AMBULANCES + HEARSES part XV on Alphabet beginning with R till S

AMBULANCES + HEARSES part XV on Alphabet beginning with R till S

RAF (Rīgas Autobusu fabrika) Latvia – Ambulances and Hearses

Rambler and Nash-Rambler Ambulances and Hearses

Range Rover Ambulances and Hearses

RANGER off the road ambulances

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Renault Ambulances and Hearses since 1907 till recent

ROBUR Ambulances in combination with IFA – Phänoman – Garant .

An Rocar ambulance is backed up to the Emergency Room entrance to the United Nations field hospital in Mogadishu. The hospital is administered by the Romanians.

ROCAR Ambulances

tpt transport truck lorry wagon rolls royce du maurier cigarettes concours ramsgate

Rolls-Royce Ambulances, Hearses and Limousines since 1910

ROVER Hearses and Resque  Ambulance

Russo Baltique Ambulances from the WWI

That were all the R’s up to the S

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ZAZ automobiles Ukraine 1958 – 1994

ZAZ Zaporozhets

ZAZ Zaporozhets

ZAZ-966 Logo

ZAZ-965 and ZAZ-968 cars

ZAZ Zaporozhets (UkrainianЗапоро́жецьRussianЗапоро́жецAbout this sound pronunciation ) was a series of rear-wheel-drivesuperminis (city cars in their first generation) designed and built from 1958 at the ZAZ factory in Soviet Ukraine (UkrainianЗапорізький автомобільний заводZaporiz’kyi Avtomobilnyi Zavod, or Zaporizhian Automobile Factory). Different models of the Zaporozhets, all of which had an air-cooledengine in the rear, were produced until 1994. Since the late 1980s, the final series, 968M, was replaced by the cardinally different ZAZ-1102 Tavriahatchback, which featured a front-wheel drive and a more powerful water-cooled engine.

The name Zaporozhets translates into a Cossack of the Zaporizhian Sich or а man from Zaporizhia or the Zaporizhia Oblast.

Zaporozhets is still well-known in many former Soviet states. Like the Volkswagen Beetle or East Germany‘s Trabant, the Zaporozhets was destined to become a “people’s car” of the Soviet Union, and as such it was the most affordable vehicle of its era. At the same time, it was rather sturdy and known for its excellent crossing performance on poor roads. Another important advantage of the Zaporozhets was its ease of repairs. The car’s appearance gave birth to several nicknames that became well known across the Soviet Union: horbatyi (“hunchback“, owing to ZAZ-965’s insect-like form; although ZAZ factory workers never used this nickname), malysh (English: Kiddy),ushastyi (“big-eared“, due to 966 and 968’s round air intakes on each side of the car to cool the rear-mounted engine), mylnitsa (“soap-box”, for ZAZ-968M, lacking “ears” and producing a more box-like appearance).

Numerous special versions of the Zaporozhets were produced, equipped with additional sets of controls that allowed operating the car with a limited set of limbs, and were given for free or with considerable discounts to disabled people, especially war veterans, side-by-side with SMZ-series microcars. These mobility cars would at times consume up to 25% of ZAZ factory output.

First generation (1960-1969)

ZAZ-965 (1960-1963)

ZAZ-965A (1962-1969)

ZAZ-965A
Overview
Manufacturer Zaporizhian Automobile Factory
Also called Zaporozhets
Production 1960–1969
Body and chassis
Class City car (A-segment)
Body style 2-door saloon
Layout RR layout
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,160 mm (85.0 in)
Length 3,330 mm (131.1 in)
Width 1,395 mm (54.9 in)
Height 1,450 mm (57.1 in)
Curb weight 665 kg (1,466 lb)
Chronology
Successor ZAZ-966 Zaporozhets

ZAZ-965

The ZAZ 965 was a city car produced from 1960 to 1963. Design of a car accessible to the public, and one in part taking the place of the soon to be discontinued Moskvitch 401, began in 1956. Following the growing trend of city cars (then accounting for between 25% and 40% of all European car sales), the minister in charge of Minavtroprom (the Soviet automotive ministry) Nicholas Strokin selected the new Fiat 600 as the model to follow. However, apart from general principles of mechanics and a close visual similarity to the Fiat 600, the ZAZ was in fact a completely different car.

ZAZ-965 dashboard

The first prototype, the Moskvich-444, was designed by MZMA in October 1957; it used the same glass for front and rear windows. Its ground clearance, on 13 in (330 mm) wheels, was 200 mm (7.9 in). The prototype was first powered by a flat twin-cylinder MD-65 engine provided by the Irbitskiy Motorcycle Plant, which was “totally unsuited”: it produced only 17.5 hp (13.0 kW; 17.7 PS) and lasted only 30,000 km (19,000 mi) between major overhauls. As a result, a search for another engine was begun, and the success of the VW Type 1‘s boxer led to a preference for an air-cooled engine, which NAMI (the National Automobile Institute) had on the drawing board.Minavtroprom, however, preferred a 23 hp (17 kW; 23 PS) rear-mounted 746 cc (45.5 cu in) V4, the NAMI-G, which had the additional advantage of being developed for the LuAZ-967. As a result, it had characteristics not common for automobile engines, including a magnesium alloy engine block. (This engine, the MeMZ 965, would be built by the Melitopolski Motor Plant, MeMZ.) It had the drawback of needing to have the rear of the car redesigned to fit, as well as needing a new rear suspension. The influence of the LuAZ designers led to the introduction of independent suspension on all four wheels. Its front doors open in a manner like suicide doors, partly to make it more accessible to the disabled.

