FSO WARSZAWA 203 Ambulance
FSO Polonez + Daewoo FSO Ambulances and Hearses
FSO WARSZAWA 203 Ambulance
FSO Polonez + Daewoo FSO Ambulances and Hearses
|Predecessor||Benz & Cie. (1883-1926)
|Founder||Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler|
Number of locations
Bandar Seri Begawan
|Dieter Zetsche, Chairman|
Internal combustion engines
|Slogan||The Best or Nothing|
Daimler AG Headquarters
|Traded as||FWB: DAI|
|Dieter Zetsche(CEO and Chairman of the Board of Directors)
Manfred Bischoff (Chairman of the supervisory board)
|Products||Automobiles, commercial vehicles|
|Revenue||€129.872 billion (2014)|
|Total equity||€44.584 billion (2014)|
Private shareholders (15.3%)
Kuwait Investment Authority(6.8%)
Number of employees
Daimler AG (help·info) (German pronunciation:[ˈdaɪmlɐ aːˈɡeː]) is a German multinational automotive corporation. Daimler AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. As of 2014, Daimler owns or has shares in a number of car, bus, truck and motorcycle brands including Mercedes-Benz, Mercedes-AMG, Smart Automobile, Freightliner, Western Star, Thomas Built Buses, Setra, BharatBenz, Mitsubishi Fuso, MV Agusta as well as shares in Denza, KAMAZ, Beijing Automotive Group, and Renault-Nissan Alliance. The Maybach brand was closed at the end of 2012, but was revived in November 2014 as “Mercedes-Maybach”, an ultra luxury edition of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class. In 2014 Daimler sold 2.5 million vehicles. By unit sales, Daimler is the thirteenth-largest car manufacturer and second-largest truck manufacturer in the world. In addition to automobiles, Daimler manufactures buses and provides financial services through its Daimler Financial Services arm. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50stock market index.
Daimler AG is a German manufacturer of automobiles, motor vehicles, and engines, which dates back more than a century.
Both companies continued to manufacture their separate automobile and internal combustion engine brands until, on 28 June 1926, when Benz & Cie. and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft AG formally merged—becoming Daimler-BenzAG—and agreed that, thereafter, all of the factories would use the brand name of Mercedes-Benz on their automobiles.
In 1998, Daimler-Benz and Chrysler Corporation announced the world’s largest cross-border deal ever, valued at US$38billion, and the resulting change in company name to “DaimlerChrysler AG”.
In 2007, when the Chrysler group was sold off to Cerberus Capital Management (see below), the name of the parent company was changed to simply “Daimler AG”.
In November 2014, Daimler announced it would acquire 25 percent of Italian motorcycle producer MV Agusta for an undisclosed fee.
In a so-called “Merger of Equals,” or “Marriage made in Heaven”, according to its then CEO and architect Jürgen E. Schrempp, Daimler-Benz AG and United States-based automobile manufacturer Chrysler Corporation, the smallest of the three American automakers, merged in 1998 in an exchange of shares as Daimler-Benz AG bought 92% of Chrysler, and 8% of Chrysler remained independent and formed DaimlerChrysler AG. The terms of the merger allowed Daimler-Benz‘s non-automotive businesses such as Daimler-Benz InterServices AG, “debis AG” for short, (created in 1989 to handle data processing, financial and insurance services, and real estate management for the Daimler group) to continue to pursue their respective strategies of expansion. debis AG reported revenues of $8.6 bn (DM 15.5 bn) in 1997.
The merger was contentious with investors launching lawsuits over whether the transaction was the ‘merger of equals’ that senior management claimed or actually amounted to a Daimler-Benz takeover of Chrysler. A class action investor lawsuit was settled in August 2003 for US$300 million while a suit by billionaire investor activist Kirk Kerkorian was dismissed on 7 April 2005. The transaction claimed the job of its architect, Chairman Jürgen E. Schrempp, who resigned at the end of 2005 in response to the fall of the company’s share price following the transaction. The merger was also the subject of a book Taken for a Ride: How Daimler-Benz Drove Off With Chrysler, (2000) by Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz.
Another issue of contention is whether the merger delivered promised synergies and successfully integrated the two businesses. Martin H. Wiggers‘ concept of a platform strategy like the VW Group, was implemented only for a few models, so the synergy effects in development and production were too low. As late as 2002, DaimlerChrysler appeared to run two independent product lines. Later that year, the company launched products that appeared to integrate elements from both sides of the company, including the
2006 Chrysler Crossfire (ZH MY05) coupe.jpg
Daimler agreed to sell the Chrysler unit to Cerberus Capital Management in May 2007 for US$6 billion. Through most of its history, Chrysler has been the smallest of the “Big 3” U.S. automakers, but in January 2007, DaimlerChrysler, excluding its luxury Mercedes and Maybach lines, also outsold traditionally second place Ford, though behind General Motors and Toyota.
Chrysler reported losses of US$1.5 billion in 2006. It then announced plans to lay off 13,000 employees in mid-February 2007, close a major assembly plant and reduce production at other plants in order to restore profitability by 2008.
DaimlerChrysler had reportedly approached other carmakers and investment groups to sell Chrysler in early 2007. General Motors was reported to be a suitor, but on 3 August 2007, DaimlerChrysler completed the sale of Chrysler Group to Cerberus Capital Management. The original agreement stated that Cerberus would take an 80.1 percent stake in the new company, Chrysler Holding LLC. DaimlerChrysler changed its name to Daimler AG and retained the remaining 19.9% stake in the separated Chrysler.
The terms saw Daimler pay Cerberus US$650 million to take Chrysler and associated liabilities off its hands. Of the US$7.4 billion purchase price, Cerberus Capital Management will invest US$5 billion in Chrysler Holdings and US$1.05 billion in Chrysler’s financial unit. The de-merged Daimler AG received US$1.35 billion directly from Cerberus but directly invested US$2 billion in Chrysler itself.
