators. In September 2013, Wrightbus entered into a partnership with Daimler Buses to manufacture buses in India.

In March 2014, orders were secured from Citybus and New World First Bus for 51 Volvo B9TLs. These are being sent in ckd form from Ireland and assembled in Malaysia. In July 2014, SBS Transit ordered a further 415 Eclipse Gemini 2 bodied Volvo B9TLs which will be deliver from July 2015 till Mid 2017, increasing the total to 1,415 by 2017.

Products

Current

Wright Eclipse GeminiGemini 3 (based on Volvo B5TL, Volvo B5LH)

Wright StreetCarStreetCar RTV (based on Volvo B7LA)

Wright StreetLite..StreetLite (integral mini/midibus)

  • StreetLite Max (integral single deck)

New RoutemasterNew Routemaster Transport for London bus

Former

Single deck

Wright Axcess-Floline bodied Scania L94UBAxcess-Floline (for Scania L94)

Wright Axcess-Ultralow ANWScania5305Axcess-Ultralow (for Scania L113CRL)

DAF SB120-Wright Cadet in the Bluestar liveryCadet (for DAF/VDL SB120)

Wright Commander

  • Commander (for DAF/VDL SB200)
  • Consort (on Leyland 9-13R Roadrunner, possibly others)
  • Contour (on Bedford Y-Series and others)

Wright Crusader bodied Dennis Dart SLFCrusader (for Dennis Dart SLF, Volvo B6LE)

Wright Crusader 2 bodied Volvo B6BLECrusader 2 (for Volvo B6BLE)

Volvo_B7RLE_Wright_Eclipse_II_FJ58_LSN_15_March_2009Eclipse Metro/Eclipse Fusion (for Volvo B7L/B7LA)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAEclipse Urban/Eclipse 2 (for Volvo B7RLE)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAEclipse SchoolRun (school bus bodywork for Volvo B7R)

Wright Electrocity VDL DAFElectrocity (hybrid-powered single-decker bus based on DAF/VDL SB120)

Wright Endurance bodied Volvo B10BEndurance (for Volvo B10B, Scania N113CRB)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAFusion (for Volvo B10LA)

1995 Wright HandybusHandybus (for Dennis Dart, Leyland Swift)

Wright LiberatorLiberator (for Volvo B10L)

Wright MeridianMeridian (for MAN A22)

Wright PathfinderPathfinder (for Dennis Lance SLF, Scania N113CRL)

2012 VDLSB200-Wright Pulsar EclipsePulsar/Pulsar 2 (for VDL SB200)

  • Wright Pulsar 2 HEV

Wright Renown 1Renown (for Volvo B10BLE)

Scania L94UB with Wright Solar bodySolar (for Scania L94, Scania K-series single decker)

Wright Solar Fusion with ScaniaSolar Fusion

Wright Urbanranger Fire and RescueUrbanranger (variant of Endurance for Mercedes-Benz OH1416)

Double deck

Wright Eclipse GeminiEclipse Gemini/Eclipse Gemini 2 (for Volvo B7TL, Volvo B9TL, Volvo B5LH

Wright Gemini 2 HybridGemini 2 (integral with VDL chassis modules)

  • Gemini 2 DL
  • Gemini 2 HEV

Wright Pulsar GeminiPulsar Gemini (for DAF/VDL DB250)

Wright Pulsar Gemini HEVPulsar Gemini HEV (hybrid-powered double-decker bus based on VDL DB250)

WIIMA Coach and Busbodybuilders Finland

WIIMA

Coach and Busbodybuilders

Finland

WIIMA does not exist anymore. It was a great coach and busbodymanufacturer in Finland till CARRUS took over in 1989. Also CARRUS did not survive.

VOLVO AB took it over in 2008 and is now worlds biggest Busbuilder

1958 Volvo Wiima748

1958-volvo-wiima748

1959 Volvo B 615 Wiima M59

1959-volvo-b-615-wiima-m592

1959 Volvo Wiima Karjalohjalla -59

1959-volvo-wiima-karjalohjalla-59

1960 Volvo Wiima 1960 Wiima Volvo

1960-wiima-volvo 513

1961 Volvo B 63508 Wiima M59

1961-volvo-b-63508-wiima-m59

1962 Wiima Volvo valmis 013

1962-wiima-volvo-valmis-013

1963 Volvo B615 Wiima M 59 vm

1963-volvo-b615-wiima-m-59-vm2

1964 Wiima M64

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1964 Wiima Volvo Vanha Pohjolan Liikenne

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1965 Volvo Wiima 9.4 -65

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1966 Volvo B635 Wiima M63 vm.

