Nazar werd opgericht in 1957 en was gevestigd in Zaragoza. Nazar maakte vooral vrachtwagens met laadvermogens tussen de 1.5 en de 9 ton. Voor de lichtere modellen gebruikte het bedrijf de motoren van het merk Perkins en voor de zwaardere modellen gebruikte het motoren van het merk Henschel. Nazar werd in 1967 overgenomen door Barreiros.
Officine Viberti was an Italian manufacturer of trailers, coach and bus bodies and mopeds, better known by its integral Monotral chassisless self-supporting coaches and buses. It was based in Turin. Viberti made the Vi-Vi moped from 1955 until 1957 in alliance with the German motorcycle manufacturer Victoria.
The company was founded in 1922 to build civilian and military transport vehicles and was a supplier to the Italian armed forces during World War II. One of its products was the SPA-Viberti AS.42 armored car.
Viberti is now part of the Acerbi-Viberti Group.
That was all Viberti
|Products||Trolleybuses, electric locomotives|
Vétra (or Vetra), or more formally the Société des Véhicules et Tracteurs Electriques, was a French manufacturer of trolleybuses and electric locomotives. Founded in 1925, it became one of Western Europe’s largest builders of trolleybuses during the middle decades of the 20th century, making in excess of 1,750 vehicles, for cities in France and in several other countries. The company ceased production in 1964.
Limoges was one of the last places where Vétra trolleybuses operated. This 1950-built example was photographed in 1988.
Vétra was founded in 1925 and was based in Paris. After initially experimenting with production of accumulator railcars, the company made its first trolleybus in 1927. The first Vétra trolleybuses were two vehicles, model MV, supplied to the Aubagne–Cuges trolleybus system, which was located just east of Marseille and began operation on 22 September 1927. In the decades that followed, Vétra had a near-monopoly on French trolleybus production. Trolleybus systems operating in France also bought their fleets nearly exclusively from Vétra. From the 1930s through the 1950s, the “overwhelming majority” of trolleybuses in use on French systems were built by Vétra. On a smaller scale, the company also sold trolleybuses to systems located in other countries.
1939 VETRA CS35 (et VBRH)
The traction motors and other electrical equipment in Vétra trolleybuses were supplied by Alsthom (now called Alstom) in all or nearly all cases, while many mechanical parts, often including chassis, came from Berliet. The vehicle bodies were fabricated by various different companies, Berliet included. In its 38 years of trolleybus production, the company made no less than 31 different models. Some were only small variations on another model. For example, the VBRh was basically the same as the VBR except was 2.9 m tall instead of 2.7 m, and the h suffix in the model number stood for “haute” (high).
1948 Vétra-Berliet VBRh n° 272 ex-Paris Limoges F
Models produced included both two-axle and three-axle rigid vehicles, with large numbers of each. In its history, Vétra only built one articulated trolleybus. This was a prototype for Algiers, Algeria. Built in 1950/51, it was designated model VA4.SR and had four axles, three in the front section and one in the trailing section. It was tested on the Paris trolleybus system in January 1951. This prototype was unsuccessful, and it was eventually rebuilt into a three-axle rigid vehicle.
1954 VETRA-BERLIET VA3B2 3 axelss
1943 Vétra-Berliet CB60 n° 10 Limoges F
In 1961 Pegaso, the Spanish truck and bus maker, reached an agreement with Vetra to launch to the Spanish market a Pegaso trolleybus, called model 8010, based on Vetra technology. The operation, however, was a failure, due to the contemporary import to Spain of several tenths of ex-London Transport BUT units; and only one Pegaso 8010, with a Seida body, was ever built.
1959-68 VETRA BERLIET Barcelona
By the early 1960s, several French trolleybus systems had closed, and most of those that remained were destined to close within a few years, so were not purchasing new trolleybuses. Facing a steep decline in orders, Vétra filed for bankruptcy. Production ended in 1964, with the completion of an order for two VBH85 trolleybuses for Fribourg, Switzerland.
Vetra 29 roule sur la ligne 8-9 en direction du Jura. Suisse.
Vétra sold trolleybuses to transit systems in 12 different countries, on three continents, including as far away as Chile. However, the majority were sold to systems in France. The overall total was in excess of 1,750, a quantity that has been matched or exceeded by only very few other trolleybus manufacturers.
A 1957 Vétra VBF-model trolleybus in Grenoble in 1965. This vehicle originally served the Paris trolleybus system.