2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo NHTSA 2
Since Chrysler’s 2009 bankruptcy filing in the United States, Chrysler has been controlled by Italian automaker Fiat and plans to integrate Chrysler’s products into the Fiat portfolio, such as Lancia and Chrysler’s namesake brand, and Fiat’s namesake brand with Dodge. Despite the fact it had been nearly seven years after the Daimler/Chrysler split, the fourth-generation Jeep Grand Cherokee shares a platform with the Mercedes-Benz M-Class. This also includes the Chrysler LX platform vehicles which initially used Mercedes-Benz components since its 2005 introduction.
On 3 August 2015, Nokia announced that it had reached a deal to sell its Here digital maps division to a consortium of three German automakers—BMW, Daimler AG, and Volkswagen Group, for €2.8 billion. This was seen as an indication that the automakers were interested in automated cars.
Dieter Zetsche has been the Chairman of Daimler and Head of Mercedes-Benz Cars since 1 January 2006 as well as member of the Board of Management since 1998. He was former President and CEO of the Chrysler, LLC (previously owned by Daimler AG), he may be best known in the United States as “Dr. Z” from a Chrysler advertising campaign called “Ask Dr. Z”.
Current (2015) members of the Board of Management of Daimler AG are:
The Board of Management total members of seven, after the unexpected resignation on 28 January 2014 of Andreas Renschler, former head of Manufacturing and Procurement Mercedes-Benz Cars & Mercedes-Benz Vans, has been brought back to eight after the nomination on 1 January 2015 of Swedish-born Ola Källenius to the Board of Management as Head of Mercedes-Benz Cars Marketing and Sales.
As of May 2015, the twenty members of Daimler AG’s Supervisory Board are: Manfred Bischoff (Chairman), Michael Brecht (Deputy Chairman), Paul Achleitner, Sari Baldauf, Michael Bettag, Bernd Bohr, Clemens Börsig, Jürgen Hambrecht, Petraea Heynike, Andrea Jung, Joe Kaeser, Ergun Lümali, Sabine Maaßen, Wolfgang Nieke, Bernd Pischetsrieder, Valter Sanches, Jörg Spies, Elke Tönjes-Werner, Frank Weber, Roman Zitzelsberger.
by Regio 29.7% Europe (excluding Germany), 32.1% German, 25.5% United States, 6.8% Kuwait, 5.4% Asia, 0.5% Others.
As of March 2010, Daimler owned a 22.5% share of EADS, of which the public sector held 40%.
In April 2013, Daimler sold its shares in EADS, and the same year, EADS restructured itself into a new aerospace company named Airbus, into which Daimler AG has no shareholding.
On the side of the public sector, the KfW banking group holds 13%, HGV Hamburger Gesellschaft fur Vermogens- und Beteiligungsverwaltung (State of Hamburg) holds 10%, Hannoversche Beteiligungsgesellschaft (State of Lower Saxony) holds 5%,Bayerische Landesbodenkreditanstalt, Anstalt der Bayerischen Landesbank holds 3.5%, LfA Forderbank Bayern holds 1.5%, Landesbank Baden-Württemberg and Landeskreditbank Baden-Württemberg – Forderbank (L-Bank) each holds 2.5%, and Bremer Investitions-Gesellschaft (State of Bremen) holds 2%.
On 5 March 2015, Daimler AG announced a 1,200 jobs package to the North Charleston region for its van plant. This will allow the company to start manufacturing Mercedes-Benz Sprinter vans from scratch in a North Charleston plant to meet demand in North America. Currently, these vans are set up in Germany, then shipped to the United States partially disassembled for reassembly. This is all to avoid import tariffs, a practice that started in 2010. A Daimler official said that the Sprinter’s popularity in North America is making that process less efficient. The North Charleston plant had been employing only 100 workers. The Sprinter is available on the U.S. market as a panel van, crew bus and chassis in several variants with three lengths and roof heights, six-cylinder diesel or gasoline engines. The Sprinter has been assembled and sold in the United States since 2001.
The largest Daimler plant (producing Mercedes-Benz cars) in Sindelfingen, Germany.
Daimler sells automobiles under the following brands worldwide:
open your mind.
|Annette Winkler CEO, 2010–present|
A Stack of Smart vehicles in Canberra
A Smart Fortwo mhd cabrio (left) and a Smart Fortwo mhd coupe (right) 2003 Smart V6 Biturbo
Smart Automobile is a division of Daimler AG that manufactures and markets the Smart Fortwo and Smart Forfour. The official trademarked name is stylized as “smart“, with all lowercase letters. Headquartered in Böblingen, Germany, Smart has marketed a range of microcar and subcompact vehicles, with its primary assembly plants located in Hambach, France and Novo Mesto, Slovenia. Annette Winkler has served as Smart’s CEO since 2010.
Marketed in 46 countries—in Asia, North and South America, Africa, Australia and Europe—production of the Fortwo had surpassed 1.7 million units by early 2015.
The design concept for the company’s automobiles began at Mercedes in the early 1970s and in the late 1980s, associated with Swatch. After a brief period of backing by Volkswagen, the first model was launched by Daimler-Benz in October 1998. Several variants on the original design have been introduced, with the original two-seater called the Fortwo, now in its third generation and available as an electric version.
The brand name Smart derives from its early cooperative studies with Swatch and Mercedes: Swatch Mercedes ART. In its corporate branding, the company uses a lowercase logotype (i.e., smart) and a logo incorporating the letter “c” for “compact” and an arrow for “forward thinking”.
In late 1982, SMH (makers of the Swatch brand of watches) CEO Nicolas Hayek began developing an idea for a new car using the same type of manufacturing strategies and personalization features used to popularize Swatch watches. He believed that the automotive industry had ignored a sector of potential customers who wanted a small and stylish city car. This idea soon became known as the “Swatchmobile”. Hayek’s private company Hayek Engineering AG began designing the new car for SMH, with seating for two and a hybrid drivetrain.
