BÜSSING Trucks

Büssing Logo Chrome Gold Blew

BÜSSING Trucks Germany

I first made a two blogs about Büssing Buses. See the next links:

https://myntransportblog.com/2013/10/31/buses-bussing-germany-i/

https://myntransportblog.com/2013/10/31/buses-bussing-germany-ii/

Büssing AG was a German bus and truck manufacturer, established in 1903 by Heinrich Büssing (1843–1929) in Braunschweig. It quickly evolved to one of the largest European producers, whose utility vehicles with the Brunswick Lion emblem were widely distributed, especially from the 1930s onwards. The company was taken over by MAN AG in 1971.

Heinrich Büssing

1903 Büssing ZU-550, Bj. 19031903 MHV_Büssing_ZU-550_01

 1903 Büssing ZU-550 truck on display in the Deutsches Museum, Munich

At the age of 60, the inventor and businessman Heinrich Büssing together with his two sons founded the Heinrich-Büssing-Spezialfabrik für Motorwagen und Motoromnibusse. Büssing, the son of a blacksmith dynasty at Nordsteimke (in present-day Wolfsburg), had studied engineering at the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig and had founded several bicycle, engineering and railway signal works with varying degress of success. His first truck was a 2-ton payload machine powered by a 2-cylinder gasoline engine and featuringworm drive. That successful design was later built under license by other companies in Germany, Austria, Hungary and by Straker-Squire in England.

One year later he debuted a first 20 HP omnibus model carrying up to twelve passengers on the route from Braunschweig to Wendeburg, operated by his own Automobil-Omnibus-Betriebs-Gesellschaft. Büssing busses soon served public transport in European cities like Berlin (ABOAG), Vienna and Prague (Fross–Büssing), or London.

History

Before World War I Büssing started to build heavy-duty trucks for the time. These trucks featured 4- and 6-cylinder engines (5 tonnes and 11 tonnes, respectively). In 1914 the Büssing A5P armored car was developed at the behest of the German Oberste Heeresleitung. After the war, Heinrich Büssing had to enter a Kommanditgesellschaft limited partnership, converted into the Büssing AG joint-stock company in 1922. In 1923, Büssing introduced the first rigid three-axle chassis which was used in upcoming models and allowed Büssing to lead the market share in Germany in commercial vehicles.

Büssing Ludewig Kiepe O-Bus

 Büssing trolleybus preserved at the Frankfurt-am-Main Transport Museum.

Büssing NAG used inmates of several Nazi concentration camps in Braunschweig from 1944 to March 1945 for slave labor. These camps were subcamps to the Neuengamme concentration camp.

After World War II civilian production resumed with 5-tonne and later 7-tonne trucks. In 1950, the company name became Büssing Nutzkraftwagen GmbH and production was concentrated on underfloor-engined trucks which were to become the firm’s speciality. Most tractor units and all normal-control trucks had vertical engines, but in the mid 1960s there was a version of their Commodore maximum-weight tractor unit, the 16-210, which had a horizontal diesel mounted under the cab ahead of the front axle, the gearbox being mounted halfway along the truck’s chassis.

In 1969, Büssing started strong ties with MAN AG. MAN was a customer to some Büssing’s innovative trucks and parts while they were promoting their own line-up. In 1971, an MAN takeover of Büssing was announced. MAN started to use the lion logo on its newly named “MAN-Büssing” trucks. Büssing’s unique underfloor-engined truck range continued in production under the MAN AG through to the late 1980s.

Acquisitions

  • First acquisition for Büssing was Mannesmann-Mulag Motoren und Lastwagen AG of Aachen.
  • Elbing plant of Automobil Fabrik Kornnick AG.
  • In 1934, Neue Automobil Gesellschaft (NAG). After the takeover Büssing used the brand Büssing-NAG until 1950.
  • Büssing took over the Borgward plant at Osterholz-Scharmbeck in 1962. This plant used for building military 4-tonne 4×4. (1968 Factory was sold to Faun-Werke GmbH)

Innovations

  • 1923: The Büssing III GL 6 is the world’s first full-size bus
  • 1930s: Büssing began building heavy duty trucks with diesel engines
  • 1936: Büssing pioneered the horizontal “underfloor” diesel engines
  • During World War II Büssing once again supplied military vehicles including 6×4 armoured cars and an 8×8 with all-wheel steering.

Trolleybus production

Büssing manufactured trolleybuses between 1933 and 1966, producing approximately 71 models. Most were for German cities, but production also included three trolleybuses for Chernyakhovsk, Russia, in 1939; four for Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1940–42; and 14 for Lucerne, Switzerland, in 1965. In Turkey, ESHOT converted 21 Büssing motorbuses into trolleybuses in 1962 and 1968 (these are not counted in the total of 71 given above). At least four Büssing trolleybuses have been preserved, including ones at the Frankfurt Transport Museum,DE at the Hannoversches Straßenbahn-Museum and at the Historama transport museum in Ferlach, Austria.

  1. Jump up^ The main camp Büssing and Schilldenkmal is listed as No. 165 Braunschweig in the official German list (German)
  2. Jump up^ Eckermann, Erik (2001). World History of the Automobile. SAE International. p. 127. ISBN 9780768008005. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Murray, Alan (2000). World Trolleybus Encyclopaedia, p. 103. Yateley, Hampshire, UK: Trolleybooks. ISBN 0-904235-18-1.

1903 Büssing LKW 1903 Büssing truck 1-5th size model, Braunschweig, wood and iron 1903 Büssing ZU-550, Bj. 1903 1903 MHV_Büssing_ZU-550_01 1904 Büssing 1 Omnibus 1904 Büssing Linienbusses von 1904 1905 Büssing 1912 Büssing IV 1914 Büssing double-deck 1916 bussing beers ad 1917 Büssing artillery tractor, 4x4 1918 Büssing 2V 1922 Büssing busserie2 Büssing, Braunschweig(D) (via A. Beers, 's-Gravenhage) - Lange & Gützeit 1922 Büssing Sauggaswage 1922 Büssing, Braunschweig(D) (via A. Beers, 's-Gravenhage) - Lange & Gützeit, Berlijn(D) 1924 Büssing B-7571 Joure 1925 Büssing NAG-ABOAG(NAG) 1925 Büssing omnibus Baydekarte 1926 Büssing bus ReichsPost 1927 Büssing D 3 Büssing 1927 Büssing Double-Deck 1927 Büssing Krupp bus 20 Berlin

Die Eröffnung der Internationalen Automobilausstellung in den Ausstellungshallen am Kaiserdamm in Berlin! Blick auf den Büssing-Stand mit Chassis für Lastkraft.
Die Eröffnung der Internationalen Automobilausstellung in den Ausstellungshallen am Kaiserdamm in Berlin! Blick auf den Büssing-Stand mit Chassis für Lastkraft.