The Lyon trolleybus system purchased by far the largest number of Vétra trolleybuses of any system, a total of 372, comprising seven different models. Other large buyers in France were Marseille (145, of seven different models), Paris (133), St. Etienne (78), and Limoges (43). After the closure of the Paris system, in 1966, its 38 VBF trolleybuses were sold to the Grenoble system, and 40 of its VBRh trolleybuses were sold to Limoges; 24 of the latter entered service there, and some remained in service until 1989.
Other European countries where Vétra found buyers were Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Spain and Switzerland. Most were small orders, but in Spain, 45 Vétras were purchased by Madrid and a total of 55 by Bilbao, in multiple orders.
Vétra also found a good market in North Africa, where it sold to all but one of the eight trolleybus systems in operation, including Algiers,Constantine (3 separate operators) and Oran, in Algeria; Cairo, Egypt; Casablanca, Morocco; and Tunis, Tunisia. The sole exception was the system in Tétouan, Morocco, which bought all of its trolleybuses from Saurer. The trolleybuses sold to some of these systems in the 1930s were designed by Vétra but built by various other companies.
The company sold trolleybuses to a total of only two systems outside Europe and North Africa. Santiago, Chile, purchased 100 in 1952–53, and Niterói, Brazil, opened its trolleybus system with 45 Vétras in 1953. The Niteroi vehicles were model VBRh, which was Vétra’s most widely sold model in the post-war era, bought by many cities. By contrast, the Santiago vehicles were a unique model, VA2, and were approximately the same size as, and bore a strong resemblance to, trolleybuses that the Santiago system had purchased from the U.S. company Pullman-Standard in 1946–48 and 1952.
Last active examples
A small fleet of short-chassis vehicles in Lyon were the last Vétra trolleybuses in service anywhere.
By 1983, with the retirement of St. Etienne’s last Vétra trolleybuses, Limoges and Lyon were the only systems anywhere that continued to use Vétras in service. The last active examples in Limoges were ex-Paris VBRh vehicles built in 1949–54, and these were retired in June 1989. This left the Lyon trolleybus system as the last operator of Vétra trolleybuses anywhere.
Although Lyon once had a large fleet of Vétra trolleybuses, by late 1981 all that remained were ones from a batch of 22 VBH85 trolleybuses, built jointly by Vétra and Berliet in 1963, which had a short chassis and were used only on Lyon route 6, which follows narrow streets and has hairpin turns. In 1984/85, Lyon operator TCL chose to refurbish seven of these, rather than buy a new batch of non-standard-length trolleybuses just for one route. As a result, these last Vétra trolleybuses (renumbered 1701–1707) received an extended life, remaining in service until early 2000.
More than 30 Vétra-built trolleybuses have been preserved, with 33 examples accounted for as of 2000, all but four being in France.
Some are owned by transit agencies that are currently still operate trolleybuses, but the vehicles concerned may or may not be in operating condition. The Limoges trolleybus system has preserved 1944/45 CB60 No. 18, and the Lyon system has preserved 1962 Vétra-Berliet ELR No. 10 (which is ex-Marseille 331 in 1977). The St. Etienne system has preserved three different examples: 1952 VCR No. 72, 1955 VA3B2 No. 151 (ex-Marseille 155), and 1962 VBBh/ELR No. 126.
Most of the surviving Vétra trolleybuses are in the collections of museums or preservation groups. The largest number, by far, is owned by theAssociation pour le Musée des Transports Urbains, Interurbains et Ruraux (AMTUIR), in Paris, which counted 10 Vétra trolleybuses in its collection as of 2000. The Musée Provençal des Transports Urbains et Ruraux (MPTUR), in La Barque, has three Vétra trolleybuses. The Amis du Rail et des Transports de Marseille (ARTM), in Marseille, has two.
At least three Vétra trolleybuses are preserved outside France, including Limoges No. 5 (a 1943 CB60), which is owned by an individual but is kept at The Trolleybus Museum at Sandtoft, in the UK, and operates occasionally at the museum. Lyon 1704, a 1963 Vétra-Berliet VBH85, from the batch that were the very last Vétra trolleybuses in service anywhere, joined the Sandtoft collection in 2006.
|Key people||Bernard Van Hool (founder)
Filip Van Hool (CEO)
|Subsidiaries||Van Hool USA|
Van Hool Astromega TD927 coach for the Oxford Tube
A bi-articulated Van Hool AGG300
The company was founded in 1947 by Bernard Van Hool in Koningshooikt, near to Lier, Belgium. In the early years, the company introduced serial production and exported their products all over Europe. Since the mid-1980s, the company has also been active on the North American market, where it has become an important player.
