Trucks SCANIA – VABIS (1911-1968) and SCANIA 1891- 2015…..

Scania-Vabis

1927 Scania-Vabis B3243 Bus

Scania-Vabis B3243 Bus 1927
1929 Scania-Vabis 2122

Scania-Vabis 2122 1929

Scania-Vabis was a Swedish truck and car manufacturer that existed from 1911 to 1968. The company was formed when Scania merged with Vabis. Car production ended in 1929. Ultimately, the name Vabis was dropped in 1968.

History

1957 Scania-Vabis L71

Scania-Vabis L71 1957
1962 Scania-Vabis Capitol

Scania-Vabis Capitol 1962

The company’s name resulted from the merger of Maskinfabriksaktiebolaget Scania, which started out by manufacturing bicycles, and Vabis (Vagnfabriks Aktiebolaget iSödertälje), in 1911. Until 1929 the company manufactured cars in Södertälje, as well as trucks and buses in Malmö. Over the succeeding years, the company, based in Södertälje, developed a reputation for the toughness, comfort and reliability of its commercial vehicles. The 1963 forward-control LB76 forged Scania-Vabis’s reputation outside Sweden, being one of the first exhaustively crash-tested truck cabs.

1967 Scania-Vabis LS5646

Scania-Vabis LS5646 1967

Because there were many inexpensive, imported cars in Sweden at the time, Scania-Vabis decided to build high-class, luxury cars, for instance the type III limousine from 1920 that had a top hat holder in the roof. Prince Carl of Sweden owned a 1913 Scania-Vabis 3S, a type which was fitted with in-car buttons so the passenger could communicate with the driver. Scania-Vabis also built two-seat sports cars (or “sportautomobil”).

The company was involved in bus production from its earliest days, producing mail buses in the 1920s. Post-war the company introduced their B-series of buses, followed by the BF-series in the late 1950s.

Scania-Vabis at some point in their history also manufactured trucks in Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, South-Korea, Tanzania, the Netherlands, Zimbabwe and the United States.

For some time Daimler-Benz waged a ‘logo war’ with Scania-Vabis, claiming a possible confusion between the Scania-Vabis ‘pedal crank’ design featuring on Scania bicycles around 1900 and the Mercedes ‘three-pointed star’. In 1968 Daimler-Benz won and the Scania-Vabis logo changed to a simple griffin’s head on a white background, and ‘Vabis’ was dropped from the name.

Trucks

Many historical Scania-Vabis vehicles (and also Vabis and Scania vehicles) are on display in the Marcus Wallenberg-hallen (the Scania Museum) in Södertälje.

Scania

Scania
Scania
Rechtsvorm Naamloze vennootschap
Oprichting 1891
Eigenaar Volkswagen AG
Sleutelfiguren Martin Lundstedt (CEO)
Land Zweden
Hoofdkantoor Södertälje
Werknemers 42.019 (2014)
Producten vrachtwagens
Sector Transport
Industrie Kapitaalgoederen
Omzet SEK 92.051 miljoen (2014)
Winst SEK 6.009 miljoen (2014)
Website Officiële website
Nederlandse website
PortaalPortaalicoon Economie
1909 SKF (waaruit later Volvo ontstond) test een nieuwe kogellager op een Scania

SKF (waaruit later Volvo ontstond) test een nieuwe kogellager op een Scania in 1909.
Scania b

Klassieke Scania
Scania R470 topline

Moderne Scania
ScaniaR500

Nieuwe R500 serie
Scania-fabriek in Zwolle Nederland

Scania-fabriek in Zwolle

Scania is een Zweeds merk van (motor)voertuigen, opgericht in 1891 in Malmö. Eerst bouwde het bedrijf fietsen, maar vanaf 1903 ook automobielen en in 1905 produceerde het zijn eerste vrachtwagen. In 1911 is het bedrijf samengegaan met Vagen Aktien Bolaget I Södertälje (Vabis) uit Södertälje.

Van 1969 tot 1995 maakte Scania samen met Saab deel uit van Saab-Scania AB.

Scania is een toonaangevende producent van zware bedrijfsauto’s, autobussen en motoren voor industrie en scheepvaart. De onderneming telt wereldwijd ruim 40.000 medewerkers, heeft meerdere productievestigingen in Europa en Latijns-Amerika en is vertegenwoordigd in meer dan 100 landen. De omzet over 2014 bedroeg ruim 90 miljard Zweedse kronen en de winst 6 miljard kronen. Er werden ruim 80.000 voertuigen verkocht. Het hoofdkantoor is gevestigd in Södertälje.

Geschiedenis

Vroege geschiedenis

In 1896 had de Engelse rijwielfabriek Humber & Co in Malmö een dochteronderneming opgericht, de Svenska Aktiebolaget Humber & Co. Rond 1900 werd deze overgenomen door een nieuw bedrijf Maskinfabrikaktiebolaget Scania i Malmö. Naast rijwielen werden andere producten geïntroduceerd waaronder ook de auto. Eerst assembleerde Scania vooral buitenlandse wagens, maar vanaf ongeveer 1905 kwamen er motoren en personen- en vrachtwagens van eigen ontwerp.

Het ontbrak aan financiële middelen om door te groeien en in 1910 ging de directie praten met concurrent Vabis, om tot een fusie te komen. Op 18 maart 1911 werd de fusie een feit. Het bedrijf kreeg de naam Scania-Vabis AB. De productie van vrachtwagens werd geconcentreerd in Malmö en Södertälje richtte zich op personenwagens. In 1913 verhuisde het hoofdkantoor naar Södertälje.

Tussen beide wereldoorlogen

Na het einde van de Eerste Wereldoorlog werd de markt overspoeld met oude militaire voertuigen. De verkoop van nieuwe voertuigen zakte in, Scania-Vabis kwam in financiële problemen en ging failliet. Onder Gunnar Lindmark maakte het bedrijf een doorstart en trad enig herstel op, maar de financiële draagkracht was beperkt en noodzaakte tot rationalisatie en specialisatie. In 1925 werd de productie van personenwagens beëindigd en in 1927 werd de fabriek in Malmö gesloten. Het accent werd ook verlegd van vrachtwagens naar autobussen. In de jaren dertig werden meer bussen dan vrachtwagens verkocht. In 1936 werden, in samenwerking met het Duitse bedrijf Magirus, de eerste eigen dieselmotoren uitgebracht. In de tweede helft van de jaren dertig was de familie Wallenberg de belangrijkste aandeelhouder van het bedrijf geworden. Carl-Bertel Nathhorst werd benoemd tot directeur en hij legde een ambitieus plan op tafel met focus op zware vrachtwagens, autobussen, standaardisering en export. Zijn plannen werden direct aanvaard maar door het uitbreken van de Tweede Wereldoorlog werd de uitvoering sterk vertraagd. De fabriek kreeg defensie opdrachten omdat Zweden neutraal was en geen wapens in het buitenland kon kopen. In juni 1941 kreeg Scania-Vabis opdracht voor de productie van 116 stuks Stridsvagn m/41. Deze tanks waren in licentie gebouwd en werden tussen december 1942 en juni 1943 geleverd.

Internationale expansie

In de jaren vijftig werd het bedrijf actiever buiten Zweden. In 1957 werd meer dan de helft van de productie geëxporteerd en 10 jaar later lag dit zelfs boven de 70%. Met de oprichting van de Europese Economische Gemeenschap in 1957 wilde het bedrijf ook binnen de unie actief zijn. In 1965 werd een assemblagebedrijf in Zwolle gevestigd, maar in 1962 was al een fabriek bij São Paulo in Brazilië geopend. In 1968 fuseerde Scania-Vabis met Saab, een bedrijf wat ook in handen was van de grootaandeelhouder Wallenberg. De combinatie ging verder onder de naam Saab-Scania. Het bedrijf werd in 1995 weer gesplitst en Scania ging zelfstandig verder. In het jaar 2000 rolde de 1 miljoenste vrachtwagen van Scania uit de fabriek. Verder verkocht Investor AB in datzelfde jaar twee derde van haar belang, 37 miljoen aandelen, in Scania aan Volkswagen AG. Volkswagen kreeg hiermee 18,7% van het kapitaal en 34% van het stemrecht in handen en werd daarmee de grootste aandeelhouder.

Overname

In augustus 2000 bracht Volvo een bod uit van ruim 13 miljard gulden op Scania. Volvo had al inmiddels 45% procent van de Scania aandelen in handen.Europees commissaris Mario Monti blokkeerde de transactie. Hij vond dat de twee producenten een te grote macht zouden krijgen in een aantal Europese markten. In Zweden zou de combinatie 93% van de markt verkrijgen en ook in Denemarken, Finland, Engeland en Ierland waren de marktaandelen tussen de 40% en 50% te groot.