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1966-volvo-wiima-kopie

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1968 Scania Wiima AL727

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1968 Sisu-Panther B-53SP-5850  Wiima vuodelta 1968

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1970 Volvo B58-06T  6000UEP-433 Wiima

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1974 Wiima BK 6 K200

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1975 Wiima Scania BF111 59A 5890, nr 527730 AL778

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1976 Wiima M68 на шасси Volvo B57

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1977 Wiima Estland

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1979 Volvo B58-55A  Wiima N100 #705

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1980 Scania BR86S 63AA-AD90 Wiima AL9605

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1983 Wiima M303 Estland

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1985 Volvo B10M Wiima K 202 a

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1985 Volvo B10M Wiima K 202

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1985 Wiima K200  Volvo Estland

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1985 Wiima N202 Estland

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1987 Volvo B57 Wiima in Hämeenlinna

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1987 Wiima Buses in Jyvaskyla old bus station

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1989 Volvo B10M Wiima K 202 a

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1990 Wiima N202 Estland

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1991 Carrus Wiima k202 matala hkl01 Scania

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1991 Carrus Wiima k202 matala ml01 Scania

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1991 Volvo B10M Wiima K 202 a

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1991 Wiima K202 Atko Estland

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1991 Wiima K202 Lahti

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1992 Carrus-Wiima K 202 puolimatala k202 puolimatala cnx01 Volvo

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1992 Wiima k202 con01 Volvo

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1993 Wiima n202 hkl01 Volvo

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1993 Wiima n202 hkl07 Volvo

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1993 Wiima Volvo gelenkebus

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AE-27, Volvo B615  Wiima M59

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Kauko Anias, OLT-598, Volvo B10M 60, Wiima M452

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Nurmeksen Liikenne, Wiima Volvo

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№ 9 — Wiima M64

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№ 15 Volvo Wiima M59

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Scania Wiima

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Volvo - Wiima SL H52 5076

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Volvo 513, Siipi Wiima, 1947-1959

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Volvo B 58 Wiima A20188

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Volvo B 61506 Wiima M59 bus

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Volvo B10M-65 Wiima M302

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Volvo m 59 Wiima 2A Kuva Jouko Nykänen m 59 Wi 2B

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Volvo Wiima 2

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Volvo B58 Scania AB

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Volvo Wiima AL512

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Volvo Wiima geledebus

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Wiima AL2707 Volvo

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Wiima images Wiima K1-75-K-100-K200 katso

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Wiima K2XC - Volvo B59

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Wiima M54 Volvo TD-300

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Wiima M64 Volvo Linja-Karjala 18

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Wiima M302

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Wiima m310 con01 Volvo

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Wiima m310 wl01 Scania

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Wiima m311 nivel ty01 Volvo

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Wiima m311 pl01 Scania

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Wiima N 202, HKL 8804

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Wiima Vasemmallavyb79-1

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Wiima Volvo 401

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Wiima, Jurttilan Ski-Bussi

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that’s it

VAN HOOL BELGIUM 1947 Bus and Coachbuilders

Van Hool
Type Private
Industry Automotive manufacture
Automotive engineering
Founded 1947
Headquarters Koningshooikt, Belgium
Key people Bernard Van Hool (founder)
Filip Van Hool (CEO)
Products Bus
Coach
semi-trailers
Subsidiaries Van Hool USA
Website vanhool.com

02Van Hool Astromega TD927 coach for the Oxford Tube

03Van Hool Alizée HE-II body on a ScaniaK113CRB coach for New Enterprise Coaches

04A British spec double deck Van Hool coach.

05A bi-articulated Van Hool AGG300

06Front view of AGG300.

07A Van Hool single articulated bus with North American specifications north of Toronto, Canada.

Van Hool NV is a Belgian family-owned coachbuilder and manufacturer of buses, coaches, trolleybuses, and trailers.

The company was founded in 1947 by Bernard Van Hool in Koningshooikt, near to Lier, Belgium. In the early years, the company introduced serial production and exported their products all over Europe. Since the mid-1980s, the company has also been active on the North American market, where it has become an important player.