1928 Büssing Hochsitz Ausflugwagen Büssing 1928 Büssing III GL Aufbau Rembrandt Delmenhorst Z 1931 Büssing-NAG 3GL6, 6x6 1932 Büssing - NAG tipo 300 1932 Büssing ili krupp bus Berlin Z 1932 Büssing-NAG G31, 6x6 1932 Büssings offroad truck Dreiachs-Querfeldein-Lastkraftwagen 1932 Lastkraftwagen_mit_Hochkipper 1933 Büssing Bus 1934 Büssing D 2 Büssing 1934 Büssing-NAG80N-Langer Sachse 1935 Büssing D 3 Büssing 1935 Büssing NAG Aerodynamisch 1935 Büssing, Nag. 3080 cc, 65 horsepower Madrid 1935 Büssing–NAG Bi-motor concept art 1935 Büssing-Nag Burglöwe spanje 1936 Büssing Nag bus 1936 büssing-Baydekarte 1936 Büssing-NAG BN L7 (Sd.Kfz.6) 1937 Büssing-NAG Tipo 400T 1937 Büssing-NAG tipo 650T 1938 Büssing ili krupp bus 1938 Büssing NAG 900 N 1938 Büssing NAG 900N mit WUMAG Karosserie 1938 Büssing NAG 1938 Büssing polizeibus 1938 büssing-d38-07 1938 Büssing-NAG model bus 1938 Büssing-NAG 1938 Büssing-NAG 500 LD6-DAB mit Anhänger Nr. A abbusanhnger1950 1939 büssing EDO X 1939 Büssing Nag D 1939 Büssing NAG E3 (BVG6), 6-cyl 1939 Büssing omnibus Baydekarte 1940 Büssing NAG 305TV - Verheul, Waddinxveen 1941 Büssing Nag Omnibus Burglöwe 1941 Büssing-NAG 4500S 1941 Büssing-NAG BN9 recovery vehicle 1943 Büssing-NAG SWS heavy tractor 1944 Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-315-1117-18,_Italien,_LKW_auf_überfluteter_Landstraße 1945 Büssing-Bus 1948 bussing 18 1948 Büssing-NAG 5000 S (1948) 1948 Büssing-NAG 5000 S Pritschenlastzug 1948 Büssing-NAG, do tipo 500T 1949 bussing 04 1949 Büssing NAG 5000 TU 1949 Büssing Nag E3 omnibus Dresden Baydekarte 1949 Büssing Oranje Wit 1949 Büssing 1949 Büssing-5000TU-Reisebus-weiss-rot-Str-weiss 1950 bussing 16 1950 Büssing Ackermann Fahrzeugbau 1950 Büssing NAG Typ 5000 S Diesel Deutsche-Bundespost 1950-54 Büssing 8000 Lastwagen 1950's Büssing 4000 T Omnibus der 50er Jahre 1950's Büssing Omnibus in Originallackierung der Braunschweigischen Verkehrsbetriebe in den 50er Jahren

1951 Büssing 5000 tu België 1951 Büssing 5000 TU D 1951 Büssing D2U 64 Doppeldecker 1952 Büssing 5500 Kamphuis Barneveld SB-32-34 a 1952 Büssing 5500 Kamphuis Barneveld SB-32-34 1952 Büssing 12000 T 1952 Büssing anderthalb 1952 Büssing bus voor de EBAD 1952 Büssing truck 12000 1952 Büssing U12000 1952 Büssing voor de LTM 1953 Büssing 6000 A Zugmaschine 1953 Büssing 8000 Doppelkabine, 132 kW (180 PS) vmax 65 km 1953 Büssing 12000 Spielvogel 1 1953 Büssing 12000 Spielvogel 3 1953 Büssing 12000 Spielvogel 7 1954 Büssing 7500 S Kipper-Lastzug 1954 Büssing Nag 6500T 1955 Büssing 5000 TU Nr. 51 am Brückenkopf, Juli 1955 1955 Büssing Emmelmann 4500T 5391cc 6cyl 1955 Büssing-Bus mit dem Kennzeichen OS T H 1955 Büssing-Gelenkbusse mit zweiachsigem Nachläufer 1955 Maurits Express 11 Büssing 4500T 1955-63 Büssing Commodore U – 192 PS 1956 Büssing 4500T Edesche Carr gebr v Eerten bus-14 1956 BÜSSING carrossé par BELLE-CLOT de Grenoble 1956 BUSSING RAGHENO 6500T 1956 Büssing voor Ebatours 1957 Büssing LS 11 Koffer-Lkw (geschlossener Aufbau) 1957 Büssing LU 11-16 Pritschenlastzug 1957 Büssing superbe 0757 1958 Büssing Emmelmann 4500T 1958-1972 Bussing TU11 Macchi 1958 .entro il 1972 stefer b e bussing 6010 1959 Büssing LS 77, 7 Tonnen Nutzlast, 12 Tonnen Gesamtgewicht, 106 kW (145 PS), vmax 87 km 1959 Bussing Type. LU 11 1959 Büssing 1960 Büssing truck pic1 1960 Büssing truck pic2 1960 Büssing truck pic7 1960-63 Büssing TU5N carr. Van Rooijen, Montfoort TB-79-73 1961 Büssing Burglöwe U Pritschenkipper 1961 Büssing LU 5-10 Burglöwe Pullmann-Möbelwagen 1961 Büssing LU11 Commodore 1961 Büssing R'dams Tanktransport Deventer 1961-03-08 1961 büssing-busse-tu-7-02b-0161 1962 Bussing Commodore 20 1962 Büssing Commodore S Pritschen-Lkw 1962 BUSSING hs 1962 Büssing LS5-10 Burglöwe 115 PS 1963 Büssing DF 63 Orenstein & Koppel 1963 Büssing KMS 12 Krauss-Maffei 1963 Büssing LU 11-16 Pritschen-Lkw 1963 Büssing-Möbeltransporter mit Unterflurmotor, Ackermann-Aufbau