Concurrent MAN AG deed in september 2006 een overnamebod op Scania van 9,6 miljard euro. Dit bod werd afgewezen door het bedrijf en door de familie Wallenberg, met 30% grootaandeelhouder. In oktober 2006 had MAN al 14% van de aandelen in handen en bracht een nieuw bod uit van meer dan 10 miljard euro. Volkswagen AG nam een belang van 15,1% in MAN om de overname te ondersteunen. Als de overname was doorgegaan zou de combinatie de grootste vrachtwagenproducent van Europa zijn geweest. De vijandelijke overname door het Duitse MAN stuitte niet op weerstand van de Europese Commissie, dit tot ongenoegen van de Zweden. Uiteindelijk trok MAN het bod in. Op 9 november 2011 kreeg Volkswagen een meerderheidsbelang in MAN. De belangen van MAN en Volkswagen in Scania mochten bij elkaar opgeteld worden. Volkswagen had nu – direct en middellijk via MAN – 89,2% van het stemrecht en 62,6% van het aandelenkapitaal van Scania in handen. Volkswagen streefde naar een driehoeksfusie met MAN en Scania.

In februari 2014 deed Volkswagen een bod van 6,7 miljard euro op de aandelen Scania die het nog niet bezat. De Duitsers boden 200 kronen per aandeel. Medio mei 2014 heeft Volkswagen 90,5% van de aandelen Scania verworven en kan nu via een uitrookprocedure de Zweedse vrachtwagenfabrikant van de beurs te halen en volledig eigenaar worden. De bedoeling is Scania nauwer te laten samenwerken met de eigen vrachtwagenactiviteiten van VW en met MAN.

Scaniaproductie in Nederland

Scania Production Zwolle B.V. is het belangrijkste Europese productiecentrum voor Scania vrachtauto‘s. In de fabriek te Zwolle worden de Scania’s volgens specificatie ‘op maat’ gebouwd en geassembleerd, zowel voor de Nederlandse distributeur als voor klanten in meer dan 60 andere landen.

Scania Production Zwolle B.V. werd in 1964 opgericht en is met ca. 1600 medewerk(st)ers thans de grootste industriële werkgever in de wijde regio. In 2002 werden door de Zwolse fabriek meer dan 20.000 trucks afgeleverd. Wereldwijd leverde Scania in 2002 bijna 44.000 trucks en bussen. Scania Production Zwolle B.V. produceert uitsluitend op order. Dat houdt in dat alle vrachtauto’s specifiek volgens de klanteneisen worden gebouwd. Op 25 september 2006 kwam de 400.000e in Zwolle geproduceerde vrachtwagen van de productielijn en in december 2010 de 500.000e.

In Meppel werden tussen 1963 en 2002 ruim 300.000 Scania-cabines geproduceerd. Die activiteit werd in 2002 geconcentreerd in Oskarshamn. Scania heeft sinds 2005 een nieuwe lakstraat in Meppel, waar vrachtwagencabines van bedrijfsspecifieke kleuren kunnen worden voorzien.

In april 2015 opende Scania een fabriek in Hasselt, waar de in Zwolle afgebouwde vrachtwagens klaar gemaakt worden voor de export.

Trucks

Bedrijfswagens

De bedrijfswagens van Scania bestaan uit trucks voor het transport. De typen trucks die Scania levert onderscheiden zich vooral ten aanzien van het transportdoel; zo zijn er trucks voor bijvoorbeeld de algemene lading en het voertuigtransport. Verder zijn er trucks bedoeld voor volumineuze ladingen die maximale laadruimte bieden. Voor de specifieke transportdoelen zoals de distributie, produceert Scania ook bakwagens, platforms, tankwagens en andere complete voertuigen. Scania heeft in 2004 een nieuw modellen lijn geïntroduceerd. Hierbij werd de benaming veranderd; voorheen werd het model aangeduid met een cijfer. Voor de R-serie en P-serie worden de cabines gebruikt van de voorganger, de 4-serie. Het interieur is compleet nieuw, het exterieur is licht gewijzigd.

R-serie en P-serie

De R-serie is voor de lange afstand, met een hooggeplaatste cabine ten behoeve van veel en functionele cabineruimte. De P-serie heeft in grote lijnen dezelfde cabine, deze is lager geplaatst wat ten goede komt aan een makkelijke instap, en is daar door meer geschikt voor het distributiewerk waarbij veel in- en uitgestapt wordt.

De letters R en P werden in de voorgaande modellen ook al gebruikt maar waren niet zichtbaar op de cabine aanwezig als een typebenaming.

In 2009 introduceerde Scania een facelift voor de cabine van de R en de G serie. Hierbij veranderde onder andere het aangezicht van de grille, bumper, sideskirts en werd onder andere de accubak verplaatst. Met de aankondiging van de nieuwe V8 motoren in 2010 waren ook weer enkele minieme aanpassingen in het uiterlijk te zien.

In 2013 werd het uiterlijk opnieuw aangepast met de introducering van de nieuwe “Streamline” cabine. Deels als eerbetoon aan de voorloper uit eind jaren 80, deels als poging de stroomlijn en het verbruik te reduceren. Waar het Streamline pakket ooit een optie was op de Scania 3-serie, zullen de aanpassingen aan de R-serie cabines standaard zijn.

Motoren

  • 9 liter vijf cilinder lijnmotor: 230pk/1050Nm, 280pk/1400Nm en 320pk/1600Nm. (euro 5 motoren)
  • 11 liter zes cilinder lijnmotor: 340pk/1600Nm
  • 12 liter zes cilinder lijnmotor: 380pk/1900Nm,420pk/2100Nm en 470pk/2200Nm.
  • 13 liter zes cilinder lijnmotor: 360pk/1850Nm,400pk/2100Nm,440pk/2300Nm en 480pk/2500Nm
  • 16 liter acht cilinder V-motor: 500pk/2500Nm, 560pk/2700Nm en 620pk/3000Nm.
  • 16,4 liter acht cilinder V-motor: 730pk/3.500Nm, ook al als EEV-motor leverbaar.

De 16 liter motor is voorbehouden aan de R-serie, vanwege ruimtegebrek in de motorruimte van de P-serie.

Cabines

Voor de P-serie is er een dagcabine, een slaapcabine met een plat dak en een slaapcabine met normaal dak. Voor de R-serie komt daarbij een slaapcabine met een verhoogd dak, de Highline, en een slaapcabine met een extra verhoogd dak, de Topline. Er zijn ook speciale cabine’s beschikbaar voor de dienstensector waaronder huisvuilwagens en brandweerwagens. De cabine’s worden gemaakt in de fabriek in Zweden, dit gebeurde voorheen in Meppel. Daarna gaan ze op transport naar Zwolle waar ze worden afgebouwd.

Bussen

1953 Zescilinder Scania-Vabis Medema van de DAM, nummer 119.

Zescilinder Scania-Vabis /Medema uit 1953 van de DAM, nummer 119.
1956 Viercilinder Scania-Vabis Hainje van de NACO, nummer 2570.

Viercilinder Scania-Vabis /Hainje uit 1956 van de NACO, nummer 2570.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Scania OmniLink van Arriva, nummer 7870.

Nederland

Scania Vabis-bussen hielpen direct na 1945 mee aan de wederopbouw van het Nederlands openbaar vervoer. Grote aantallen bussen van dit merk hebben in Nederland dienstgedaan. De vroegste exemplaren waren compleet opgebouwd in Zweden met carrosserieën van Hägglund; andere hadden een Nederlandse carrosserie, waarvan enkele honderden gebouwd waren door de vliegtuigfabriek Fokker naar een ontwerp van Verheul.

Ook in de jaren vijftig bleef Scania Vabis een geliefd merk voor bussen in het streekvervoer. Het ging daarbij zowel om het trambusmodel (BF-series) als om voorbesturingsbussen (B-series). Er werden motoren van 4, 5 en 6 cilinders toegepast. Carrosserieën werden vooral geleverd door Berkhof te Valkenswaard, Hainje, Den Oudsten en Verheul, maar ook door tal van kleinere carrosseriebedrijven.

In de jaren zestig raakte Scania in het Nederlandse openbaar vervoer buiten beeld. Pas in de jaren negentig ging Scania weer een (eerst nog bescheiden) rol spelen. In het eerste decennium van de 21ste eeuw begon Arriva weer op grotere schaal gebruik te maken van dit merk.

Via importeur Beers hebben touringcars van het merk Scania (Vabis) eveneens aftrek gevonden in Nederland.

N-serie en K-serie

De N-serie is de vervanger van de N94, waar de K-serie de L94/K94/K114 en K124 vervangt. Beide zijn geïntroduceerd in 2005. Hiermee werd de 60 graden gekanteld in de lengte richting geplaatste motor configuratie (L94) uit productie genomen. Tevens is bij de N-serie de motor rechtop geplaatst terwijl deze bij de N94 ook 60 gekanteld was.

De bussen werden op L94 en N94 chassis gebouwd, tegenwoordig op serie N en serie K chassis. De carrosserieën werden vroeger vervaardigd door Scania Katrineholm te Katrineholm en geasembleerd bij DAB te Silkeborg, Denemarken.

De carrosserieën worden vervaardigd door OMNI te Słupsk, Polen, Sint-Petersburg, Rusland en te Katrineholm, Sweden. Scania bouwt carrosserieën onder de naam Scania OmniCity, Scania OmniLink en Scania OmniExpress. Hiervoor worden de chassis N230, N270, N310, K230, K270 en K310 gebruikt. Producten voor zowel het stadsbus– als het streekbus-segment zijn verkrijgbaar.

