ZAZ automobiles Ukraine 1958 – 1994

ZAZ Zaporozhets

ZAZ Zaporozhets

ZAZ-966 Logo

ZAZ-965 and ZAZ-968 cars

ZAZ Zaporozhets (UkrainianЗапоро́жецьRussianЗапоро́жецAbout this sound pronunciation ) was a series of rear-wheel-drivesuperminis (city cars in their first generation) designed and built from 1958 at the ZAZ factory in Soviet Ukraine (UkrainianЗапорізький автомобільний заводZaporiz’kyi Avtomobilnyi Zavod, or Zaporizhian Automobile Factory). Different models of the Zaporozhets, all of which had an air-cooledengine in the rear, were produced until 1994. Since the late 1980s, the final series, 968M, was replaced by the cardinally different ZAZ-1102 Tavriahatchback, which featured a front-wheel drive and a more powerful water-cooled engine.

The name Zaporozhets translates into a Cossack of the Zaporizhian Sich or а man from Zaporizhia or the Zaporizhia Oblast.

Zaporozhets is still well-known in many former Soviet states. Like the Volkswagen Beetle or East Germany‘s Trabant, the Zaporozhets was destined to become a “people’s car” of the Soviet Union, and as such it was the most affordable vehicle of its era. At the same time, it was rather sturdy and known for its excellent crossing performance on poor roads. Another important advantage of the Zaporozhets was its ease of repairs. The car’s appearance gave birth to several nicknames that became well known across the Soviet Union: horbatyi (“hunchback“, owing to ZAZ-965’s insect-like form; although ZAZ factory workers never used this nickname), malysh (English: Kiddy),ushastyi (“big-eared“, due to 966 and 968’s round air intakes on each side of the car to cool the rear-mounted engine), mylnitsa (“soap-box”, for ZAZ-968M, lacking “ears” and producing a more box-like appearance).

Numerous special versions of the Zaporozhets were produced, equipped with additional sets of controls that allowed operating the car with a limited set of limbs, and were given for free or with considerable discounts to disabled people, especially war veterans, side-by-side with SMZ-series microcars. These mobility cars would at times consume up to 25% of ZAZ factory output.

First generation (1960-1969)

ZAZ-965 (1960-1963)

ZAZ-965A (1962-1969)

ZAZ-965A
Overview
Manufacturer Zaporizhian Automobile Factory
Also called Zaporozhets
Production 1960–1969
Body and chassis
Class City car (A-segment)
Body style 2-door saloon
Layout RR layout
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,160 mm (85.0 in)
Length 3,330 mm (131.1 in)
Width 1,395 mm (54.9 in)
Height 1,450 mm (57.1 in)
Curb weight 665 kg (1,466 lb)
Chronology
Successor ZAZ-966 Zaporozhets

ZAZ-965

The ZAZ 965 was a city car produced from 1960 to 1963. Design of a car accessible to the public, and one in part taking the place of the soon to be discontinued Moskvitch 401, began in 1956. Following the growing trend of city cars (then accounting for between 25% and 40% of all European car sales), the minister in charge of Minavtroprom (the Soviet automotive ministry) Nicholas Strokin selected the new Fiat 600 as the model to follow. However, apart from general principles of mechanics and a close visual similarity to the Fiat 600, the ZAZ was in fact a completely different car.

ZAZ-965 dashboard

The first prototype, the Moskvich-444, was designed by MZMA in October 1957; it used the same glass for front and rear windows. Its ground clearance, on 13 in (330 mm) wheels, was 200 mm (7.9 in). The prototype was first powered by a flat twin-cylinder MD-65 engine provided by the Irbitskiy Motorcycle Plant, which was “totally unsuited”: it produced only 17.5 hp (13.0 kW; 17.7 PS) and lasted only 30,000 km (19,000 mi) between major overhauls. As a result, a search for another engine was begun, and the success of the VW Type 1‘s boxer led to a preference for an air-cooled engine, which NAMI (the National Automobile Institute) had on the drawing board.Minavtroprom, however, preferred a 23 hp (17 kW; 23 PS) rear-mounted 746 cc (45.5 cu in) V4, the NAMI-G, which had the additional advantage of being developed for the LuAZ-967. As a result, it had characteristics not common for automobile engines, including a magnesium alloy engine block. (This engine, the MeMZ 965, would be built by the Melitopolski Motor Plant, MeMZ.) It had the drawback of needing to have the rear of the car redesigned to fit, as well as needing a new rear suspension. The influence of the LuAZ designers led to the introduction of independent suspension on all four wheels. Its front doors open in a manner like suicide doors, partly to make it more accessible to the disabled.

One of the primary differences was that the engine, which featured a V4 layout in place of the Fiat‘s inline-four, was air-cooled. The Zaporozhets also featured bigger wheels and front suspension on torsion bars. In 1958, the government ordered production of the car in the reformed ZAZ factory, under its final designation ZAZ-965. All further production of the car was carried out there.

The new car was approved for production at the MeMZ factory 28 November 1958, changing the name to ZAZ (Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant) to reflect the new profile. The Zaporizhia factory was supplemented with the Mikoyan Diesel-Building Factory in Melitopol, which was part of the Soyuzdieselcombinat.

The first car, dubbed the ZAZ-965 Zaporozhets, was delivered 12 June 1959, was approved 25 July 1960, and entered production 25 October. The Zaporozhets was priced at 1,800 rubles.

There was also a car-derived van model for the Soviet post office, the 965S, with right-hand drive and blanked-off windows.

ZAZ-965A

ZAZ-965AE

The 965A was an improvement on the 965 and was produced from November 1962 to May 1969. In total, 322,106 units of the 965 were produced. It was powered by a MeMZ 965 rear-mounted, air-cooledOHV 887 cc (54.1 cu in) V4 engine, partially of aluminium design, producing 27 PS (20 kW). From November 1966 some cars were fitted with the slightly more powerful 30 PS (22 kW) MeMZ-965A engine. The 965’s modest engine output has given ground to an urban joke that it was used as a starter motor in Soviet tanks.

As Soviet drivers were expected to do much of the servicing themselves, and auto workshops were in short supply anyway, the engine’s 90° V4 layout proved more practical, especially in harsh winter conditions. The higher centre of gravity of the engine also provided superior traction on steep slopes, though this advantage, which was also continued in later models, came at the expense of the car’s infamous cornering stability.

The 965A also had its versions for the disabled (ZAZ-965B, AB, AR), as well as a more luxurious export variant ZAZ-965AE Yalta.

Despite low prestige of those cars, they have shown an unbeaten accessibility and popularity among the Soviets, becoming the “car for pensioners and intellectuals”. They were the cheapest Soviet-made cars. Quite a large number of them was produced in variants for disabled people, with modified steering.

Between November 1966 and May 1969 the 965A and its successor, the ZAZ966, were produced concurrently.

When production of the 965 ended, 322,116 had been built.

The 965 also inspired the 1962 prototype NAMI 086, named Sputnik (Fellow Traveller), with a 15 PS (11 kW) 500 cc (31 cu in) vee-twin (half an MeMZ 965), electromagnetic clutch and four-speed transmission. Fitted with four-wheel independent suspension and weighing just 520 kg (1,150 lb), intended for use by the disabled, it was never built.

The ZAZ KD of 1969 was also based on the 965, fitted with a glassfibre body, giving it a weight of only and a top speed of 75 mph (121 km/h) on just 30 PS (22 kW). It was never produced in quantity, either.

Second generation (1966-1994)

ZAZ-966 (1966-1972)

ZAZ-968 (1971-1980)

ZAZ-968M (1979-1994)

Vladimir Putin with his 1972 ZAZ-968
Overview
Manufacturer ZAZ (Zaporizhian Automobile Factory)
Also called Zaporozhets
Production 1966–1994
Body and chassis
Class Supermini (B)
Body style 2-door notchbacksaloon
Powertrain
Engine 1.2L MeMZ-968V4
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,160 mm (85.0 in)
Length 3,730 mm (146.9 in)
Width 1,540 mm (60.6 in)
Height 1,370 mm (53.9 in)
Curb weight

780 kg (1,720 lb)

(dimensions for ZAZ-968)

Chronology
Predecessor ZAZ-965A (Zaporozhets)
Successor ZAZ-1102 Tavria

ZAZ-966

ZAZ-966

The second generation of the Zaporozhets was a series of subcompact cars, production starting of the 966 in November 1966, although the prototype was working on as 1961. It had a completely restyled bodywork (done entirely by ZAZ), no longer resembling the Fiat 600 and arguably similar to the Chevrolet Corvair or the NSU Prinz. This was an effort to cure some of the 965’s issues, such as torsion bars that lost tension, suicide doors, and engine overheating and noise. The engine was the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) 887 cc (54.1 cu in) MeMZ 966A. A radio was standard equipment. The price had inched up, too, from 1,800 rubles at the 965’s debut to 2,200 by 1969.

While featuring a larger two-door notchbacksaloon body, it still featured an air-cooled V4 engine and featured more prominent air intakes – the so-called “ears”, although a decorative chrome grille was also present. The car’s rear suspension was also replaced. The 966 started out as the simpler ZAZ-966V (ЗАЗ-966В in Cyrillic) with the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) engine from the 965A, which was also featured on all later models. Much like the 965A, the 966V was also produced in several special variants for the disabled (VR, VB, VB2 – until January 1973). It was produced in tandem with the 965 from November 1966 to May 1969.

ZAZ launched an upgraded 966B in 1968, powered by a new 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS) 1,197 cc (73.0 cu in) MeMZ 968 V4, while the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) 966A-powered model became the 966-1 which was only ever produced in small numbers. The 966B, weighing in at 780 kg (1,720 lb), was heavier than the earlier model, but faster, reaching 75 mph (121 km/h).