On February 15, 1957, Van Hool signed a commercial agreement with Fiat; Van Hool would incorporate Fiat engines and other mechanical components (gearboxes, axles, steering) in its vehicles. It developed from a coachbuilder to a Belgian manufacturer of integral buses and coaches, known as Van Hool-Fiat. Alongside these activities, the company continued as a renowned coachbuilder, enabling further expansion.

The Van Hool-Fiat co-operation was immediately a great success: a year and a half after the agreement was signed, in August 1958, the 100th Van Hool-Fiat was delivered, and by July 1961, the figure had exceeded 500. The co-operation agreement with Fiat was terminated in 1981.

In 1990, Van Hool purchased the coachbuilding business of LAG Manufacturing and continued producing their EOS models for about ten years.

Most of the buses and coaches are built totally by Van Hool, with engines and axles sourced from Caterpillar, Cummins, DAF and MAN and gearboxes from ZF or Voith, with some of their production still consisting of building bus and coach bodies on separate bus chassis from manufacturers such as Volvo and Scania.

Worldwide, Van Hool employs 4,500 people and manufactures over 1,700 buses and coaches (bodyworks and complete vehicles combined) and 5,000 trailers each year. It sells an average of 600 coaches, annually, in the US.

Product range (Europe)

In Europe, Van Hool has the broadest range of coaches of all manufacturers on the market, though all designs share similar looks and are based on the same platform, the T9. The same philosophy is used on the transit bus range, the A-series. Many different versions are available, all sharing the same looks. In recent years, the company has been focussing on new propulsion technologies, introducing fuel-cell hybrid buses as well as diesel-electric hybrids.

Discontinued products

T8 series touring coach

The T8 platform was introduced in 1979. The body was based on the Alizee bodywork that had been launched the previous year. Over the course of several years, a large range of touring coaches were developed based on this platform, each distinguished by a number and a name, following a clear naming convention. For example, in ‘TD824 Astromega’:

  • T = Touringcar (touring coach)
  • D = Dubbeldek (double deck)
  • 8 = Part of the T8 series
  • 24 = theoretical maximum number of seat rows
  • Astromega = name of the double deck integrals

In 1991, an updated ‘T8 New Look’ was introduced. But this was called the T9 in its North American version. Production was ended in the late 1990s, following the introduction of the new (European) T9 platform.

A-series transit bus

In the 1980s, European countries started to move away from standard bus designs, leaving the design of transit buses to the manufacturers. Van Hool’s response was the development of the A-series transit buses. The first member, the A500, was introduced in 1985. A complete family would follow, again following a clear naming convention. For example, in ‘AG500’:

  • A = Autobus (transit bus)
  • G = Geleed (articulated)
  • 500 = height of the floor, in millimeters

Production of the A-series continued into the early 21st century, when it was replaced by the newA-series.

Current products

T9 series touring coaches

The new T9 series (not to be confused with the US T9 series, which corresponds with the European T8 New Look) was launched in 1995. It included a completely new body design, as well as many other improvements. The same philosophy as with the T8 was applied: one platform, many different versions. Also, the naming convention was retained. Over the years, many new variants have been developed, making the T9-series the most extensive series of motorcoaches available today. Different models (all available in at least 2 lengths, see ‘products’ below) include the Atlino and Atlon, so-called double earners, with different floor heights, the Alicron, Acron and Astron, standard touring coaches with different heights and thus different luggage space, the Altano, which has an underfloor cockpit, the Astronef, which features a sloping theatre-style floor, and the double deck Astromega.

Additionally, the T9 body is also available on chassis by Scania, Volvo and VDL, though only in Sweden and on the British Isles. These motorcoaches are referred to as Alizee (single deck) and Astrobel (double deck).

TX series touring coaches

08A Megabus Van Hool TDX27 Astromega at Buchanan Bus Station

At Busworld 2011 in Kortrijk, Belgium, Van Hool presented the successor to the T9 series. The new series is called TX.

newA series transit buses

In 2001, Van Hool introduced the newA series transit buses, replacing the A series. It featured a new body design and many other improvements. A complete family was developed, with different length and configurations.

