OPTARE Buses Leeds England UK start 1985

Optare

Optare Group Limited
Type Public (LSE: OPE)
Industry Bus building
Founded 1985
Headquarters Sherburn-in-ElmetEngland
Products Buses
Parent Ashok Leyland
Website www.optare.com
01 Optare_Manufacturing_Plant

Optare’s new state-of-the-art manufacturing plant at Sherburn in Elmet, near Leeds
02 Blazefield_Starship_Versa

An Optare Versa destined for use on Transdev Blazefields’ StarShip service

Optare plc is a bus manufacturer based in Sherburn in ElmetNorth YorkshireUK. Its parent company Ashok Leyland, part of the Hinduja Group, is ranked within the top five global bus manufacturers.

The company operates two main business units, Bus Manufacturing and Product Support and manufactures a full range of bus types from minibuses to full-size single deckers, with a new double-decker currently undergoing preproduction testing. As well as bus manufacturing, the group operates a nationwide and international sales division, together with the Optare Product Support parts and service network.

The Optare name originated in 1985, with a new business formed from the remnants of the Charles H Roe operation which had been closed in 1984 by its owners Leyland Bus. The closure was in anticipation of a steep decline in demand expected to result from the deregulation of bus services. In order to differentiate itself from its competitors, the new company’s philosophy was to offer its customers more choice, hence the name Optare which is Latin for “to choose”.

Deregulation brought about a time of changing and challenging market conditions for UK bus manufacturers, with the breakup of the nationalised manufacturing industry dominated by British Leyland and its subsidiaries, and the breakup of the traditional home markets through the deregulation of bus services and privatisation of the Scottish Bus GroupNational Bus CompanyPTE operations and many municipal companies.

In the consequent upheaval in markets and demand through the 1980s and 1990s, the Optare business underwent several changes in ownership, but on the whole, retained its senior management. During this time Optare benefited from the development of close relationships with particular customers who were not necessarily tied to larger suppliers, through political or corporate ties. Wilts & Dorset and Reading Buses became notable loyal Optare customers, with several high profile new London operators also choosing Optare as a market differentiator, such as Harris Bus‘s use of the Optare Excel. Optare also introduced several technological innovations, with an early electric buses trial, introducing the first UK low-floor double decker, the Optare Spectra, and the ground breaking Optare Solo (“so low”) low floor midibus, both in 1997.

In its early years, Optare developed a number of body on chassis products but now only builds fully integral designs which have the benefit of low weight, high strength and market leading fuel efficiency. The company has also exported a number of models.

History

Formation of Optare

03 Optare_Olympian

An Optare-bodied Leyland Olympian for Yorkshire Rider

In September 1984, Leyland announced that it was closing the Charles H. Roe vehicle bodywork building business in Leeds. In response, Russell Richardson, a former plant director at Roe, backed by the West Yorkshire Enterprise Board and many redundant former employees, created Optare in February 1985.

The company was created at a very difficult time for the bus and coach industry, with the challenges of privatisation and deregulation meaning very few orders for new vehicles. The first orders came from the still publicly owned West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive (WYPTE) and South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive (SYPTE), keen to support the locally based company. The publicly owned but arms-length company Yorkshire Rider, as successor to the WYPTE bus fleet, also took early vehicles.

When the Roe business closed down, WYPTE had an unfulfilled order for five Leyland Olympian coach-seated double-decker buses in place for its Metro coach operation. These five part finished buses went from Roe to Eastern Coach Works as shells for completion, but subsequently ten more were completed as Optare buses but to the Roe design, the first of which was completed in September 1985, the 17th Optare bus body. Five went to WYPTE, and five to its successor Yorkshire Rider, and a further five standard seated Olympians were also delivered to WYPTE, two as convertible open top buses.

The first Optare designed bodies were fourteen Dennis Dominos for SYPTE built starting in February 1986. Optare also bodied fifteen Leyland Cubs for WYPTE. A preserved Cub later visited the Optare plant in 2005.

Starting in August 1986 Optare built fifteen minibuses converted from the Freight Rover Sherpa vans, for WYPTE.

CityPacer and StarRider

04 1986 Optare City Pacer

A 1986 London Buses Optare CityPacer taken in the 80s OV6

Optare products initially continued on from inherited Roe designs but it was clear from the start that if the new business was to survive, it had to make its mark with new and innovative models of its own.

In 1986 Optare introduced its first true product, the CityPacer minibus. This was based on a heavier version of the MAN-VW LT55 van chassis, to which Optare made modifications prior to bodying. The engine was a six-cylinder 2.4-litre and the body seated 25, with space for a further 5 standing passengers, a size that met the minibus vogue of the late 1980s. While its competitors looked like the modified vans they were, the CityPacer had attractive styling notable for its large one-piece raked windscreen. London Transport bought 52, and other major operators bought small batches. More than 290 CityPacer’s were produced in total between 1986 and 1992.