The 966 was discontinued in 1972, with the introduction of the ZAZ 968.

Nicknamed “Zapo” in the Eastern Bloc, the 966 was also popular in Western Europe, including some Scandinavian countries and France. Some markets fitted a 956 cc (58.3 cu in) Renault engine.

ZAZ-968

ZAZ-968

ZAZ-968 rear view

The ZAZ-968 and its modifications were produced from 1971 to 1980. It featured the same 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS) 1,197 cc (73.0 cu in) MeMZ 968 V4 as the ZAZ 966, but the exterior design was slightly modernized. The most obvious alteration was replacing the fake chrome grille in the car’s front with a horizontal chrome decoration. Among other changes was the less austere dashboard and better front brakes. The 968 was discontinued in 1978, having been produced simultaneously with the newer 968A since 1973, which was produced until 1980. It introduced new safety measures, including a safer driving wheel and a plastic dashboard instead of the earlier metal one. The 968A also had its variants for the disabled (the ZAZ-968R, B, B2, AB, and AB2) with the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) 887 cc (54.1 cu in) engine.

Toward the end of 1974, an up-market 968A debuted, surviving until 1979. Among its improvements were padded dash, energy-absorbing (collapsing) steering column, and seats from the VAZ-2101. The export 968E (destined mostly for the Eastern Bloc) had headlights able to meet international standards, a safety glass windscreen, and anti-theft steering lock.

ZAZ-968M

ZAZ-968M
ZAZ-968M

In 1979, the 968 series was replaced by the modernized 968M. Prototyped in 1977, it had the “ears” removed and replaced much of the chrome exterior with black plastic. Its interior design was also upgraded, featuring a closed-space glove compartment and a slightly more modern dashboard. It was offered with either the MeMZ 968E (40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS), carbureted, low-compression for 76-octane fuel); 968GE (40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS), dual carburettor); or the MeMZ 968BE (50 hp(37 kW; 51 PS), 8.4:1 compression, for 93-octane). Instead of the side-mounted “ears”, the hood lid and rear quarter panels were louvered.

The 968M is the most contemporary Zaporozhets model and also spent the most time in production, spanning a career from 1979 to 1 June 1994. Some of its special variants include the ZAZ-968MB2, for drivers who have only one foot, the ZAZ-968MB for drivers who have no feet.

Planned 968s with 1,300 cc (79 cu in) or 1,400 cc (85 cu in) engines were never realized.

Export versions

Among the export variants produced by ZAZ were ZAZ-965E, ZAZ-965AE, ZAZ-966E, ZAZ-968E, and ZAZ-968AE, which had improved consumer qualities. Depending on target markets, commercial names Jalta or Eliette were used for these models.

In total, 3,422,444 Zaporozhets vehicles were manufactured and powered by air-cooled engines from the Melitopol factory from 1960 to 1994.

You Tube Video’s:

ZAZ ЗАЗ-965АЭ:

https://youtu.be/5IagKvx6O8w

Made in USSR Zaporozhets ZAZ 968M you tube:

https://youtu.be/6k5KZAZDXQk

Russian Car transporting a Cow (Very Funny!!!!)

https://youtu.be/Hz_ru7rB6GA

See also

Similar air-cooled and rear-engined vehicles:

Chevrolet Corvair

NSU Prinz

Hillman Imp

Hino Contessa

Russian President Vladimir Putin and his spouse Lyudmila on the way to the informal dinner with the American President George Bush and his spouse Laura.

ADN-ZB Kutscher 21.10.75-Berlin: Blick auf das Werk für Fernsehelektronik im Berliner Stadtbezirk Köpenik

EPSON MFP image

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SUBARU

Subaru Corporation

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915

In 1932 it became: Nakajima Aircraft Company

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Coordinates: 36°17′51″N 139°22′05″E / 36.2975685°N 139.368058°E / 36.2975685; 139.368058

Subaru Corporation
Native name
スバル
Industry Automobile manufacturing
Founded July 15, 1953; 63 years ago (1953-07-15)
Founder Kenji Kita
Chikuhei Nakajima(predecessor)
Headquarters Ebisu, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Yasuyuki Yoshinaga, (Representative Director, President and CEO)
Jun Kondo, (Representative Director & Vice-President)
Products Automobiles
Divisions Subaru Tecnica International
Website Subaru Global

Subaru (スバル?) (/ˈsbər/ or /sᵿbˈɑːr/;Japanese pronunciation: [sɯ.ba.ɾɯ]) is the automobile manufacturing division of JapanesetransportationconglomerateSubaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI)), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.

Subaru cars are known for the use of a boxer engine layout in most vehicles above 1500 cc. Most Subaru models have used the Symmetrical All Wheel Drive drive-train layout since 1972. The flat/boxer engine and all-wheel-drive became standard equipment for mid-size and smaller cars in most international markets by 1996, and is now standard in most North American market Subaru vehicles. The lone exception is the BRZ, introduced in 2012, which uses the boxer engine but instead uses a rear-wheel-drive structure. Subaru also offers turbocharged versions of their passenger cars, such as the Impreza WRX and the Legacy 2.5GT. The 2.0XT trims of the Outback and Forester also include a turbocharged engine.

In Western markets, the Subaru brand has traditionally been popular among a dedicated core of buyers. Marketing is targeted towards specific niches centered on those who desire the company’s signature drive train engine, all-wheel/rough-road capabilities or affordable sports car markets.

Subaru is the Japanese name for the Pleiades star cluster M45, or “The Seven Sisters” (one of whom tradition says is invisible – hence only six stars in the Subaru logo), which in turn inspires the logo and alludes to the companies that merged to create FHI.

All pictures from my collection: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214689494617313&set=ms.c.eJxVWFkOHTEIu1GFwWz3v1jFU9VxfubDGpawxQTmYM1yWehA~%3BME~%3BJJzosHRBvBAm~%3BzgwaU7~_RzKiY3zxH8EOuWv7~%3BeOZMTb16TGU7c58UpNdm~%3BtZ5yy60f0g0WjRA2ea54r1ntnZVM1Rm~%3BNpRjtnvUyR9PXCg9R6STSmbVmeGo1s82iRCrP1DtUzXK~%3BPQxo901JiaM3tik9zBNDh~%3Bmgm14eP5llve3LR4xpDtO~%3BF~%3BslFj82nuayrDLGPrVmfz5~%3BcInZyRKroBhuVKluXnKbX7MA1zoRvGOTsju408dmBTkrecXWxw1Ipz077ouGcAlAS~_dmorSfvjLNeivhsmER~_J4JrWmNRa77fKbjcvvRIfHx7uwUpOtYyJBfJS5FU5kb49kBsua15Sr5yPWddusnCstO1EtJsw7VP7wyaQTq4SUHQidp4aiydG66VkO0b1L7IixI1p0XbSK2EHG6Qzz~_Xjkcqa6M0O7W10S~%3BiG63W6zSXetjkxtMXfZpHzzWopanmCV8~_ldDpG6PI~_HWrRmyGS6j12Vq6at6z9UR1u5Z8~%3BllfSj1j7GxlPv~_cVOs~%3B5FJn3cBm2Trr7KQ0hrtmu659YVcPpVJIX~_rZx1GrXYk53VzVgzvFPlJ~_9amanbapU2K8bBOq5~_ZY6pSYyBtbqjmM~_9T8xE31UA~_vuzNVKs~_fUc3l3DI~_yE0z9bmNW4~_tq59KtXW1UZqvmdOcj1T7Vqk~%3B18jV2u8ZbfGc4mqstMJvuG31qlSelNbG5s06nZlXLW16M1rWNrQ2rA9RKdRsa3f~%3BaqoZirRv60xYd27r2dejtlM1~_~%3Bkj1euRtTaPrTg9vQ8y25rBq~_4dlCK~%3Ba0bnKrd2tCu3UDsPt7FJ33qYg9tOj0odknr2OnbR6k~_fZrmtnLUB~_MOI0nchebc4pkBFEmGm3MbS0qz5IGsm~%3Be6We4xDpX6UzVRzRxukxk6qzVZ8TuPCYSp19zRVc88aqNanw1D6z1oaHp9n0iBxdttsg9Sq224b1B~%3BY3YNmihzXkuqNqkoC1H82zB0P0uZSCQ7vNi~_15QPzGkEugsriHHHW1WeQsDCVIsKU29w3LR4P02HhKlVMC~_0LVIRFKgOpWYvWaLSvKa9zNA9RdtoDi9VTTITx4TZDGPUUbpXGEp~%3B9ajW1Vn3QpvPQr02t1cNYW1tlywwCFuLPEuFPxMgBTHIRPy2lNU9OwrSiyG6Y5pTpCdOZycyG8l5nMmGjHLKOeGt8WDhEPSxP4GGebQs8J~_1KKKN2NhpwtT6nOfEgDWhUObOARpVruNVAkfPnOelyb09TpBuQvcCPMOLpr7S7G7RT8pYtjwch4JrBxABORdwvGA9yUsIPPSMDrvtghl14VCom4csHWbhsdp5EI3R3mPJLs0qxAN1zPSv6~_lmR32ap0bgMxqwidv~_o9cuXssroHDCeaAwX1Lmasw1ljF5mACnxKViCOkULtlCm5~_V15SO26qKqrMmLtchSKXYgdWJXR6M0y5UDpM6NupM~_~%3BV6TgZJ92WsHt098SBsTykC87be2SjQ67Ee9BWHEUVRBEo3R3pmrw51QZIBV6~_O8ApeonjV3Pft6t~_tdQLvKgH~%3B~%3BhB1XUM52Hh8i~%3B9zs9ZGOOyR9ZLYEuttnHwZy641k5zgJfHX63ZobprfelV3Y6rtNIUJnVHhZhq3sjMuI1aiGz9GUx~%3BotW5A75ZAMnS0R19ruL3Krp0iFzwVIThFVGSF3yiH3Eeu8FZay~_QZtO3SXyWDtBFQqNyKF~%3BwQ3Ikp26vgt66WRzztF6ynyXgtauE3knaL1FBmF6FGEGTHC6yJ~%3BS6RGIzMiJuSfCwaBF~_mbkTJJ3EGdoockXTh2tGXzYUQdcQ8aipDJkB6MvqencNVTG9Qtm2uGxs7zT1N38~_iupE7I6GOHdPV5Z0mJ6r06ZisjijHPc1IQ1I1DsT5EMOWujGElUytq8lcNUglXZnwqYcPBFoYfS4JjisQ2W7hoHLvn4kEGXHxSNFoeh1bEkfr~_U9YXV42G1a8WJfLWtxwLl~_AN1XTZknj3ZOocO6TzmWNgROpLV11Lmksv34tQJmVGMTu79OWE0R058rpL78os4TasuFVYz0UflGl8Mu6tR7JzUlnJ5xU0o0vuL2adP~%3BJGxLonvdRo3JNIQU~%3BhdR5CkTFkyQ1LXjeb2joOWcohGfdWOjIlyDYUpMIZZXl3vPxzDxMQ9p429nv~%3B~_v65~%3Bbn0tZDN7Brp5RybXQonYbNQIzc~_~_~_6PDX0tBHda3hjZy7uWHyneA5nEZ7LQJh3Hyey26b~%3BRouQc.bps.a.10214689172449259.1073742084.1422084541&type=3&theater