One of the primary differences was that the engine, which featured a V4 layout in place of the Fiat‘s inline-four, was air-cooled. The Zaporozhets also featured bigger wheels and front suspension on torsion bars. In 1958, the government ordered production of the car in the reformed ZAZ factory, under its final designation ZAZ-965. All further production of the car was carried out there.

The new car was approved for production at the MeMZ factory 28 November 1958, changing the name to ZAZ (Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant) to reflect the new profile. The Zaporizhia factory was supplemented with the Mikoyan Diesel-Building Factory in Melitopol, which was part of the Soyuzdieselcombinat.

The first car, dubbed the ZAZ-965 Zaporozhets, was delivered 12 June 1959, was approved 25 July 1960, and entered production 25 October. The Zaporozhets was priced at 1,800 rubles.

There was also a car-derived van model for the Soviet post office, the 965S, with right-hand drive and blanked-off windows.

ZAZ-965A

ZAZ-965AE

The 965A was an improvement on the 965 and was produced from November 1962 to May 1969. In total, 322,106 units of the 965 were produced. It was powered by a MeMZ 965 rear-mounted, air-cooledOHV 887 cc (54.1 cu in) V4 engine, partially of aluminium design, producing 27 PS (20 kW). From November 1966 some cars were fitted with the slightly more powerful 30 PS (22 kW) MeMZ-965A engine. The 965’s modest engine output has given ground to an urban joke that it was used as a starter motor in Soviet tanks.

As Soviet drivers were expected to do much of the servicing themselves, and auto workshops were in short supply anyway, the engine’s 90° V4 layout proved more practical, especially in harsh winter conditions. The higher centre of gravity of the engine also provided superior traction on steep slopes, though this advantage, which was also continued in later models, came at the expense of the car’s infamous cornering stability.

The 965A also had its versions for the disabled (ZAZ-965B, AB, AR), as well as a more luxurious export variant ZAZ-965AE Yalta.

Despite low prestige of those cars, they have shown an unbeaten accessibility and popularity among the Soviets, becoming the “car for pensioners and intellectuals”. They were the cheapest Soviet-made cars. Quite a large number of them was produced in variants for disabled people, with modified steering.

Between November 1966 and May 1969 the 965A and its successor, the ZAZ966, were produced concurrently.

When production of the 965 ended, 322,116 had been built.

The 965 also inspired the 1962 prototype NAMI 086, named Sputnik (Fellow Traveller), with a 15 PS (11 kW) 500 cc (31 cu in) vee-twin (half an MeMZ 965), electromagnetic clutch and four-speed transmission. Fitted with four-wheel independent suspension and weighing just 520 kg (1,150 lb), intended for use by the disabled, it was never built.

The ZAZ KD of 1969 was also based on the 965, fitted with a glassfibre body, giving it a weight of only and a top speed of 75 mph (121 km/h) on just 30 PS (22 kW). It was never produced in quantity, either.

Second generation (1966-1994)

ZAZ-966 (1966-1972)

ZAZ-968 (1971-1980)

ZAZ-968M (1979-1994)

Vladimir Putin with his 1972 ZAZ-968
Overview
Manufacturer ZAZ (Zaporizhian Automobile Factory)
Also called Zaporozhets
Production 1966–1994
Body and chassis
Class Supermini (B)
Body style 2-door notchbacksaloon
Powertrain
Engine 1.2L MeMZ-968V4
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,160 mm (85.0 in)
Length 3,730 mm (146.9 in)
Width 1,540 mm (60.6 in)
Height 1,370 mm (53.9 in)
Curb weight

780 kg (1,720 lb)

(dimensions for ZAZ-968)

Chronology
Predecessor ZAZ-965A (Zaporozhets)
Successor ZAZ-1102 Tavria

ZAZ-966

ZAZ-966

The second generation of the Zaporozhets was a series of subcompact cars, production starting of the 966 in November 1966, although the prototype was working on as 1961. It had a completely restyled bodywork (done entirely by ZAZ), no longer resembling the Fiat 600 and arguably similar to the Chevrolet Corvair or the NSU Prinz. This was an effort to cure some of the 965’s issues, such as torsion bars that lost tension, suicide doors, and engine overheating and noise. The engine was the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) 887 cc (54.1 cu in) MeMZ 966A. A radio was standard equipment. The price had inched up, too, from 1,800 rubles at the 965’s debut to 2,200 by 1969.

While featuring a larger two-door notchbacksaloon body, it still featured an air-cooled V4 engine and featured more prominent air intakes – the so-called “ears”, although a decorative chrome grille was also present. The car’s rear suspension was also replaced. The 966 started out as the simpler ZAZ-966V (ЗАЗ-966В in Cyrillic) with the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) engine from the 965A, which was also featured on all later models. Much like the 965A, the 966V was also produced in several special variants for the disabled (VR, VB, VB2 – until January 1973). It was produced in tandem with the 965 from November 1966 to May 1969.