Motoren

  • 9 liter vijf cilinder lijnmotor: 230pk/1050Nm, 270pk/1250Nm en 310pk/1550Nm (N en K-serie).
  • 12 liter zes cilinder lijnmotor: 340pk/1700Nm, 380pk/1900Nm, 420pk/2100Nm en 470pk/2200Nm (K-serie).

Motorfietsen

1903 Scania motorbike

Scania motorfiets uit 1903

Scania produceerde in 1902 en 1903 een kleine motorfiets met een 143 cc Clement-Garrardclip-on motor. Vanwege het geringe succes duurde de productie slechts ruim een jaar.

Resultaten

Scania produceert de laatste jaren zo’n 80.000 vrachtwagen en autobussen. In 2009 daalden de verkopen en winst scherp als een gevolg van de financieel economische crisis. Europa is de grootste afzetmarkt en vertegenwoordigt ongeveer de helft van de omzet van het bedrijf.

Hieronder een overzicht van de productie en financiële resultaten van het bedrijf sinds 2005:

Jaar Vrachtwagen
productie
Bus
productie
Omzet
(x SEK miljoen)
Nettoresultaat
(x SEK miljoen)
Aantal
werknemers
2005 53.368 6.141 63.328 4.665 30.765
2006 60.867 5.870 70.738 5.939 32.820
2007 71.017 7.314 84.486 8.554 35.096
2008 72.656 7.709 88.977 8.890 34.777
2009 29.573 6.236 62.074 1.129 32.330
2010 60.963 6.700 78.168 9.103 35.514
2011 75.349 8.708 87.686 9.422 37.496
2012 60.647 6.283 79.603 6.640 38.597
2013 75.957 6.897 86.847 6.194 40.953
2014 75.287 6.921 92.051 6.009 42.129

Scania AB

Scania Aktiebolag (publ)
Publicly traded Aktiebolag
Industry Automotive
Founded Malmö, Sweden (1900)
Founder Gustaf Erikson
Headquarters Södertälje, Sweden
Number of locations
10
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Martin Winterkorn (Chairman), Martin Lundstedt (President and CEO), Jan Ytterberg (CFO)
Products Commercial vehicles,
diesel engines
Services Financial services
Revenue Increase SEK 94.880 billion (2014)
Increase SEK 8.72 billion (2014)
Profit Decrease SEK 6.009 billion (2014)
Total assets Increase SEK 133.037 billion(2014)
Total equity Increase SEK 41.801 billion (2014)
Number of employees
42,129 (2014)
Parent Volkswagen Group
Website scania.com

Scania Aktiebolag (publ), commonly referred to as Scania AB or just Scania, is a major Swedish automotive industry manufacturer of commercial vehicles – specifically heavy trucks and buses. It also manufactures diesel engines for motive power of heavy vehicles, marine, and general industrial applications.

Founded in 1891 in Malmö, in the Swedish province of Skåne, the company’s head office has been in Södertälje, in the province of Södermanland, since 1912. Today, Scania has production facilities in Sweden, France,Netherlands, Argentina, Brazil, Poland, and Russia. In addition, there are assembly plants in ten countries in Africa, Asia and Europe. Scania’s sales and service organisation and finance companies are worldwide. In 2012, the company employed approximately 42,100 people around the world. Scania was listed on the NASDAQ OMX Stockholm stock exchange from 1996 to 2014.

Scania’s logo shows a Griffin, from the coat of arms of the province of Scania (Swedish: Skåne).

History

1901 Scania A1

Scania A1 1901

1903 Scania Type A Tonneau

Scania Type A Tonneau 1903

Scania b

A vintage Scania truck (L80 successor to the Scania-Vabis L56)

Scania AB (Scania is Latin for the province of Skåne) came from a merger between the two companies; Vabis and Scania.

Vabis and Scania

Main article: Scania-Vabis

Vabis (Vagnsfabriksaktiebolaget i Södertälje) was founded in 1891 as a subsidiary of Södertälje based steel company Surahammars Bruk, manufacturing railway carriages. In 1902, engineer Gustaf Erikson designed the company’s first truck, powered by a petrol engine and two-speed gearbox. A year later, the first order was placed for a Vabis commercial vehicle. By 1907, the company had developed a 3-ton truck, however, though it won a Swedish Royal Automobile Club award in 1909, the new range was a financial disaster for the company, failing to attract more than a handful of orders.

Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania was founded in 1900 in Malmö in the south of Sweden, and was in the beginning a manufacturer of bicycles, but by 1903 the first cars left the factory. Two years later, Scania built their first truck.

Following the financial problems at Vabis, the companies merged in 1911, creating AB Scania-Vabis. Engine and car production was moved to Södertälje, and truck production took place in Malmö.

First World War and 1920s

For the next few years the company’s profits stagnated, with around a third of their orders coming from abroad. The outbreak of the First World War, however, changed the company, with almost all output being diverted to the Swedish Army. By 1916, Scania-Vabis was making enough profit to invest in redeveloping both of their production facilities.

Following the war, in 1919, Scania decided to focus completely on building trucks, abandoning other outputs including cars and buses. However, they were hurt by the swamping of the market with decommissioned military vehicles from the war, and by 1921 the company was bankrupt.

After some economic difficulties in 1921, new capital came from Stockholms Enskilda Bank owned by the Wallenberg family, and Scania-Vabis became a solid and technically, high standing, company.

Denmark

Towards the end of 1913, the company established a subsidiary in Denmark. The following year the first Danish-built car, a four-seater Phaeton, was built at the company’s Frederiksberg factory in Copenhagen. In 1914, the factory produced Denmark’s first Scania-Vabis truck, and following this developed a V8 engine, one of the first in the world. In 1921, having sold around 175 trucks, and 75 cars, the Danish operation was closed down.

1930s and 1940s

During the Second World War Scania produced a variety of military vehicles for the Swedish Army, including Stridsvagn m/41 light tanks produced under license.

1950s and 1960s

During the 1950s, the company expanded its operations into new customer segments, becoming agents for the Willys Jeep and the Volkswagen Beetle, the latter being very profitable for Scania-Vabis. It also started to become a genuine competitor to Volvo with their new Regent truck which was introduced in 1954.

During this period, Scania-Vabis expanded its dealer network and country-wide specialist workshop facilities. By the end of the 1950s, their market-share in Sweden was between 40 to 50%, and was achieving 70% in the heaviest truck sector – helped by the entrepreneurial efforts of their dealers into the haulier market.

Scania Vabis ad Beers

Probably their largest impact was in export markets. Before 1950, exports accounted for only 10 percent of production output, but a decade later, exports were now at 50% of output. Beers in the Netherlands became a very important partner. Beers became official importers for Scania-Vabis in the Netherlands, and established a dealer network, along with training programmes for both mechanics and drivers. Beers also offered free twice-yearly overhauls of their customers vehicles, and offered a mobile service throughout the Netherlands with their custom-equipped service trucks. Due to Beers concerted efforts, Scania-Vabis market share in the country remained at a consistent 20% throughout this period. Scania-Vabis were to adopt the business model of Beers in their own overseas sales operations.

NCA001000398, 13-08-2007, 16:24,  8C, 7336x8262 (662+884), 100%, NCAD,  1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9
NCA001000398, 13-08-2007, 16:24, 8C, 7336×8262 (662+884), 100%, NCAD, 1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9

The 1960s saw Scania-Vabis expanding its production operations into overseas locations. Until now, all Scania-Vabis production had been carried out solely at Södertälje, but the 1960s saw the need to expand production overseas. Brazil was becoming a notable market for heavy trucks, and was also dependent on inter-urban buses, with particular requirement for Brazil’s mountainous roads which became nigh-on impassable at times. Scania-Vabis products had already been assembled in Brazil by a local company called Vemag, but Scania Vabis do Brasil, S.A. became an independent operation in July 1960. Scania-Vabis established its first production plant outside Södertälje, by building a new facility at São Bernardo do Campo in Brazil, which was completed in 1962, and this was to set the standard for Scania-Vabis international operations.

Closer to home, the recently formed European Economic Community (EEC) offered further opportunities. Based on their now strong presence in the Dutch markets, Scania-Vabis constructed a new plant in Zwolle, which was completed in 1964. This new Dutch facility provided Scania-Vabis with a stepping stone into the other five EEC countries, particularly the German and French markets.

In 1966, Scania-Vabis acquired ownership of a then valuable competitor – Be-Ge Karosserifabrik, who were based in Oskarshamn. Be-Ge had been making truck cabs since 1946, and had been supplying cabs not only to Scania-Vabis, but also to their Swedish competitors Volvo. It was normal practice for truck manufacturers to outsource production of cabs to independent bodybuilders, so their acquisition by Scania-Vabis seemed a good move. Be-Ge owner Bror Göthe Persson had also established an additional cab factory at Meppel.

Scania-Vabis continued their expansion of production facilities through acquisitions. In 1967, they acquired Katrineholm based coachwork company Svenska Karosseri Verkstäderna, and created a new subsidiary, Scania-Bussar. A year later, all bus production, along with R&D was moved to Katrineholm. Further production locations were added at Sibbhult and Falun, and Scania’s employee numbers rose, particularly at Södertälje, which was to help double the town’s population.

Saab-Scania AB (1969–1995)

In 1969, Scania-VABIS merged with Saab AB, and formed Saab-Scania AB. When Saab-Scania was split in 1995, the name of the truck and bus division changed simply to Scania AB. One year later, Scania AB was introduced on the stock exchange, which resulted in a minor change of name to Scania AB (publ).