History

Former logo on a Subaru 360 showing six stars in an arrangement similar to the Pleiades open star cluster

Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI) and Subaru’s first cars

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915, headed by Chikuhei Nakajima. In 1932, the company was reorganized as Nakajima Aircraft Company, Ltd and soon became a major manufacturer of aircraft for Japan during World War II. At the end of the Second World War Nakajima Aircraft was again reorganized, this time as Fuji Sangyo Co, Ltd. In 1946, the company created the

Fuji Rabbitmotor scooter with spare aircraft parts from the war. In 1950, Fuji Sangyo was divided into 12 smaller corporations according to the Japanese Government’s 1950 Corporate Credit Rearrangement Act, anti-zaibatsu legislation. Between 1953 and 1955, four of these corporations and a newly formed corporation decided to merge to form Fuji Heavy Industries. These companies were: Fuji Kogyo, a scooter manufacturer; coachbuildersFuji Jidosha; engine manufacturers Omiya Fuji Kogyo; chassis builders Utsunomiya Sharyo and the Tokyo Fuji Dangyotrading company.

1955 Subaru 1500, a.k.a. the P-1

Kenji Kita, CEO of Fuji Heavy Industries at the time, wanted the new company to be involved in car manufacturing and soon began plans for building a car with the development code-name P-1. Mr. Kita canvassed the company for suggestions about naming the P1, but none of the proposals was appealing enough. In the end he gave the company a Japanese name that he had “been cherishing in his heart”: Subaru, which is the name of the Pleiades star cluster in Japanese. The first Subaru car was named the Subaru 1500. Only twenty were manufactured owing to multiple supply issues. Subsequently, the company designed and manufactured dozens of vehicles including the 1500 (1954), the tiny air-cooled 360 (1958), the Sambar (1961), and the 1000 (which saw the introduction of the Subaru boxer engine in 1965).

 1958 Subaru 360

Later partnerships

Nissan acquired a 20.4% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, Subaru’s parent company, in 1968 during a period of government-ordered merging of the Japanese auto industry in order to improve competitiveness under the administration of Prime MinisterEisaku Sato. Nissan would utilize FHI’s bus manufacturing capability and expertise for their Nissan Diesel line of buses. In turn many Subaru vehicles, even today, use parts from the Nissan manufacturing keiretsu. The Subaru automatic transmission, known as the 4EAT, is also used in the first generation Nissan Pathfinder. While under this arrangement with Nissan, Subaru introduced the R-2 (1969), the Rex and the Leone (1971), the BRAT (1978), Alcyone (1985), the Legacy (1989), the Impreza (1993) (and its WRX subtype), and the Forester (1997).

Upon Nissan’s acquisition by Renault, its stake in FHI was sold to General Motors in 1999. Troy Clarke, of General Motors served as representative to Fuji Heavy Industries on their corporate board. During that time, Subaru introduced the Baja (2003), and the Tribeca (2005). The Subaru Forester was sold as a Chevrolet Forester in India in exchange for the Opel Zafira being sold as a Subaru Traviq in Japan. Also, the Chevrolet Borrego concept was presented in 2002, a crossover coupe/pickup truck being derived from the Japanese-market Legacy Turbo platform. During the brief General Motors period, a “badge engineeredImpreza was sold in the United States as the Saab 9-2X. An SUV (Subaru Tribeca / Saab 9-6X) was also planned but the Saab version did not proceed, and styling was recycled in the 2008 Tribeca refresh.

GM liquidated their holdings in FHI in 2005. Nearly all Saab-Subaru joint projects were dropped at that time, other than Subaru supplying parts for the Saab 9-2x.Toyota Motors bought a little over 40% of GM’s former FHI stock, amounting to 8.7% of FHI. (The rest of GM’s shares went to a Fuji stock buy-back program.) Toyota and Subaru have since collaborated on a number of projects, among them building the Toyota Camry in Subaru’s Indiana U.S. plant beginning in April 2007. Subaru introduced the Exiga in 2008.

Toyota increased their share of FHI to 16.5% in July 2008. Subsequently, Toyota and Subaru jointly developed the Toyota 86, first sold in January 2012 as the Subaru BRZ and by Toyota under various names.

Marketing efforts

Some of the advertising slogans Subaru has used in the past include “Inexpensive, and built to stay that way” (USA 1970s – early 1980s), “The World’s Favourite Four Wheel Drive” (in the UK), “Plus on y pense, plus on a le gout de la conduire” (Literally: “The more one thinks, the more one has the taste (or desire, impulse, drive) of driving it”) in French Quebec, “We built our reputation by building a better car”, “What to Drive”, “The Beauty of All-Wheel Drive”, “Driven by What’s Inside”, “Think, Feel, Drive”, “Love. It’s what makes Subaru, a Subaru” (USA early 2010s) and currently “Confidence in Motion” in North America, “All 4 The Driver” in Australia, and “Uncommon Engineering, Uncommon Stability, Uncommon Roadholding, Uncommon Sense” in the UK and “Technology that gives you Confidence in Motion” in Southeast Asia.

As a result of this refocused advertising campaign, Subaru products began to attract a following among the young and educated, who saw the car as a practical alternative to the SUV craze. Subaru has historically been popular in the Northeastern United States as well as the Pacific Northwest. According to Automotive Lease Guide, Subaru ranked second place in vehicles that have the highest overall predicted resale values among all industry and all luxury vehicles for MY 2009. The awards are derived after carefully studying segment competition, historical vehicle performance and industry trends. According to a study done by J.D. Power and Associates for the 2008 Customer Retention Study, Subaru ranked at 50.5%, which was above the national average of 48%.

Hōkago no Pleiades (Original net animation)

Subaru launched an animation series Hōkago no Pleiades (放課後のプレアデス?, Hōkago no Pureadesu, lit. ‘After School Pleiades’) developed jointly with Gainax. The 4-part mini episode series was released on YouTube on February 1, 2011. It featured a magical girl plot with Subaru as a leading protagonist.

Current operations

Subaru’s corporate headquarters are located in Ebisu, Tokyo.

Manufacturing facilities

Subaru is distinct from many of its Japanese competitors in that as of early 2016 it still made almost 75% of its cars sold internationally in Japan. Subaru’s facilities designated to automotive manufacturing are located in Ōta, Gunma Prefecture, consisting of four locations. Subaru-chō is where the Subaru BRZ/Toyota 86 is built, having been re-purposed from kei car production, Yajima Plant is where all current Subaru cars are built, Otakita Plant is where commercial kei trucks are built (originally a factory location of Nakajima Aircraft Company), and Oizumi Plant is where engines and transmissions are built.

Subaru’s only overseas manufacturing facility is located in Lafayette, Indiana; the factory is called Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc.. Due to continued sales growth in North American markets, vehicle production capacity at the Lafayette assembly plant is set to expand to 390,000 vehicles annually. Under the current strategic plan, Subaru will have a total production capacity of 1,026,000 vehicles per year at the end of 2016.

Subaru in Canada

Subaru Canada, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Fuji Heavy Industries of Japan. Headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of 88 authorized dealers throughout Canada.In 1976, Canadians got their first exposure to Subaru vehicles when Subaru Auto Canada Limited (SACL) began offering the Subaru Leone. In 1989, the privately owned SACL was purchased by the Toronto-based Subaru Canada, Inc. who, under the guidance of parent company Fuji Heavy Industries, began an expansion process that would eventually see over 100 Subaru Dealers in operation across the country.

Subaru in the Philippines

Subaru has entered the Philippine operations started in 1996 under the Columbian Motors Philippines ownership but withdrew in 2000. It returned in 2006 under a new ownership by Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc. Subaru has eleven dealerships in the country: Greenhills, Fort Bonifacio, Manila Bay, Alabang, Davao, Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Iloilo, Santa Rosa, Batangas, and Pampanga.

Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc., part of Motor Image Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hong Kong-based Tan Chong International Limited under businessman Glenn Tan, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of six dealerships in the Philippines.