While design of the car was proceeding, Hayek feared existing manufacturers would feel threatened by the Swatchmobile. Thus, rather than directly competing, he preferred to cooperate with another company in the automotive industry. This would also relieve SMH of the cost burden in setting up a distribution network. Hayek approached several automotive manufacturers and on July 3, 1991, he reached an agreement with Volkswagen to share development of the new project.
By 1993, Ferdinand Piëch had become CEO of Volkswagen and he immediately sought to terminate the project with SMH. Volkswagen had already been working on their own “three-litre car”: a car which would consume three litres of fuel per 100 km of driving (the eventual Volkswagen Lupo 3L). Volkswagen’s own concept was believed to be a better business proposition, featuring four seats and more cargo room.
Hayek had suspected that Piëch would seek to end the agreement with SMH upon his ascendancy to the CEO position; therefore, he discreetly began approaching other car companies with the Swatchmobile project. Rebuffed by BMW, Fiat, General Motors and Renault, he finally reached an informal agreement with Daimler-Benz AG, maker of Mercedes-Benz cars.
A deal was announced on March 4, 1994, at a press conference at Mercedes-Benz headquarters in Stuttgart that the companies would join forces in founding Micro Compact Car AG (MCC). 49% of the initial capital of 50 million Swiss francs were provided by SMH and the remaining 51% by Daimler-Benz. The company consisted of two subsidiaries: MCC GmbH based in Renningen (a suburb of Stuttgart) which would design the car, and the then-unnamed manufacturing plant. SMH Auto SA, owned by Hayek, would design a hybrid electric drive system for the car, while Hayek Engineering would audit the design and manufacturing.
The press conference also featured the debut of two concept cars: the eco-sprinter and eco-speedster, styled by Mercedes-Benz’s design studio in California. The cars were similar to the eventual Smart City-Coupé. No mention was made of the fact that SMH had no input in the design of these concepts, and they were badged as Mercedes-Benzes.
Three co-directors were immediately named to head the new company: designer and engineer Johann Tomforde and financial administrator Christoph Baubin from Daimler-Benz, and marketing manager Hans Jürg Schär, who spearheaded the original Swatch marketing campaigns in the mid-1980s. Tomforde had been working on the Mercedes City Car (coincidentally abbreviated MCC) project at Daimler-Benz since 1990, which produced theeco-sprinter and eco-speedster concepts as well as the Vision-A concept, which eventually became the Mercedes-Benz A-Class.
One of the first controversies at MCC was the name of the car itself. Nicolas Hayek insisted it retain Swatch in some way: “Swatchmobile”, or “Swatch Car”. Daimler-Benz refused, and pushed for a neutral name. The final selection was Smart, an acronym that had been previously used internally by MCC for Swatch Mercedes Art.
By May 1994, the co-directors had identified 74 potential sites for the assembly plant. The final site was announced on December 20, 1994: Hambach, France. The purpose-built factory quickly gained the nickname “Smartville“.
In 1995, Tomforde devised a modular system of assembly for the car, insisting suppliers design and assemble, and even install their own modules onto the final car, at the new plant using their own employees thus reducing the cost overhead for the parent companies and divesting MCC of the financial and legal liabilities for those parts. It also provided a fiscal framework whereby MCC could share the development costs with the suppliers, rather than having to fund the entire project themselves. MCC secured contracts with suppliers to design and supply almost all parts of the car: seats by Faurecia, interiors by VDO, chassis and door modules by Magna, door panels by Dynamit Nobel, and suspension by Krupp.
Despite offloading a substantial amount of the development on the suppliers MCC required more capital. Recapitalization by Daimler-Benz increased their share of ownership in the company to 81% by 1996, leaving SMH with only the remaining 19%.
The assembly plant opened on October 27, 1997, with a ceremonial ribbon-cutting by then-French President Jacques Chirac and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl. Introduction of the new Smart city-Coupé was planned for March, 1998, however dynamic instability of the prototypes prompted Daimler-Benz to announce postponing the launch until October, 1998. Johann Tomforde was replaced as chief engineer by Gerhard Fritz. Fritz lowered the centre of gravity, widened the track, stiffened the suspension, changed the steering, and added ballast weight to the front of the car in order to increase its stability in emergency avoidance manoeuvres (notably the Swedish “moose test“).
The car launched successfully in nine European countries in October 1998, but the final design did not fulfill Hayek’s expectations. Hayek pushed for a hybrid drivetrain but the final product used a relatively conventional gasoline engine. Shortly afterward Daimler-Benz bought out SMH’s remaining stake in the company. MCC was now a wholly owned subsidiary of Daimler-Benz (which soon merged with Chrysler Corporation to become DaimlerChrysler). The office in Biel was shut down and operations were consolidated at the MCC GmbH design centre in Germany. On January 1, 1999, MCC GmbH changed its name to MCC Smart GmbH, and by 2000, it dropped the last vestiges of the association with SMH, becoming Smart GmbH.
The model line was subsequently expanded to include the Roadster a rear-engine, rear-drive and four-door, four-seat supermini aptly named Forfour (the original City-Coupé was renamed Fortwo to fit the new naming scheme).
The expansion did not increase profits at the company; Smart GmbH lost nearly 4 billion euros from 2003 to 2006. Plans were enacted to increase the company’s profitability and integrate its operations with Daimler (at the time DaimlerChrysler).
In 2005, Daimler decided against purchasing a 50% share in the Dutch NedCar plant used to manufacture the ForFour, ending its production. A planned SUV called Formore was terminated as the assembly plant in Brazil was being fitted with machines, and production of the Roadster was discontinued. In 2006, after dwindling sales and heavy financial losses, Smart GmbH was liquidated and its operations were absorbed by DaimlerChrysler directly.