ZAZ launched an upgraded 966B in 1968, powered by a new 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS) 1,197 cc (73.0 cu in) MeMZ 968 V4, while the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) 966A-powered model became the 966-1 which was only ever produced in small numbers. The 966B, weighing in at 780 kg (1,720 lb), was heavier than the earlier model, but faster, reaching 75 mph (121 km/h).

The 966 was discontinued in 1972, with the introduction of the ZAZ 968.

Nicknamed “Zapo” in the Eastern Bloc, the 966 was also popular in Western Europe, including some Scandinavian countries and France. Some markets fitted a 956 cc (58.3 cu in) Renault engine.

ZAZ-968

ZAZ-968

ZAZ-968 rear view

The ZAZ-968 and its modifications were produced from 1971 to 1980. It featured the same 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS) 1,197 cc (73.0 cu in) MeMZ 968 V4 as the ZAZ 966, but the exterior design was slightly modernized. The most obvious alteration was replacing the fake chrome grille in the car’s front with a horizontal chrome decoration. Among other changes was the less austere dashboard and better front brakes. The 968 was discontinued in 1978, having been produced simultaneously with the newer 968A since 1973, which was produced until 1980. It introduced new safety measures, including a safer driving wheel and a plastic dashboard instead of the earlier metal one. The 968A also had its variants for the disabled (the ZAZ-968R, B, B2, AB, and AB2) with the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) 887 cc (54.1 cu in) engine.

Toward the end of 1974, an up-market 968A debuted, surviving until 1979. Among its improvements were padded dash, energy-absorbing (collapsing) steering column, and seats from the VAZ-2101. The export 968E (destined mostly for the Eastern Bloc) had headlights able to meet international standards, a safety glass windscreen, and anti-theft steering lock.

ZAZ-968M

ZAZ-968M
ZAZ-968M

In 1979, the 968 series was replaced by the modernized 968M. Prototyped in 1977, it had the “ears” removed and replaced much of the chrome exterior with black plastic. Its interior design was also upgraded, featuring a closed-space glove compartment and a slightly more modern dashboard. It was offered with either the MeMZ 968E (40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS), carbureted, low-compression for 76-octane fuel); 968GE (40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS), dual carburettor); or the MeMZ 968BE (50 hp(37 kW; 51 PS), 8.4:1 compression, for 93-octane). Instead of the side-mounted “ears”, the hood lid and rear quarter panels were louvered.

The 968M is the most contemporary Zaporozhets model and also spent the most time in production, spanning a career from 1979 to 1 June 1994. Some of its special variants include the ZAZ-968MB2, for drivers who have only one foot, the ZAZ-968MB for drivers who have no feet.

Planned 968s with 1,300 cc (79 cu in) or 1,400 cc (85 cu in) engines were never realized.

Export versions

Among the export variants produced by ZAZ were ZAZ-965E, ZAZ-965AE, ZAZ-966E, ZAZ-968E, and ZAZ-968AE, which had improved consumer qualities. Depending on target markets, commercial names Jalta or Eliette were used for these models.

In total, 3,422,444 Zaporozhets vehicles were manufactured and powered by air-cooled engines from the Melitopol factory from 1960 to 1994.

You Tube Video’s:

ZAZ ЗАЗ-965АЭ:

https://youtu.be/5IagKvx6O8w

Made in USSR Zaporozhets ZAZ 968M you tube:

https://youtu.be/6k5KZAZDXQk

Russian Car transporting a Cow (Very Funny!!!!)

https://youtu.be/Hz_ru7rB6GA

See also

Similar air-cooled and rear-engined vehicles:

Chevrolet Corvair

NSU Prinz

Hillman Imp

Hino Contessa

Russian President Vladimir Putin and his spouse Lyudmila on the way to the informal dinner with the American President George Bush and his spouse Laura.

ADN-ZB Kutscher 21.10.75-Berlin: Blick auf das Werk für Fernsehelektronik im Berliner Stadtbezirk Köpenik

EPSON MFP image

SUBARU

Subaru Corporation

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915

In 1932 it became: Nakajima Aircraft Company

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Coordinates: 36°17′51″N 139°22′05″E / 36.2975685°N 139.368058°E / 36.2975685; 139.368058

Subaru Corporation
Native name
スバル
Industry Automobile manufacturing
Founded July 15, 1953; 63 years ago (1953-07-15)
Founder Kenji Kita
Chikuhei Nakajima(predecessor)
Headquarters Ebisu, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Yasuyuki Yoshinaga, (Representative Director, President and CEO)
Jun Kondo, (Representative Director & Vice-President)
Products Automobiles
Divisions Subaru Tecnica International
Website Subaru Global

Subaru (スバル?) (/ˈsbər/ or /sᵿbˈɑːr/;Japanese pronunciation: [sɯ.ba.ɾɯ]) is the automobile manufacturing division of JapanesetransportationconglomerateSubaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI)), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.

Subaru cars are known for the use of a boxer engine layout in most vehicles above 1500 cc. Most Subaru models have used the Symmetrical All Wheel Drive drive-train layout since 1972. The flat/boxer engine and all-wheel-drive became standard equipment for mid-size and smaller cars in most international markets by 1996, and is now standard in most North American market Subaru vehicles. The lone exception is the BRZ, introduced in 2012, which uses the boxer engine but instead uses a rear-wheel-drive structure. Subaru also offers turbocharged versions of their passenger cars, such as the Impreza WRX and the Legacy 2.5GT. The 2.0XT trims of the Outback and Forester also include a turbocharged engine.