1987 saw the introduction of the StarRider which was based on the Mercedes-Benz 811D chassis. This was a heavier chassis with a proven reliability record and had seating for 33 passengers. London Transport took 123 StarRiders and a total of just under 320 were built between 1987 and 1994.

Expansion

05 Midland_Classic_W675_DDN

An Optare MetroRider at Cobham bus rally at Wisley Airfield

In 1988 the first full size Optare product appeared, the Delta. This was a single-deck bus based on the DAF SB220 chassis. The Delta bodywork featured contemporary styling and was aluminium with a bolted frame licensed from Alusuisse. The Delta successfully found a niche in the full-size single deck bus market, which was very limited at that time. Approaching 370 Delta’s were built before production ended in 1998.

Dennis had effectively created a new market segment, known as a midibus, with the introduction of the Dennis Dart. Optare soon introduced a competitor, the Vecta, albeit slightly bigger and wider than the Dart at that time, seating 40 in a full width 2.5m body. The chassis was the MAN 11.190 and featured a ZF gearbox and full air suspension. The bodywork was a scaled down version of the Delta.

The CityPacer and StarRider were phased out in the years after Optare purchased the design for the MCW Metrorider in 1989, rebranding it as the Optare MetroRider. This was a larger design than the CityPacer, and more robust when compared to the StarRider. It was Optare’s first venture into fully integral vehicle manufacturing, and became the mainstay of the Optare midi/minbus offering until the low floor Solo was introduced in 1997.

The Spectra double-decker set new standards in design, forcing a rethink of how a double-decker should be styled.

DAF/United Bus

06 Wilts_&_Dorset_3185

Front view of a Spectra of  Wilts & Dorset
07 Compass_Bus_R84_EDW

Autobus Classique bodied Mercedes-Benz Vario in Horsham in April 2009

In 1990, Optare joined a group called the United Bus, which included DAF Bus.

Having already used a DAF SB220 chassis on the Delta, now as part of United Bus, Optare collaborated with DAF to design the Optare Spectra. It was based on the modified design of the MCW Metrobus purchased by Optare, and combined parts from it and the SB220 to form a new double deck chassis, designated DB250, with Optare bodywork called Spectra. Due to the United bus relationship and joint design, the Spectra was built exclusively on DB250 chassis. As well as having a striking front end, the Spectra was also recognisable for having no rear window. Introduced in 1990 it was described as a “partly low-floor double-decker”. Despite the association with DAF, in 1991 Optare also launched a conventional height midibus in on the MAN 11-190 chassis, the Vecta.

After the collapse of United Bus in 1993, Optare was again returned to independent status with another management buyout. The reaction to the collapse of United Bus was the release in the next two years of two Delta derived single deck buses on different non-DAF chassis, the Sigma and Prisma. The Prisma was noticeable in having a generic Mercedes-Benz style front end rather than the recognisable Optare family face.

Optare acquired Autobus Classique in 1996, shortly after the launch of their Nouvelle luxury minicoach. Optare significantly redesigned and rebadged it in 1997 as the Nouvelle 2, and it served similar markets to the StarRider/MetroRider coach versions. Also in 1997 a relationship with a Spanish mini and midi coach manufacturer named Ferqui SL began, with the importation of the Solera luxury midicoach into the UK.

While part of United Bus, Optare also for a time became the exclusive UK dealer for the distinctive full size Bova Futura coach.

Low floor era

Optare began introduction of low-floor buses in the UK in 1995 with the launch of the Optare Excel full size single decker. Although low floor single decker buses had begun to appear as early as 1993. Initially, the Excel used Cummins engines and Allison transmissions with later examples (Excel 2) having Mercedes-Benz engines available as an option. The introduction of the Excel marked the start of sustained period of selling integral bus products rather than body on chassis combinations, which continued until the Darwen merger briefly brought East Lancs models to the range.

With modifications of the DB250 chassis to become the DB250LF, in 1997, the Spectra became the first fully low-floor double decker bus on offer in the UK.

Also in 1997 the Solo was launched and became a success for Optare. With a unique design of a front axle forward of the door, it allowed a low-floorlayout in a very short bus, and also came equipped with kneeling suspension for even greater access. Its styling and innovation led to a Millennium Products award and the Queen’s Award for Innovation.

North American Bus Industries

In 2000, Optare was bought by Hungarian owned North American Bus Industries. This gave Optare products exposure in the North American market. With an export version of the Solo finding success at several US airports and with Miami Dade Transit in Florida.