Apart from the original Smart Fortwo, a sporty Smart Roadster, a limited production of 2000 erstwhile concept Smart Crossblade and a supermini Smart Forfour were also offered. These have now been discontinued. There were also plans to introduce the French made cross-over based on the body of the ForFour and the AWD hardware of the Mercedes C-class with the name of Formore but industrialization of this was cancelled at the 11th hour (even as tooling was being installed in the assembly plant) due to unfavourable exchange rate swings and spending cutbacks driven by losses elsewhere within Smart.
1998–2000 Smart City-Coupé & City-Cabrio* (*from 2000)2002 Smart Crossblade2001-2007 Smart City-C0upé & City Cabrio ( renamed Fortwo in 2004)2001-2004 Smart K (Japan only)2003-2005 Smart Roadster2004-2006 +2014-present Smart Forfour2007-present Smart Fortwo2008–present (in limited trials) Smart Fortwo ED (formerly known as EV)
2005 smart crosstown-hybrid
An all-electric version of the Fortwo, the Smart Fortwo Electric Vehicle (previously known as Smart ED), began development in 2006. Field testing began in London with 100 units in 2007, and the second generation, with a total of 2,000 units produced, was introduced in 2009 and available in 18 markets around the world for leasing or through the Car2Go carsharing service in San Diego and Amsterdam. Production of the second-generation Smart Fortwo electric drive began in November 2009, in Hambach, France. The Smart EDs have a lithium-ion battery provided by Tesla Motors with capacity of 14 kilowatt-hours (50 MJ). The range of a fully charged battery is up to 135 kilometres (84 miles) under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency‘s official all-electric range is 63 miles (101 km) and rated the Smart ED with a combined fuel economy of 87 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpg-e) (2.7 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 104 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent).
The third-generation Smart electric drive is scheduled to be launched in the U.S. and Europe by the second quarter of 2013 and Daimler AG plans to mass-produce the electric car with availability in 30 markets worldwide. The third-generation Smart electric drive was unveiled at the September 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show. Key differences with the second-generation model include a more powerful electric motor, which improves acceleration and top speed, a new lithium-ion battery pack that will allow to increase the range to 140 kilometres (87 mi), and an option for quick-charge will be available.
First generation Smart models equipped with engine sizes smaller than 660 cubic centimetres (40 cu in) fit into the Kei car category of cars in Japan, and are eligible for a range of lower taxes. Recent models with a larger engine do not meet the Kei qualifications. Because of high taxation on older cars in Japan, many older used Smart cars are exported to other countries with right-hand drive, like Great Britain and South Africa. An official version of the Smart Fortwo called the ‘Smart K’ has been released to fit the Kei car category. English musician Steve Appleton is featured in a Smart TV commercial, running in Japan during 2010.
Since 29 November 2010, the Smart fortwo has been available in Indonesia with PT. Mercedes-Benz Indonesia (MBI) as the authorized dealer. MBI originally offered three models: Pure Coupe, Passion Coupe, and Passion Cabriolet, for sale in Jakarta and Bali. Indonesia is also the first country in Southeast Asia to have the Smart Electric Drive, which has been lent to the Government of DKI Jakarta for a one-year period and can be extended for further indefinite period by a signed agreement between PT. Mercedes-Benz Indonesia, PT. Siemens Indonesia, and the Government of DKI Jakarta. The Smart ED will then serve as a pilot project to prove the effectivity of zero-emission car usage that can utilize alternative sources of energy.
The Smart Fortwo was introduced in Canada in late 2004 and was sold through Mercedes-Benz dealers. Demand was initially heavy with up to 6-month waiting lists in major urban areas in the spring of 2005. The vehicle was especially popular for commuters, small car enthusiasts, people needing light delivery and service vehicles. Demand relaxed slightly in the second year on the market. Sales rebounded with the second generation. Canadian Smart cdis cannot be registered in some states in the US. The Smart Fortwo USA
10,239 Smart Fortwo cdis had been sold in Canada by the first month of 2008. Just before the Type 450 ended production (after which the production had equaled 770,256 cars) Mercedes-Benz Canada built up stock of cdis to tide dealers over until the successor model 451 arrived at the end of 2007.
The Canadian version of the Type 450 Smart Fortwo cdi sold to 915 customers over three months in 2004, 4,080 were sold in 2005, and 3,023 in 2006. Virtually all the deliveries in 2004 and many of the deliveries in 2005 were to long-time Smart fans who had been waiting for their car for years, which largely accounts for the higher numbers. Through 2007, sales totaled about 2,200 units, with the last few cars being sold in the first month of 2008, when the new Type 451 was already on sale. The Smart’s strongest sales performance ever in Canada was in April 2007, when more than 500 units were sold. Sales are strongest (per capita) in Western Canada, with Vancouver Island and Vancouver being especially hot markets.
The 2008-2011 (North America) Smart Fortwo Type 451 was totally redesigned, with a 70 HP naturally aspirated Mitsubishi-sourced gasoline engine of 999 cc for North America, up from the 799 cc cdi diesel, with the attendant loss of fuel economy. Smart decided not to import the cdi version of the 451, now with 55 DIN HP, although this decision has led to criticism that the new Smart does not get the fuel economy that many would expect from such a small car. The 799 cc, far more fuel efficient diesel is sold in Europe and some other markets.
The BRABUS Tailor-Made program is not well advertised in Canada, but at least 16 Tailor-Made cars have been produced to Canadian specification. These vehicles are sent to the BRABUS factory in Bottrop, Germany, where the standard ex-works cars are stripped to the shell and repainted/retrimmed to suit individual customers’ tastes. The first four are the BRABUS Canada 1; three in bright red (including the tridion, two cabriolets and one coupé) and one in all white (a cabriolet). Aside from the special paint, all had every BRABUS part fitted to the body and interior, and the seats, door panels and dashboards were trimmed in black Nappa leather and Alcantara. Three of these cars are in British Columbia and #1-of-1, the Concept vehicle used at Canadian International Auto Shows (a red cabrio with silver alloys), is now in London, Ontario. The next BRABUS Tailor-Made Canadian car was a one-off all orange 451 made for a customer in Vancouver. The other ten were all ordered by Mercedes-Benz Canada as the special “edit10n” of the Canadian BRABUS 451 (with only 70 HP), painted in metallic dark grey with an orange Nappe leather interior. There is also at least one BoConcept 451 built to Canadian standards.