Many examples of Scania, Vabis and Scania-Vabis commercial and military vehicles can be seen at the Marcus Wallenberg-hallen (the Scania Museum) in Södertälje.

Ownership

Aborted Volvo takeover

On 7 August 1999, Volvo announced it had agreed to acquire a majority share in Scania. Volvo was to buy the 49.3% stake in Scania that was owned by Investor AB, Scania’s then main shareholder. The acquisition, for $7.5 billion (60.7 billion SEK), would have created the world’s second-largest manufacturer of heavy trucks, behind DaimlerChrysler. The cash for the deal came from Volvo selling its car division to Ford Motor Company in January 1999, but the deal had yet to be approved by the European Union.

The deal eventually failed, after the European Union had disapproved of the affair, saying it would create a company with almost 100% market share in the Nordic markets.

Aborted MAN takeover

In September 2006, the German truckmaker MAN AG launched a 10.3bn hostile offer to acquire Scania AB. Scania’s CEO Leif Östling was forced to apologise for comparing the bid of MAN to a “Blitzkrieg“. MAN AG later dropped its hostile offer, but in January 2008, MAN increased their voting rights in Scania up to 17%.

Scania ownership today

The two major stockholders of Scania AB (publ) are:

  • The German automotive company Volkswagen AG is Scania’s biggest shareholder, with a 70.94% voting stake (equity) in Scania. It gained this by first buying Volvo’s stake in 2000, after the latter’s aborted takeover attempt, increasing it to 36.4% in the first quarter 2007, and then buying the remainder from Investor AB in March 2008. The deal was approved by regulatory bodies in July 2008. Scania then became the ninth marque in the Volkswagen Group.
  • The German truck manufacturer MAN SE holds a 17.37% voting stake in Scania. Notably, Volkswagen AG also owns 75.03% of MAN.

Current shareholders

Scania AB (publ) has a total issue of 400 million ‘A shares’ and 400 million ‘B shares’, with a total capitalised value of SEK 72,880 million. In terms of voting rights, one ‘A share’ is eligible for one vote, whereas 10 ‘B shares’ are required for one vote.

As of 29 January 2010, these shares, as published by Swedish Central Securities Depository and Clearing Organisation (“Euroclear“), are allocated to 119,973 owners, and the table below details the top ten shareholders.

Scania AB (publ) principal shareholders
shareholder name A shares B shares % of capital % of votes
Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft * 306,232,239 59,037,822 45.66 70.94
MAN SE 73,047,179 33,718,857 13.35 17.37
Clearstream Banking 1,170,514 32,973,450 4.27 1.02
JP Morgan Chase Bank 461,584 36,220,219 4.59 0.93
Swedbank Robur Fonder 0 29,043,665 3.63 0.66
Skandia Liv 974,374 9,646,318 1.33 0.44
Alecta Pensionsförsäkring 0 19,085,000 2.39 0.33
AMF Försäkring och fonder 650,000 9,678,411 1.23 0.36
Handelsbanken fonder 0 7,202,362 0.90 0.16
The Government Pension Fund of Norway 0 6,937,665 0.87 0.16
largest 10 owners 382,535,890 243,021,708 78.19 92.46
Others 17,464,110 156,978,292 21.81 7.54
total ownership 400,000,000 400,000,000 100.00 100.00

* Further to the shares listed above, Volkswagen AG also holds shares in trust by a credit institution of Scania, which gives additional voting rights amounting to 0.87 percent and an equity interest of 3.63 percent attributable to Volkswagen AG, as disclosed in January 2009.

Products

Scania develops, manufactures and sells trucks with a gross vehicle weight of more than 16 tonnes (Class 8), intended for long-distance haulage, regional, and local distribution of goods, as well as construction haulage.

Scania’s bus range is concentrated on bus chassis, intended for use in tourist coaches, as well as urban and intercity traffic.

Scania’s industrial and marine engines are used in generator sets and in earthmoving and agricultural machinery, as well as on board ships and pleasure crafts.

Scania also designs and manufacture clothes especially designed for truckers under the label Scania Truck Gear.

Current

Scania R470 topline

Scania R470 truck

Scania R500

The new Scania R500

Scania P270 Fire Engine, Dublin Fire Brigade, Ireland

Scania P270 Fire Engine, Dublin Fire Brigade, Ireland

Scania K230UB owned by SBS Transit Pte Ltd.

Scania K230UB owned by SBS Transit Pte Ltd.

Trucks and special vehicles

  • P-series – typical applications are regional and local distribution, construction, and various specialised operations associated with locally based transportation and services. P-series trucks have the new P cabs, which are available in three variations: a single-berth sleeper, a spacious day cab and a short cab
  • G-series – the G-series models offer an enlarged range of options for operators engaged in national long haul and virtually all types of construction applications. All models have a G cab, and each is available as a tractor or rigid. The G-series truck comes with five cab variants: three sleepers, a day cab and a short cab. There are different axle configurations, and in most cases a choice of chassis height and suspension
  • R-series – the R-series model range debuted in 2004, and won the prestigious International Truck of the Year award in 2005 and again in 2010. The range offers various trucks optimised for long haulage. All models have a Scania R cab, and each vehicle is available as a tractor or rigid. There are different axle configurations and a choice of chassis height and suspension. The Scania R730 is the most powerful variant of the R-series. Its 16.4 Liter DC16 Turbo Diesel V8 engine produces 730 PS (540 kW; 720 hp) at 1,900 rpm and 3,500 N·m (2,600 lb·ft) of torque at 1,000–1,350 rpm.

The R series also came as a limited edition ‘+’ the most common being the R420+ with 100 being sold across Europe. This came with a newer opti-cruise gearbox with a trial gear ratio. It also came with an added microwave from the dealer. It’s believed the sales were mainly in Sweden, but as many as 10 per country elsewhere.

  • T-series – the T-series is the R-series with nose, and have the same engine.

Buses

Main article: Scania buses
  • F-series – front engine bus chassis with Euro III and Euro V compliant engines
  • K-series – rear engine bus chassis (longitudinal mounted) with Euro III – Euro VI compliant engines
  • N-series – rear engine bus chassis (transversal mounted) with Euro III – Euro VI compliant engines
  • OmniLink (CK-series) – citybus using the K-series chassis
  • OmniCity (CN-series) – citybus using the N-series chassis
  • OmniExpress (LK-series) – intercity coach using the K-series chassis
  • Citywide LE/Citywide LF – new citybus range superseded the OmniCity and OmniLink in left-hand-drive markets, using respectively the N-series and K-series chassis

Diesel engines

Scania’s involvement with internal combustion engine production dates back to 1897, when engineer Gustav Erickson designed the engine for the company’s first motor car. Over the subsequent years, Scania has grown to be one of the world’s most experienced engine manufacturers, building engines not only for trucks and buses, but also for marine and general industrial applications, which are exported across the globe.

Historical

https://myntransportblog.com/2014/05/27/buses-scania-vabis-sweden/

Scania K113TRBL 14.5m quad-axle coach

Scania K113TRBL 14.5m quad-axle coach

Ikarus E99 on Scania K124EB chassis

Ikarus E99 on Scania K124EB chassis

Buses

Trucks and special vehicles

Diesel engines

Production sites

The table below shows the locations of the current and former production facilities of Scania AB. As Scania is now majority owned by Volkswagen AG, making it part of Volkswagen Group, the table also includes Volkswagen Group references.

Notes: the second column of the table, the ‘factory VIN ID code’, is indicated in the 11th digit of the vehicles’ 17 digit Vehicle Identification Number, and this factory code is only assigned to plants which produce actual vehicles. Component factories which do not produce complete vehicles do not have this factory ID code.

Next follows my collection of photographs:

1901 Scania A1 1902 scania VABIS 1903 Scania motorbike 1903 Scania Type A Tonneau 1903-11 Scania 1908 SCANIA a 1908 SCANIA b 1909 SCANIA LAITIER 1909 SKF (waaruit later Volvo ontstond) test een nieuwe kogellager op een Scania 1910 SCANIA IL 1911 Scania-Vabis Firetruck 1911-68 Scania-Vabis 1913 SCANIA-VABIS 1914 SCANIA-VABIS CLC 1915 SCANIA-VABIS 1917 SCANIA-VABIS S3 1917 SCANIA-VABIS 1924 SCANIA-VABIS BENNE 1927 Scania-Vabis B3243 Bus 1927 Scania-Vabis limousine 1928 SCANIA-VABIS 1929 Scania-Vabis 2122 1929 SCANIA-VABIS GAZOGENE 1933 SCANIA-VABIS 3556 1935 SCANIA-VABIS 34-511 1936 SCANIA-VABIS 35-511 1942 SCANIA VABIS 1942 SCANIA-VABIS 335 1948 SCANIA-VABIS L 13 1949 SCANIA-VABIS L 21 1951 SCANIA-VABIS L 63 1952 SCANIA VABIS 1953 scania-vabis-l51-pj-64-08 1953 Zescilinder Scania-Vabis Medema van de DAM, nummer 119. 1954 SCANIA-VABIS L 43 1954-Scania-Vabis-L51-Brochure-English 1955 SCANIA L50 petit porteur citerne 1956 Scania Vabis Solo Distributie 1956 Viercilinder Scania-Vabis Hainje van de NACO, nummer 2570. 1957 SCANIA-VABIS L 51 1957 Scania-Vabis L71 1960 SCANIA-VABIS a 1960 SCANIA-VABIS LT 75 1960 SCANIA-VABIS 1960s SCANIA LBS 76 tracteur 6x2 dans le milieu 1961 SCANIA VABIS L 36 porteur de petit tonnage 1961 Scania-Vabis De Spar TF-25-07 1961 Scania-Vabis LV 75 TB-46-79 1962 SCANIA LT 66 1962 Scania-Vabis Capitol 1962 SCANIA-VABIS L 56 1963 SCANIA LB 76 cabine avancée courte 1963 Scania Vabis LBS76 1963 SCANIA-VABIS L 76 1963 Scania-Vabis L36tanker 1963 SCANIA-VABIS LB 76 1963 Scania-Vabis LB76 1967 Scania Vabis LB76 Super Engine 3000cc  RDA 1967 Scania Vabis LB76 Super Engine 3000cc 1967 Scania Vabis LBS76 1967 Scania-Vabis LS5646 1968 Scania AB 1968 SCANIA LBS 110 222 1968 Scania-Vabis L 76 Chemikalien-Tankwagen 1968 Scania-Vabis L76.08 1970 SCANIA LBS 110 551 1970 SCANIA LBT 140 1970s Scania L110 1971 SCANIA 85 super cabine 1972 SCANIA 85 Super 1972 Scania L8054 1973 SCANIA LBS 85 141 1973 Scania LS 110 Super Pritschensattelzug mit Ladekran 1974 SCANIA LT 111 P33 1976 SCANIA LB 141 159 1976 SCANIA LBS 140 596 1976 SCANIA LS 140 222 1977 SCANIA 140 1978 SCANIA 111 Super 1978 Scania 141 V8 Tractor VVW 1980 SCANIA 142 M 1980 SCANIA R 92 M 1980 SCANIA T 82 M 214 1982 SCANIA R 112 M 809 1984 SCANIA T 112 H 187 1985-88 SCANIA P 92 H F44 1986 Scania Super 142E Engine 5840cc V8 Inter-cooler 1987 Scania 142M Tractor Engine 14000cc Parker 1988 Scania 142M Articulated Engine 14200cc 1990 SCANIA 112 M [8 x 2]15 1990 SCANIA R 113 M 546 1990 SCANIA R 143 MA 347 1993 SCANIA P 93 H 237 1994 Scania 143M 450 Engine 14200cc Streamline 1994 SCANIA T 113 360 1995 Scania 113M Low Loader Engine 11000cc Lawrence 1995 SCANIA R 124 LA 346 1995 SCANIA R 144 LA KJY 1996 Scania 143M Tractor Engine 14190cc JFA 1996 SCANIA T 124 LA 171 1998 SCANIA P 114 CB 8x4 1998 SCANIA P 124 654 1998 SCANIA R 144 GB 453 1999 Scania 144L Tractor Engine 14190cc Murdoch 2005 Scania HP Cleveland DDC1 evers-scania Ikarus E99 on Scania K124EB chassis Scania + SCANIA 6X4 142  Arianne Scania 8x4 SCANIA 12x4 Scania 50 SCANIA 76 831 Scania 76 combi Folmer Scania 76 Fa Vermey Schiedam Scania 76 Super BEO Scania 76LB Scania 80 Super Scania 80 truck L80 successor to the Scania - Vabis L56 SCANIA 81 755 Scania 92M Scania 110 met Torpedo Cabine Scania 110 super (2) Scania 110 Super Scania 110 Torpedo Super SCANIA 111 783 Scania 111 Scania 113M 360 Scania 114L Horse Box SCANIA 124 L SCANIA 124G 420 SCANIA 140 (Cabine Museau) Scania 141 2 SCANIA 141 j Scania 141 Jawico SCANIA 141 UB15 Scania 141 Scania 142 SCANIA 143 M ORE SCANIA 144G 530 cv Scania 144G 530 SCANIA 144G TDW SCANIA 164 G 480 SCANIA 164 L couchette allongée SCANIA 164 L T10 SCANIA 164 Ln Scania 420 Scania AB Scania Ad Scania Bil Scania Brandweervoertuig Scania Bronto Scania c Scania Cambridgeshire fire engine Scania Combi Disselkoen De Lier Scania Denmark Lundgren Scania dieplader Looms&Alberts Scania Disselkoen De Lier Scania Douwe Egberts - Joure  B-12186 Scania F a Scania F Scania Frontstuur RSK Scania Futuristic-truck-cab-concept-probably-wont-thrill-Optimus-Prime Scania G82M Scania Jawico (25) Scania K Timmer Velsen Scania K113TRBL 14.5m quad-axle coach Scania K230UB owned by SBS Transit Pte Ltd. Scania L 110 Super Sattelschlepper Scania L(S) 110 Schausteller-Zugmaschine Scania Ladderwagen Norwegian fire engine scania LB 76 Scania LB 110 Super Pritschen-Lkw Scania LB 111 Schausteller-Zugmaschine Scania LB 141 Schausteller-Zugmaschine Scania LB81 brochure2 Scania LBS 140 Sattelschlepper Scania LBS 140 Super Sattelschlepper Scania LBS 141 Sattelschlepper Scania LV75 Scania Metz Australië SCANIA Monster

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Scania P94 - HAZMAT Response, Australia Scania P270 Fire Engine, Dublin Fire Brigade, Ireland Scania P310 Perth Scania P340 BAS4 Växjö SCANIA R 113 M 233 SCANIA R 143 HL 3BK SCANIA R 143 MA 749 SCANIA R 500 795 Scania R serie Scania R470 topline Scania R500 Scania R620. Lockyer. Scania Super Dendermonde Scania Super SCANIA T 113 M 790 SCANIA T 580 T65 Scania T Cab BLOOM demolition Scania T124 6x2 420, T-Met Scrap Metals scania T-143 Scania touf Scania Transneerlandia Scania Uitvaart  (3) Scania Uitvaart (1) Scania Uitvaart (2) Scania Uitvaart (4) Scania Uitvaart (5) Scania Uitvaart (6) Scania Uitvaart animatie2 (1) Scania USA Cat12-vi Scania Vabis 2.5-tonner Scania Vabis 55 (2) Scania Vabis 55 Scania Vabis 76 Scania Vabis 80 Scania Vabis 110 Scania Vabis ad Beers

NCA001000398, 13-08-2007, 16:24,  8C, 7336x8262 (662+884), 100%, NCAD,  1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9
NCA001000398, 13-08-2007, 16:24, 8C, 7336×8262 (662+884), 100%, NCAD, 1/80 s, R42.6, G11.4, B8.9

Scania Vabis B56 Scania Vabis Beauty Scania Vabis Buitelaar Scania Vabis Cement Scania Vabis embleem Scania Vabis G&G UB-22-56 Scania Vabis JdW UB-96-50 003 foto WV(WAT) Scania Vabis js Scania Vabis LB 76 Super Scania Vabis LB 76 SCANIA VABIS LV 75 RTT VD 43 18 Scania Vabis LV75 Scania Vabis Serie 335 Scania Vabis Trekker Scania Vabis UB-38-78-2 SCANIA VABIS VB-64-49 only build in holland, this polyester cab is from different factory Scania Vabis scania vabis-blomfield Scania Veewagen extra Scania verzameling Schmid Scania with exceptional load Scania wordmark.svg Scania Scania.svg Scania-fabriek in Zwolle Nederland ScaniaR500 Scania-Vabis 75 adv Scania-vabis Disselkoen Scania-Vabis L 60 Kühllastzug Scania-Vabis L 75 Langmaterial-Lastzug Scania-Vabis LB 76 Super Lkw-Abschleppwagen Scania-Vabis LBS 76 Super Sattelschlepper a Scania-Vabis LBS 76 Super Sattelschlepper b Scania-Vabis LBS 76 Super Sattelschlepper Scania-Vabis LS 76 Super Sattelschlepper Scania-Vabis tractor unit Volkswagen Group.svg

WHITE Motor Company Cleveland Ohio USA 1900 – 1980 Buses and more

White Motor Company

White Motor Company
Industry Automotive
Fate Acquired
Successors AB Volvo
Founded 1900
Founders Thomas White
Defunct 1980
Headquarters Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Products Vehicles
Automotive parts

The White Motor Company was an American automobile and truck manufacturer from 1900 until 1980. The company also produced bicyclesroller skates, automatic lathes, and sewing machines. Before World War II, the company was based in Cleveland, Ohio.

History

Advertisement for the White Sewing Machine Company’s 1905 model

About 1898, Thomas H. White purchased a Locomobile steam car and found its boiler unreliable. His son, Rollin, set out to improve its design. Rollin White developed a form of water tube steam generator which consisted of a series of stacked coils with two novel features: the first was that the coils were all joined at the top of the unit, which allowed water to flow only when pumped, allowing control of the steam generation; the second was pulling steam from the lowest coil, closest to the fire, which allowed control of steam temperature. This second point was critical because the White steamer operated with superheated steam to take advantage of steam’s properties at higher temperatures. Rollin White patented his steam generator, US patent 659,837 of 1900.[1]

White steamer

1907 White Model G steam touring car

 A 1907 White Model G steam touring car at the Henry Ford Museum.