The NABI era saw the introduction of the Alero low-floor minicoach in 2001, filling a gap in the market for a low floor vehicle for use on low intensity services such as demand responsive transport, already covered at the higher capacity by the Solo. In 2004 the new derivatives of Solo were introduced offering a longer variant and also a narrower ‘SlimLine’ model to further capture the market. Also introduced in 2004 was the first new bus model since the Solo, the Tempo, a full size single decker with another striking design, even when considered in the environment of increasingly stylish competitor products.

On 1 August 2005, North American Bus Industries found themselves in financial difficulties, and speculation about the future of Optare was ended with the announcement that Optare had, once again, been acquired by its management. This change did not affect the further roll out of the new range, leading to the Versa and a radically restyled Solo (the Solo SR), both with a distinctive raised part of the roofline towards the front of the bus.

Darwen takeover

The Optare logo used before the Darwen reverse takeover.

On 12 March 2008 the Optare senior directors accepted a complete buyout offer made by Jamesstan Investments, an investment company controlled by the Darwen Group‘s parent company chairman Ron Stanley. Optare initially remained an independent company but by 17 July 2008, a reverse takeover by Darwen Group had been completed. Darwen was the much smaller company, but its AIM listing saw the enlarged Optare gain a stock exchange listing itself as Optare plc. The combined business employs 830 people with a £90 million turnover.

With the respective histories of the two entities, Optare plc can be considered the successor company to the historical British bus manufacturers Charles H. Roe (through Optare), founded in Leeds in 1923, and East Lancashire Coachbuilders, (through Darwen), founded in 1934 in Blackburn.

Optare plc

09 Optare_works,_Leeds

The former plant in Cross Gates,Leeds seen in April 2009.

The Optare website was relaunched with a new logo, and with the ex-East Lancs Olympus and Esteem models listed as Optare products. At the time of merger, Optare manufactured buses from three sites, the primary sites being in Leeds (the former Leyland Bus site) and Blackburn (the former East Lancs site), with a further facility in Rotherham.

The merger brought together the single deck and midibus portfolio of Optare, with the primarily double deck order book of Darwen.

After the merger, Optare began rationalisation of its bus manufacturing business. In 2009 the production of Esteem single-deck bodywork was ceased, and the manufacturing site at Rotherham was closed.

Ashok Leyland

In summer 2010, Ashok Leyland (former Indian subsidiary of British Leyland) bought a 26% stake in Optare.

Subsequently, in December 2011, Ashok Leyland increased its stake to 75.1%

2011 saw the inevitable closure of the Leeds factory, and the core business relocated to a new fully enclosed 13,000m2 building in nearby Sherburn-in-Elmet. Then in 2012 restructuring was complete when the former East Lancs site was also closed putting all manufacturing process under one roof at Sherburn.

Optare Product Support (formerly Unitec)

The Optare parts and service division Unitec has locations at the former Rotherham factory, as well as in ThurrockEssex.

In 2009 Unitec was renamed to Optare Product Support.

Coach imports

As of 2008, the minicoach models Toro, Solera and Soroco were imported by Optare from the Spanish manufacturer Ferqui, and marketed as Optare products. They were luxury minicoach bodies built on Mercedes-Benz chassis, however, due to significantly reduced demand for mini and midi coaches, as part of its restructuring process, Optare took the decision to concentrate on its bus manufacturing activities and the relationship with Ferqui was formally ended in 2012.

Products

Buses

Current
10 2013 Optare Solo SR HybridFirst Manchester Solo SR with Hybrid Drive
12 Optare Solo SR EVFull electric drive Optare Solo SR in service with Dorset County Council
2012 Optare Bonito
Optare Bonito Bonito small and accessible bus (2012 -)
2013 Optare Solo SR for route 470
2013 Optare Solo SR for route 470 Solo SR (2007 – )
2014 Optare Solo SR EV
2014 Optare Solo SR EV (Solo SR EV 2012-)
Optare-Tempo-SR-picture-2
Optare Tempo SR Tempo single decker (2004 -) (restyled Tempo SR 2011 – )
2006 Optare Versa NEC 7 November 2006
Optare Versa NEC 7 November Versa, midibus between Solo and Tempo (2006 -)
2012 Optare Metrocity
2012 Optare Metrocity MetroCity, two door midibus for London (2012 -)
2014 Optare-Metrodecker-front-three-quarter-press-shot
Optare Metrodecker front three quarter press shot MetroDecker, Integral double decker (2014 -)

Discontinued

1985 Optare City Pacer Minibus1985 Optare City Pacer Minibus CityPacer minibus (1985–1992, replaced by the MetroRider)

Optare StarRider HarrowBuses G82KUBOptare StarRider HarrowBuses G82KUB StarRider minibus (1987–1994, replaced by the MetroRider

Optare ColumboRider in Agyaat The Unknown, 2009

Optare ColumboRider in Agyaat The Unknown, 2009 Optare ColumboRider (1987 – ?)