hp photosmart 720
hp photosmart 720

1964 Büssing Amazone 14RU1- Präsident+v Rooyen 1964 Büssing BS110V-Linienbus-ZWS-Info-Mobil-weiss 1964 büssing busse-oldtimer 1964 Büssing Commodore SAK Pritschenkipper 1964 Büssing E2U 64 1964 Büssing Präfekt Linienbus Wuppertaler Stadtwerke WSW 1964 Büssing Senator 13D von 1964 1964 Büssing-BS110V-Linienbus-ZWS-Info-Mobil-weiss 1964 Büssing-busse-oldtimer-02b 1965 Büssing 1152 1965 Büssing Commodore U, Motor U 11-200, 161 kW (220 PS), Hubraum 11774 ccm, 8400 kg Nutzlast, Gesamtgewicht 16000 kg 1965 Büssing DE65 mit der Wagen-Nr. 1662 auf der Linie 97 1965 Büssing LT 11 (Staubsauger), 93 kW (125 PS), vmax 75 km-h 1965 Büssing Trambusse 1965 Büssing truck 11 LT 135hp 75 km-u 6.4 metric tons 1965 Bussing 1965 Büssing-Anderthalbdecker von 1965 aus Braunschweig in restauriertem Zustand 2015 (ältester original erhaltener 1½-Decker Deutschlands) 1965 Büssing-Ludewig Senator Verbund Eineinhalbdecker Stadtwerke Braunschweig 1966 Büssing Aosa Grens 1966 Büssing BS 15 AK Allrad-Pritschenkipper 1966 Büssing Konsul 11 1966 Büssing Präfekt 15 U 11 Emmelmann 1966 Büssing-Emmelmann 14 RU 11 D Gelenkbus Stadtwerke Münster SWM

Zentralbild/Link 10.6.1967 Westdeutscher Grenzkontrollpunkt Helmstedt.
Zentralbild/Link 10.6.1967
Westdeutscher Grenzkontrollpunkt Helmstedt.

1967 Büssing BS 16 L Koffer-Lkw 1967 Büssing BS 16 1967 Büssing Burglöwe LS 7 Pritschen-Lkw 1967 Büssing Commodore U 11 D, 210 PS Büssing & Sohn Fahrerhaus 1967 Büssing DD BS110 EC 1967 Büssing Präfekt Linienbus Wuppertaler Stadtwerke WSW 1968 Büssing BS 16 L Pritschenlastzug 1968 Büssing BS 110 V Linienbus (Ausstellungswagen) 1968 Büssing Prefekt 1969 Büssing BS 20 S 2 Sattelschlepper 1969 Büssing BS 100 GT 1969 BUSSING VS 110 V 1970 BüSSING 2a Globus Reisen Bonn 1970 Büssing B 12 1970 Büssing BS 16 1970 Büssing BS 110 V 1970 Büssing BS13 FSA 135 PS 1970 Büssing truck 1970 Büssing-Emmelmann BSE 120 GT Reisebus (Wohnmobil) 1971 Büssing BS 16 L 1971 Büssing BS 20 Silosattel 1971 Büssing BS12L RL43, Dutch licence registration BE-47-26 pic1 1972 Büssing BS 16 L Wechselbrücke 1972 Büssing BS 110 V für Berlin 1972 Büssing Doppelstöcker-Oldtimer Büssing 1973 Büssing DE 72, BVG B-Z 2437H, Berlin Philharmonie 1974 Büssing 16.240 1980 MAN-Büssing 22.320 1981 MAN 22.321 UNL, Büssing, 236 kW (320 PS)

1982 WBX-MAN a Sharjah-UAE arev Büssing MAN -Avtomontaza Bus Büssing - panoramio Bussing (2) Bussing ++ bussing 01 bussing 02 Büssing 2 sst Bussing 2 bussing 03 Bussing 3 BUSSING 4 (2) BUSSING 4 (3) Bussing 4 bussing 05 bussing 06 BÜSSING 6cyl diesel U11 200ps Büssing 6cyl RSK G 59003 bussing 07 bussing 08 bussing 09 Büssing 9F96 in Suriname bussing 10 bussing 11 büssing 11r-u7-01 büssing 11r-u7-02 bussing 12 bussing 13 bussing 14 bussing 15 bussing 17 bussing 19 bussing 20 Bussing 21 Bussing 22 Büssing 141 V8 Bouwcenter NL Büssing 291

hp photosmart 720
hp photosmart 720

Büssing 1876 Büssing 2010_09_27_Hannover_172836_(8599735515) Büssing 4000 T Omnibus Wandervogel

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Büssing 4500 Büssing 4500T (bus 14) Scheveningen Büssing 6000 Pritschen-Lkw büssing 6000 Büssing 7500 S Büssing 8000 hellgrün Büssing 8000 mit Schwalbennest Büssing 8000 Möbeltransporter Büssing 8000 Möbelwagen Büssing 8000 Pritschenkipper Büssing 8000 Pritschen-Lkw Büssing 8000 S 13 Büssing 8000 S Pritschen-Lkw Büssing 8572 büssing 57805 Büssing Amazone 14RU1- Präsident+v Rooyen, bjr 1964 Bussing antiek nl Büssing autobus Koenigsberg Büssing B ZU 629H Büssing B&N BB 43 23 Büssing b Büssing Bahnbus Büssing berliner-verkehrsbetriebe-bvg-2219 Büssing Bouwcenter EB Büssing Bouwcenter NL

NCA001000445_003, 15-08-2007, 13:55, 8C, 7926x6322 (0+3), 100%, NCAD, 1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9
NCA001000445_003, 15-08-2007, 13:55, 8C, 7926×6322 (0+3), 100%, NCAD, 1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9