Rollin H. White patented his new design and offered it to, among others, Locomobile. Finally, he persuaded his father, founder of the White Sewing Machine Company, to allow the use of a corner in one of his buildings to build an automobile.

White’s brother Windsor, who was a management talent, joined the business venture, followed by their brother Walter, who became instrumental in the sales, promotion and distribution of the product. The first group of fifty cars were completed in October 1900, but none were offered to the public until April 1901 so the design could be thoroughly tested. Since the cars were being offered by the automobile department of the sewing machine company, White could not afford to diminish the reputation of the parent company by the introduction of an untested product.

It became necessary in 1905 to separate the automobile department from its parent company to accommodate the growth of the business and to physically separate them, as a fire in one could ruin both operations. On July 4, 1905, a racing steam car named “Whistling Billy” and driven by Webb Jay set a record of 73.75 mph (118.69 km/h) on the Morris Park Racecourse.

1909 The Presidents White 40 Hp TaftMotorCar1909

 Taft’s car
1909 White Touring Car

1909 White touring car at the Petersen Automotive Museum

A 1907 White steamer was one of the early vehicles in the White House when Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, allowed the Secret Service to use the car behind his horse-drawn carriage. In 1909, president William Howard Taft converted the White House stables into a garage and purchased four automobiles: two Pierce-Arrows, a Baker Electric, and a 1911 White. This $4,000 car was one of the last steam cars produced and proved a favorite of the President who used bursts of steam against “pesky” press photographers. The 40 hp (30 kW) White Model M 7-seat tourer generated favorable press for the newly formed White Motor Company.

The last steam car was built in January 1911 as the company made a transition to gasoline-powered vehicles. The company continued to show them in their catalogues as late as 1912. About 10,000 White steam-powered cars were built, more than the better known Stanley.

Gasoline models

White companies’ manufacturing facility expanded. The White steamer used unique technology, and it was vulnerable in a market that was accepting the internal combustion engine as the standard. White canvassed existing gas manufacturers and licensed the rights to the Delahaye design for the “gas car”, showing a chassis at an English auto show in December 1908.

White tractors

Rollin became more interested in agricultural tractors, and developed designs for tractors derived from standard White truck parts. When the White Company was not interested in producing tractors, Rollin set out to develop his own designs and, with brother Clarence, eventually founded Cleveland Motor Plow, which later became Cletrac tractor. In the early 1920s, Rollin briefly produced the Rollin car to diversify the tractor company, but found it could not compete in cost versus price against much larger manufacturers.

White was successful with their heavy machines, which saw service around the world during World War I. White remained in the truck industry for decades.

Truck manufacturing

1930-41 White fire Truck Old_CFD_Squad_10_truck2

White truck in the Chicago Fire Department from 1930 to 1941

White Motor Company ended car production after WWI and began producing trucks. The company soon sold 10 percent of all trucks made in the US. Although White produced all sizes of trucks from light delivery to semi, the decision was made after WWII to produce only large trucks. White acquired several truck companies during this time: Sterling, Autocar, Diamond T, and REO. White also agreed to sell Consolidated Freightways trucks through its own dealers. White produced trucks under the Autocar nameplate following its acquisition. Diamond T and REO Motor Car Company became the Diamond REO division, which was discontinued in the 1970s.

A White semi performed a role in the 1949 James Cagney film, “White Heat“. This era was probably the peak of White Motor market penetration, with the substantial gasoline engined tractors moving a large part of the tractor trailer fleet.

White designed and (with other companies) produced the M3 Scout Car, the standard United States Army reconnaissance vehicle at the start of World War II. White also built the later M2 and M3 half-tracks.

In 1967, White started the Western Star division to sell trucks on the west coast.

White buses

White Red Jammers Canada Alberta Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park Waterton Lakes National Park Waterton Prince of Wales Hotel

Two ‘red jammers’ at the Prince of Wales Hotel

In the 1930s, White produced 500 of their small Model 706 buses specifically designed to carry passengers through the major National Parks of the western US. The distinctive vehicles, with roll-back canvas convertible tops, were the product of noted industrial designer Alexis de Sakhnoffsky, and originally operated in seven National Parks. Today, Glacier National Park operates 33 of their original 35 buses, where they are referred to as “Red Jammers“, and 8 (of an original 98) have been restored for renewed service in Yellowstone National Park. Glacier National Park‘s 33 buses were refurbished by Ford Motor Company and TransGlobal in 2000-2002, while Yellowstone National Park‘s eight buses were refurbished by TransGlobal in 2007. Glacier has kept one bus in original condition. Yellowstone has five White buses in original condition, two model 706s and three older units as well. In addition, Gettysburg National Battlefield operates two of Yellowstone’s original buses.

Company culture

1910 White_touring_car

 1910 White touring car
1897 White railcar

White railcar in the collection of the Railtown 1897 State Historic Park

During the time brothers Walter and Windsor White ran the company, it offered a library branch, a store which sold necessities at low cost, sports teams, and concerts by orchestras and jazz bands, as well as musical performances by the workers, many of whom were immigrants from Slovenia and Poland. The company also had picnics at Euclid Beach Park.

After Walter White died from a traffic accident, management changed and so did the firm’s culture. Employees started one of the country’s first automobile unions. The Great Depression caused a drop in sales, forcing White to merge with Studebaker. However, White soon became independent again.

In 1935, Robert Fager Black became president, but workers were still unhappy, and they went on strike. Black tried talking to the workers who were striking, and he even got baseball equipment for them and let them play while on strike, so they would have something to do. Black learned people’s names, visited the plant frequently, and asked customers if they were happy with what they purchased. Anyone could visit his office.

Black brought the company back to where it had once been by World War II, during which the company supplied the military with much of its equipment. White ranked 54th among US corporations in the value of WWII military production contracts. When husbands went to serve, wives took their jobs, and the work force totaled over 4000. Black provided the services the company had at one time, and helped employees get to work with carpools.

Black retired in 1956, still beloved by employees.

Demise

1962 White Truck Patchogue New York

1962 tractor

In 1953, White purchased the Autocar Company. From 1951 until 1977, White Motors also distributed Freightliner trucks. This took place under an agreement with Freightliner’s parent, Consolidated Freightways. White manufactured trucks under its own brands—White, Autocar, and Western Star—as well, leading to the company becoming known as the “Big Four” through to the mid-1970s. The Sterling nameplate, unused by White as long as the company owned it, went to Freightliner after the companies’ split; it is was used from 1997 to 2008, by Daimler Trucks.

Sales dropped during the 1960s, and White tried merging with White Consolidated Industries, the company that once made sewing machines; the federal government blocked this deal. The company opened plants in Virginia and Utah, since they did not have unions, but this did not help. Semon E. “Bunkie” Knudsen, former president of Ford Motor Company, made the company successful for a time, but the decline continued. Later, the federal government approved a merger with White Consolidated, which feared being hurt by White Motor’s troubles. Mergers with Daimler and Renault were also considered. Production was somewhat limited as White did not have a lighter range (13,330 units built in 1978), leading to several attempts at linking up with various European manufacturers.

By 1980, White was insolvent. Volvo AB acquired the US assets of the company in 1981, while two energy-related companies based in CalgaryAlberta, Bow Valley Resource Services, and NovaCorp, an Alberta corporation, purchased the Canadian assets, including the Kelowna, British Columbia, plant, and the Western Star nameplate and product range.

1948 White Road Tractor

1948 White road tractor model WC-22T

Volvo produced trucks as White and Autocar through the 1980s, while Western Star continued independently in Canada and the United States, although Volvo-White–produced high cab over engine models were purchased and rebadged Western Star for sale in the Canadian market through the early 1990s.

Volvo purchased GMC‘s heavy truck business in 1987 and merged it with White, creating the White-GMC brand. Western Star was sold to Australian entrepreneur Terry Peabody in 1990. Subsequently, Western Star was resold by Peabody to DaimlerChrysler AG and merged with its Freightliner subsidiary. Volvo dropped any reference to White, and is now Volvo Trucks North America. Autocar remained a part of Volvo until 2000, when the trademark was withdrawn from the market, and was subsequently sold to Grand Vehicle Works together with the Xpeditor low cab forward heavy duty product, which remains in production under the Autocar badge, the last vestige of what was once America’s leading commercial vehicle producer.

A former White subsidiary, White Farm Equipment, produced farm tractors until 2001. As of 2006, the only products made under the White name is a series of corn planters (made by AGCO) and garden tractors (made by MTD Products).