In Western markets, the Subaru brand has traditionally been popular among a dedicated core of buyers. Marketing is targeted towards specific niches centered on those who desire the company’s signature drive train engine, all-wheel/rough-road capabilities or affordable sports car markets.

Subaru is the Japanese name for the Pleiades star cluster M45, or “The Seven Sisters” (one of whom tradition says is invisible – hence only six stars in the Subaru logo), which in turn inspires the logo and alludes to the companies that merged to create FHI.

All pictures from my collection: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214689494617313&set=ms.c.eJxVWFkOHTEIu1GFwWz3v1jFU9VxfubDGpawxQTmYM1yWehA~%3BME~%3BJJzosHRBvBAm~%3BzgwaU7~_RzKiY3zxH8EOuWv7~%3BeOZMTb16TGU7c58UpNdm~%3BtZ5yy60f0g0WjRA2ea54r1ntnZVM1Rm~%3BNpRjtnvUyR9PXCg9R6STSmbVmeGo1s82iRCrP1DtUzXK~%3BPQxo901JiaM3tik9zBNDh~%3Bmgm14eP5llve3LR4xpDtO~%3BF~%3BslFj82nuayrDLGPrVmfz5~%3BcInZyRKroBhuVKluXnKbX7MA1zoRvGOTsju408dmBTkrecXWxw1Ipz077ouGcAlAS~_dmorSfvjLNeivhsmER~_J4JrWmNRa77fKbjcvvRIfHx7uwUpOtYyJBfJS5FU5kb49kBsua15Sr5yPWddusnCstO1EtJsw7VP7wyaQTq4SUHQidp4aiydG66VkO0b1L7IixI1p0XbSK2EHG6Qzz~_Xjkcqa6M0O7W10S~%3BiG63W6zSXetjkxtMXfZpHzzWopanmCV8~_ldDpG6PI~_HWrRmyGS6j12Vq6at6z9UR1u5Z8~%3BllfSj1j7GxlPv~_cVOs~%3B5FJn3cBm2Trr7KQ0hrtmu659YVcPpVJIX~_rZx1GrXYk53VzVgzvFPlJ~_9amanbapU2K8bBOq5~_ZY6pSYyBtbqjmM~_9T8xE31UA~_vuzNVKs~_fUc3l3DI~_yE0z9bmNW4~_tq59KtXW1UZqvmdOcj1T7Vqk~%3B18jV2u8ZbfGc4mqstMJvuG31qlSelNbG5s06nZlXLW16M1rWNrQ2rA9RKdRsa3f~%3BaqoZirRv60xYd27r2dejtlM1~_~%3Bkj1euRtTaPrTg9vQ8y25rBq~_4dlCK~%3Ba0bnKrd2tCu3UDsPt7FJ33qYg9tOj0odknr2OnbR6k~_fZrmtnLUB~_MOI0nchebc4pkBFEmGm3MbS0qz5IGsm~%3Be6We4xDpX6UzVRzRxukxk6qzVZ8TuPCYSp19zRVc88aqNanw1D6z1oaHp9n0iBxdttsg9Sq224b1B~%3BY3YNmihzXkuqNqkoC1H82zB0P0uZSCQ7vNi~_15QPzGkEugsriHHHW1WeQsDCVIsKU29w3LR4P02HhKlVMC~_0LVIRFKgOpWYvWaLSvKa9zNA9RdtoDi9VTTITx4TZDGPUUbpXGEp~%3B9ajW1Vn3QpvPQr02t1cNYW1tlywwCFuLPEuFPxMgBTHIRPy2lNU9OwrSiyG6Y5pTpCdOZycyG8l5nMmGjHLKOeGt8WDhEPSxP4GGebQs8J~_1KKKN2NhpwtT6nOfEgDWhUObOARpVruNVAkfPnOelyb09TpBuQvcCPMOLpr7S7G7RT8pYtjwch4JrBxABORdwvGA9yUsIPPSMDrvtghl14VCom4csHWbhsdp5EI3R3mPJLs0qxAN1zPSv6~_lmR32ap0bgMxqwidv~_o9cuXssroHDCeaAwX1Lmasw1ljF5mACnxKViCOkULtlCm5~_V15SO26qKqrMmLtchSKXYgdWJXR6M0y5UDpM6NupM~_~%3BV6TgZJ92WsHt098SBsTykC87be2SjQ67Ee9BWHEUVRBEo3R3pmrw51QZIBV6~_O8ApeonjV3Pft6t~_tdQLvKgH~%3B~%3BhB1XUM52Hh8i~%3B9zs9ZGOOyR9ZLYEuttnHwZy641k5zgJfHX63ZobprfelV3Y6rtNIUJnVHhZhq3sjMuI1aiGz9GUx~%3BotW5A75ZAMnS0R19ruL3Krp0iFzwVIThFVGSF3yiH3Eeu8FZay~_QZtO3SXyWDtBFQqNyKF~%3BwQ3Ikp26vgt66WRzztF6ynyXgtauE3knaL1FBmF6FGEGTHC6yJ~%3BS6RGIzMiJuSfCwaBF~_mbkTJJ3EGdoockXTh2tGXzYUQdcQ8aipDJkB6MvqencNVTG9Qtm2uGxs7zT1N38~_iupE7I6GOHdPV5Z0mJ6r06ZisjijHPc1IQ1I1DsT5EMOWujGElUytq8lcNUglXZnwqYcPBFoYfS4JjisQ2W7hoHLvn4kEGXHxSNFoeh1bEkfr~_U9YXV42G1a8WJfLWtxwLl~_AN1XTZknj3ZOocO6TzmWNgROpLV11Lmksv34tQJmVGMTu79OWE0R058rpL78os4TasuFVYz0UflGl8Mu6tR7JzUlnJ5xU0o0vuL2adP~%3BJGxLonvdRo3JNIQU~%3BhdR5CkTFkyQ1LXjeb2joOWcohGfdWOjIlyDYUpMIZZXl3vPxzDxMQ9p429nv~%3B~_v65~%3Bbn0tZDN7Brp5RybXQonYbNQIzc~_~_~_6PDX0tBHda3hjZy7uWHyneA5nEZ7LQJh3Hyey26b~%3BRouQc.bps.a.10214689172449259.1073742084.1422084541&type=3&theater