BÜSSING Brouwerij Bodenstein Büssing BS 16 L Pritschenlastzug Büssing BS 16 L Pritschen-Lkw Büssing BS 100 GT 1969 Büssing BS 110 V 1970 Büssing BS 110 V Linienbus (Informations-Bus) Büssing bs-100-gt-06 Büssing bs-110-v-01 Büssing BS120v-n Büssing Burglöwe U Pritschenkipper a Büssing Bus 33 Büssing Bus 80 fährt nach Neuenkirchen Büssing Bus als Linie 13E in Tegel Büssing Bus als Linie Büssing Bus aus Hamburg Büssing Bus in Alt-Heiligensee, 14. 9. 2008 Büssing Bus Nr. 43 (Typ 6000T) mit Elzer Aufbau BÜSSING Bus OS Büssing bus ReichsPost Büssing Bus vor der Abfahrt nach Schildow büssing bus-100-gt-06 büssing bus-110-v-01 büssing busse-4000-t-02b-0070 büssing busse-4500-t-02b-200020 Büssing bussen die terzijde stonden waren de BT-11 en de BT-12 büssing busse-oldtimer-02b-0078 büssing busse-oldtimer-02b-100010 büssing busse-praefekt-13-02b-200035 büssing busse-praefekt-13-02b-200036 Büssing busse-tu-7-02b-0161 Büssing Bzs als Linie BÜSSING carrossé par BELLE-CLOT de Grenoble (1956)

Büssing Commodore LU 11-16 (9933023124) H.S. Frederiks BV

hp photosmart 720
hp photosmart 720

Büssing Commodore U büssing commodore-03 büssing commodore-05 büssing commodore-09 Büssing D2 büssing d2-01 büssing d2u-05 Büssing DD BS110 EC1967

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Büssing Det... Fotograf Henriksen Büssing Doppeldeckerbus Büssing Doppelstockbus Berlin Büssing Doppelstockbus Nr. 601 Büssing Durst Malz Büssing E2U 64

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

büssing e2u-s-präsident-05 Büssing Eindecker der HHA (Hamburg) Büssing Eindecker und ein Mercedes-Eindecker auf dem Dorffest in Heiligensee Büssing Emmelmann 14 RU 11 D, Wagen 311 der Stadtwerke Münster Büssing Emmelmann 4500T Büssing Emmelmann 6500T Emmelmann Reise Aufbau 1956 BÜSSING Emmelmann Gelenkzug Präsident Verbund aug 1963 Büssing Emmelmann President Verbund Gelenkwagen Büssing Emmelmann-Busse 6500 T Büssing Gaubschat DE72 4TP Büssing gebr v d veen Büssing Gebr. Kamphuis Barneveld Büssing gebr. v d Bos Naaldwijk Holland Büssing Geel-Grijs Classic_car_show_Waalwijk_2013_(unedited)_(9497633374) Bussing h Büssing Hansa Leeuwarden Büssing ili krupp bus Büssing im Bild Büssing Joh Kreyger Büssing Jonckheere AB-14-88 NL BAK Büssing Karl Schaftt Büssing Kipper BS A 4500H Büssing Kipper in actie Büssing Konsul AUCOOP büssing konsul-11dx-01 Büssing Krupp-Man Bus Bussing Laborieux bac a sable1 BÜSSING lastwagens büssing ld5-01 büssing ld5-06 BÜSSING LKW Auto Union Renndienst Büssing Logo Chrome Gold Blew Büssing LS 11 FK Pritschenkipper Büssing LT 11

Internationale Automobilausstellung für Nutzfahrzeuge, Hannover 2004 Büssing 22-150 Decklaster, Baujahr 1965, 110 kW (150 PS), vmax 80km/h, Länge 10,32 m, Gewicht 7300 kg
Internationale Automobilausstellung für Nutzfahrzeuge, Hannover 2004
Büssing 22-150 Decklaster, Baujahr 1965, 110 kW (150 PS), vmax 80km/h, Länge 10,32 m, Gewicht 7300 kg

büssing lu-11-16-commodore-09 Büssing Ludewig Kiepe O-Bus Bussing MAN met koeloplegger uit Griekenland Büssing Marbe Gelco Bussing met DAF aanhanger Büssing Milchtanker Süss Erben Bussing Möbelwagen Büssing NAG 6 zyl diesel Büssing NAG 500T Büssing NAG bus Vierkanter Büssing NAG bus Büssing NAG fiatvin Büssing nag WH omnibus Baydeww2 Büssing NAG, 4 x 2 Büssing NAG-Zug des VEB Kraftverkehr Karl-Marx-Stadt Büssing Omnibus in Originallackierung der Braunschweigischen Büssing Omnibus, Frankfurt Büssing Präfekt 13 (3) Büssing Präfekt 13 Büssing Präfekt 13D Dieser Bus Büssing Präfekt 15 U 11 Emmelmann 1966 Büssing Präsident 14 Büssing Präsident Buch Büssing Racing Car Transporter (Healey) Shot at the Silverstone Classic Büssing Reisebuch BÜSSING Reisebusse Ad Büssing Rheinbahn Museumswagen 8927 Bussing RTT nl Büssing Senator 15 Büssing Senator Bus in Hagen 2007 BÜSSING Senator Stadtbusse Büssing Senator Verbund-Aero 1 1-2 Deck büssing senator-02 büssing senator-04 büssing senator-10 Büssing Stadtbus Münster Büssing SU Büssing Supercargo SAK mit Kranaufbau Büssing Taufrisch Büssing Tractor Büssing Trambus typ 6500 T + Emmelmann aufbau Büssing Trambusses 6000 T mit Unterflurdieselmotor in Mainz Büssing Trambusses 6000 T Büssing Trolleybus Osnabruck D Büssing TU 4500 Emmelman BY-31 BÜSSING TU5 Büssing TU5N (busnummer 24) Büssing TU5N büssing tu-7-04 büssing tu-10-02 büssing tu-10-12 BÜSSING Typenblatt VT 16L Bussing VTT Büssing Wandervogel Büssing Wandt Braunschweig 6,3T Büssing Wehrmacht Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-315-1117-18, Italien, LKW auf überfluteter Landstraße Büssing Zeemos Yerseke Büssing-Bus in Alt-Heiligensee, 14. 9. 2008 BÜSSING-Bus OS Büssing-Emmelmann-Reisebus büssing-ls-02 büssing-ls-03 Büssings in Berkel Büssings von hinten Büssings x zwei Büssings Fotothek_df_ps_0000918_Erster_Mai_^_Losungen_-_Mottos_^_Fahnen_^_Fahnenmasten_^ Fotothek_df_ps_0000924_Erster_Mai_^_Fahnen_^_Fahnenmasten_^_Demonstrationen Fotothek_df_roe-neg_0006347_035_Begleitung_der_Elefantenkuh_auf_dem_Weg_in_den_Z Krupp Büssing Bus Berlin Krupp ili Büssingbus 20 Berlin Lastkraftwagen_fur_Langholztransport MAN Büssing F ES Man Büssing MAN-Büssing Lkw noch mit Büssing-Fahrerhaus rdeormsbdabh