Subaru in the United Kingdom

In 1974 Robert Edmiston was finance director at sports car manufacturer Jensen Motors. When the company went bankrupt, he used a £6,000 redundancy payout to set up International Motors, which acquired the UK franchise for Subaru and Isuzu. The Coleshill based company is still the parent for Subaru in the UK.

Subaru in the United States

Subaru of America was established in 1968 in Philadelphia by Malcolm Bricklin and Harvey Lamm. It relocated to Pennsauken, New Jersey shortly thereafter and moved to its current headquarters in Cherry Hill, New Jersey when Fuji Heavy Industries acquired full ownership. Subaru of America operates regional offices, zone offices and parts distribution centers throughout the United States. Subaru of America also operates port facilities on both the West and East coasts.

In 1989 Subaru and then-partner Isuzu opened a joint factory in Lafayette, Indiana called Subaru-Isuzu Automotive, or SIA, which initially manufactured the Subaru Legacy and Isuzu Rodeo. In 2001 Isuzu sold their stake in the plant to FHI for $1 due to flagging sales and it was renamed Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. SIA has been designated a backyard wildlife habitat by the National Wildlife Federation and has achieved a zero-landfill production designation (the first automotive assembly plant in the United States to earn that designation).

According to the Kelley Blue Book in 2015, two Subaru models Forester and the Outback in the United States had very short inventory time (the time between being received by a dealer to being sold).

Motorsports

Subaru Rally Team Japan led by Noriyuki Koseki (founder of Subaru Tecnica International, STI) ran Subaru Leone coupé, sedan DL, RX(SRX) and RX Turbo in the World Rally Championship between 1980 and 1989. Drivers for individual rallies included Ari Vatanen, Per Eklund, Shekhar Mehta, Mike Kirkland, Possum Bourne and Harald Demut. Mike Kirkland finished 6th overall and won the A Group at the 1986 Safari Rally. That year Subaru was one of the only manufacturers combining 4WD and turbo after Audi‘s successful quattro system had been introduced in 1980, but Audi withdrew from the WRC after safety concerns and Ford’s serious accident early in the 1986 season. Subaru changed the rally model to Legacy RS for the 1990–1992 period and took part in the first complete season in the World Rally Championship with the same model in 1993.

Modified versions of the Impreza WRX and WRX STi have been competing successfully in rallying. Drivers Colin McRae (1995), Richard Burns (2001) and Petter Solberg (2003) have won World Rally Championshipdrivers’ titles with the Subaru World Rally Team and Subaru took the manufacturers’ title three years in a row from 1995 to 1997. Subaru’s World Rally Championship cars are prepared and run by Prodrive, the highly successful British motorsport team. Several endurance records were set in the early and mid-nineties by the Subaru Legacy. The Subaru Justy also holds the world record for the fastest sub 1.0L car without a turbo: 123.224 mph average, it was set in 1989.

Subaru was briefly involved in Formula One circuit racing when it bought a controlling interest in the tiny Italian Coloni team for the 1990 season. The Coloni 3B’s 12-cylinder engine was badged as a Subaru and shared the boxer layout with the company’s own engines, but was an existing design built by Italian firm Motori Moderni. The cars were overweight and underpowered and the partnership broke down before the season finished. With the rise of rally racing and the Import scene in the US, the introduction of the highly anticipated Subaru Impreza WRX in 2001 was successful in bringing high-performance AWD compact cars into the sports car mainstream. Subaru supplies a factory-backed team, Subaru Rally Team USA for Rally America and has won the driver’s title six times, most recently in 2011 with David Higgins.Grassroots Motorsports awarded Subaru with the Editors’ Choice Award in 2002.

On 16 December 2008, it was announced that Subaru would no longer be competing in the World Rally Championships. The decision was made by Subaru’s parent company, Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI), partly as a result of the economic downturn but also because it was felt Subaru had achieved its sporting and marketing objectives. Mr Ikuo Mori denied that alterations to the WRC technical regulations in 2010 or a rumoured deterioration in the working relationship with Prodrive had any impact on the decision. He also said that the possibility of a Subaru car back in the top category of WRC in the future is not zero, but for this moment there can be no assumption of a comeback.

Since 2005, Cusco Racing have entered an Impreza sedan and a BRZ in the Super GT championship. In 2008, the Impreza was the first 4-door and first 4WD vehicle to win a race.

Starting in 2006, Subaru of America (SOA), as the official distributor of Subaru vehicles in the United States participates in the Subaru Road Racing Team (SRRT) with a Subaru Legacy 2.5 GT Spec-B in the Grand-Am Street Tuner class. In 2010, SRRT campaigns a Subaru Impreza WRX STI in the Grand Sport class. In 2011, SRRT switched from the hatchback to a 2011 Subaru Impreza WRX STI sedan.

On 4 May 2012, Subaru Rally Team USA announced that a new rallycross team, Subaru Puma Rallycross Team USA will participate in the 2012 Global RallyCross Championship season with Dave Mirra, Bucky Lasek, and Sverre Isachsen. They also competed in the 2014 FIA World Rallycross Championship.

In 2011, Mark Higgins used a stock Impreza to set a lap record at the Isle of Man TT course. In 2016, Higgins again broke the record in a modified WRX STI.

The impreza has won hillclimbs such as the Silverstone Race to the Sky and Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race.

Technology

Diesel

The 2007 Frankfurt International Motor Show saw Subaru introduce a horizontally opposed, water-cooled, common railturbodiesel using a variable geometry turbocharger called the Subaru EE engine, the first of its type to be fitted to a passenger car. Volkswagen had experimented with this idea during the 1950s and made two air-cooled boxer prototype diesel engines that were not turbocharged. VW installed one engine in a Type 1 and another in a Type 2.

The Subaru engine was rated at 110 kW (150 PS; 148 hp) and 350 N·m (260 ft·lbf) with a displacement of 2.0 litres. In March 2008 Subaru offered the Legacy sedan and wagon and the Outback wagon with 2.0 litre turbodiesel in the EU with a 5-speed manual transmission.

In September 2008 Subaru announced that the diesel Forester and diesel Impreza will be introduced at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, with Forester sales to begin October 2008 and diesel Impreza sales to start January 2009. The Forester and Impreza will have a 6-speed manual transmission, whereas the Legacy and Outback have 5-speed manual transmissions.

United States Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy estimated is:

City Ranges
32.7 mpg‑US (7.2 L/100 km; 39.3 mpg‑imp)
33.6 mpg‑US (7.0 L/100 km; 40.4 mpg‑imp)
Highway Ranges
45.2 mpg‑US (5.20 L/100 km; 54.3 mpg‑imp)
49.0 mpg‑US (4.80 L/100 km; 58.8 mpg‑imp)

Electric vehicles

In June 2006, Fuji Heavy Industries, Inc. (FHI) launched its

Subaru StellaPlug-in electric vehicle which is a kei car equipped with a lithium-ion battery pack. The vehicle has a short range of 56 miles (90 km) but it actually costs more than the Mitsubishi iMiEV, at ¥4,380,000 (US$44,860), including Japanese Government consumption taxes with an exemption of $2,240. It will also qualify for a rebate from the Japanese Government of up to $14,200, bringing the price down to $30,660. The vehicle is much like the i-MiEV, with a 47-kilowatt motor and a quick-charge capability, but the two-door mini-car has a boxy shape. FHI plans to start delivery in late July and plans to sell 170 vehicles by March 2010.

In Japan, Subaru is currently testing two electric vehicles called the Subaru G4e and the Subaru R1e.

The Subaru Hybrid Tourer Concept is a four-seat vehicle with gull-wing doors that combines a 2-liter turbocharged direct-injection gasoline engine with a continuously variable transmission and two axle-mounted motors. A lithium-ion battery pack provides energy storage for the vehicle.

Electronics

Since the 2005 model year, Subaru has adopted the CAN bus technology for the USA and Canada markets. Starting in the 2007 model year, all Subaru vehicles use the CAN technology. Typically, two CAN-buses are used on vehicles: a high-speed CAN running at 500 kbit/s for powertrain communication, and a low-speed CAN running at 125 kbit/s for body control functions and instrument panels. A body-integrated unit (BIU) is used between these two networks.

Clarion and Harman Kardon are among the audio, video, and navigation technology suppliers for Subaru products in North America. Clarion announced in 2015 that it was introducing its “Smart Access” platform, formerly only offered on Clarion’s aftermarket products, to the units to be installed in certain Subaru 2015 models in North America. Smart Access is able to work with the driver’s smartphone (either iPhone or Android) and allows access to various car-safe apps running on the phone via the car’s built-in infotainment screen. Subaru and Clarion have also, with Liberty Mutual Insurance, introduced the “RightTrack” in-vehicle app which will be able to monitor the driver’s habits, make suggestions for safer driving, and possibly offer insurance discounts.

Environmental record

 2009 USA-spec Subaru Legacy PZEV

Subaru claims to have implemented advanced policies which include recycling, reducing harmful emissions, and educating their employees. Their efforts have helped them in their environmental initiatives. The Subaru plant in Lafayette, Indiana (SIA) was the first auto assembly plant to achieve zero landfill status; nothing from the manufacturing process goes into a landfill. The company has developed a recycling plan for the “end-of-life” of their cars. Most of their modern products use highly recyclable materials throughout the vehicle, in the engine, transmission, suspension and elsewhere in each vehicle leaving Subaru with a 97.3% recycling ratio rate for their end-of-life vehicles.

An excerpt from the Subaru website stated “In 2006, SIA was awarded the United States Environmental Protection Agency´s Gold Achievement Award as a top achiever in the agency’s WasteWise program to reduce waste and improve recycling.” The website also stated that “It also became the first U.S. automotive assembly plant to be designated a wildlife habitat.”