On February 15, 1957, Van Hool signed a commercial agreement with Fiat; Van Hool would incorporate Fiat engines and other mechanical components (gearboxes, axles, steering) in its vehicles. It developed from a coachbuilder to a Belgian manufacturer of integral buses and coaches, known as Van Hool-Fiat. Alongside these activities, the company continued as a renowned coachbuilder, enabling further expansion.
The Van Hool-Fiat co-operation was immediately a great success: a year and a half after the agreement was signed, in August 1958, the 100th Van Hool-Fiat was delivered, and by July 1961, the figure had exceeded 500. The co-operation agreement with Fiat was terminated in 1981.
In 1990, Van Hool purchased the coachbuilding business of LAG Manufacturing and continued producing their EOS models for about ten years.
Most of the buses and coaches are built totally by Van Hool, with engines and axles sourced from Caterpillar, Cummins, DAF and MAN and gearboxes from ZF or Voith, with some of their production still consisting of building bus and coach bodies on separate bus chassis from manufacturers such as Volvo and Scania.
Worldwide, Van Hool employs 4,500 people and manufactures over 1,700 buses and coaches (bodyworks and complete vehicles combined) and 5,000 trailers each year. It sells an average of 600 coaches, annually, in the US.
Product range (Europe)
In Europe, Van Hool has the broadest range of coaches of all manufacturers on the market, though all designs share similar looks and are based on the same platform, the T9. The same philosophy is used on the transit bus range, the A-series. Many different versions are available, all sharing the same looks. In recent years, the company has been focussing on new propulsion technologies, introducing fuel-cell hybrid buses as well as diesel-electric hybrids.
T8 series touring coach
The T8 platform was introduced in 1979. The body was based on the Alizee bodywork that had been launched the previous year. Over the course of several years, a large range of touring coaches were developed based on this platform, each distinguished by a number and a name, following a clear naming convention. For example, in ‘TD824 Astromega’:
- T = Touringcar (touring coach)
- D = Dubbeldek (double deck)
- 8 = Part of the T8 series
- 24 = theoretical maximum number of seat rows
- Astromega = name of the double deck integrals
In 1991, an updated ‘T8 New Look’ was introduced. But this was called the T9 in its North American version. Production was ended in the late 1990s, following the introduction of the new (European) T9 platform.
A-series transit bus
In the 1980s, European countries started to move away from standard bus designs, leaving the design of transit buses to the manufacturers. Van Hool’s response was the development of the A-series transit buses. The first member, the A500, was introduced in 1985. A complete family would follow, again following a clear naming convention. For example, in ‘AG500’:
- A = Autobus (transit bus)
- G = Geleed (articulated)
- 500 = height of the floor, in millimeters
Production of the A-series continued into the early 21st century, when it was replaced by the newA-series.
T9 series touring coaches
The new T9 series (not to be confused with the US T9 series, which corresponds with the European T8 New Look) was launched in 1995. It included a completely new body design, as well as many other improvements. The same philosophy as with the T8 was applied: one platform, many different versions. Also, the naming convention was retained. Over the years, many new variants have been developed, making the T9-series the most extensive series of motorcoaches available today. Different models (all available in at least 2 lengths, see ‘products’ below) include the Atlino and Atlon, so-called double earners, with different floor heights, the Alicron, Acron and Astron, standard touring coaches with different heights and thus different luggage space, the Altano, which has an underfloor cockpit, the Astronef, which features a sloping theatre-style floor, and the double deck Astromega.
Additionally, the T9 body is also available on chassis by Scania, Volvo and VDL, though only in Sweden and on the British Isles. These motorcoaches are referred to as Alizee (single deck) and Astrobel (double deck).
TX series touring coaches
At Busworld 2011 in Kortrijk, Belgium, Van Hool presented the successor to the T9 series. The new series is called TX.
newA series transit buses
In 2001, Van Hool introduced the newA series transit buses, replacing the A series. It featured a new body design and many other improvements. A complete family was developed, with different length and configurations.
ExquiCity BRT solution
In April 2011 Van Hool launched a new Multi Propulsion Platform called ExquiCity, aimed specifically at the BRT market. The bus has the styling and comfort of a tram, with the flexibility and cost of a bus. The ExquiCity was launched in two lengths, the single-articulated ExquiCity 18 and the double-articulated ExquiCity 24. Both are available as trolley buses, diesel-electric hybrids, fuel-cell hybrids or full-electric buses. First orders were placed by the Italian city of Parma (ExquiCity 18 trolley) and the French city of Metz (ExquiCity 24 diesel electric hybrid). A mock-up was presented at the UITP Congress in Dubai.