This was all I could find on the WWW. With thanks to people like Piet Pietjouw, H Berg, O Nordsieck, Len Rogers, Ger, S Jensen, J Thiele and many others like you tube for their wonderful pictures/film i used to get a so broad possible view on Büssing. 

NCA001000445_003, 15-08-2007, 13:55, 8C, 7926x6322 (0+3), 100%, NCAD, 1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9

 

YOUNGMAN Buses, Cars and Trucks China

Youngman

China Youngman Automobile Group Co., Ltd.
(trading as Youngman)

 
Industry Automotive
Founded 2001
Founders Pang Qingnian
Headquarters Jinhua, Zhejiang, China
Products Automobiles, buses and trucks
Employees Approx 4,000
Subsidiaries Spyker N.V.(29.9%)
Website Youngman

Youngman (officially China Youngman Automobile Group Co., Ltd.) (Chinese: 青年汽车集团) is a Chinese manufacturer of automobiles, buses and trucks located in Jinhua, Zhejiang province. The company was founded in 2001 by Pang Qingnian.

Name

“Youngman” is an English literalization of the name of the company’s founder, Pang Qingnian.

History

The Samand car from Iran Khodro

The Samand car from Iran Khodro.
2011 Youngman Lotus L5.

A 2011 Youngman Lotus L5.

Youngman was founded in 2001 by Pang Qingnian. In the early-2000s the company formed joint ventures with two German companies – a bus manufacturing venture with Neoplan (at the time known as Gottlob Auwärter GmbH & Co. KG) and a truck manufacturing venture with MAN. After increasing of orders, the manufacturer has built plants in the cities of Jinan, Tai’an, Lianyungang, Quzhou and some other places to meet the high number of orders.

In September 2006 Youngman established a joint venture with the Iranian state-owned carmaker Iran Khodro for the manufacture of Iran Khodro’s Samand and Soren models at Youngman’s Tai’an plant, with parts supplied by PSA Peugeot Citroën.

In November 2006, Youngman became the official Chinese importer for the British sports car maker Lotus Cars. In another joint-venture with the Lotus Group which was closed in December 2008, Youngman is assembling Lotus and Europestar branded cars in Guangdong for the Domestic Chinese and export market. The units receive a Chinese independent brand to differentiate itself from the British sports car models. With the Lotus joint venture, Youngman is engaged in secondary activities as the exclusive importer of American automotive brand ZAP!. Both brands had its China debut at the Beijing International Auto Show in 2009.

In 2007, Youngman acquired the American electric car maker Detroit Electric, with the intention of manufacturing vehicles for the North American market. In May 2008 it was reported that Youngman had signed two major agreements with the Malaysian carmaker Proton. The first was for the import of 30,000 Proton Gen-2 models from Malaysia to China over two years, to be sold under the EuropeStar marque as the RCR. The second was a licensing deal for Proton’s Lotus-designed Campro engine, whereby Proton would sell 150,000 complete knock down units to Youngman over the subsequent six years.

In June 2010 Youngman announced that it would be making an investment of CNY 4 billion in the construction of new manufacturing facilities in Haining, Zhejiang Province, for the production of passenger cars, alternative energy powertrain systems, vehicle bridges, transmissions and inner and exterior auto components.

Saab

On 28 October 2011 it was reported that Youngman and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co had agreed a joint 100-millionEuro (USD140 million) takeover of the Swedish carmaker Saab Automobile and its United Kingdom dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

Both Chinese companies pledged to invest 610 million euros ($844 million), prompting a court to extend the manufacturer’s protection against creditors.

In December 2011 General Motors (GM) blocked the Chinese buy out, since GM has technology licenses in SAAB.

Saab’s restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on 7 November 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month. On 19 December 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

On 6 March 2012 an Indian news paper reported that at least two companies have placed bids for complete SAAB Automobile buy out. These are India‘s Mahindra and Mahindra and China‘s Youngman. It is reported that these bids are in the range $300 million to $400 million.

On 13 June 2012 it was announced that the National Electric Vehicle Sweden had bought Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy estate.

Spyker joint ventures

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Dutch luxury sportscar maker Spyker N.V. for €6.7 million, and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P joint venture will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker respectively. The Spyker Phoenix joint venture will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab’s Phoenix platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker respectively.

Products

Youngman sells passenger cars in China under the Youngman-Lotus marque. Current products include the L3 and L5 models, and are engineered with the assistance of the United Kingdom-based Lotus Engineering.

Youngman currently produces coaches and trucks in collaboration with the Germany-based MAN Truck & Bus. Coaches are sold under the Youngman and Neoplan marques.Trucks are sold under the Youngman and MAN marques.

Youngman-Neoplan a

SOLARIS Bus, Tram and Coach SA Bolechowo, Poland

Solaris Bus & Coach

Solaris Bus & Coach SA
Type Public
Industry Automotive industry
Founded 2001
Headquarters Bolechowo, Poland
Area served Worldwide
Key people Solange Olszewska, Krzysztof Olszewski
Products Buses
Revenue Increase 292.2 million
Operating income Increase 20.6 million
Profit Increase 13.5 million
Total assets Increase 126.1 million
Total equity Increase 87.6 million
Employees 1562
Website www.solarisbus.com

Solaris Bus & Coach SA is a bus, coach, trolleybus and tram manufacturer based in Bolechowo near Poznań, Poland.

It is a family-owned business, with Krzysztof Olszewski as co-owner and his wife Solange as CEO. It is located in a former weapons factory, and was featured by BBC World in a program related to EU expansion in May 2004, as an example of a post-communist success in Poland.