History

Former logo on a Subaru 360 showing six stars in an arrangement similar to the Pleiades open star cluster

Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI) and Subaru’s first cars

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915, headed by Chikuhei Nakajima. In 1932, the company was reorganized as Nakajima Aircraft Company, Ltd and soon became a major manufacturer of aircraft for Japan during World War II. At the end of the Second World War Nakajima Aircraft was again reorganized, this time as Fuji Sangyo Co, Ltd. In 1946, the company created the

Fuji Rabbitmotor scooter with spare aircraft parts from the war. In 1950, Fuji Sangyo was divided into 12 smaller corporations according to the Japanese Government’s 1950 Corporate Credit Rearrangement Act, anti-zaibatsu legislation. Between 1953 and 1955, four of these corporations and a newly formed corporation decided to merge to form Fuji Heavy Industries. These companies were: Fuji Kogyo, a scooter manufacturer; coachbuildersFuji Jidosha; engine manufacturers Omiya Fuji Kogyo; chassis builders Utsunomiya Sharyo and the Tokyo Fuji Dangyotrading company.

1955 Subaru 1500, a.k.a. the P-1

Kenji Kita, CEO of Fuji Heavy Industries at the time, wanted the new company to be involved in car manufacturing and soon began plans for building a car with the development code-name P-1. Mr. Kita canvassed the company for suggestions about naming the P1, but none of the proposals was appealing enough. In the end he gave the company a Japanese name that he had “been cherishing in his heart”: Subaru, which is the name of the Pleiades star cluster in Japanese. The first Subaru car was named the Subaru 1500. Only twenty were manufactured owing to multiple supply issues. Subsequently, the company designed and manufactured dozens of vehicles including the 1500 (1954), the tiny air-cooled 360 (1958), the Sambar (1961), and the 1000 (which saw the introduction of the Subaru boxer engine in 1965).

 1958 Subaru 360

Later partnerships

Nissan acquired a 20.4% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, Subaru’s parent company, in 1968 during a period of government-ordered merging of the Japanese auto industry in order to improve competitiveness under the administration of Prime MinisterEisaku Sato. Nissan would utilize FHI’s bus manufacturing capability and expertise for their Nissan Diesel line of buses. In turn many Subaru vehicles, even today, use parts from the Nissan manufacturing keiretsu. The Subaru automatic transmission, known as the 4EAT, is also used in the first generation Nissan Pathfinder. While under this arrangement with Nissan, Subaru introduced the R-2 (1969), the Rex and the Leone (1971), the BRAT (1978), Alcyone (1985), the Legacy (1989), the Impreza (1993) (and its WRX subtype), and the Forester (1997).

Upon Nissan’s acquisition by Renault, its stake in FHI was sold to General Motors in 1999. Troy Clarke, of General Motors served as representative to Fuji Heavy Industries on their corporate board. During that time, Subaru introduced the Baja (2003), and the Tribeca (2005). The Subaru Forester was sold as a Chevrolet Forester in India in exchange for the Opel Zafira being sold as a Subaru Traviq in Japan. Also, the Chevrolet Borrego concept was presented in 2002, a crossover coupe/pickup truck being derived from the Japanese-market Legacy Turbo platform. During the brief General Motors period, a “badge engineeredImpreza was sold in the United States as the Saab 9-2X. An SUV (Subaru Tribeca / Saab 9-6X) was also planned but the Saab version did not proceed, and styling was recycled in the 2008 Tribeca refresh.

GM liquidated their holdings in FHI in 2005. Nearly all Saab-Subaru joint projects were dropped at that time, other than Subaru supplying parts for the Saab 9-2x.Toyota Motors bought a little over 40% of GM’s former FHI stock, amounting to 8.7% of FHI. (The rest of GM’s shares went to a Fuji stock buy-back program.) Toyota and Subaru have since collaborated on a number of projects, among them building the Toyota Camry in Subaru’s Indiana U.S. plant beginning in April 2007. Subaru introduced the Exiga in 2008.

Toyota increased their share of FHI to 16.5% in July 2008. Subsequently, Toyota and Subaru jointly developed the Toyota 86, first sold in January 2012 as the Subaru BRZ and by Toyota under various names.