1989 Optare Delta UK 1990 Optare Delta 1992 Optare Delta DAF UK

3x Optare Delta  Delta single decker (1988–1999)

1992 Optare MetroRider UK

 

1992 Optare MetroRider UK MetroRider minibus (1989–2000, replaced by Solo)

1992 Optare Spectra bus-photo.net 1994 Optare Spectra with H46-28F body Optare 'Spectra' double decker Optare Spectra W164RFX 3164 was a Millennium edition to the Spectra fleet Wilts&Dorset 3185

6x Optare Spectra 1992 Optare MetroRider UK (1991–1997, low floor 1997–2005)

1994 Optare vecta 1995 Optare Vectra  UK Optare Vecta 13x Optare Vecta midibus (1991–1997)

Optare Sigma. Optare-Sigma

2 x Optare Sigma (1994–1996, single-deck version of the Spectra)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Optare Prisma 1 Optare Prisma bodied Mercedes-Benz 04053x Optare Prisma (1995–1998) single decker, Mercedes front

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2000 Optare Excel 2002 Optare Excel UK Optare Excel registered P508 NWU. Wilts & Dorset Optare Excel 36095x Optare Excel (1995–1999) (Excel 2 1999 – 2004, replaced by Tempo)

1998 Optare Solo UK OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2011 Optare Solo Optare Padbus 412 Optare Solo Classic Optare Solo M1020 Optare Solo midi bus YJ59GFV Stagecoach Optare Solo Exeter

8x Optare Solo Solo low floor midibus (1997-2012, replaced by restyled SR model(Solo+ 2008)(Solo EV 2009- 2012 Replaced by restyled SR EV model)

2003 Optare Alero, was a 7.2 metre, 16 seat low-floor minibus 2008 Optare Alero low-floor-mini-buses-alero-plus-al01-46438 Optare Alero 1 Optare Alero, launched in 2000 was a 7.2 metre, 16 seat low-floor minibus5 x Optare Alero low floor minibus, (Alero 2001 – 2006, Alero Plus 2006 – 2008) 16pl

2009 Optare Esteem UK Preston Bus 209 PN57NFC Scania / East Lancs Esteem in Preston Bus Station OptareEsteem

Optare Esteem Demonstrator Esteem single decker (formerly East Lancs Esteem) (2008–2009)

NEC Optare Rapta - new design nsf 061108 MCOptare Rapta double decker (2009)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2010 Optare OlympusOptare Olympus double decker (formerly East Lancs Olympus) (2008 -2011)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

2011 Optare Visionaire UK Visionaire open-top double decker (formerly East Lancs Visionaire) (2008 -2011)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOptare OmniDekka double decker (formerly East Lancs Omnidekka) (2008-2011, only adopted by Nottingham City Transport)