History

Solaris started as Neoplan Polska, founded in 1994 by Krzysztof Olszewski. Neoplan Polska was selling, and since January 1996 also building under German licence, low-floor Neoplan city buses. In 1999 it released first buses under its own Solaris brand (model Urbino). On 1 September 2001 Neoplan Polska was renamed to Solaris Bus & Coach Sp. z o.o. In 2005 it was transformed into a joint stock company.

In the 1990s, the company developed its own research office and used computer software originally developed for the design of space shuttles. It reduced the time needed to design and build new prototypes to about six months. Another six months are needed to build a new bus prototype.

Trolleybuses are made in co-operation with the Hungarian company Ganz Electro or (the Czech division of) the company Cegelec and Polish company Medcom. Both companies make the electric devices for the vehicles. Solaris produced the first European bus model using hybrid technology, the Solaris Urbino 18 Hybrid. That hybrid model was delivered in November 2008 to the Polish city of Poznań.

In 2007 Solaris was employing about 1,200 workers, in 2009 about 1,600 workers. Now “Solaris Bus & Coach” builds about 1,000-1,200 buses a year.

In 2013, Solaris sold 1,302 buses and trams.

Products

01 Solaris InterUrbino 12 in Kielce, Poland

 Solaris InterUrbino 12 in Kielce, Poland

Current models

Discontinued models

Gallery

City buses

20 Solaris Urbino 10

Solaris Urbino 10

21 Sol133

Solaris Urbino 12

22 Sol131 23 Sol135 24 Sol136

Solaris Urbino 12

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Solaris Urbino 12 LPG-GPL-CNG

02 Solaris Urbino 12 in Chur, Switzerland

Solaris Urbino 12 in Chur, Switzerland

03 Solaris_Urbino_12_cockpit

Driver’s area of Solaris Urbino 12

04 Solaris_Urbino_12_interior

Interior of Solaris Urbino 12

05 Solaris_Urbino_12_engineEngine of Solaris Urbino 12

05a Solaris Urbino 12 Hybrid in Brno

2010 Solaris Urbino 12 Hybrid in Brno

06 Solaris_Urbino_18_Reutlingen 07 Solaris_Urbino_Warsaw_Airport_2005A Solaris Urbino 18 of RSV (Reutlingen, Germany

Solaris Urbino 10 at Warsaw Okęcie Airport, Poland

Trolleybuses

08 Trådbuss_Landskrona

A Solaris Trollino 12 trolleybus in LandskronaSweden

09 SolarisT18ACInTallinn

Solaris Trollino 18AC inTallinn in Estonia

10 Solaris_Trollino_15AC_in_Vilnius_15.08.20062006 Solaris Trollino 15 in Vilnius in Lithuania

26 Sol199

Solaris Urbino 18

27 Sol211

Solaris Urbino 18 Hybrid II

SONY DSC

Solaris Alpino

29 Sol039

Solaris InterUrbino 12

30 Sol229

Solaris Urbino 18 Hybrid Vossloh Kiepe

11 Salzburg_Solaris_Trollino_18_-Metrostyle-

Solaris Trollino 18 “Metrostyle” in Salzburg

17 Solaris_Tramino,_Poznań_2010_(01)

Solaris Tramino LF 32 in Poznań

18 Solaris_Tramino,_Poznań_2010_(06)

Interior of Solaris Tramino LF 32

19 TRAKO_2013_w_Gdańsku_–_Solaris_Tramino_Jena

Solaris Tramino S109j for Jena, Germany

31 Sol239

Solaris Urbino 18 Hybrid MetroStyle

32 Wikivacanza

Solaris Vacanza 12 pierwszej generacji z 2002 roku w Katowicach jako ruchome centrum krwiodawstwa

34 Sol097

Solaris Trollino 12

35 Sol099

Solaris Trollino 12

36 Sol103

Solaris Trollino 15

37 Sol107

Solaris Trollino 18

38 Sol113

Solaris Trollino 18 MetroStyle

39 Sol075

Solaris Tramino w Poznaniu

40 Sol088

Solaris Tramino

41 Special version of Solaris Vacanza 13 als mobiele bloed donatiemobiel in Grodzisk Mazowiecki Ambulance

Special version of Solaris Vacanza 13 als mobiele bloed donatiemobiel in Grodzisk Mazowiecki Ambulance

11 Salzburg_Solaris_Trollino_18_-Metrostyle-

Intercity buses and coaches

12 Solaris-vacanza-austriaA Solaris Vacanza 13

13 Solaris_Valletta_in_Kielce,_19-09-2007Solaris Valletta in Kielce, Poland, Transexpo 2007

14 Solaris_InterUrbino_12_-_Transexpo_2010Solaris Interurbino 12 at Transexpo 2010

15 Sol055Solaris Interurbino 12 interior

Roma filosnodato (dual-mode trolleybus) built by Solaris Solaris Alpino de Dunois Solaris Urbino 9 bus Solaris Urbino 10 Solaris Urbino 12 Hybrid Solaris Urbino 12 III Solaris Urbino 12 Solaris Urbino 15 LE Solaris Urbino 18 Hybrid (2) Solaris Urbino 18 Hybrid Solaris Urbino 18 SOLARIS von Ground Handling Düsseldorf Nr.11 Solaris-Urbino-18-Gelenkbus-DSW-1141-NRW-Design

© O.Nordsieck

Solaris-Urbino-18-Gelenkbus-KEVAG-329-orange-gelb

 © O.Nordsieck

That’s it

#####

PLAXTON Scarborough England UK

Plaxton

1907 Plaxton model T Charabanc

1907-plaxton-model-t-charabanc

is a builder of bus and coach vehicle bodies based in Scarborough, England. The Plaxton of today is the successor to a business founded in Scarborough in 1907 by Frederick William Plaxton. It became a subsidiary of Alexander Dennis in 2007.