Marketing efforts

Some of the advertising slogans Subaru has used in the past include “Inexpensive, and built to stay that way” (USA 1970s – early 1980s), “The World’s Favourite Four Wheel Drive” (in the UK), “Plus on y pense, plus on a le gout de la conduire” (Literally: “The more one thinks, the more one has the taste (or desire, impulse, drive) of driving it”) in French Quebec, “We built our reputation by building a better car”, “What to Drive”, “The Beauty of All-Wheel Drive”, “Driven by What’s Inside”, “Think, Feel, Drive”, “Love. It’s what makes Subaru, a Subaru” (USA early 2010s) and currently “Confidence in Motion” in North America, “All 4 The Driver” in Australia, and “Uncommon Engineering, Uncommon Stability, Uncommon Roadholding, Uncommon Sense” in the UK and “Technology that gives you Confidence in Motion” in Southeast Asia.

As a result of this refocused advertising campaign, Subaru products began to attract a following among the young and educated, who saw the car as a practical alternative to the SUV craze. Subaru has historically been popular in the Northeastern United States as well as the Pacific Northwest. According to Automotive Lease Guide, Subaru ranked second place in vehicles that have the highest overall predicted resale values among all industry and all luxury vehicles for MY 2009. The awards are derived after carefully studying segment competition, historical vehicle performance and industry trends. According to a study done by J.D. Power and Associates for the 2008 Customer Retention Study, Subaru ranked at 50.5%, which was above the national average of 48%.

Hōkago no Pleiades (Original net animation)

Subaru launched an animation series Hōkago no Pleiades (放課後のプレアデス?, Hōkago no Pureadesu, lit. ‘After School Pleiades’) developed jointly with Gainax. The 4-part mini episode series was released on YouTube on February 1, 2011. It featured a magical girl plot with Subaru as a leading protagonist.

Current operations

Subaru’s corporate headquarters are located in Ebisu, Tokyo.

Manufacturing facilities

Subaru is distinct from many of its Japanese competitors in that as of early 2016 it still made almost 75% of its cars sold internationally in Japan. Subaru’s facilities designated to automotive manufacturing are located in Ōta, Gunma Prefecture, consisting of four locations. Subaru-chō is where the Subaru BRZ/Toyota 86 is built, having been re-purposed from kei car production, Yajima Plant is where all current Subaru cars are built, Otakita Plant is where commercial kei trucks are built (originally a factory location of Nakajima Aircraft Company), and Oizumi Plant is where engines and transmissions are built.

Subaru’s only overseas manufacturing facility is located in Lafayette, Indiana; the factory is called Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc.. Due to continued sales growth in North American markets, vehicle production capacity at the Lafayette assembly plant is set to expand to 390,000 vehicles annually. Under the current strategic plan, Subaru will have a total production capacity of 1,026,000 vehicles per year at the end of 2016.

Subaru in Canada

Subaru Canada, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Fuji Heavy Industries of Japan. Headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of 88 authorized dealers throughout Canada.In 1976, Canadians got their first exposure to Subaru vehicles when Subaru Auto Canada Limited (SACL) began offering the Subaru Leone. In 1989, the privately owned SACL was purchased by the Toronto-based Subaru Canada, Inc. who, under the guidance of parent company Fuji Heavy Industries, began an expansion process that would eventually see over 100 Subaru Dealers in operation across the country.

Subaru in the Philippines

Subaru has entered the Philippine operations started in 1996 under the Columbian Motors Philippines ownership but withdrew in 2000. It returned in 2006 under a new ownership by Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc. Subaru has eleven dealerships in the country: Greenhills, Fort Bonifacio, Manila Bay, Alabang, Davao, Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Iloilo, Santa Rosa, Batangas, and Pampanga.

Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc., part of Motor Image Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hong Kong-based Tan Chong International Limited under businessman Glenn Tan, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of six dealerships in the Philippines.

Subaru in the United Kingdom

In 1974 Robert Edmiston was finance director at sports car manufacturer Jensen Motors. When the company went bankrupt, he used a £6,000 redundancy payout to set up International Motors, which acquired the UK franchise for Subaru and Isuzu. The Coleshill based company is still the parent for Subaru in the UK.

Subaru in the United States

Subaru of America was established in 1968 in Philadelphia by Malcolm Bricklin and Harvey Lamm. It relocated to Pennsauken, New Jersey shortly thereafter and moved to its current headquarters in Cherry Hill, New Jersey when Fuji Heavy Industries acquired full ownership. Subaru of America operates regional offices, zone offices and parts distribution centers throughout the United States. Subaru of America also operates port facilities on both the West and East coasts.

In 1989 Subaru and then-partner Isuzu opened a joint factory in Lafayette, Indiana called Subaru-Isuzu Automotive, or SIA, which initially manufactured the Subaru Legacy and Isuzu Rodeo. In 2001 Isuzu sold their stake in the plant to FHI for $1 due to flagging sales and it was renamed Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. SIA has been designated a backyard wildlife habitat by the National Wildlife Federation and has achieved a zero-landfill production designation (the first automotive assembly plant in the United States to earn that designation).

According to the Kelley Blue Book in 2015, two Subaru models Forester and the Outback in the United States had very short inventory time (the time between being received by a dealer to being sold).