2007 Kenworth W900 semi in red

2007 Kenworth W900 semi in red

BUSES

Martz 1912 White

1912 White bus

1915 White

1915-white

1922 White Charabanc Tourer

1922-white-charabanc-tourer

1922 White on a California Body Company body Oakland CA

1922 White Touring Bus

1923 White Model 50 - 25 Passenger

1923 White Model 50 – 25 Passenger

1925 White - White A'dam

1925-white-white-adam nl

1927 white-opt

1927-white

1928 White Bender Bus

1928-white-bender-bus

1929 White EB01d059

1929 White EB01d059

1929 White Bender bus

1929 White Bender bus

1929 White Bender

White Bender Bus

1930 White Bender Bus

White Bender Buses

1930 White Bender

1930-white-bender-buses

1930 White bus WHITEFRANKMARTZ 1930 White Model 65 with body by Moore

1930-white-model-65-with-body-by-moore

1930 White Motor Company

1930-white-motor-company

1931 White Bender

1931-white-bender-bus

1931 White Benderbus

1931-white-benderbus

1931 White

1931-white

1928 white coache mod

1933 white-coache-mod

1934 White  Open Bender Bus

1934-white-open-bender-bus

1934 White 702 bus

1934-white-702-bus

1934 White Open Bender

1934-white-open-bender

1934 White yellowstone bus 04

1934-white-yellowstone-bus-04

1934 White yellowstone bus 14

1934-white-yellowstone-bus-14

1934 White-Bender 54-A Sunshine Bus Lines 182 1935 White model 54A, bus 810 SEGL

1935-white-model-54a-bus-810-segl

1936 White Dream Coach of 1950, Great Lakes Exposition

1936 White Dream Coach

1936 White Sightseeing Bus, Great Lakes Exposition

1936 WHITE

1937 White 706

1937 Yellowstone 427 White

1937 White open Bender bus

1937-white-open-bender-bus

1937-48 White Model 798 V12

1937-48-white-model-798-v12

1938 White 7788 Tamiami Trail Tours Inc 913 1938 White Bender

1938-white-bender

1938 White Bendera

1938-white-bender

1946 Hermes White-lks te Doetinchem 090706 1946 Hermes White-rts te Doetinchem 090706

1946-hermes-white-lks-te-doetinchem

1946 White Scoutcar NZH017

1946-white-scoutcar-nzh017

1947 White Scout 8 met Austin 4 daar achter

1947-white-scout-8-met-austin-4-daar-achter

1947 White Smit B-31746

1947-white-smit-b-31746

1949 White carr. Medema appingedam B-31617

1949-white-carr-medema-appingedam-b-31617

1952 White Fleet

1952-white-fleet

1952 White Matser 16 NB-57-01 ECF

1952-ecf-4741-matser-16-white

1972 White CCMC Calabromo 5136 1976 White MBA Edwards MO3619 White 2000 bus file005 sml White-company_1912-06_cleveland

VOLVO Buses Gothenburg Sweden

Volvo Buses

Volvo Buses
Type Subsidiary of Volvo
Industry Manufacturing
Founded 1920’s – 1968 >>>>>>
Headquarters Gothenburg, Sweden
Key people Håkan Agnevall
(President)
Products Buses
Parent Volvo
Website

Volvo Buses (Swedish: Volvo Bussar AB ) is a subsidiary and a business area of the Swedish vehicle maker Volvo, which became an independent division in 1968. It is based in Gothenburg.

It is the world’s largest bus manufacturer, with a complete range of heavy buses for passenger transportation. The product range includes complete buses and coaches as well as chassis combined with a comprehensive range of services.

The bus operation has a global presence, with production in Europe, North/South America, Asia and Australia. In India it setup their production facility in Bangalore. Former production facility were located in Irvine, Scotland (closed in 2000).

Products

Chassis

Historical

1928 VOLVO 1928

1928 VOLVO

1928 Volvo LV45 autobus a

1928 Volvo LV45 autobus

1929 Volvo LV4 -Arvika 1929

1929 Volvo LV4 -Arvika

1929 Volvo LV4 -Arvika

1929 Volvo LV4 -Arvika

1931 VOLVO 1931

1931 VOLVO

1932 VOLVO 1932

1932 VOLVO

1932 VOLVO BUS NON IDENTIFIE

1932 VOLVO BUS NON IDENTIFIE

1934 VOLVO 1934

1934 VOLVO

1934 Volvo-bus-on-B1-chassis-500

1934 Volvo-bus-on-B1-chassis-500

1935 Volvo van de Veluwe-Expres van de gebroeders Robart 1935 Volvo(GB) + Verheulbus van de Veluwe-Expres van de gebroeders Robart

1935 Volvo-Verheul van de Veluwe-Expres van de gebroeders Robart NL

1936 VOLVO 1936

1936 VOLVO

1936 Volvo Verheul 29zitp  Citosa 14 NS 759

1936 Volvo Verheul 29seat Citosa 14 NS 759 NL

1937 Volvo 1937

1937 Volvo

1937 VOLVO 1937a

1937 VOLVO

1937 Volvo Heiwo (Heida) B-23674

1937 Volvo Heiwo (Heida) B-23674 NL

1938 Volvo B10 Bus

1938 Volvo B10 Bus

1938 Volvo LV 84 Bus

1938 Volvo LV 84 Bus

1939 Volvo, bus nummer 5

1939 Volvo, bus nummer 5 Bergmans Auto mij NL

1939 Volvo's. Wagen 20 (serie 19-20 uit 1939) te Renswoude

1939 Volvo’s. Wagen 20 (serie 19-20 uit 1939) te Renswoude NL

1940 VOLVO 1940

1940 VOLVO

1940 Volvo B12 Bus

1940 Volvo B12 Bus

1944 Volvo Verheul Zeist

1944 Volvo Verheul Zeist

1945 VOLVO 1945

1945 VOLVO

1945 Volvo LV81DS chassis TRM8 movile staff

1945 Volvo LV81DS chassis TRM8 movile staff

03 Vitabussar_b8dn421_3458

1945 Volvo Vitabussar

1946 Volvo 14 114B Gebr v GoG

1946 Volvo 14 114B Gebr v GoG Rotterdam the Netherlands

1946 Volvo B-30461

1946 Volvo B-30461 NL

1946 Volvo brochure for B512 and B513 buses

1946 Volvo brochure for B512 and B513 buses

1946 VOLVO BUS NON IDENTIFIE 325

1946 VOLVO BUS NON IDENTIFIE 325

1946 Volvo LV-128D, or better known as Pølsebussen (the Hot-Dog bus).

1946 Volvo LV-128D, or better known as Pølsebussen (the Hot-Dog bus).

1946 Volvo nummer 7

1946 Volvo nummer 7 Bergman Auto Mij NL

1947 Volvo LV 128 SAVK 6cyl benzin

1947 Volvo LV 128 SAVK 6cyl benzin

1948 Volvo 7 Carr. Den Hollander Capelle

1948 Volvo 7 Carr. Den Hollander Capelle Gebr. van GOG Rotterdam NL

1948 volvo 19

1948 volvo 19

1948 volvo 48

1948 volvo 48 Rotterdam The Netherlands

1948 Volvo 1948

1948 Volvo Belgium

1948 Volvo B512 Bus

1948 Volvo B512 Bus

1948 Volvo B513 - Wattenberg-Viggaklev

1948 Volvo B513 – Wattenberg-Viggaklev

1948 Volvo B513X Bus

1948 Volvo B513X Bus

1948 Volvo nr. 32 Tensen 38

1948 Volvo nr. 32 W.C. Tensen Soest 38 NL

1949 Volvo bus met Hainje karrosserie, nr.25

1949 Volvo bus met Hainje karrosserie, nr.25 NL

1949 Volvo voor Tensen

1949 Volvo voor W.C. Tensen Soest NL

1950 Volvo Den Oudsten & Domburg Neusbus diesel bus 42

1950 Volvo Den Oudsten & Domburg Neusbus diesel bus 42 W.C. Tensen Soest NL

1950 Volvo modell 31s

1950 Volvo modell 31s

1951 Volvo Hoogeveen

1951 Volvo Hoogeveen W,C. Tensen Soest NL

1951 VOLVO Østfold buss

1951 VOLVO Østfold buss

1951+1952 Volvo carrosserie Den Oudsten 1951, NB-95-37 Volvo carrosserie Hoogeveen [1952] NB-95-53

1951+1952 Volvo carrosserie Den Oudsten 1951, NB-95-37 Volvo carrosserie Hoogeveen [1952] NB-95-53 NL