EX series touring coaches
At the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung 2014 in Hanover, Germany, Van Hool presented a new series of touring coaches for the European market. This new line is called EX. It is produced in the Van Hool factory in Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonia is considered to be alow-wage country where production costs are much lower than in Belgium.
Product range (North America)
Due to American Federal Safety requirements and other unique factors, only highway touring coaches were introduced in the US initially. Transit coaches by Van Hool were not introduced until 2002. Currently, Van Hool has four separate product lines for sale: the T21-series deluxe touring coaches, the C20-series touring coaches, the
Van Hool TD925 double-decker coach
TD925 double-decker coach, and the A-series transit buses. Van Hool’s exclusive dealer in the US is ABC Companies.
T8 series touring coach
The T815 was first introduced to the US market in 1987. Later subsequent models are collectively known as the T8 series. The earliest use Cummins L10 diesels. Later versions use Cummins M11 diesels.
It was available as 30, 40 and 45 foot length versions.
T9 series touring coach
T9 series are almost identical to the T8 series visually, and are largely identical mechanically as well, except for incremental updates. T9 series upgraded the suspension airbags to larger heavy-duty versions, as well as upgraded front axle to disc brakes instead of drum brakes. However, many of the earliest T9’s indeed lack these upgrades. What’s even more interesting, Van Hool’s VIN consider T8 and T9 to be the same family.
It was available as 40-foot (T940) or extended 45-foot (T945) versions.
T21 series luxury touring coach
Introduced in 1996 and based on the European T9 platform, the T21 series features an updated stream-line design and more engine choices. Whereas T8 and T9 series are almost exclusively powered by Cummins diesel engines, T21 are available with Cummins M11 plus engine, Detroit Diesel series 60 engine, or the latest Caterpillar C13 ACERT “clean diesel” engine. Most recent versions simplified the windshield into 2 panes only, replaced headlight assemblies with individual projector lamps, and consolidated the driver console.
Van Hool T2145 at Harbor and Katella in Anaheim © Andrew Novak
Available as 40-foot (T2140) or extended 45-foot (T2145) versions.
C20 series touring coach
Introduced as a lower-cost coach intended for long-line duty, the C20 series, with similar European looks to the T21 series, was introduced in 2000 to the US market. C20 is available with Cummins ISX12 or Detroit Diesel DD13 engine. Previous generations could also be equipped with Cummins M11 plus, Detroit Diesel series 60 and Caterpillar C13 engine. Both Allison B500 automatic and ZF AS Tronic automated gearboxes are available.
Greyhound operates a fleet of C2045s along with its MCI buses in Michigan.
SD956 Megabus Van Hool C2045E
Available as extended 45-foot (C2045) version only. Current model is C2045E.
A3 transit bus series
The popularity of A3 series in Europe led Van Hool and ABC to partner with AC Transit (Alameda and Contra Costa counties, California) to demo the A3 series as a future transit alternative in 2002. The A330 and AG300 low floor transit coaches formally entered service in AC transit fleet in June 2003. AC Transit now has over 330 Van Hool buses either in its fleet or on order as of August 2009.
Van Hool is building 16 hydrogen fuel cell buses for the USA at present (August 2009). These buses are powered by fuel cells from UTC Power and lithium batteries from EnerDell. Twelve of the buses are being purchased by AC Transit and four by CT Transit of Hartford Connecticut. This project is unusual in that the buses have been designed from the ground up as fuel cell buses and are designed, built, and integrated by a single manufacturer.
Van Hool AG 300 – CTS – Strasbourg
The AG300 is an articulated 60-foot bus, while the A330 is a 40-foot bus.
In 2008, AC Transit took delivery of a fleet of new model A300L forty-foot buses. These buses are unique in the US market as they have their engines mounted in the wheelbase which makes their ride quality extremely stable and smooth. The new layout capitalizes on basic architectural design of the A300L’s earlier released little brother the 30-foot A300K (K stands for kort, “short” in Dutch and L for lang, “long”). A recent survey of AC Transit riders overwhelmingly approves of the design and quality of the new buses.