Motorsports

Subaru Rally Team Japan led by Noriyuki Koseki (founder of Subaru Tecnica International, STI) ran Subaru Leone coupé, sedan DL, RX(SRX) and RX Turbo in the World Rally Championship between 1980 and 1989. Drivers for individual rallies included Ari Vatanen, Per Eklund, Shekhar Mehta, Mike Kirkland, Possum Bourne and Harald Demut. Mike Kirkland finished 6th overall and won the A Group at the 1986 Safari Rally. That year Subaru was one of the only manufacturers combining 4WD and turbo after Audi‘s successful quattro system had been introduced in 1980, but Audi withdrew from the WRC after safety concerns and Ford’s serious accident early in the 1986 season. Subaru changed the rally model to Legacy RS for the 1990–1992 period and took part in the first complete season in the World Rally Championship with the same model in 1993.

Modified versions of the Impreza WRX and WRX STi have been competing successfully in rallying. Drivers Colin McRae (1995), Richard Burns (2001) and Petter Solberg (2003) have won World Rally Championshipdrivers’ titles with the Subaru World Rally Team and Subaru took the manufacturers’ title three years in a row from 1995 to 1997. Subaru’s World Rally Championship cars are prepared and run by Prodrive, the highly successful British motorsport team. Several endurance records were set in the early and mid-nineties by the Subaru Legacy. The Subaru Justy also holds the world record for the fastest sub 1.0L car without a turbo: 123.224 mph average, it was set in 1989.

Subaru was briefly involved in Formula One circuit racing when it bought a controlling interest in the tiny Italian Coloni team for the 1990 season. The Coloni 3B’s 12-cylinder engine was badged as a Subaru and shared the boxer layout with the company’s own engines, but was an existing design built by Italian firm Motori Moderni. The cars were overweight and underpowered and the partnership broke down before the season finished. With the rise of rally racing and the Import scene in the US, the introduction of the highly anticipated Subaru Impreza WRX in 2001 was successful in bringing high-performance AWD compact cars into the sports car mainstream. Subaru supplies a factory-backed team, Subaru Rally Team USA for Rally America and has won the driver’s title six times, most recently in 2011 with David Higgins.Grassroots Motorsports awarded Subaru with the Editors’ Choice Award in 2002.

On 16 December 2008, it was announced that Subaru would no longer be competing in the World Rally Championships. The decision was made by Subaru’s parent company, Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI), partly as a result of the economic downturn but also because it was felt Subaru had achieved its sporting and marketing objectives. Mr Ikuo Mori denied that alterations to the WRC technical regulations in 2010 or a rumoured deterioration in the working relationship with Prodrive had any impact on the decision. He also said that the possibility of a Subaru car back in the top category of WRC in the future is not zero, but for this moment there can be no assumption of a comeback.

Since 2005, Cusco Racing have entered an Impreza sedan and a BRZ in the Super GT championship. In 2008, the Impreza was the first 4-door and first 4WD vehicle to win a race.

Starting in 2006, Subaru of America (SOA), as the official distributor of Subaru vehicles in the United States participates in the Subaru Road Racing Team (SRRT) with a Subaru Legacy 2.5 GT Spec-B in the Grand-Am Street Tuner class. In 2010, SRRT campaigns a Subaru Impreza WRX STI in the Grand Sport class. In 2011, SRRT switched from the hatchback to a 2011 Subaru Impreza WRX STI sedan.

On 4 May 2012, Subaru Rally Team USA announced that a new rallycross team, Subaru Puma Rallycross Team USA will participate in the 2012 Global RallyCross Championship season with Dave Mirra, Bucky Lasek, and Sverre Isachsen. They also competed in the 2014 FIA World Rallycross Championship.

In 2011, Mark Higgins used a stock Impreza to set a lap record at the Isle of Man TT course. In 2016, Higgins again broke the record in a modified WRX STI.

The impreza has won hillclimbs such as the Silverstone Race to the Sky and Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race.

Technology

Diesel

The 2007 Frankfurt International Motor Show saw Subaru introduce a horizontally opposed, water-cooled, common railturbodiesel using a variable geometry turbocharger called the Subaru EE engine, the first of its type to be fitted to a passenger car. Volkswagen had experimented with this idea during the 1950s and made two air-cooled boxer prototype diesel engines that were not turbocharged. VW installed one engine in a Type 1 and another in a Type 2.

The Subaru engine was rated at 110 kW (150 PS; 148 hp) and 350 N·m (260 ft·lbf) with a displacement of 2.0 litres. In March 2008 Subaru offered the Legacy sedan and wagon and the Outback wagon with 2.0 litre turbodiesel in the EU with a 5-speed manual transmission.

In September 2008 Subaru announced that the diesel Forester and diesel Impreza will be introduced at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, with Forester sales to begin October 2008 and diesel Impreza sales to start January 2009. The Forester and Impreza will have a 6-speed manual transmission, whereas the Legacy and Outback have 5-speed manual transmissions.

United States Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy estimated is:

City Ranges
32.7 mpg‑US (7.2 L/100 km; 39.3 mpg‑imp)
33.6 mpg‑US (7.0 L/100 km; 40.4 mpg‑imp)
Highway Ranges
45.2 mpg‑US (5.20 L/100 km; 54.3 mpg‑imp)
49.0 mpg‑US (4.80 L/100 km; 58.8 mpg‑imp)

Electric vehicles

In June 2006, Fuji Heavy Industries, Inc. (FHI) launched its

Subaru StellaPlug-in electric vehicle which is a kei car equipped with a lithium-ion battery pack. The vehicle has a short range of 56 miles (90 km) but it actually costs more than the Mitsubishi iMiEV, at ¥4,380,000 (US$44,860), including Japanese Government consumption taxes with an exemption of $2,240. It will also qualify for a rebate from the Japanese Government of up to $14,200, bringing the price down to $30,660. The vehicle is much like the i-MiEV, with a 47-kilowatt motor and a quick-charge capability, but the two-door mini-car has a boxy shape. FHI plans to start delivery in late July and plans to sell 170 vehicles by March 2010.