Subaru currently offers a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) certified Legacy, Outback, Impreza, XV/Crosstrek and Forester models which are available for sale anywhere in the U.S. Subaru PZEV vehicles meet California’s Super-Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle exhaust emission standard. All other models have been certified LEV2.

Current and former Subaru vehicles

1950s

360 (1958-1971)

1000 (1966-1969)

1500 (1954)

FF-1 G (1971-1972)

FF-1 Star (1969-1973)

R-2 (1969–1972)

1970s

1971 Subaru Leone hardtop coupé A22

Leone (1971-1994)

BRAT (1978-1994)

Rex (1972-1992)

1980s

Sumo / Libero / Domingo / Columbuss / E series / Estratto (1983-1998)

Justy / Tutto(1984-2010, 2016-present)


XT / Alcyone / Vortex (1985-1991)

Legacy / Liberty (1989-present)

1990s

Vivio (1992-1998)

Impreza (1992-present)

Impreza WRX (2001-2014)

and Impreza WRX STI (2001-2014)

Outback Sport / Gravel Express / RV (1994-present)

Alcyone / SVX (1991-1996)

Forester (1997-present)

Traviq (rebadged Opel Zafira) (1999-2005)

2000s

Baja (2003-2006)

R2 (2003-2010)

R1 (2005-2010)

Tribeca (2005-2014)

Trezia (2005-2017)

Exiga (2008-present)

2010s

BRZ( Toyota 86 ) (2012-present)

Subaru XV (2012-present)

Levorg (2014-present)

Subaru WRX (2015-present)

Other manufacturers

Subaru has partnered with various manufacturers over time – here are some of the models are sold in Asia and Europe. In Japan they are in the Kei car class with either front or all wheel drive and a straight engine. An article posted by Autoblog on April 16, 2008 stated that due to a corporate investment by Toyota, all Kei cars built by Subaru will be replaced by Daihatsu models beginning in 2010.

Lucra

Pleo

Sambar

Stella

Dex

Concept vehicles

The following concepts vehicles did not go forward as production vehicles:

Subaru SRD-1 (Experimental design study introduced in 1990)

Subaru Suiren ( Concept replacement for the BRAT/Brumby )

Subaru Exiga (1996, wagon)

Subaru B9 Scrambler

Subaru B11S

Subaru B5 TPH (Turbo Parallel Hybrid) (Japanese: Subaru B5-TPH)

Subaru Fleet-X

Subaru HS500

Subaru VIZIV

See also

Prodrive Motorsport team selected by Subaru to run their World Rally Team

Subaru Tecnica International (also known as STI)

List of Subaru engines

List of Subaru transmissions

Subaru EA engine series

Subaru EF engine series

Subaru EJ engine series

Symmetrical All Wheel Drive

References

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External links


Official website

Fuji Heavy Industries

Subaru Tecnica International

Subaru at DMOZ

Subaru at the Internet Movie Cars Databas
e

TATRA Car Manufacturer

Tatra boekje

Tatra (company) Automobiles, wagons,carriages, trucks 1897 – Present Czech Republic

tatra-1102220_960_720

Not to be confused with Tata Motors or ČKD Tatra.
TATRA TRUCKS a.s.
Private
Industry Automotive
Founded 1850
1897 as a car manufacturer
Founder Ignác Šustala
Headquarters Kopřivnice, Moravia, Czech Republic
Key people
Ronald Adams (CEO)
Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstamm (designer)
Hans Ledwinka (designer)
Julius Mackerle (designer)
Products Automobiles, wagons,carriages, trucks
Revenue IncreaseCZK 3.7 billion (2014)
Number of employees
845 (2014)
Website http://tatratrucks.com/
homepage German:http://www.tatra-lkw.de/

Tatra Präsident on the Kopřivnice coat of arms.

Tatra is a Czech manufacturer producing vehicles in Kopřivnice, it is owned by Tatra Trucks company, based in Ostrava. It is the third oldest company producing cars and has an unbroken history after Daimler and Peugeot. The company was founded in 1850 as Schustala & Company, later renamed Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft when it became a wagon and carriage manufacturer. In 1897, Tatra produced the first motor car in central Europe, the Präsident automobile. In 1921, it changed its name to Kopřivnická vozovka a.s., and in 1919 changed from the Nesselsdorfer marque to the Tatra badge named after the nearby Tatra Mountains on the Polish-Czechoslovak border at the time (now this range is on the Polish-Slovak border).

During World War II Tatra was instrumental in the production of trucks, and tank engines for the German war effort. Production of passenger cars ceased in 1999, but the company still produces a range of primarily all-wheel-drive trucks, from 4×4 to 18×18. The brand is also known as a result of Czech truck racer Karel Loprais: in 1988–2001 he won the off-road raceDakar Rally six times with the Tatra 815.

Early years

Nesselsdorf Wagenbau Fabriks Gesellschaft circa 1900

Nesselsdorfer Automobile logo

Ignác Šustala, founder of the company

1897 NW Präsident1897 President First CarPräsident, the first factory made car in Central and Eastern Europe in 1897

1900 Nesselsdorf model II vehicle1900 NW Rennzweier 1Rennzweier, the first race car made by the company in 1900

Ignác Šustala (1822–1891), founder of the company in Kopřivnice, Moravia, started the production of horse-drawn vehicles in 1850. In 1891 he branched out into railroad car manufacture, naming the company Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, and employed Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstamm as technical director in 1890. After the death of Šustala, von Roeslerstamm took over running the company and in 1897 he bought a Benz automobile. Using this for inspiration, the company made its first car, the Präsident, which was exhibited in 1897 in Vienna. Orders were obtained for more cars and under the direction of engineers Hans Ledwinka and Edmund Rumpler, ten improved cars were made.

The first car to be totally designed by Ledwinka came in 1900 with the Type A with rear-mounted 2714 cc engine and top speed of 40 kilometres per hour (25 mph), 22 units were built. This was followed by the Type B with central engine in 1902 but then Ledwinka left the company to concentrate on steam engine development. He returned in 1905 and designed a completely new car, the Type S with 3308 cc 4-cylinder engine. Production was badly hit in 1912 with a 23-week strike and Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstam left the company.

Tatra concept

1924 Tatra T-11aTatra 11 of 1924

Main article: Backbone chassis

After World War I Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau was renamed Kopřivnická vozovka, and in 1919 the name Tatra was given to the car range. Leopold Pasching took over control and in 1921 Hans Ledwinka returned again to develop the revolutionary Tatra 11. The new car, launched in 1923 featured a rigid backbone tube with swinging semi-axles at the rear giving independent suspension. The engine, front-mounted, was an air-cooled two-cylinder unit of 1056 cc.

The Tatra 11 was replaced in 1926 by the similar Tatra 12 which had four-wheel brakes. A further development was the 1926 Tatra 17 with a 1,930 cc water-cooled six-cylinder engine and fully independent suspension. In 1927 the company was renamed Závody Ringhoffer-Tatra a.s.

Tatra 87-old

Streamlined Tatras

Tatra V570Tatra V5701931, 1933Tatra T 77aTatra T771933–19381941 Tatra T87, sn 49870 and engine no 12786345Tatra T871936–1950Tatra T97 redTatra T971936–1939Tatra 600 TatraplanTatra T600 Tatraplan1946–1952Tatra 603 in Veteran ArenaTatra T6031956–1975

Prewar streamliners

Tatra T 77 (16353835847)Tatra T77, the world’s first production aerodynamic car

Tatra 97 in KopřivniceTatra T97

Tatra’s specialty was luxury cars of a technically advanced nature, going from air-cooledflat-twins to fours and sixes, culminating (briefly) with the OHC 6-litre V12 in 1931. In the 1930s, under the supervision of Austrianengineer Hans Ledwinka, his son Erich and German engineer Erich Übelacker, and protected by high tariffs and absence of foreign assemblers, Tatra began building advanced, streamlined cars after obtaining licences from Paul Jaray, which started in 1934 with the large Tatra T77, the world’s first production aerodynamic car. The average drag coefficient of a 1:5 model of the fastback Tatra T77 was recorded as 0.2455. It featured (as did almost all subsequent big Tatras) a rear-mounted, air-cooledV8 engine, which was in technical terms very sophisticated for the time.

Tatra and the conception of the Volkswagen Beetle

Both Hitler and Porsche were influenced by the Tatras. Hitler was a keen automotive enthusiast, and had ridden in Tatras during political tours of Czechoslovakia. He had also dined numerous times with Ledwinka. After one of these dinners Hitler remarked to Porsche, “This is the car for my roads”. From 1933 onwards, Ledwinka and Porsche met regularly to discuss their designs, and Porsche admitted “Well, sometimes I looked over his shoulder and sometimes he looked over mine” while designing the Volkswagen. There is no doubt that the Beetle bore a striking resemblance to the Tatras, particularly the Tatra V570. The Tatra T97 of 1936 had a rear-located, rear-wheel drive, air-cooled four-cylinder boxer engine accommodating four passengers and providing luggage storage under the front bonnet and behind the rear seat. Another similarity between this Tatra and the Beetle is the central structural tunnel. Tatra launched a lawsuit, but this was stopped when Germany invaded Czechoslovakia. At the same time, Tatra was forced to stop producing the T97. The matter was re-opened after World War II and in 1965 Volkswagen paid Ringhoffer-Tatra 1,000,000 Deutsche Marks in an out of court settlement.