Coaches

Discontinued

Ford Transit Optare Bonito A085

Ford Transit Optare Bonito A085 Bonito

Optare Toro Mercedes Benz u62

Optare Toro Mercedes Benz u62 Toro

Optare Solera Ferqui fy02lcl

Optare Solera Ferqui fy02lcl Solera

Optare Soroco Mercedes Benz 2006

optare-soroco-mercedes-benz-2006 Soroco

NO PICTURE Optare Rapido

NO PICTURE Optare Viedo

1985 Optare City Pacer Minibus 1986 Optare City Pacer 1988 OPTARE Delta 1989 Optare Delta UK 1990 Optare Delta 1992 Optare Delta DAF UK 1992 Optare MetroRider UK 1992 Optare Spectra bus-photo.net 1994 Optare Spectra with H46-28F body 1994 Optare vecta 1995 Optare Vectra  UK 1996 Optare Sigma  UK 1996 Optare Sigma OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 1998 Optare City Pacer 570 sits OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 1998 Optare Solo UK 2000 Optare Excel 2000 Optare MetroRider UK 2002 Optare Excel UK 2003 Optare Alero, was a 7.2 metre, 16 seat low-floor minibus 2006 Optare Versa NEC 7 November 2006 OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2008 Optare Alero OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2008 Optare Soroco 2009 Optare Esteem UK OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2010 Optare Olympus OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2010 Optare Versa (2) OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2010 Optare Versa OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2011 Optare Solo OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2011 Optare Tempo OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2011 Optare Visionaire 2012 Optare Bonito 2012 Optare Metrocity 2013 Optare Solo SR for route 470 2013 Optare Solo SR Hybrid 2014 Optare Bonito 081112 1 2014 Optare Solo SR EV 2014 Optare-Metrodecker-front-three-quarter-press-shot Alero, was a 7.2 metre, 16 seat low-floor minibus Blazefield_Starship Optare Versa Compass Bus R84 EDW Ford Transit Optare Bonito A085 low-floor-mini-buses-alero-plus-al01-46438 Midland Classic W675 DDN NEC Optare Rapta - new design nsf 061108 MC Optare Alero 1 Optare Alero, launched in 2000 was a 7.2 metre, 16 seat low-floor minibus Optare City Pacer Optare ColumboRider in Agyaat The Unknown, 2009 Optare Delta  Southern Transit J205 VHN Preston Bus 209 PN57NFC Scania / East Lancs Esteem in Preston Bus Station Optare Excel A Stansted Transit R817WJA Optare Excel registered P508 NWU. Optare Harris Optare Lodge's low floor bus Optare MetroRider Optare Mini Bus First London Optare old logo Optare Olympian Optare Optima Opus Optare Padbus 412 Optare Solo Classic Optare Prisma 1 Optare Prisma 1a Optare Prisma bodied Mercedes-Benz 0405 Optare Sigma. Optare Solera Ferqui fy02lcl Optare Solo M1020 Optare Solo midi bus YJ59GFV Optare Solo SR left hand drive hybrid Optare Soroco Mercedes Benz 2006 Optare 'Spectra' double decker Optare Spectra W164RFX 3164 was a Millennium edition to the Spectra fleet Optare Stagecoach to Newport Optare StarRider HarrowBuses G82KUB Optare StarRider Optare Tempo SR bus Optare Toro Mercedes Benz u62 Optare Vecta 1 Optare works, Leeds Optare_Manufacturing_Plant OptareEsteem Optare-Sigma Optare-Tempo-SR-picture-2 Stagecoach Optare Solo Exeter Wilts & Dorset Optare Excel 3609 Wilts&Dorset 3185

Buses, Coachbuilders, Hearses, Ambulances FLXIBLE Ohio USA

flxible [1434]
flxible [1434] (Photo credit: brianjmatis)
Buses, Coachbuilders, Hearses, Ambulances FLXIBLE Ohio USA

Flxible

001

@002

A 1987 Flxible Metro-B, owned by WMATA Metrobus, parked in Washington, D.C.

The Flxible Co. (originally the Flexible Sidecar Company) was an American manufacturer of motorcycle sidecars, funeral cars, ambulancesintercity coachesand transit buses, based in the U.S. state of Ohio. It was founded in 1913 and closed in 1996.

003

Flxible 1963 Buick hearse conversion

History

In 1913, Hugo H. Young and Carl F. Dudte founded the Flexible Sidecar Co. in Loudonville, Ohio, to manufacture motorcycle sidecars with a flexible mounting to the motorcycle. The flexible mounting allowed the sidecar to lean on corners along with the motorcycle, and was based on a design patented by Young.

In 1919, the company’s name was changed to The Flxible Co. (still pronounced “flexible”) so that the name could be registered as a trademark.

After low-priced automobiles became available in the 1920s, the motorcycle sidecar demand dropped and in 1924, Flxible turned to production of funeral cars (hearses), and ambulances, which were primarily manufactured on Buick chassis, but also occasionally on StudebakerCadillac and REO chassis, and intercity buses, initially (1930s and early ’40s) built on GMC truck chassis, and powered with Buick Straight 8 engines.

004

1947 Flxible Clipper highway coach

In 1953, Flxible absorbed the bus-manufacturing portion of the Fageol Twin Coach Company, and accepted its first order for transit buses from the Chicago Transit Authority. In 1964, Flxible purchased Southern Coach Manufacturing Co. of Evergreen, Alabama, and built small transit buses at the former Southern Coach factory until 1976. Flxible was purchased by Rohr Industries in 1970, and a new factory and corporate headquarters were built in Delaware, Ohio, in 1974, with the original factory in Loudonville, Ohio, being used to manufacture parts and sub-assemblies. Flxible was sold to Grumman Corporation in 1978 and became known asGrumman Flxible. The name reverted to Flxible when Grumman sold the company in 1983 to General Automotive Corporation. In 1996, Flxible declared bankruptcy and its assets were auctioned. The last Flxible vehicles produced were eight 35 ft (11 m) CNG-fueled Metro buses that went to Monterey-Salinas Transitin MontereyCalifornia. The former Flxible factory in Loudonville, Ohio, is now a bus maintenance facility for Motor Coach Industries, while the former factory in Delaware, Ohio, is now a parts facility for North American Bus Industries.

Production outside the United States

005

Mexican-made DINA Flxliner bus, in second-class service, berthed in the SilaoGuanajuato central terminal, 2006.