In 2009, the Government of Canada acquired the European Smart mhd (micro hybrid drive) through partnership with Mercedes-Benz Canada. The project was administered by the ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles(eTV) program within Transport Canada. Goals were to identify the benefits of the start-stop system equipped on the vehicle and how to accelerate the penetration of this technology throughout Canada. See Smart mhd Test Results Report.
Before 2008, Smart cars were only available in the United States as “grey market” imports, such as ZAP. U.S. federal regulations allow certain grey market importing in large quantities provided the vehicles are modified and tested to conform to U.S. safety and emissions regulations. Smarts imported into the United States by “The Defiance Company LLC”, modified by G&K Automotive Conversion in Santa Ana, California, and distributed and sold by independent dealerships which were not affiliated with Mercedes. U.S. regulations did not permit the purchase and import of used Smart CDi vehicles from Canada, as the diesel powered Canadian Smarts did not meet American emissions regulations.
In June 2006, DaimlerChrysler confirmed that Smart would be officially launched in the United States in the first quarter of 2008. The cars were offered through a dealership holding company Penske Automotive Group, which created a new U.S. dealership network for the brand under the name Smart USA. Initially, an updated gasoline powered Fortwo was offered, starting around US$12,000. The new model made its debut at European auto shows in November 2006.
Hybrid Technologies plans to sell an electric version of the Smart Fortwo model in the U.S. starting at US$35,000. It is being called a hybrid car even though the vehicle is all-electric. The electric Smart will have a range of 120 to 150 miles (190–240 km), a top speed of 80 mph (130 km/h), and charge in 5 to 6 hours using a standard 120 V AC outlet. An electric model is currently undergoing testing in the UK and will only be offered to commercial clients as a trial for the time being. The electric model is scheduled for a U.S. release for the 2012 model year with some test market cars surfacing in 4th quarter 2010.
A Forbes article has been critical of the stated reasons that Daimler-Chrysler gave for introducing the car in the United States. The Smart fortwo may have claimed to be the most fuel-efficient fully gasoline-engined car for sale in the US, but it actually lags behind the 4-door Mitsubishi Mirage and 2-door Scion iQ (combined 40 mpg and 37 mpg, respectively). According to the EPA, the Smart’s fuel efficiency is lower than the fuel efficiency of some hybrids, including the Ford Fusion, the Toyota Prius, the Honda Civic Hybrid, and the 2-seat Honda Insight, which achieve 41/36, 51/48, 40/43, and 40/43 respectively while the Smart achieves 33 city and 41 highway. The Smart Fortwo is the most efficient car at its pricepoint, since it costs about half as much as a hybrid in the US.
The Fortwo has received much attention in the U.S. In its April 2008 issue, Men’s Vogue raised the question, “in a nation where your supersized car is your castle, is the Smart too mini for a man?”.
To obtain a Smart Fortwo originally required obtaining a “reservation” costing $99 through a dealer or over the internet. The waiting time in January 2009 was approximately 12 months; by July 2009, there was no wait to obtain a vehicle and dealers had them in stock for immediate delivery.
On January 25, 2010, Smart USA began its first lease program in the US market for Smart fortwo models. The program was scheduled to last through February 28, 2010, but has been extended indefinitely despite lack of leasing sales.
Penske Automotive Group announced plans February 14, 2011, to relinquish distribution of the Smart Fortwo under Smart USA, to Mercedes-Benz USA. In 2011, Smart USA offered four versions of their Fortwo model. These models include the following: cabriolet, the high-cost convertible version; passion, the mid-cost moonroof version; pure, the low-cost basic version; and electric drive, the electric version.
On July 1, 2011, Mercedes-Benz USA took over the distribution, sales and marketing of the Smart brand from Penske Automotive Group. Smart is owned and produced by Mercedes’ parent, Daimler AG.
As of 2015 all models are petrol or electric.
The Smart Fortwo was introduced in 2003, and were sold in department stores Sanborns and Liverpool. Later Mercedes-Benz dealers started to offer the car. Currently Smart cars are still offered in the country, with only the Fortwo model available.Smart offers the hardtop and convertible models of the Fortwo coupé in Mexico.
Smart Fortwo has fierce competition with the Hyundai Atos, Pontiac Matiz, and Chevrolet Chevy, which are compacts with low gas consumption at less than half the cost of a Smart but with more space for passengers.
In Brazil, the Fortwo has been for sale since 2009 and models (fortwo cabrio turbo, fortwo coupé turbo and fortwo coupé MHD) can be bought in some Smart and/or Mercedes-Benz dealerships in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Porto Alegre cities. The electric, brabus and forfour versions are not available for the Brazilian market.
Since 2003, Smart models have been for sale in Australia. All models that have been produced have been sold in Australia. The Smart Fortwo is currently sold through Mercedes-Benz Dealerships. Mercedes-Benz dealerships around Australia as of 2003 were only offering the Fortwo in the “Pulse” mid-range trim, thus the “Passion”, “Brabus Xclusive” and other trims are not available as yet, until further notice or changes.
In March 2015 it was announced that the Smart brand would be withdrawn from Australia due to poor sales.
The UK is host to a number of annual events, both official and unofficial, including the Smart Festival, held annually at Mercedes-Benz World in Weybridge, near historic Brooklands – the world’s first purpose-built motor racing circuit.