War years

After the 1938 invasion of Czechoslovakia by NaziGermany, Tatras continued in production, largely because Germans liked the cars. Many German officers met their deaths driving heavy, rear-engined Tatras faster around corners than they could handle. At the time, as an anecdote, Tatra became known as the ‘Czech Secret Weapon’ for the scores of officers who died behind the wheel; at one point official orders were issued forbidding German officers from driving Tatras.

1951 Tatra T600 Tatraplan1951 Tatra T600 Tatraplan

Postwar management

The factory was nationalised in 1945 almost three years before the Communist Party came to power and renamed to Tatra Národní Podnik. Although production of prewar models continued, a new model, the Tatra T600Tatraplan was designed—the name celebrating the new Communist planned economy and the aeroplane inspiration (Colloq. Czech: aeroplán). It went into production in 1948. In 1951, the state planning department decided that the Tatraplan should henceforth be built at the Skoda plant in Mladá Boleslav, leaving Tatra free to concentrate on trucks, buses and railway equipment.

The Tatra T603

Main article: Tatra 603

Tatra T603Tatra 2-603 featuring four headlights

In 1953, amid much dissatisfaction among Communist party leaders with the poor-quality official cars imported from Russia, Tatra was again given permission to produce a luxury car, the Tatra T603. Much like Tatra’s prewar cars, it was driven by a rear-mounted, air-cooled V8 and had the company’s trademark aerodynamic styling. Uniquely, the Tatra T603 initially featured three headlights and the first prototypes had a central rear stabilising fin, though this feature was lost on production vehicles. It was also fitted with almost American-style thick chromebumpers with bullets (a.k.a. Dagmar bumpers). Almost entirely hand-built, Tatras were not for everybody; normal citizens were not permitted to buy them. They were reserved for the Communist Party elite, industrial officials, as well as being exported to most other communist nations as official state cars. Notably, Cuban President Fidel Castro had a white Tatra T603, custom-fitted with air conditioning.

Tatra T603s were built until 1975, a twenty-year reign as one of Communism’s finest cars. Numerous improvements were made during its production run, although not all vehicles built were actually new but rather reconditioned. In exchange for a newer model year car, the older vehicle was returned to the factory. There, it was upgraded to current model year specifications, refinished, and sent out again as a putatively new vehicle to replace another older T603. This makes it difficult to trace the history of surviving vehicles.

1970s makeover—the Tatra T613

Main article: Tatra T613

1976TatraT-613Tatra T613 (1976)

In 1968 a replacement was developed; the Tatra T613. It was styled by the Italian styling house of Vignale and was a more modern, less rounded shape. It was not until 1973 that the car went into production, and volume production did not begin until the following year. Although the layout remained the same, the body was all new, as was the engine, being equipped with four overhead camshafts, a higher capacity motor (3495 cc) and an output close to 165 bhp (123 kW; 167 PS). In addition, it had been moved somewhat forward for improved balance. These cars were built in five series and went through several modifications until production ceased in 1996. It is a tribute to Vignale’s styling that they did not look dated until rather late in that time period. Over 11,000 cars were built, and sales slowed to a trickle of just a few dozen per year towards the end of production as Tatras began to seem more and more outdated.

1990s Tatra T700

Main article: Tatra T700

Tatra 7001996 Tatra 700 at a museum

The Tatra T700 was a large luxury car released in 1996 by Tatra. Essentially a heavily restyled version of the Tatra T613 model it replaced, with updated body panels and detailing. The T700 was offered as both a saloon and coupé with either a 3.5 or 4.4 litre 90° air-cooled V8 petrol engine. The model was neither successful nor produced in large numbers, having produced a total of 90,000 cars. The T700 was the last passenger car made by Tatra with production halting in 1999. At this point, Tatra abandoned automobile manufacturing in order to concentrate on truck design and manufacture.

1990s Tatra MTX V8

Tatra MTX1991 Tatra MTX V8

The Tatra MTX V8 was the fastest Czech car of all time. Production started in 1991 in Kopřivnice. Under the hood was a Tatra 623 V8 motor, with the injected version producing 225 kW at 6500 rpm. 0–100 km/h taking 5.6 seconds. Maximum speed was 265 km/h. It was the work of legendary Czech designer Václav Král. Only 5 units of this car were ever produced.

2000s

In February 2008, Tatra announced the world’s first and only air-cooled engine meeting the then forthcoming Euro 5 emissions standards. The press release claims 7.5 times lower emissions of particulates and 3.5 times lower emission of nitrogen oxides compared to the previous engine. Further, production of air-cooled engines should significantly reduce the production of greenhouse gases due to the absence of liquid cooling systems. All Tatra vehicles from February 2008 onwards should use the new engine.
A month later, Tatra CEO Ronald Adams told The Prague Post Tatra could return to producing passenger cars, saying: ‘We would not come back to compete with the large automobile mass producers such as Volkswagen, Škoda, Toyota etc. But we might come back with a replica of the old Tatra cars using a current undercarriage and driveline from one of the major automotive producers.’ The company has launched a feasibility study, hoping to produce one thousand replicas of their legendary Tatraplan and 603 cars in 2010.

In July 2008 pictures of a fuel cell concept car designed by Mike Jelinek, the Tatra 903, were shown.

Tatra in the West

1923 Tatra T-111923 Tatra T11 at the Lane Motor Museum in Nashville

Unlike most Soviet Bloc manufacturers, Tatra enjoyed modest sales success in Western Europe, where its truck line had a reputation for simplicity and durability. No effort was made to distribute Tatra’s unusual automobiles in the West, though a small number did find their way to collectors in Western Europe, and even to the United States. The fall of the Soviet Union did not help Tatra’s fortunes, as the company made no inroads in Western Europe’s already crowded automobile market. Worse, the introduction of competitors, such as Mercedes-Benz and Peugeot into the Czech Republic, further eroded Tatra’s sales. Production of the passenger cars ended in 1999.

Among western collectors, Tatra automobiles remain largely unknown. The largest display of Tatra vehicles in the United States is at the Lane Motor Museum in Nashville, Tennessee. The museum’s eclectic automobile collection contains 12 Tatra models, including a T-613 ambulance. When talk show host and car collector Jay Leno visited the museum, the founder picked him up in a 1947 Tatra T-87, prompting Leno to purchase one himself. Leno soon become an advocate for the brand. In the United States, the few Tatra clubs are closely associated with Citroen clubs, as many Tatra collectors also collect Citroën DS series cars.

A Tatra T87 is on exhibit at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

Trucks

1898–1914 beginning

NW 1st lorry1 Replica of the first lorry of Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau, in Tatra Technical museum.NW 1st lorry1The replica of the first truck manufactured at Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau

The first truck manufactured at Kopřivnice in 1898 was a flatbed with 2 liquid-cooled side-by-side-mounted two-cylinder Benz engines each at 2.7 L capacity with total power output of 8.8 kW (12 hp) placed after the rear axle and cargo capacity of 2.5 ton. The unique feature of the engines setup was that the engines could be operated sequentially depending on the load requirements. No 1 engine was started via a cranking handle and had a flywheel attached and No 2 engine without the flywheel was connected via a gear clutch and started by the first engine already running. The second truck manufactured was once again a flatbed R type of 2.5 ton cargo capacity built in 1909. Powered by liquid-cooled petrol four-cylinder engine of 4.1 L capacity and power output of 18.4 kW (25 hp) with the engine placed above front axle which is the conventional design to this day. The vehicle featured solid rubber tyres and semi-elliptic leaf spring suspension. In 1910 Tatra manufactured its first bus the Omnibus type SO with total production of 5 units.

1914–1922 serial production

The first true serial truck production at Tatra was instigated by the beginning of World War I. In the year 1914 there were only 2 trucks made, type T 14/40 HP, however by the 1915 end the production jumped to the total of 105 TL-2 units and the following year 1916 the numbers rose to total of 196 TL-2 and 30 TL-4 truthe time peaked in 1917 with 19 TL-2 and 303 TL-4 models, after that production declined and the similar amount of vehicles of one type manufactured in a year was not achieved or surpassed until 1936 with the T 27 model. Technically models TL-2 and TL-4 were almost identically designed, in fact TL-4 evolved from TL-2 where both had liquid-cooled OHC engines of max power output of 25.7 kW (35 PS; 34 hp). The TL-2 had a GVM 2,100 kg (4,630 lb) and 4,000 kg (8,818 lb) GCM, TL-4 had 2,700 kg (5,952 lb) GVM and 6,700 kg (14,771 lb) GCM respectively. Both types remained in production in small series until 1927. The TL-4 is considered the first truck to come out of NW (Nesselsdorfer Wagen-bau) to carry the name Tatra in 1919.

1923–1938 Tatra concept

T93Tatra T93

1932 Tatra, 1155 ccm, 20 PS Marxzell-TatraTatra, year 1932, 1155 ccm, 20 PS

After the introduction of Tatra 11 and Tatra 12 cars with their distinctive backbone tube design and swing axles, Tatra introduced its first truck on the same basis,[21] the light utility Tatra 13 powered by 2-cylinder air-cooled petrol engine with power output 8.8 kW (12 hp) and 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) cargo capacity. Further models followed and in 1926 T23 and T24 were introduced nicknamed “bulldogs” which could be considered Tatra’s precursors to COE designed trucks. Improved version T13 introduced as T26 with more powerful 4-cylinder flat air-cooled engine and in six-wheeler chassis created capable offroad light utility truck which later evolved into T72 model which was heavily used by Czechoslovakian army at the time and was also manufactured under license by the French company Lorraine-Dietrich. In 1933 Tatra build limited series of T25 heavy artillery hauler with 4 and 6-cylinder petrol engines. The most popular Tatra truck before World War II was type T27 powered by 4-cylinder petrol or diesel engines and remained in production for nearly 17 years (1930–1947) with total production of 7,620 units, by adding an extra axle to the rear the type T28 was created however, it was not successful and only limited production resulted in a mainly bus chassis. In the period from 1931 to 1938 Tatra also built a small utility truck based on the chassis from T30 named Tatra T43 which remain popular with small business owners. T72 model successfully continued the line to T82 built mainly for military in cargo and personnel transport between 1935 and 1938 and further to T92 and T93 built for the Romanian army from 1938 to 1941 which were identical except T93 had also a driven front axle.