Salt Lake City (Utah Transit Authority) has purchased ten A300L 40-foot buses for its MAX Bus Rapid Transit system. These buses differ from AC Transit’s A300Ls as they have three doors and are equipped for cold weather and high altitude operations. They have also recently placed an order for four more because of overwhelmingly positive support of the first 10 buses and the “MAX” BRT service they operate.
York Region Transit (north of Toronto, Ontario) uses the A330 and AG300 buses on its Viva routes, though the A330 buses are being transferred to the conventional YRT service as more Nova LFX buses arrive for the Viva services. The Reseau de transport de Longueuil (south of Montreal, Quebec) also uses the AG300 buses, and was the first to use Van Hool transit buses in North America (AG700) in 1989.
Van Hool AG 700 Divia 707
Washington, D.C.‘s Circulator uses the A330 buses. These 29 buses were purchased from AC Transit in 2005. In addition to the A330 models, the Circulator now uses the new A300K buses, which first went into service in April 2009. The Circulator recently took delivery of 14 A300K, 31-foot buses to build out its route structure. The A300K was chosen because of its unique ability to do the work of forty-foot buses for nearly all operations in the smaller envelope and with the smaller engine of a midi bus.
FirstTransit took delivery of 12 A300Ls and 4 AG300s in early 2009, for use on the University of Minnesota Campus Connector.
Baltimore, Maryland‘s Charm City Circulator have recently ordered and since put 5 A300Ls into service early 2011. The A300L was a supplement order to their already existing but rehabbing Designline buses.
Van Hool A300L
TD925 Astromega double-deck touring motorcoach
The TD925 Astromega is a closed-top US-spec double decker motorcoach that is a variant of the TD925 Astromega coach available in Europe.
A Van Hool TD925 bus in New York City
A Van Hool C2045-L in New York
- A308 midibus, full low floor, with side-mounted engine. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
- A309 midibus, low entry (low floor up to the second door). Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
- A320 standard bus (out of production)
- A300 standard bus, full low floor, with side-mounted engine. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
- A300 CNG standard bus
- A360 standard bus, low entry. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
- A330 standard bus, full low floor, engine placed horizontally in the back. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
- A330 CNG standard bus
- AG300 articulated bus, also available as diesel-electric hybrid
- AGG300 bi-articulated bus
- A330T trolleybus
- AG300T articulated trolleybus
- AG300 CNG articulated bus
- ExquiCity 18 articulated BRT bus (diesel electric hybrid, trolley, fuel cell or electric)
- ExquiCity 24 bi-articulated BRT bus (diesel electric hybrid, trolley, fuel cell or electric)
- A308E Electric bus
- North America
- newA300K 30 ft bus, shortened A300L
- newA300L 40 ft full low floor bus, side-mounted midship engine
- newA330 40 ft full low floor bus, side-mounted rear engine
- newAG300 60 ft articulated full low floor bus, side-mounted midship engine
- T915 Atlon
Van Hool T916 Atlon
- T916 Atlon
- TX11 Alicron
Van Hool TX15 Acron
- TX15 Alicron
- TX16 Alicron
- TX15 Acron
2014 Van Hool TX 17 Acron © bertiewillemsen
- TX16 Acron
- TX17 Acron
- TX18 Acron
van-hool-tx16astron TX16 Astron
- TX17 Astron
Van Hool TX17 Astronef
- TX15 Astronef
Van Hool TX 16 Astronef TX16 Astronef
- TX17 Astronef
- TX17 Altano
Van Hool TX18 Altano TX18 Altano
- TX19 Altano
- TDX20 Altano
- TDX21 Altano
Van Hool TDXAltanoScania01a
- TDX25 Astromega
- EX15H (Available 2015)
2015-van-hool-ex-16m EX16M (Available 2015)
- EX17H (Available 2015)
- North America
Van Hool TD 925 Astromega TD925 Astromega USA
Van Hool-bus van de NMVB in Brussel in de jaren tachtig.
Van Hool AGG300 van voormalig GVU Utrecht.
Van Hool-bus van TEC.
Van Hool-trolleybus in Gent.
Van Hool A330FC waterstofbus in Connexxion-uitvoering.
Een Van Hool T915 Alicron van Beuk.
Van Hool Vliegtuig Bussen
1999 Volvo Vanhool Astrabel tri-axle coach
2000 Van Hool 872 Riga
2000 Van Hool T9450-283
2000 Van-Hool-Bus in München
2001 Van Hool bkv-lov868-mt
2001 Van Hool C2045-L
2003-van-hool-c2000-capital-trailways-of-alabama © Robert Redden