1952 Volvo B617 Bus

1952 Volvo B617 Bus

1952 Volvo B617 Den Oudsten NB 78 58

1952 Volvo B617 Den Oudsten NB 78 58 W.C. Tensen Soest NL

1952 Volvo B655 Bus

1952 Volvo B655 Bus

1952 Volvo Bergen-Nordhordaland N

1952 Volvo Bergen-Nordhordaland N

1952 Volvo NB-90-72

1952 Volvo NB-90-72

1952, en Volvo B656

1952 Volvo B656

1953 Tensen Volvo's Soest

1953  2xW.C. Tensen Volvo’s Soest NL

1953 volvo 52 of 53

1953 volvo 52 of 53 Gebr. van GoG Rotterdam NL

1953 Volvo B 616

1953 Volvo B 616

1953 Volvo B 727

1953 Volvo B 727

1953 VOLVO B635 Brochure Image

1953 VOLVO B635 Brochure Image

1953 Volvo B638 Bus

1953 Volvo B638 Bus

1953 Volvo B655 Brochure

1953 Volvo B655 Brochure

1953 Volvo B727 Bus

1953 Volvo B727 Bus

1953 Volvo Bus

1953 Volvo Bus

1954 Domburg Volvo

1954 Domburg Volvo

1954 Volvo B615 bus Brochure

1954 Volvo B615 bus Brochure

1954 Volvo B727

1954 Volvo B727

1954 Volvo L389 Viking - Aune

1954 Volvo L389 Viking – Aune

1954 Volvo B727 Bus Brochure Image

1954 Volvo B727 Bus Brochure Image

1954 Volvo Verheul Dr Raadt V13

1954 Volvo Verheul © De Raadt V13

1954 volvo-verheul BBA

1954 volvo-verheul BBA

1955 PB-54-68 Volvo B619 Classic Tours Scherpenzeel

1955 PB-54-68 Volvo B619 Classic Tours Scherpenzeel

1955 Volvo 45 (serie 45-46, bouwjaar 1955) was van ca. 1958 tot eind 1962 GogNwkVolvo45

1955 PB-54-68 Volvo B619 Gebr. van Gog NL

1955 Volvo B727

1955 Volvo B727 © Stig Baumeyer

1955 Volvo Den Oudsten Neusbus Tensen lijnbus 22-Soest

1955 Volvo Den Oudsten Neusbus W.C. Tensen lijnbus 22-Soest NL

1956 Domburg Volvo a

1956 Domburg Volvo NL

1956 Domburg Volvo b

1956 Domburg Volvo

1956 Domburg Volvo

1956 Domburg Volvo

1956 Tensen Volvo B615 König RB 21 21

1956 W.C. Tensen Soest Volvo B615 König RB 21 21

1956 volvo 56

1956 volvo 56

1956 Volvo BF37507 Medema SB 52 85

1956 Volvo BF37507 Medema SB 52 85

1956 Volvo Tensen nr.40

1956 Volvo Tensen nr.40

1956 Volvo ZABO Brabena 658

1956 Volvo ZABO Brabena 658

1956 Volvo ZABO Brabena 658a

1956 Volvo ZABO Brabena 658

1957 VOLVO 1957

1957 VOLVO

1957 Volvo B655 fra DSB nr 670

1957 Volvo B655 fra DSB nr 670

1957 Volvo Bus 28 Tensen

1957 Volvo Bus 28 Tensen

1957 Volvo König met 46 zitplaatsen

1957 Volvo König met 46 zitplaatsen

1958 Bus nr.1 Volvo tensen

1958 Bus nr.1 Volvo tensen

1958 TB-18-67 Volvo

1958 TB-18-67 Volvo

1958 VOLVO 1958

1958 VOLVO

1958 VOLVO B615 Brochure Image

1958 VOLVO B615 Brochure Image

1958 Volvo B615 Bus Brochure Image

1958 Volvo B615 Bus Brochure Image

1958 Volvo B615 Bus

1958 Volvo B615 Bus

1958 Volvo B615

1958 Volvo B615 © Stig Baumeyer

1958 Volvo B635 - Larvik

1958 Volvo B635 – Larvik

1958 Volvo-Verheul, 43 zitplaatsen, in dienst tot 1972 Schutte37

1958 Volvo-Verheul, 43 zitplaatsen, in dienst tot 1972 Schutte37

1959 Volvo B 615 Wiima M59

1959 Volvo B 615 Wiima M59

1959 Volvo B615

1959 Volvo B615

1959 Volvo B615a

1959 Volvo B615 © Staffan Sävenfjord

1959 Volvo B615-Smit Joure tourwagen met 49 zitp Schutte

1959 Volvo B615-Smit Joure tourwagen met 49 zitp Schutte

1959 Volvo B635 - Larvik

1959 Volvo B635 – Larvik

1959 Volvo B70501 Bus

1959 Volvo B70501

1959 Volvo Medema Appingedam Lijnbus bus 32

1959 Volvo Medema Appingedam W C Tensen Soest Lijnbus bus 32 NL

1959 Volvo Olav A Hokstad-Tylldal Tynset N

1959 Volvo Olav A Hokstad-Tylldal Tynset N

1959 Volvo, type B655 Verheul

1959 Volvo, type B655 Verheul

1959 Volvo-touringcar (type B655 carrosserie Verheul) en een DAF-bus van Zuid-Ooster

1959 Volvo-touringcar (type B655 carrosserie Verheul) en een DAF-bus van Zuid-Ooster

1960 volvo 60

1960 volvo 60

1960 Volvo Den Oudsten Hoogeveen Tensen17

1960 Volvo Den Oudsten Hoogeveen W.C. Tensen Soest 17 NL

1960 Volvo- ZABO City Coach - BBA 549

1960 Volvo- ZABO City Coach – BBA 549

1960 Volvo, type B655 Domburg

1960 Volvo, type B655 Domburg

1960 Volvo-Verheul bus BBA

1960 Volvo-Verheul bus BBA

1961 72eaae31747b8f61bf801f0c83478e8e

1961 Volvo’s

My beautiful picture

1961 Bus 46 Volvo Tensen Grave-garage-sva

1961 Volvo Autobus Tensen 46 erfg compr

1961 Volvo Autobus Tensen 46 erfg compr

1961 VOLVO B615 chassis. Body by LIER KAROSSERI, DRAMMEN Strada 1961 Volvo B615 Strada Noorwegen 1961 Volvo B615

1961 Volvo B615 Strada ® Stig Baumeyer

1961 Volvo B615-Smit Joure met 47 zitplaatsen Schutte31

1961 Volvo B615-Smit Joure met 47 zitplaatsen Schutte31

1961 VOLVO B61515 VOLVO carr ECF nr 18

1961 VOLVO B61515 VOLVO carr ECF nr 18

1961 Volvo BBA ZABO City Coach

1961 Volvo-DAF BBA ZABO City Coach

1961 Volvo Den Oudsten lijnbus 44 instap voor de vooras Diesel

1961 Volvo Den Oudsten lijnbus 44 instap voor de vooras Diesel

1961 Volvo Tensen 47

1961 Volvo Tensen 47

1961 Volvo van gog44

1961 Volvo van gog44

1961 Volvo ZABO City Coach stadsbus nr.8

1961 Volvo ZABO City Coach stadsbus nr.8

1961 Volvo, B615 Verheul

1961 Volvo, B615 Verheul

1961 Volvo, City Coach ZABO

1961 Volvo, City Coach ZABO

1961 ZABO Bus nr.46 Volvo Tensen Soest Museumbus

1961 ZABO Bus nr.46 Volvo Tensen Soest Museumbus

1962 CAP Streekvervoer Dienstregeling

1962 CAP Streekvervoer Dienstregeling

1962 Domburg Volvo

1962 Domburg Volvo

1962 Volvo B57-ZABO nr.2 Schutte 53

1962 Volvo B57-ZABO nr.2 Schutte 53

1962 Volvo B615

® Stig Baumeyer

1962 Volvo B615a

® Stig Baumeyer

1962 Volvo B615b

® Stig Baumeyer

1962 Volvo B615c

1962 Volvo B615 ® Stig Baumeyer

1962 Volvo B635

1962 Volvo B635 ® Stig Baumeyer

1962 Volvo B655 con motor central, carrozado por Cametal

1962 Volvo B655 con motor central, carrozado por Cametal

1962 Volvo B-61503

1962 Volvo B-61503

1962 Volvos 59-49 kleur Van Gog-bus oorspronkelijke kleuren. Links de 59 en rechts de 49 Rotterdam CS

1962 Volvos 59-49 kleur Van Gog-bus oorspronkelijke kleuren. Links de 59 en rechts de 49 Rotterdam CS

1963 Volvo B615 Wiima M 59 vm

1963 Volvo B615 Wiima M 59 vm

1963 Volvo B615

® Stig Baumeyer

1963 Volvo B615a

® Stig Baumeyer

1963 Volvo B615b

1963 Volvo B615 ® Stig Baumeyer

1963 Volvo B655 Bus

1963 Volvo B655 Bus

1963 Volvo DIC

1963 Volvo DIC

1963 Volvo XB-02-27

1963 Volvo XB-02-271964 Volvo B615

1964 Volvo B615

1964 Volvo B635

1964 Volvo B635 ® Stig Baumeyer

1965 Domburg Volvo

1965 Domburg Volvo

1965 Volvo B615 - T. Knudsen

1965 Volvo B615 – T. Knudsen

1965 Volvo B635

® Stig Baumeyer

1966 Volvo B635 Wiima M63 vm.

1965 Volvo B635

Bus 1950s: B627 1950s-1960s: B615/B616/B617 1950s-1960s: B635/B638 1950s-1960s: B705 1950s-1960s: B725/B727 1951-1963: B655 (mid-engine)/B656/B657/B658 1960s: B715 1963-1965: B755 1960s-1980s: B57 & BB57

1966 Volvo B755-Domburg met 49 zitp Schutte35

1966 Volvo B755-Domburg met 49 zitp Schutte35 NL

1966 Volvo, B755 Verheul

1966 Volvo, B755 Verheul

1966 Volvo-Verheul-streekbus

1966 Volvo-Verheul-streekbus

1967 Volvo 74 kleur

1967 Volvo 74 kleur

1967 Volvo B755-Domburg met 50 zitp Schutte34

1967 Volvo B755-Domburg met 50 zitp Schutte34

1967 Volvo bus Stockholm

1967 Volvo bus Stockholm

1967 Volvo -Nordisk Bus

1967 Volvo -Nordisk Bus © John Veerkamp