Cutaway showing structure of the Smart Fortwo
The Smart Fortwo uses a very small front crumple zone. The second generation Smart Fortwo has been awarded 4 out of 5 stars in the Euro NCAP Adult Occupant Protection and 2 out of 4 stars in the Pedestrian protection test, but was not tested for Child Occupant Protection as it has no rear seats. The original Smart was awarded 3 out of 5 stars for Adult Occupant Protection. In American tests using a five star rating, Smart cars received a four star safety rating for the driver from a front impact, and a five star safety rating for the driver for a side impact. It also received “Good” ratings for front and side crash protection in Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) tests. However, in an April 2009 40 mph frontal offset crash test between a Fortwo and a Mercedes C-Class, “the Smart went air-borne and turned around 450 degrees” causing “extensive intrusion into the space around the dummy from head to feet”. The IIHS rated the Smart Fortwo “Poor,” noting that “Multiple injuries, including to the head, would be likely for a real-world driver of a Smart in a similar collision.”
The main structure of the car is a stiff structure, marketed as the Tridion Safety Cell, designed to activate the crumple zones of a colliding vehicle. This design creates a safety cell around the passengers, according to the manufacturer.
Smart models have been modified by Brabus of Germany, resulting in Brabus production models, including Smart BRABUS electric drive.
Other companies modify the Smart Fortwo to use motorcycle engines, such as the Suzuki Hayabusa 1340 cc inline four-cylinder. These cars are known as Smartuki. The most powerful models can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (0 to 100 km/h) in less than 3.5 seconds. The original car was fitted with a mildly tuned engine and ran 0-60 mph in 4.5 seconds, 1/4 mile standing start in 12.4 seconds and a top speed of 132 mph (212 km/h). It is possible to push the GSXR engine further; nitrous oxide will add another 50 bhp (37 kW; 51 PS) – 80 bhp (60 kW; 81 PS) and there is a turbocharged option.
The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz, but traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft‘s 1901 Mercedes and to Karl Benz‘s 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, which is widely regarded as the first gasoline powered automobile. Mercedes-Benz’s slogan is “The Best or Nothing”. Mercedes-Benz is one of the most recognized automotive brands worldwide.
Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz‘s creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, and Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach‘s conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine later that year. The Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz’s and Gottlieb Daimler’s companies into the Daimler-Benz company. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car that was popular during Germany’s Nazi period.Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is currently on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario. The pontiff’s Popemobile has often been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that later became common in other vehicles.Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world, and is also one of the world’s oldest automotive brand still in existence today in 2015, having produced the first petrol-powered car.
For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft including the merger into Daimler-Benz.
As part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production.
Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999. The company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, and became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999.
Mercedes-AMG was the official engine supplier for the second oldest and most successful F1 team by Grand Prix wins, McLaren Racing from 1995-2014. In 2013 it was announced that after the last year with Mercedes contract with McLaren, Mercedes would be dropped and be replaced by Honda, with whom McLaren had world championship wins in the past together.
Mercedes have since gone on to buy their own Formula 1 team, buying the former Honda Racing F1 team, Brawn GP, and turning it into Mercedes F1 in 2010. Despite a slow start, in 2012 the team began to show progress and rise to the front of the Grid with their first win coming from driver Nico Rosberg at the 2012 Chinese Grand Prix, before showing further progress again in 2013, when the team signed Lewis Hamilton from McLaren to replace the retiring Michael Schumacher. Hamilton’s first win for the team came at the 2013 Hungarian Grand Prix.
In 2014 the team won the Formula One World Constructors Title, with Driver Lewis Hamilton going on to win the Drivers Title. In 2015 the team won their second successive World Constructors Title and drivers title with Lewis Hamilton once
From 2003 to 2009, Mercedes were in a joint venture with McLaren Group to manufacture the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren. At this time, Mercedes owned 40% of McLaren Group. Due to Mercedes purchasing Brawn GP, a F1 team, Mercedes decided to sell their shares back to Ron Dennis, as McLaren would be their rival in the F1 championship.
Daimler’s ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes. It now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600.
Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are also manufactured or assembled in:
|Algeria||Africa||Manufactures Busses and Trucks in cooperation with SNVI (Actros , Zetros, Unimog, and G-Class, Sprinter).|
|Argentina||South America||Manufactures buses, trucks and the Sprinter van. This is the first Mercedes-Benz factory outside of Germany. Built in 1951.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Europe|
|Brazil||South America||Manufactures trucks and buses. Established in 1956. The A-Class (W168) was produced from 1999 to 2005 and the C-Class was produced until 2010 as well.|
|Colombia||South America||Assembly of buses, Established in Soacha 2012 and Funza 2015|
|Egypt||Africa||Via Egyptian German Automotive Company E-Class, C-Class and GLK|
|Finland||Europe||New A-series (W176) is manufactured in Uusikaupunki since late 2013, being the first M-B passenger car ever built in that country|
|Jordan||Asia||Buses company factory, Elba House, Amman.|
|India||Asia||Bangalore (R&D). Pune (Passenger cars).Chennai (Daimler India Commercial Vehicles Pvt. Ltd.) – Trucks & Engine Manufacturing unit.|
|Iran||Asia||Not since 2010|
|Malaysia||Asia||Assembly of C, E and S class vehicles by DRB-HICOM.|
|Mexico||North America||Mercedes-Benz Mexico fully manufactures some Mercedes and Daimler vehicles completely from locally built parts (C-Class, E-Class, M-Class, International trucks, Axor, Atego, and Mercedes Buses), manufactures other models in complete knock down kits (CL-Class, CLK-Class, SL-Class, SLK-Class) and manufactures a select number of models in semi knockdown kits which use both imported components and locally sourced Mexican components (S-Class, CLS-Class, R-Class, GL-Class, Sprinter).|
|Nigeria||Africa||Assembly of buses, trucks, utility motors and the Sprinter van|
|Russia||Eurasia||Joint venture Mercedes-Benz Car Trucks Vostok in Naberezhnye Chelny (jointly Kamaz). Available in trucks Actros, Axor, multi-purpose auto four wheel drive medium trucks Unimog. Mercedes-Benz Sprinter Classic is also produced in Russia.|
|Serbia||Europe||FAP produces Mercedes-Benz trucks under license.|
|Spain||Europe||Factory at Vitoria-Gasteiz Mercedes-Benz Vito, Viano and V-Class have been built there.|
|South Korea||Asia||Mercedes-Benz Musso and MB100 models manufactured by SsangYong Motor Company.|
|Thailand||Asia||Assembly of C, E and S class vehicles by the Thonburi Group|
|Turkey||Eurasia||Mercedes-Benz Türk A.Ş.|
|United Kingdom||Europe||The SLR sports car was built at the McLaren Technology Centre in Woking. Brackley, Northamptonshire, is home to the Mercedes Grand Prix factory, and Brixworth, Northamptonshire is the location of Mercedes-Benz HighPerformanceEngines|
|United States||North America||The Mercedes-Benz GLE-Class Sport Utility and the full-sized GL-Class Luxury Sport Utility Vehicle are all built at the Mercedes-Benz U.S. International production facility near Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Trucks (6,000 per year in the early eighties) were once assembled in Hampton, VA.|
|Vietnam||Asia||Assembly of E-Class, C-Class, S-Class, GLK-Class and Sprinter. Established in 1995.|
Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz had maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power’s Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz’s initial quality rating improved by yet another mark, to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it also received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power’s 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability. In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate.