006

A Changjiang CJ6800G1QH bus in Beijing,China, showing the similarity to the Flxible Metro.

Flxible’s intercity buses were popular in Mexico and in Latin American countries. However, high import duties into these countries limited sales. In the early 1960s, Flxible began licensing a producer in Mexico, DINA S.A. (Diesel Nacional), to manufacture Flxible designed intercity coaches, and this continued until the late 1980s. In 1965 and 1966, Flxible also licensed its “New Look” transit bus design to Canadair Ltd., an aircraft manufacturer in Ville St-Laurent, Quebec.

In 1994, Flxible’s parent company, General Automotive Corporation, and three other American companies, Roger Penske, Mark IV Industries, and Carrier, entered into a joint venture with Changzhou Changjiang Bus, a Chinese manufacturer located in ChangzhouJiangsu province, to produce buses based on the Flxible Metrodesign and with the Flxible name. The resulting company, China Flxible Auto Corporation,[citation needed] manufactured buses in a variety of lengths, from 8 m (26 ft 3 in) to 11 m (36 ft 1 in). These buses, which include both front- and rear-engine designs, and share only their general exterior appearance with the American-built Flxibles, were sold to many transit operators in major Chinese cities, including Beijing and Shanghai. A trolleybus version was manufactured for just one operator, the Hangzhou trolleybus system, which bought a total of 77 between the late 1990s and 2001. However, for these vehicles, Changzhou Changjiang supplied the chassis and Metro-style bodies to the Hangzhou Changjiang Bus Company (in Hangzhou), and that company equipped them as trolleybuses.

Charles Kettering and General Motors

007

Charles F. Kettering

Charles Kettering, a Loudonville, Ohio native and vice president of General Motors, was closely associated with Flxible for almost the entire first half of the company’s existence. In 1914, Flxible was incorporated with the help of Kettering, who then became president of the company and joined the board of directors. Kettering provided significant funding for the company in its early years, particularly after 1916, when Kettering sold his firm, the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco), to GM for $2.5 million. Kettering continued to serve as president of Flxible, until he became chairman of the board in 1940, a position he held until his death in 1958. After selling Delco to GM in 1916, Kettering organized and ran a research laboratory at GM, and by the 1950s, held the position of vice president at GM. As a result of Kettering’s close relationship with both GM and Flxible, many GM parts were used in the production of Flxible vehicles, particularly prior to GM’s 1943 purchase of Yellow Coach (a competing bus manufacturer, of which GM had been a majority owner since 1925). For example, most Flxible ambulanceshearses, and buses from the mid-1920s to the early-1940s were built on Buick chassis, and Flxible’s “Airway” model buses of the mid-1930s were built on a Chevrolet chassis.

008

1955 Flxible VistaLiner (VL100)

In 1958, and as a result of the consent decree from the 1956 anti-trust case, United States v. General Motors Corp., GM was mandated to sell their bus components, engines, and transmissions to other manufacturers, free of royalties. However, in the early 1950s and prior to the consent decree, Flxible built a small number of buses with GM diesel engines while Kettering still served on the board. It has been postulated that GM may have made its diesel engines available to Flxible to reduce the criticisms of GM’s business practices that some felt were monopolistic. The same has been said about GM’s decision in the 1960s and 1970s not to produce a 35 ft (11 m) “New Look” transit bus with an 8-cylinder engine. However, it is also possible that GM chose not to enter this market because the potential sales did not warrant the added costs of engineering and production. Another result of the consent decree (which was not settled in its entirety until 1965) was that GM was barred from having any of its officers or directors serve as an officer or director for any other bus manufacturing company. This provision would have applied to Kettering, had he not died in 1958.

870 frame problems

Main article: Flxible Metro#Litigation resulting

In the mid-1980s, several Grumman 870 buses operated by the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) developed cracks in their underframes. This prompted NYCTA President David Gunn to remove the entire fleet from service. Soon, several other companies reported cracked 870 frames. However, the frame issues primarily affected NYCTA 870s and not the 870s owned by the franchisees of the New York City Department of Transportation. NYCTA attempted to get the remainder of its pending order for new buses transferred to GM, but was barred from doing so unless they could prove that the 870s were flawed and unsafe. The buses were eventually returned to Flxible and resold to Queen City Metro and New Jersey Transit. Grumman blamed the problems with the NYCTA 870s on NYCTA’s maintenance practices, despite the fact that transit operations in ChicagoWashington, D.C.Houston, and Los Angeles had also reported problems with their 870s. Ironically, NYCTA ordered fifty Metros in 1995, but Flxible closed its doors while the order was being produced, and NYCTA obtained the remaining new buses from Orion.