History

Beginnings

The business was founded as a joinery workshop, and expanded into building contracting. As a building contractor, Plaxtons built a number of notable buildings in Scarborough. Soon after World War I Plaxtons diversified and began to build charabanc bodies on Ford Model T chassis. Of more importance at the time was the construction of automobile bodywork. This included bodywork for Rolls-Royce, Sunbeam and Daimler, but principally for Crossley car chassis. This activity continued through the 1920s, but the depression of 1929-1933 created difficulties for manufacture of luxury automobiles. As a result, the manufacture of charabanc, and later coach bodies became more important through the late 1920s and early 1930s. Customers during this time tended to be local to the Scarborough area, Scarborough being a popular seaside resort.

1930. 37 Seater Bus-Coach Type A3

1930-37-seater-bus-coach-type-a3

Coaches of the 1930s

By 1936 the company felt justified in construction of a large new manufacturing facility in Seamer Road, Scarborough. This allowed increased production, and Plaxtons became popular with many independent operators throughout Northern England. Many of these operators purchased their vehicles through independent dealers, rather than directly from the factory. In this regard, Plaxton’s sales were through Lancashire Motor Traders Ltd of Manchester and Arlington Motor Co Ltd of London. The company became known as F.W. Plaxton & Son by 1937, as the founder’s son, also named Frederick William joined the company at the age of 18. FW Plaxton junior was to be known as Eric to avoid confusion with his father.

Plaxton cars

Plaxtons built a number of different coach designs through the 1930s, until settling on a distinctive house style. The style typically consisted of a very rounded front profile at the windscreen area with side windows that sloped backwards at the front, were upright at the centre, and sloped forward at the back. Bodywork for the Bedford WTB chassis was particularly distinctive, sloping severally from the bottom of the front wheel arch to the roofline, leaving the “bullnose” radiator grille protruding. The rear also sloped prominently. The WTB chassis was very popular choice for operators at that time, together with the Dodge RBF and SBF. Leyland and AEC chassis were also popular for larger coaches, notably the Leyland Tiger and AEC Regal.

On the outbreak of World War II in 1939, coach production halted and the factory was turned into a munitions factory under the control of the Ministry of Aircraft Production. Many records from the early years were lost when an incendiary bomb set fire to the Seamer Rd factory in 1943 causing much damage. As the factory was under control of the Ministry of Works, production continued in the open air whilst a replacement was constructed. Some adjacent land was loaned by a market gardener who subsequently joined the board years later.

1946 Leyland Tiger Plaxton body

1946-leyland-tiger-plaxton-body

1950s

Production restarted at the end of 1945, and in 1951 the business was registered for the first time as a private company, Plaxtons (Scarborough) Ltd.

Two new models were exhibited at the 1950 Commercial Motor Show, with names instead of model codes for the first time. The Envoy was for traditional front-engined chassis, and featured a full-front cab with a vee-pattern windscreen, and aluminium trim across the lower part of the radiator grill extending round squared-off front corners to the wheel arches. The Crusader, which could be built on front-engined or the new underfloor-engined chassis, had a more upright front profile, with curved glass panels at the windscreen corners, and in most cases an enlarged side window with sloping pillars between this and the entrance. On front-engined chassis the Crusader employed the Envoy’s front trim. Both Envoy and Crusader were produced to the new maximum dimensions of 30 ft (9.1 m) by 8 ft (2.4 m), and many examples were originally fitted with rear wheel spats.

1948 AEC Regal lll 9621E418 Plaxton ha324z

1948-aec-regal-lll-9621e418-plaxton-ha324z

The Envoy was short-lived, perhaps partly because of the obsolescence of most of the chassis types for which it was intended, while the Crusader was rapidly overtaken by a further new underfloor-engined model – the Venturer. The Venturer combined the front of the Crusader with more restrained and conservative styling, and proved so popular that it wasn’t long before a version was produced for front-engined chassis (mostly lightweight Bedfords and Commers) with a rather more raked frontal appearance. By the time the Mark II version appeared at the 1952 show, the Venturer was Plaxton’s standard model.

1949 Plaxton Sentinel-2

1949-plaxton-sentinel-2

The Venturer II had a common front profile for all models, together with a standard dash panel featuring a four-part radiator grille with a central cross within an oval outline which also embraced the headlamps. A rear-end revision marked the launch of the Venturer III in 1954, and the following year a version was produced for underfloor-engined chassis with the entrance ahead of the front axle. This required a return to a more vertical front profile, and meant that there were now three variants of the Venturer – front engined, underfloor-engined with a centre entrance and underfloor-engined with a front entrance. This three-variant approach, established with the Venturer, continued throughout the life of the succeeding Consort model and into the Embassy era, although the relative importance of the three versions varied significantly over the years.

1950 Bedford OB ETL221, Plaxton 29 seater coach with 28HP petrol engine

1950-bedford-ob-etl221-plaxton-29-seater-coach-with-28hp-petrol-engine

The Consort was first shown at the 1956 Commercial Motor Show. It was a development of the Venturer, but in place of the previous oval the four-part grill was now enclosed by a near-trapezoidal outline (though actually hexagonal), wider at the top than the bottom, with the headlamps outside. Trim was revised to be much squarer in outline, featuring ribbed brightwork, and the curved rear quarter lights, first standardised on the Venturer III, were now incorporated into the main window line. However, a year later the Consort II was announced, re-introducing the oval grill outline of the Venturer – but now surrounding a plainer grill with chrome flash across the middle – while the trim lines so recently squared up were softened once again. The evident popularity of the oval- shaped grill then ensured its survival as a Plaxton hallmark for many years to come.

1952 Bussen Commer Avenger built in 1952 with Plaxton Envoy bodywork

1952-bussen-commer-avenger-with-plaxton-envoy-bodywork

In 1957 the founder of the company, F.W. Plaxton Senior, died, and was succeeded as Chairman by his son Frederick Jnr, though known as Eric.

In 1958 Plaxtons were approached by Sheffield United Tours (SUT) with a requirement for a new crisper design of coach body. The result was the first Panorama body. The main feature of the Panorama design was the large, fixed rectangular side windows. A vertical front from the contemporary Consort II design was used, with the door ahead of the front axle. The 1958 Panorama was entered into the British and the Nice coach rallies, winning top awards at both events. The first six Panoramas, designated “Panorama Pioneer” by SUT, were built on AEC Reliance chassis and seated 36 passengers.