The following is a List of Mercedes-Benz vehicles indexed by year of introduction.Mercedes Benz L 319 (produced 1955-1967)Mercedes Benz Auwärter 815D Vario minibus1999 Mercedes Benz CLK-GTR race car (foreground)
In 1926 Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft and Benz & Cie. merged forming Daimler-Benz and selling the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. Mercedes was a brand of DMG started in 1901. It has produced vehicles into the 21st century
Before 1926, Mercedes-Benz was two separate companies that were competitors. One originated from Karl Benz, who invented the car, and Maybach and Daimler, who started Daimler which produced the Mercedes brand. Somehow the companies survived two world wars and various economic depressions to become one of the major suppliers of automobiles and trucks in the 21st century in Germany and in many parts of the World. The company has also supplied engines to many different products
Maybach left the company in 1907 to start his own company which was eventually bought by Mercedes-Benz in 1960.
Benz & Company Rheinische Gasmotoren-Fabrik (aka Benz & Cie), founded 1883
Benz Patent-Motorwagen 1886-1893 (~25 produced)Benz Velo 1894Benz Viktoria 1894-1900 By 1895 1,132 vehicles produced1902 benz parsifal 12 14 hp big1902 Benz Parsifal 22 hp 1902-1903 – Benz Parsifal1903 Benz Parsifal 60 horsepower racing car1903 Benz Parsifal Phaeton Benz Parsifil 1902-1908 1907 24/40 hp Benz landauletBlitzen Benz 19091910 Benz Prinz Heinrich car Benz 1910 ‘Prinz Heinrich’1914 Benz 10-30 PS with Torpedo style bodywork Benz 10/30 PS 1912, 1921-1927 (also Daimler-Benz model after 1926)Benz 10/30(35) hp 1921
Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, founded in 1890 by Daimler and Maybach
Inventions of people Daimler and Maybach preceding DMG:
Daimler Motor Car 18861889 Daimler Stahlradwagen – 1,5 PS, 18 km/h – Mercedes-Benz-Museum, Stuttgart, Bad Cannstatt Daimler Stahlradwagen 1889
30 Daimler vehicles produced by 1895 Daimler belt-drive 1895-1899 Daimler Phoenix 1897-1902 4 hp and 6 hpMercedes 35 hp 1901
Mercedes Simplex 1902
1910-24 Mercedes Knight 10-30 hp – 25-65 hp 1913 Daimler ambulance Type UK with 10-30 hp Knight engine 1913-15 Mercedes Knight-2565-PS1920-21 Daimler ambulance Type UK with 16-45 hp Knight engine 1921 Mercedes Knight 16-40 hp, 16-45 hp, 16-50 hp Mercedes Knight (1910-1924)GP Mercedes 1908Mercedes Grand Prix Racing Car 19141921-24 Mercedes-Benz 15-70-100 PS Typ 400 Mercedes 15/70/100 PS, 1921-1924 (became Mercedes-Benz Typ 400 with merger)Mercedes 24/100/140 PS, 1924 – 1929 (became Mercedes-Benz Typ 630 with the merger) See also the related businesses: Austro-Daimler
In 1926 Daimler-Benz was formed from the merger of DMG and Benz
1927 Mercedes-Benz 400 K Tourer Sinsheim, a Daimler-Benz product1927 Mercedes Benz 630K Mercedes-Benz 630 K (1926 – 1929)1926 Mercedes Benz 24-100-140 PS Roadster (This was the Mercedes 24/100/140 PS of DMG) Mercedes-Benz Model K
1927 mercedes benz S type 6cyl 6,78lt 180hp S-series, from 1927 with supercharged 6-cylinder engines1927 Mercedes-Benz S-Type 26/180 Sportwagen S (Sport)1927 26-170-225 hp Mercedes-Benz SS racing and touring sports car. SS (Super Sport)1928-32 Mercedes-Benz SSK model series W 06 II, SSK (Super Sport Kurz) 1927 Mercedes Benz SSKL (Super Sport Kurz Leicht) SSKL (Super Sport Kurz Leicht)
Mercedes-Benz Three Wheeler1928 Mercedes-Benz 680S Saoutchik Torpedo
1930-1938 Mercedes Benz 770 (W07) on display at the 1931 Berlin Motor ShowMercedes-Benz W07-W150 or 770 Pullman-Limousine W150 1938-19431934-36 Mercedes 500K (type W29) Cabriolet is a grand touring car1939 Mercedes Benz 540K-Autobahnkurier 540K 1936-19431938 Mercedes benz 260D 1936-19401937 Mercedes-Benz 320 (W 142) Saloon was a modern luxury-class touring car.1937 Mercedes Benz W 125 Donington W125 19371939 Mercedes Benz 230 Limousine 230 1938Mercedes Benz W154, W163 1938, 1939Mercedes-Benz W136 (170 V)
1935–1942 75,006 units 1947–1955 83,190 unitsMercedes-Benz W125 Rekordwagen – 1938
1939 Mercedes-Benz T80