1939–1956 World War II and beyond

Main article: Tatra T111

Vojenská Tatra1942 Tatra T111

Following the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia the production at Kopřivnice was annexed by the Germans for the supply of trucks needed by the Wehrmacht. Apart from the existing line up of T27, T92/92 a new heavy truck the T81 commenced production featuring liquid-cooled 12.5 L V8 diesel engine with a power output of 118 kW (160 PS; 158 hp), in 6×4 axle configuration. This vehicle evolved in 1942 into the legendary T111 which continued in production until 1962, with the total of 33,690 units made. The T111 also featured Tatra’s first air-cooled diesel engine, a massive V12 originally designed for the armoured SdKfz 234 Puma. In the latter stages of World War II Tatra was instrumental in the development of air-cooled diesel engines for German tanks. In late 1944 General Heinz Guderian ordered that production of the Type 38(t) Hetzer tank be modified to incorporate a Tatra Type 928 V-8 air-cooled diesel engine, though this order was delayed so production could continue uninterrupted. After the war the T111 contributed heavily to the rebuilding effort in Central and Eastern Europe and a memorial was built at Magadan, Siberia for its exploits in the Far East of the USSR.

1957–1982 moving forward

Main articles:
Tatra 138 S3 oder S3M
Tatra T138 CAS firefighting vehicle
Tatra 148 lorry
Tatra T148 Military
Tatra T148 (firefighting car), Slovakia
Tatra T 148 (1009) mit ČKD-Kran

Tatra T 813 8x8 Armee

Tatra T813 KOLOS military specs with dozer bladeTatra T813 ‘KOLOS’Tatra 813 4x4 craneTatra 813 4×4 crane
Tatra T813 tugging Tu-104 civil
Tatra T813 tugging Tu-104 civil
1979 Tatra T813TP
1979 Tatra T813TP.jpg
Tatra T813 fire engine
Tatra T813 fire engine
Tatra T813 der NVA mit einem GAZ 63 der sowjetischen Armee huckepack
Tatra T813 der NVA mit einem GAZ 63 der sowjetischen Armee huckepack
Armored czech Tatra T813 truck as rocket launcher RM-70
Armored czech Tatra T813 truck as rocket launcher RM-70
Tatra T813 reprodukcia z ročenky Armády SR, 122.4 mm raketomet vz.70
Tatra T813 reprodukcia z ročenky Armády SR, 122.4 mm raketomet vz.70
Brno, Řečkovice, Tatra T813
Brno, Řečkovice, Tatra T813.JPG
Minister ON w 1 Mazurskiej Brygadzie Artylerii on Tatra T813
Minister ON w 1 Mazurskiej Brygadzie Artylerii on Tatra T813
Tatra T813 at Truck trials @ Mohelnice, Czech Republic, May 2007
Tatra T813 at Truck trials @ Mohelnice, Czech Republic, May 2007

The decision to replace the reliable but ageing T111 was taken in 1952 based on central planning economy of socialist government where directive was made to Tatra N.P. that it should concentrate on the manufacture of 7 to 10 ton capacity commercial vehicles and in 1956 first T137 and T138 trucks were exhibited at Czechoslovak machinery expo in Brno. The production of T111 however continued alongside T138 series until 1962. T138 itself continued in production until 1969 when it was replaced by improved T148 where designers main target was an increase in power output, reliability and product improvements.

In 1967 Tatra began production of one of its famous off-road trucks the T813 using its modular construction technology; the model incorporated the latest trends in commercial vehicle design such as cab-over-engine (COE) and wide profile tyres. It featured a new V12 engine and all military versions had a central tyre inflation/deflation system as standard equipment. The T813 was designed to tow loads up to 100 ton GCM and it was a familiar sight on the roads in Czechoslovakia hauling large often over-sized loads.

1982–2008 T815 and beyond

Main articles:
Tatra T815, T815-2, TERRN°1 Tatra1021
2010 Tatra T815 TERRno2
2010 Tatra T815 TERRno2
Tatra TerrNo1 Brno, Autotec 2008, Nákladní automobil Tatra
2008 Tatra Terrno1 Brno, Autotec 2008, Nákladní automobil Tatra.jpg
Tatra T815 8x8 crane with low cab Autojerab-AD30-8X8
Tatra T815 8×8 crane with low cab Autojerab-AD30-8X8
2008 Tatra T815 TERRN°1 4x4 fire engine
2008 Tatra T815 TERRN°1 4×4 fire engine
Tatra T815 NVA military troop and cargo carrier
Tatra T815 NVA military troop and cargo carrier
Sri Lanka Army MT-55A Armored Vehicle-launched Bridge pulled by Tatra T815 Truck
Sri Lanka Army MT-55A Armored Vehicle-launched Bridge pulled by Tatra T815 Truck
2006 Tatra T 163 Jamal
2006 Tatra T 163 Jamal Tatra T 163,
and
Tatra T-810 Czech Army 01
Tatra T815 rally raid 4x4Tatra 815, multiple winner of Dakar Rally

Tatra T815 was designed for extreme off-road conditions, and its road versions are derived from the off-road original. After the 53-rd session of CMEA council a directive that Tatra N.P. would be a sole supplier of off road commercial vehicles of <12 ton capacity for Eastern Block countries, led to a modernization of company and its production models. Following extensive testing at different sites, including Siberia, the type T815 was introduced in 1982 and production started in 1983. Comparing to previous models T815 was made of 142 main assembly components as opposed to 219 main assembly components of its predecessor. The engines power output was increased up to 45% and a new COE tilt-able cabin was introduced. Modular engine designed resulted in V8, V10 and V12 engines with or without turbocharger.

T815 was upgraded to T815-2 with minor cosmetic changes and improved ergonomics and safety – the biggest change was the engine emissions accordance the “Euro0” limits and to Euro1 limits in 1993 (turbocharged V8 engine only since this time for the full legislation. As alternative was offered also the Deutz 513 air-cooled V8 engine). The next facelift in 1997 brought in the new exterior design cabin TerrNo1 with all new interior with better sound and heat insulation however the cabin design is based on the original so it can actually be retrofitted to all T815 built since 1993. In 2000 the TerrNo1 cabin is face-lifted again and for the first time there is an option to fit liquid-cooled engines.

The TerrNo1 model introduced the “KingFrame” rear axles suspension. Another evolution step T3B engine came with the Euro2 emission limit. Following further improvements in 2003 T815 gets new Euro3 T3C V8 engine mated to all new 14-speed range+split gearbox as well as option for engines from other suppliers most notably CAT, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Deutz and MTU with its “monster” 22.5 Litre V12 and up to 610 kW (829 PS; 818 hp) power output! In September 2006 Tatra introduced its Euro4 compliant turbocharged T3D engine with the SCR exhaust technology and in February 2008 the worlds’s first Euro 5-compliant air-cooled diesel engine based on T3D engine

The evolution of Tatra T815 would not be complete without mentioning its derivates T816 (T815-6) Armax and Force series which had its origin back in 1993 when Tatra participated in the tender process for heavy duty off road trucks for UAE army and after two years of bidding the company was successful in securing a contract worth $180 million.

The resulting model became known as T816 “LIWA” (Arabic for “desert”). The latest model for the military customers is T817(T815-7) marketed as high-mobility heavy-duty tactical truck with low profile cabin for C-130 Hercules transportability for NATO member countries armed services.

Tatra also went back to its roots and decided to produce once again a bonneted CBE heavy duty off road truck to continue the successful line started with T111, so in 1999 the T163 Jamal was put into full production after first prototypes were built in 1997 and followed extensive testing including at Siberia, as a heavy duty dump truck, once again based on proven backbone tube chassis construction with the cabin designed by Jiří Španihel The T163 6×6 is used mainly on construction sites and in quarries.

2008 Tatra T810 truck for Czech armyTatra T-810 for Czech Army

Tatra was also a successful bidder for the Czech Army replacement of aging Praga V3S (with the Tatra I6 air-cooled engine – one half of the T111 V12 one) medium off-road truck with T810 which technically is not a “genuine” Tatra as its origin goes back to when former Czech company ROSS, in partnership with Renault Trucks, obtained a contract to supply the army with medium size off-road trucks, the “ROSS R210 6×6”. The company however went bankrupt in 1998 and Tatra bought full rights to the design, then modernized and reintroduced it as T810 while continuing cooperation with Renault. Under the deal Renault supplies the cabins and the engines and Praga supplied axles and transmissions for the prototypes; however the whole project has been dogged by controversy due to the way Tatra had obtained the contract, its relationship with supplier Praga and the subsequent court case brought on against it by Praga. The serial T810 vehicles are than finally equipped with the new design Tatra rigid axles with the WABCO disc brakes, with the ZF Ecolite transmission and Steyr drop box.

Navistar & Tatra

Tatra T815-7 780R59 military truckTatra T815-7 (T817)

Tatra and Navistar Defence introduced at Eurosatory Exposition in Paris, France (Jun 14-18 2010) the results of their strategic alliance since October 2009, the models ATX6 (universal container carrier) and ATX8 (troop carrier). The vehicles appear to be based on Tatra T815-7 (T817) 6×6, 8×8 chassis, suspension and cabins while using Navistar engines and other components. Under the deal Navistar Defence and Tatra A.S. will market the vehicles in North America, which includes sales to the United States military and foreign military sales financed by the United States government. Tatra will source parts and components through Navistar’s global parts and support network for Tatra trucks delivered in markets outside of North America as well as market Navistar-Tatra vehicles around the world in their primary markets.