In Japan, Subaru is currently testing two electric vehicles called the Subaru G4e and the Subaru R1e.

The Subaru Hybrid Tourer Concept is a four-seat vehicle with gull-wing doors that combines a 2-liter turbocharged direct-injection gasoline engine with a continuously variable transmission and two axle-mounted motors. A lithium-ion battery pack provides energy storage for the vehicle.

Electronics

Since the 2005 model year, Subaru has adopted the CAN bus technology for the USA and Canada markets. Starting in the 2007 model year, all Subaru vehicles use the CAN technology. Typically, two CAN-buses are used on vehicles: a high-speed CAN running at 500 kbit/s for powertrain communication, and a low-speed CAN running at 125 kbit/s for body control functions and instrument panels. A body-integrated unit (BIU) is used between these two networks.

Clarion and Harman Kardon are among the audio, video, and navigation technology suppliers for Subaru products in North America. Clarion announced in 2015 that it was introducing its “Smart Access” platform, formerly only offered on Clarion’s aftermarket products, to the units to be installed in certain Subaru 2015 models in North America. Smart Access is able to work with the driver’s smartphone (either iPhone or Android) and allows access to various car-safe apps running on the phone via the car’s built-in infotainment screen. Subaru and Clarion have also, with Liberty Mutual Insurance, introduced the “RightTrack” in-vehicle app which will be able to monitor the driver’s habits, make suggestions for safer driving, and possibly offer insurance discounts.

Environmental record

 2009 USA-spec Subaru Legacy PZEV

Subaru claims to have implemented advanced policies which include recycling, reducing harmful emissions, and educating their employees. Their efforts have helped them in their environmental initiatives. The Subaru plant in Lafayette, Indiana (SIA) was the first auto assembly plant to achieve zero landfill status; nothing from the manufacturing process goes into a landfill. The company has developed a recycling plan for the “end-of-life” of their cars. Most of their modern products use highly recyclable materials throughout the vehicle, in the engine, transmission, suspension and elsewhere in each vehicle leaving Subaru with a 97.3% recycling ratio rate for their end-of-life vehicles.

An excerpt from the Subaru website stated “In 2006, SIA was awarded the United States Environmental Protection Agency´s Gold Achievement Award as a top achiever in the agency’s WasteWise program to reduce waste and improve recycling.” The website also stated that “It also became the first U.S. automotive assembly plant to be designated a wildlife habitat.”

Subaru currently offers a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) certified Legacy, Outback, Impreza, XV/Crosstrek and Forester models which are available for sale anywhere in the U.S. Subaru PZEV vehicles meet California’s Super-Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle exhaust emission standard. All other models have been certified LEV2.

Current and former Subaru vehicles

1950s

360 (1958-1971)

1000 (1966-1969)

1500 (1954)

FF-1 G (1971-1972)

FF-1 Star (1969-1973)

R-2 (1969–1972)

1970s

1971 Subaru Leone hardtop coupé A22

Leone (1971-1994)

BRAT (1978-1994)

Rex (1972-1992)

1980s

Sumo / Libero / Domingo / Columbuss / E series / Estratto (1983-1998)

Justy / Tutto(1984-2010, 2016-present)


XT / Alcyone / Vortex (1985-1991)

Legacy / Liberty (1989-present)

1990s

Vivio (1992-1998)

Impreza (1992-present)

Impreza WRX (2001-2014)

and Impreza WRX STI (2001-2014)

Outback Sport / Gravel Express / RV (1994-present)

Alcyone / SVX (1991-1996)

Forester (1997-present)

Traviq (rebadged Opel Zafira) (1999-2005)

2000s

Baja (2003-2006)

R2 (2003-2010)

R1 (2005-2010)

Tribeca (2005-2014)

Trezia (2005-2017)

Exiga (2008-present)

2010s

BRZ( Toyota 86 ) (2012-present)

Subaru XV (2012-present)

Levorg (2014-present)

Subaru WRX (2015-present)

Other manufacturers

Subaru has partnered with various manufacturers over time – here are some of the models are sold in Asia and Europe. In Japan they are in the Kei car class with either front or all wheel drive and a straight engine. An article posted by Autoblog on April 16, 2008 stated that due to a corporate investment by Toyota, all Kei cars built by Subaru will be replaced by Daihatsu models beginning in 2010.

Lucra

Pleo

Sambar

Stella

Dex

Concept vehicles

The following concepts vehicles did not go forward as production vehicles:

Subaru SRD-1 (Experimental design study introduced in 1990)

Subaru Suiren ( Concept replacement for the BRAT/Brumby )

Subaru Exiga (1996, wagon)

Subaru B9 Scrambler

Subaru B11S

Subaru B5 TPH (Turbo Parallel Hybrid) (Japanese: Subaru B5-TPH)

Subaru Fleet-X

Subaru HS500