ExquiCity BRT solution

In April 2011 Van Hool launched a new Multi Propulsion Platform called ExquiCity, aimed specifically at the BRT market. The bus has the styling and comfort of a tram, with the flexibility and cost of a bus. The ExquiCity was launched in two lengths, the single-articulated ExquiCity 18 and the double-articulated ExquiCity 24. Both are available as trolley buses, diesel-electric hybrids, fuel-cell hybrids or full-electric buses. First orders were placed by the Italian city of Parma (ExquiCity 18 trolley) and the French city of Metz (ExquiCity 24 diesel electric hybrid). A mock-up was presented at the UITP Congress in Dubai.

EX series touring coaches

09A Van Hool EX16M produced in Macedonia. Shown at the IAA 2014

At the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung 2014 in Hanover, Germany, Van Hool presented a new series of touring coaches for the European market. This new line is called EX. It is produced in the Van Hool factory in Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonia is considered to be alow-wage country where production costs are much lower than in Belgium.

Product range (North America)

Due to American Federal Safety requirements and other unique factors, only highway touring coaches were introduced in the US initially. Transit coaches by Van Hool were not introduced until 2002. Currently, Van Hool has four separate product lines for sale: the T21-series deluxe touring coaches, the C20-series touring coaches, the

Van Hool TD925 double-decker coach a Van Hool TD925 double-decker coach

Van Hool TD925 double-decker coach

TD925 double-decker coach, and the A-series transit buses. Van Hool’s exclusive dealer in the US is ABC Companies.

Discontinued products

T8 series touring coach

VAN HOOL T815 ACRON (PR 10 9) Van Hool T815 ACRON VAN HOOL T815 Alizée VAN HOOL T815

The T815 was first introduced to the US market in 1987. Later subsequent models are collectively known as the T8 series. The earliest use Cummins L10 diesels. Later versions use Cummins M11 diesels.

It was available as 30, 40 and 45 foot length versions.

T9 series touring coach

T9 series are almost identical to the T8 series visually, and are largely identical mechanically as well, except for incremental updates. T9 series upgraded the suspension airbags to larger heavy-duty versions, as well as upgraded front axle to disc brakes instead of drum brakes. However, many of the earliest T9’s indeed lack these upgrades. What’s even more interesting, Van Hool’s VIN consider T8 and T9 to be the same family.

1997 Van Hool T945

1997 Van Hool T945

It was available as 40-foot (T940) or extended 45-foot (T945) versions.

Current products

T21 series luxury touring coach

Introduced in 1996 and based on the European T9 platform, the T21 series features an updated stream-line design and more engine choices. Whereas T8 and T9 series are almost exclusively powered by Cummins diesel engines, T21 are available with Cummins M11 plus engine, Detroit Diesel series 60 engine, or the latest Caterpillar C13 ACERT “clean diesel” engine. Most recent versions simplified the windshield into 2 panes only, replaced headlight assemblies with individual projector lamps, and consolidated the driver console.

Van Hool T2145 at Harbor and Katella in Anaheim

Van Hool T2145 at Harbor and Katella in Anaheim © Andrew Novak

Available as 40-foot (T2140) or extended 45-foot (T2145) versions.

C20 series touring coach

Introduced as a lower-cost coach intended for long-line duty, the C20 series, with similar European looks to the T21 series, was introduced in 2000 to the US market. C20 is available with Cummins ISX12 or Detroit Diesel DD13 engine. Previous generations could also be equipped with Cummins M11 plus, Detroit Diesel series 60 and Caterpillar C13 engine. Both Allison B500 automatic and ZF AS Tronic automated gearboxes are available.

Greyhound operates a fleet of C2045s along with its MCI buses in Michigan.

SD956 Megabus Van Hool C2045E

SD956 Megabus Van Hool C2045E

Available as extended 45-foot (C2045) version only. Current model is C2045E.

A3 transit bus series

10An AC Transit 30-foot Van Hool A300K bus

The popularity of A3 series in Europe led Van Hool and ABC to partner with AC Transit (Alameda and Contra Costa counties, California) to demo the A3 series as a future transit alternative in 2002. The A330 and AG300 low floor transit coaches formally entered service in AC transit fleet in June 2003. AC Transit now has over 330 Van Hool buses either in its fleet or on order as of August 2009.

Van Hool is building 16 hydrogen fuel cell buses for the USA at present (August 2009). These buses are powered by fuel cells from UTC Power and lithium batteries from EnerDell. Twelve of the buses are being purchased by AC Transit and four by CT Transit of Hartford Connecticut. This project is unusual in that the buses have been designed from the ground up as fuel cell buses and are designed, built, and integrated by a single manufacturer.