Ownership

The United StatesTerex Corporation acquired the majority ownership (71%) of Tatra in late 2003. As of late 2006, however, majority ownership (80.51%) was in the hands of Tatra Holdings s.r.o., an international consortium comprising Vectra Limited of UK, Sam Eyde of the U.S., KBC Private Equity of Belgium, Meadowhill s.r.o. of Czech Republic and Ronald Adams of the U.S. On 15 December 2006, a contract was signed between Tatra and the Czech Republic for 556 trucks at roughly $130 million, or 2.6 billion Czech crowns. This contract was signed in lieu of replacement of older military vehicles.

In April 2007, Tatra announced that it had already matched its production in 2006 and produced 1,600 vehicles. In 2007, Tatra planned to produce between 2,300 and 2,500 vehicles. In contrast to previous years, Tatra has increased employment by the hundreds within the past two quarters, has reversed previous errors, and was growing again.

In August 2011, DAF Trucks announced it had built up a 19% stake in Tatra, which was to use DAF cabs and PACCAR engines. DAF dealers were to sell Tatra off-road trucks.

In March 2013, Tatra was sold in auction for 176 mil CZK (c. 7 mil euro) due to its debts to Truck Development company based in Ostrava, Czech Republic. Production continues. In 2013 Tatra sold 722 trucks, the most since 2008. Approximately two-thirds of units were exported.

Current truck models

tatra t810 tractortatra t810 tractortatra t810 1r1r36 firefighting 04tatra t810 1r1r36 firefighting 04. Tatra 810Tatra T815-7 aTatra 815-72012 Tatra 815-7 TMB2012 Tatra 815-7 TMBTatra TERRN-1 albumTatra Terrn°1

tatra-816-07Tatra 816-6VWN9T 43 610 8x8.1R

The BRAHMOS Weapon System passing through the Rajpath during the full dress rehearsal for Republic Day Parade - 2005, in New Delhi on January 23, 2005.
The BRAHMOS Weapon System passing through the Rajpath during the full dress rehearsal for Republic Day Parade – 2005, in New Delhi on January 23, 2005.

tatra-816-04Tatra 816 van het Indiase legerTatra 816 Forcetatra-158-phoenix-6x6-agroTatra 158 Phoenix 8x4Tatra-158-Phoenix Horka-7864TATRA-158-Phoenix-Agro-Truck-v-1.0-3Tatra 158 Phoenix

India

Tatra had a truck-building joint venture in India called Tatra Vectra Motors Ltd, formerly called Tatra Trucks India Ltd. It is a joint venture between Tatra and the Vectra Group from England. In 2009, Vectra announced a new joint venture with Russia’s Kamaz to form Kamaz Vectra Motors Limited to manufacture Kamaz trucks in India., This joint venture replaced the former Tatra Vectra venture. The manufacturing plant is located in Hosur, Tamil Nadu. The fully integrated manufacturing facility includes an engine assembly and testing plant, a cabin welding shop, a frame fabrication shop and a test track. Most Tatra trucks for sale in India are manufactured in collaboration with Bharat Earth Movers Limited.

In 2002, the company received a 1,070 trucks order from the Government of India. Tatra’s growing involvement in India’s defense industry is often cited as an example of growing relations between Czech Republic and India.

In 2010 the Indian Government ordered 788 vehicles from public sector defence equipment manufacturer BEML. The order comprises supply of 498 8×8 vehicles, 278 6×6 vehicles without winch and 12 6×6 with winch.

Israel

 

IM000716.JPG
SPYDER air defense missile system Rafael Tatra Israel
SPYDER anti-aircraft missile system developed by the Israeli company Rafael, fitted atop a TATRA truck.

Reportedly following one of Israeli-Arab conflicts, Israel tested some Tatras captured from neighbour Arab armed forces (Egypt). Israel Defense Forces‘s command was apparently quite impressed with their performance, independence of cooling by air only and their capabilities as military trucks in desert and in wars for long-range raiding operations in such terrains etc., and felt necessary to include these trucks in their arsenal. As direct purchase from oppositely aligned Czechoslovakia was impossible, the lore has it that Israelis used some well-paid services of Nicolae Ceauşescu‘s Romania in cooperation with an American Company called ATC (American Truck Company) to purchase sand-coloured and military trucks, desert-equipped Tatra trucks too, leading to jokes along the line “Romania has a new desert”. Current photos of various Israeli weapon systems, e.g., SPYDER slated, e.g., for India, show new Tatras as the carrier vehicles.

A number of Tatra trucks entered service in the Israeli Army also in many army sectors and as for example anti aircraft missile launcher, with the brand mark of “American Truck Company”, under which Tatras were sold on U.S. market and exported to Israel.

United States

American Truck Company was a quasi-independent company set up by Terex, when they controlled Tatra, to import Tatra vehicles in both knock down kits or fully built and carry out assembly operations, repair and service, body building on chassis in the USA. These trucks were offered to the military and other government organizations and were badged and sold in the USA under the ATC brand. ATC badged Tatras were fitted with American Cummins turbodiesel engines in place of the Tatra’s air-cooled diesel.

Tatra aircraft

1934-39 Aircraft Tatra 131, 190km h, Engine T-100, 72 kW Tatra factory museum KopřivniceTatra T.131, a licence-built Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann.

Aircraft Tatra 101.2 (OK-TAO) on Airport in Kunovice, Czech republicTatra T.101 two-seater touring aircraft

The Ringhoffer-Tatra Works ltd. produced several aircraft and aero-engines in the 1930s and 1940s before annexation by Germany, and after under the orders of the RLM. Among the aircraft produced were the following:

Built under licence
Avro RAF 626 Prefect K5063 at Martlesham, July 1935
Avro 626 Mikan of Royal Canadian Air Force
Tatra T.126 (Avro 626 Avian)
Bü 131 Jungmann-Jungmann at Old Warden
Bücker Bü 131B Jungmann
Tatra T.131 (Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann)
Tatra designed and built
Tatra T-001Tatra T.001
Tatra T-002 - [Project] 4-seat light transport a-c, span 17.90 m
Tatra T-002 – [Project] 4-seat light transport a-c, span 17.90 m Tatra T.002
Tatra T-003Tatra T.003
Aircraft Tatra 101.2 (OK-TAO) on Airport in Kunovice, Czech republicTatra T.101
Tatra T-201 OstatníTatra T.201
Tatra T-301Tatra T.301
Tatra T.401Tatra T.401

Models

Passenger cars

Prior the company was renamed to Tatra.
1897 NW Präsident openNW Präsident
1897 NW Präsident replica in Tatra factory museum1897 NW Präsident replica in Tatra factory museum
1900 NW Rennzweier 1NW rennzweier 1 NW A
1900 Nesselsdorf model II vehicle
1900 Nesselsdorf model II vehicle

1901 NW type B (called Vicepresident), Taken in Technical museum Tatra in Kopřivnice, Czech Republic1902-04 Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriks-Gesellschaft aNW B

NW C

1904 Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriks-Gesellschaft Type DNW D

1904-06 Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriks-Gesellschaft Type ENW E

NW Elektromobil

1905-06 Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriks-Gesellschaft Type FNW F

1907-11 Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriks-Gesellschaft Type JNW J

NW L

NW S

NW T

NW U

After the name Tatra was adopted
1921 Tatra 10 racecar (NW type U)1921 Tatra type U 10Tatra 10
1923 Tatra T11 cabrio red1924 Tatra T111924 Tatra T-11aTatra 11
1925 Tatra 12 - firefighting car1925 Tatra T-12 Targa Florio1926 Tatra 12 carrossery1926 Tatra 12 Van1926 Tatra 12 Wayman carrossery1926 Tatra 121926-33 Tatra 121927 Tatra 12 Normandie1927 Tatra 12 pickup1927 Tatra T121928 Tatra 12 Sport1928 Tatra Detra - a rebranded Tatra 12 assembled in Germany1929 Tatra 12Tatra 12
1925 Tatra T17 Ostrava Firefighting truck (7234024490)1926 Tatra T17,301926 Tatra T171928-31 Tatra 17-31 Sport, 6 cylinder, 3 carburetors, 29kWTatra 17
Tatra 20 for charles 1 austroking
Tatra 20 as a racecar
1917 Tatra 20 Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft type N or later known as Tatra 20 as an ambulance1917 Tatra 20 Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft type N or later known as Tatra 201921 Tatra 20 type TTatra 20
1930 Tatra T26 30 (T26-30, Type 26 30)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ursLDiSUEo
1929 Tatra T26-30, light 6×4 lorry1930 Tatra T26 busTatra 26 – 30
MHV Tatra 30 01
1930 Tatra T30-52
Tatra T30 white with Sodomka bodywork
MHV Tatra 30 02Tatra 30
1934 Sodomka Tatra 52 Cabriolettatra-52-091930 Tatra 52 RW1930 Tatra-52-4tatra-52-041931 Tatra 52Tatra 52 Sodomka KabrioletTatra-52-1

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Závodní Tatra 52Z Tatra 52

Tatra 77 at Berlin motorshow, note the enigine at the backTatra T 77, the elegant car Contemporary advertisement1934 Tatra 77, the car of the future Contemporary advertisement1933 Tatra 77 early prototype, 19331933 Tatra 77 maquette 1-10 by Paul JarrayTatra-poster-77Tatra 77Tatra T 77 (16353835847)