1956 plaxton consort bus brochure Bedford

1956-plaxton-consort-bus-brochure-bedford

The production version of the Panorama, with 41 seats as standard, was introduced at the 1958 Commercial Motor Show, as an addition to the existing range, available in one form only – on underfloor-engined chassis with the entrance ahead of the front axle. In common with the new Consort III and IV, it had a new silver-effect dished oval grill with a chrome flash through the middle, and a curved windscreen with a central division. The original Panorama’s short window immediately behind the entrance door was removed and encapsulated into the first bay, and the difference in level between the waistline and the rear window was accommodated by a stylish “kick-up” at the rear. The design then received minor modifications over the next two years.

1957 AEC Reliance Plaxton Consort C41C bodied

1957-aec-reliance-plaxton-consort-c41c-bodied

Consort IV variants with the entrance further back, together with the smaller Consort III, were able to use a windscreen with even greater curvature, but it was the Panorama which was the trend-setter, becoming a strong influence on the development of British coach styling for years to come.

1960s and 1970s

Plaxton became a public company in January 1961.

For the 1961 coaching season the Consort IV evolved into the Embassy, the main change being that the windows now tapered inwards towards the roof rather than being vertical. At the same time a new version of the Panorama was created, using the same shell as the Embassy but with fewer window pillars.

The new Panorama boasted a completely new front, featuring a slight peak overhang above the windscreen (which was now optionally undivided), a small grill at the bottom of the front panel, and for the first time double headlights. Embassy bodies on underfloor-engined chassis shared some or all of these features, depending on the entrance position. However, because the standard offering in the underfloor-engined sector was now the Panorama, most Embassy bodies were built on lightweight front-engined chassis – particularly the Thames 570E and Bedford SB. In this form, with the entrance behind the front axle, the Embassy retained the dished oval grill and wrap-around windscreen of the Consort IV. The rear of both Panorama and Embassy comprised a two-piece curved glass window that wrapped around to meet the rearmost side pillars, and the lights were contained in a single unit with a fin-like top rather like the rear of the Ford Anglia 105E saloon.

36-foot (11 m) versions of both models were introduced, on Leyland Leopard and AEC Reliance chassis, as soon as legislation allowed, and were 8 feet 2.5 inches (2.502 m) wide. The first 36-foot coach in Britain was a Panorama delivered to SUT in 1961. However, while the extra length gave a real boost to the Panorama’s appearance – with the falling roofline making the vehicle look even longer than it actually was – the extension of the Embassy by two additional window bays was less satisfactory. So much so that when a “multi-windowed” Embassy II, in the livery of Bloomfields Coaches of London, appeared on the newly introduced Bedford VAL 36-foot chassis at the 1962 Commercial Motor Show, the reaction was so negative than no more of this type were built.

Alongside the Bloomfields VAL on the Plaxton stand was a further revised Panorama. This was an altogether much larger looking vehicle than before, with deeper windows all round, the waistline curvature radically reduced to a point where it was almost straight, a new rear window interchangeable with the windscreen, and a reduction in the number of window pillars on 36-foot versions. Because of the adverse reaction to the “multi-windowed” Embassy, from 1963 all 36-foot Plaxton coach bodies used the new Panorama shell, with windows of large size whether fixed or opening, although, as previously, the Panorama name was restricted to underfloor-engined coaches with fixed glazing and entrance ahead of the front axle. Of the non-Panoramas, by far the most popular model was the new production body on the Bedford VAL chassis, which retained the large oval grill because of the front-mounted radiator, and was simply named Val.

The Embassy name was now being used for what were effectively two separate models. For underfloor-engined chassis there was a 36-foot body using the Panorama shell (built mainly for the Wallace Arnold Group), and for 30-foot (9.1 m) and shorter front-engined chassis the original short-windowed body was updated with a pronounced reverse-rake peak over the windscreen as the Embassy II. For the 1964 season the latter was substantially redesigned as the Embassy III, catching up in several respects with the development of the Panorama, but introducing a new near-rectangular grill which signalled the beginning of the end for the familiar Plaxton oval.

02 1970 Dons_Tour_Brochure_photo_1970

1965 Plaxton Panorama on Bedford VAL chassis

The Plaxton coach range which appeared at the 1964 Commercial Motor Show had been extensively revised with assistance from the Ogle design consultancy. Waistrails were virtually straight, and rooflines distinctly shallower. On the new Panorama (later to become Panorama I), a wide chrome trim band wrapped around the front and encompassed the first window bay on either side. The trim then swept upwards to the roof line and neatly terminated on the air scoop at the roof line. The window pillar on the first bay was noticeably thicker than the others and gave the impression of size that managed to enhance the appearance of the whole vehicle. The front grill was revised and basically split in two horizontally. Twin headlights were on each side of a panel that contained ventilation louvres at the top with the lower part being the actual grill that spanned the width of the vehicle. This grill was to become standard with little change until the Supreme IV of 1978. Again a bit of a Plaxton that was instantly recognisable and a familiar sight throughout Britain. The rear featured two large 9″ circular rear lights each side arranged vertically, and the entrance door was now the forward in-swinging type.

For the first time the Panorama was offered on all chassis types, including Ford R226 and Bedford VAL, looking particularly well-suited to the latter, where the chrome trim on the first window bay harmonised with the twin steering axles below. There was even a Panorama for the Bedford SB and Ford Thames 570E, although here the thickened window pillar was absent, and the chrome trim did not extend across the front of the vehicle.

In addition to the Panoramas, a more basic series of models was offered, with windows of similar size, but with simpler trim and top sliding vent windows instead of forced air vents. Initially these were built on Bedford and Ford chassis only and named variously as Val, Vam (on the new Bedford VAM chassis) or Embassy IV. However, when the Panorama was renamed Panorama I for the 1967 season, the less expensive “bread and butter” models became available on all chassis types as the Panorama II. The Panorama I in particular sold extremely well.

03 Mobile_cinema

Plaxton Panorama cab on a Bedford SB3 chassis mobile cinema unit

The Panorama cab was used in 1967 on a government commission of seven Bedford SB3 chassis mobile cinema units. With the height of these units being nearly 13 ft (4.0 m) the roof of the cab opens up into a very unusual looking perspex dome extension, somewhat altering the usual sleek lines of Plaxton’s Panorama. One of the seven units still remains in preservation, having been restored as a vintage mobile cinema.