Van Hool AG 300 - CTS - Strasbourg

Van Hool AG 300 – CTS – Strasbourg

The AG300 is an articulated 60-foot bus, while the A330 is a 40-foot bus.

In 2008, AC Transit took delivery of a fleet of new model A300L forty-foot buses. These buses are unique in the US market as they have their engines mounted in the wheelbase which makes their ride quality extremely stable and smooth. The new layout capitalizes on basic architectural design of the A300L’s earlier released little brother the 30-foot A300K (K stands for kort, “short” in Dutch and L for lang, “long”). A recent survey of AC Transit riders overwhelmingly approves of the design and quality of the new buses.

Salt Lake City (Utah Transit Authority) has purchased ten A300L 40-foot buses for its MAX Bus Rapid Transit system. These buses differ from AC Transit’s A300Ls as they have three doors and are equipped for cold weather and high altitude operations. They have also recently placed an order for four more because of overwhelmingly positive support of the first 10 buses and the “MAX” BRT service they operate.

York Region Transit (north of Toronto, Ontario) uses the A330 and AG300 buses on its Viva routes, though the A330 buses are being transferred to the conventional YRT service as more Nova LFX buses arrive for the Viva services. The Reseau de transport de Longueuil (south of Montreal, Quebec) also uses the AG300 buses, and was the first to use Van Hool transit buses in North America (AG700) in 1989.

RENOIR

Van Hool AG 700 Divia 707

Washington, D.C.‘s Circulator uses the A330 buses. These 29 buses were purchased from AC Transit in 2005. In addition to the A330 models, the Circulator now uses the new A300K buses, which first went into service in April 2009. The Circulator recently took delivery of 14 A300K, 31-foot buses to build out its route structure. The A300K was chosen because of its unique ability to do the work of forty-foot buses for nearly all operations in the smaller envelope and with the smaller engine of a midi bus.

FirstTransit took delivery of 12 A300Ls and 4 AG300s in early 2009, for use on the University of Minnesota Campus Connector.

Baltimore, Maryland‘s Charm City Circulator have recently ordered and since put 5 A300Ls into service early 2011. The A300L was a supplement order to their already existing but rehabbing Designline buses.

2009 Van Hool A300L

Van Hool A300L

TD925 Astromega double-deck touring motorcoach

The TD925 Astromega is a closed-top US-spec double decker motorcoach that is a variant of the TD925 Astromega coach available in Europe.

Products

11A Van Hool TD925 bus in New York City

12A Van Hool C2045-L in New York

13Van Hool T916 Astronef

Transit buses

Europe
  • A308 midibus, full low floor, with side-mounted engine. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A309 midibus, low entry (low floor up to the second door). Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A320 standard bus (out of production)
  • A300 standard bus, full low floor, with side-mounted engine. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A300 CNG standard bus
  • A360 standard bus, low entry. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A330 standard bus, full low floor, engine placed horizontally in the back. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A330 CNG standard bus
  • AG300 articulated bus, also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • AGG300 bi-articulated bus
  • A330T trolleybus
  • AG300T articulated trolleybus
  • AG300 CNG articulated bus
  • ExquiCity 18 articulated BRT bus (diesel electric hybrid, trolley, fuel cell or electric)
  • ExquiCity 24 bi-articulated BRT bus (diesel electric hybrid, trolley, fuel cell or electric)
  • A308E Electric bus
North America
  • newA300K 30 ft bus, shortened A300L
  • newA300L 40 ft full low floor bus, side-mounted midship engine
  • newA330 40 ft full low floor bus, side-mounted rear engine
  • newAG300 60 ft articulated full low floor bus, side-mounted midship engine

Touring coaches

Europe

  • T915 Atlon

2014 Van Hool T916 Atlon

Van Hool T916 Atlon

  • T916 Atlon
  • TX11 Alicron

Van Hool TX15 Acron

Van Hool TX15 Acron

  • TX15 Alicron
  • TX16 Alicron
  • TX15 Acron

2014 Van Hool TX 17 Acron

2014 Van Hool TX 17 Acron © bertiewillemsen

  • TX16 Acron
  • TX17 Acron
  • TX18 Acron