Flxible Owners International

009

Clipper-era Flxible nose emblem

Flxible Owners International (see external link) was founded in the mid-1980s as an offshoot of the Family Motor Coach Association, and is dedicated to the preservation of buses and coaches produced by Flxible. The organization holds a rally in Loudonville biannually, in even-numbered years and normally in mid-July, where many preserved Flxible coaches and buses may be seen.

The majority of vehicles owned by members are of the Clipper series (Clipper, Visicoach, Starliner) that were produced from the 1930s until 1967. However, there are also quite a few “non-clipper” Flxible coaches that are owned, maintained, and operated by proud Flxible owners. This includes the Starliner, VL100 (VistaLiner), Hi Level, and Flxliner as well as some of the more modern transit buses. Most of these vehicles have been converted to motor homes; however, there are still a few examples of seated coaches belonging to members.

Products

010

Unitrans Flxible New Look.

011

1925 Flxible Buick-Bus

012

1927 Flxible Bus

013

1930 Flxible in Hillsboro Road Garage Durham North Carolina

014

1932 FLXIBLE BUICK CHASSIS

015

1932 FLXible BUICK Flxible Parlor Coach body mounted on a 1932 Buick commercial chassis

016

1934 Flxible WoodFrame

017

1934 Flxible-Airway Ader Coach Lines 23

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1937 Flxible 20-CL-78 MacKenzie Trailways 103 at Park Square Boston

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1937 Flxible Chevrolet Clipper-Demo

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1937 Flxible first Clipper Airway

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1938 First al steel 1st clipper

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1938 Flxible 29BR-38 Bowen Motor Coaches 401

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1938 Flxible-Bus

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1939 Flxible 29CR Clipper Tri-State Trailways 261

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1941 Flxible 25-CR-41 1941

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1941 Flxible All Steel Clipper

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1941 Flxible-Clipper

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1944 Flxible 29BR-44 Continental Bus System 580

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1946 Flxible 29BR-46

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1946 Flxible bus ©Tommy Beech

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1946 Flxible-Bus

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1946 flxible-bus ©Tommy Beech

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1947 Flxible 29BR BZ-ShortLine RI-372

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1947 Flxible 29BR-47 Capitol Bus Company 64

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1947 Flxible 29BR-Airporter Demo

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1947 Flxible 67360015

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1947 Flxible Aerocoach Early bumper Trailways

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1947 Flxible Airporter

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1947 FLXible CARETATNYIAP

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1947 Flxible Clipper (a-k-a an ‘Airporter’) CAREYAIRPORTER

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1947 FlxIble special-maine-bus

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1947 Flxible-Bus

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1948 Flxible 288148

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1948 FLXIBLE CLIPPER EARLY2

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1948 Flxible-Bus

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1949 Flxible 29 passenger coach© Joe Palangio Collection

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1949 flxible back-770234

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1949 Flxible camper

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1949 Flxible Bus

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1949 Flxible coach. ©Joe Palangio Collection

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1953 Flxible Ad

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1953 Flxible ©Joe Palangio Collection

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1953 Flxible-Bus

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1954 Flxible – Harran Transit of West Babylon, NY

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1954 Flxible 218GM1-54-37SU Reading Transportation Co. 3706

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1954-flxible-bus-10386

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1955 Flxible 228JT1-55 Vistaliner P36

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1955 Flxible VistaLiner (VL100)

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1956 Flxible 228JT1 Flxible Factory Indianapolis

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1956 Flxible 228JT1-56+PR

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1956 Flxible 228JT1-56-37IC-AC Trailways of New England 904

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1956 Flxible 228JT1-56-37IC-AC Trailways Travel Bureau Corp.906 Boston

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1956 Flxible 228JT1-56-37IC-AC

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1958 Flxible Clipper (ser# B58-1604-A) FLXAIRPORTER58

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1958-Flxible-VL-100-“Diplomata”

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1958 Flxible VL-100 Diplomata

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1958 Flxible VL-100 Diplomata

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1959 Flxible Twin Coach Model FT2P-40 FLXFT40CTA

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1960 FLXible Clipper-RAY-1 ‘High Level Cruiser’

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1961 Flxible 236DD1-Demo

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1961 Flxible Flxliner Mountlassen

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1961 FLXIBLE PLANT a Clipper, a transit and a ‘High Level Cruiser’

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1962 Flxible Charter 1

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1962 FLXIBLE CHICAGO SURFLINES Twin Coach Fageol

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1962 Flxible coach ©Hank Suderman Collection

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1962 Flxible Model F2D6V-401-1

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1965 Flxible Starliner

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1965 Flxible Starliner

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1967 Flxible-Flxette

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1972 Flxible Ansett Airport Melbourne Australië ©Colin Davison

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1972 flxible -mod ©Joe Palangio Collection