Production disrupted from WWII from 1939-1945, and restarted by late 1940s
1960 Mercedes Benz 300SL Roadster (W198 II)Mercedes Benz 220 (W187) 1951-1955Mercedes Benz 219 (W219) 1956-19591958 Mercedes Benz 220a/220S (W180) 1954-1959Mercedes Benz Limousine 300/300S (W186 W189 W188) 1951-1962Mercedes Benz W196 (W196) GP 1954Mercedes Benz 300SLR (W196S) 1955Mercedes Benz 300SL (W198) 1954-1963 in two series:
1969 Mercedes-Benz 280 SL1965 Mercedes Benz 190c Sedan 1962-1965
Mercedes Benz 200 W 110 kombi 1966-1968Mercedes Benz 200D 1966-1967Mercedes-Benz W111/220SE 1960-1966Mercedes Benz 250S, 250SE 300SE 280S 280SE 280SEL(W108/W109) 1965-1972Mercedes Benz 230 1968-1972Mercedes Benz 250 Saloon 1968-1972Mercedes Benz 600 (W100) 1963-1981Mercedes Benz 230SL 250SL 280SL (W113) “Pagoda” 1963-1971
Pre-facelift Mercedes-Benz W115 220Mercedes Benz 280 (W114) 1972-19761975 Mercedes Benz 280C (W114) 1973-1976Mercedes Benz 300D (W114) 1975-1976Mercedes Benz V123 Limo (Euro-spec) W123 1976-1985Mercedes Benz G 350 BlueTEC (W463) G-Class 1979-present1978 Mercedes-Benz 280 SE (W116) S-Class W116 1972-19791957 Mercedes Benz 300 SL Roadster (W198) SL-Class 1957-1971 Mercedes-Benz W113 W113 1963-19711987 Mercedes Benz 560 SL roadster (Australia) R107 1972-1989
The 1980s marked a period of increasing demand in America, personified by thousands of Grey-market imported cars, such as this Mercedes-Benz 500 SE shown hereMercedes Benz 560SECMercedes Benz 190E W201 190 1982-19931977 Mercedes Benz 300D W123 300D 1977-1985Mercedes Benz 300CD Turbodiesel coupe (US-version) 300CD 1978-1985Mercedes Benz 300SD 1981-19851987-92 Mercedes Benz 300 SEL (W126) sedan 300SEL 1987-19911987 Mercedes Benz 300SDL 300SDL 1986-1987Mercedes Benz 300TD 1978-19851990 Mercedes Benz 350SDL 1990-1991
2013 Mercedes Benz A 200 Sport AMG Line (W176).jpg A-Class 1997-1997-00 Mercedes Benz C 200 (W202) Classic sedan C-Class 1993-2000 Mercedes Benz CLK 320 (C208) Elegance coupe CLK-Class 1998-2013 Mercedes Benz E 220 CDI Avantgarde (W 212, Facelift) E-Class 1995-M-Class 1997-2015, renamed GLE-class in 20152000 Mercedes Benz SL (R129) SL-Class 1989-2001Mercedes Benz Vaneo 1997-20041992 Mercedes-Benz S-Class1987–1992 Mercedes-Benz 300 SEL (W126) sedan Mercedes-Benz W126 (to ~1991)Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W140)Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W220) (1998-2005/6)see also Maybach
One standout in the MB lineup in the 21st century has been the Mercedes-Benz G-ClassMercedes-Benz SLK, 1996-2004Mercedes-Benz M-Class, models go by ML430, ML500, etc. naming style
2014 Mercedes-Benz A 250 (W176) Sport hatchback (Australia) Mercedes-Benz A-Class2000-04 Silver Mercedes A140 W168 side.JPG W168 2000-20042004-12 Mercedes Benz A 180 CDI Elegance (W 169) W169 2004-2012 Mercedes-Benz B-Class2006-08 Mercedes-Benz B 180 CDI (W245) hatchback W245 2005-2011 Mercedes-Benz C-Class2001–04 Mercedes-Benz C 220 CDI SportCoupé (Germany) W203 2000-20072008-11 Mercedes Benz CLC 200 Kompressor (CL203) coupe W204 2007-2014
2011 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG C 197 2010-20132013 Mercedes-Benz CLA 200-Class C 117 2010-20132014 Mercedes Benz GLA 200 CDI Urban (X 156)2013 Mercedes Benz SL 550 R231 vf 7spd-automatic R231.jpg
In the 2015 renaming several existing product lines were renamed
GLK-class to GLC-class
M-class to GLE-class
GL-class to GLS-class
Name change of Mercedes-Benz C63 AMG to Mercedes-AMG C63 in 2014.
B-Class Electric Drive introduced (Special version of existing B-Class with no piston engine)
Mercedes-Benz G 500 4×4² in off-road test Mercedes-Benz G500 4×4²2012 Mercedes Benz GL 350 BlueTEC 4MATIC Sport-Paket AMG (X 166) Mercedes-Benz GL-Class2014 Mercedes Benz GLK 220 CDI 4MATIC Sport-Paket AMG (X 204, Facelift) Mercedes-Benz GLK-Class
Post 2015 naming restructure: Mercedes Benz GLA-Class2016 Mercedes Benz GLC 220 d 4MATIC AMG Line (X 253) Mercedes-Benz GLC-Class2013 Mercedes-Benz GLE ML 350 BlueTEC 4MATIC (W 166) Mercedes-Benz GLE-Class GLE-Coupe2014 Mercedes Benz GL 500 4MATIC (X 166) Mercedes-Benz GLS-Class