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1972 Flxible Visicoach

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1978-Flxible-45096-City-Transit-Bus-Rockford-Illinois-Transit-System

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2007-Flxible-Vista-Liner-Beautifully-restored-GM-PD4501-Scenicruiser-Blytheville-from-1956

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2010-Flxible-Rally-241

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100 years Flxible

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FlxIble-A-Coach

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Flxible-Bus-conversion

000

Flxible-Badge-Comparison

091

Flxible-BusVDDW-Ned

092

Flxible-BusVDDW-Ned

093

1933-Holland-Coachcraft-Van

094

Fowler-Landliner-RV

095

1937-Hunt-House-Car

096

1962-Buick-prototype-RV

097

Flxible-Caravan

098

Flxible-Caravan

099

Flxible-Co.-Astraliner-Concept-Bus-For-Continental-Trailways-Dallas-Texas

100

Flxible-Comparison

101

1984 Flxible-CTA-bus-3528-on-route-62-at-the-Loop ©Bob Hussey

102

flxible-custom-bus

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Flxible-Grn-Custom-Coach

104

Flxible-inside

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Flxible-Metro-Grumman-870

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Flxible-RearVents

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Flxible-New-Look

108

Flxible-Red-Bus

109

Flxible-Red-Custom-Coach

110

Flxible-Steering-Wheels

111

Flxible-Super

112

Flxible-Television-Mobile-Unit

113

flxible-new-look

114

Flxibles

115

ansair-flxible-clipper

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1925-Flxible-Buick-Bus

117

1927-Flxible-Buick-Amb

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1929-Flxible-Buick-Amb

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1929-Flxible-Buick-Amb

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1929-Flxible-Buick-Amb-int

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1930-Flxible- Buick -Amb

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1932-Flxible Buick-Amb

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1933-Flxible Buick -Amb

124

1933-Flxible Buick-Pad Ziekenvervoer gevangenen

125

1935 Buick series 90 Flxible amb

126

1936-Flxible Buick-Amb-Hearse Com

127

1937-Ambulance-01-400Flxible Company, Flxible Coach, Buick

128

1938 Flxible Buick Sterling Ambulance CSV 14

129

1938 Flxible Buick Sterling Ambulance CSV15

130

1938-Flx-Amb-01-400 Buick

131

1938-Flxible Buick-Amb-CL-400

132

1938-Flxible Buick-Amb-CL-400

133

1939 Buick Flxible ambulance

135

1939 Buick Flxible Worlds Fair Ambulance

136

1940-Flxible-Buick-Amb

137

1947-Ambulance-Flxible-Buick

138

1947-Buick-Flxible-Premier-Ambulance

139

1947 Buick Roadmaster Ambulance

136

1947 Buick Special Flxible ambulance

141

1949-Ambulance-Buick-Dynaflow-Flxible

142

1949-Ambulance-Flxible-Buick-Combination

143

1950-Ambulance-Buick-Roadmaster-Combination-Flxible

144

1951 Ambulance Flxible Buick

145

1957 Buick Flxible Ambulance

146

1960 Ambulance Buick Premier by Flxible

147

1960-Flxette-limousine-Buick

148

1961-Flxette-landau-Buick

0

ansair-flxible-clipper-logo

finish

Filed Under: AMBULANCESBuickBUSESCadillacChangijiangChevroletClassic Cars,ClipperCoachbuildersDINAFAGEOLFlxibleGMCGrummanLandauMCIMETRO,MexicoNABIREORohrStudebakerTrolleybusesTWIN COACHUSA

Buses ABI Advanced Bus Industries USA

Bussen Advanced Bus Industries

ABI MSV 25 Luxery Coach

Vandaag een betrekkelijk kort hoofdstuk, want het gaat om een Industrie die maar weinig verschillende bussen fabriceerd. Er valt in ieder geval maar weinig van terug te vinden. Op het Wereldwijde Web wordt er zowel van ABI als van Advanced Bus Industries gesproken. Maar vervolgens ook over het Merk NABI. Dat komt echter veel later pas aan bod.

ABI MSV 30 The Fleet of Star Metro

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Bus_Industries Eigenlijk zijn er maar twee modellen te vinden, en dat zijn de ABI MSV 25 en de 30. De eerste is een ongelooflijk luxe bus die meestal als dierectiewagen of vergaderbus wordt gebruikt, of als luxevervoerder voor artiesten of andere hoogwaardigheidsbekleders. Hij is ook in gepantserde uitvoering verkrijgbaar. De 30 zie je veel rondrijden als kleinere openbaar vervoersbus bij bijvoorbeeld Star Metro.

ABI MSV Luxury-1 1997 GMC V8 powertrain engine
Aparte instap !! Tot zover dit hoofdstuk alweer.