ENGLISH ELECTRIC Busbodybuilders and lots more

English Electric

The English Electric Company Limited
Fate Merged with
General Electric Company plc
Successors General Electric Company plc
Spin-offs:
British Aircraft Corporation
International Computers Limited
Founded 1918
Defunct 1968
Headquarters Strand, London
Subsidiaries Napier & Son (1942–)
The Marconi Company(1948–)
Vulcan Foundry (1955–)
Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns (1955–)
English Electric Aviation (1958–)
English Electric Leo Marconi(1964–)

English Electric was a 20th-century British industrial manufacturer, initially of electric motors, and expanding to include railway locomotives and aviation, before becoming part of The General Electric Company GEC.

1918 The English Electric Company was formed as a public company, chaired by Sir Charles Ellis, who was also chairman of John Brown and Co. The company acquired: Coventry Ordnance Works and Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Co of Bradford.

1919 English Electric acquired Dick, Kerr and Co of Preston, which owned:

Dick, Kerr and Co‘s traction activities were concentrated in Preston and continued there until 1930.

English Electric also bought the Stafford works of Siemens Brothers Dynamo Works.

1920 10,000 employees .

1920 Working arrangement with Siemens Brothers and Co to reduce sales costs.

1921 Formalised the sales arrangement with Siemens Brothers and Co in the form of a joint venture English Electric and Siemens Supplies Ltd which had taken over the sales activities of the company and some of those activities of Siemens.

1924 Siemens Brothers and Co was a substantial shareholder in English Electric Co, as a consequence of the purchase of the dynamo works at Stafford.

1924 tram 57, one of a batch of six 70 seaters built by English Electric

1924 tram 57, one of a batch of six 70 seaters built by English Electric

1925 Had worldwide experience with the Fullagar diesel engine which the company had developed for land use and was proving to be a very reliable means of driving electricity generators

1926 EYB-EE3

1926 Some of the constituent companies, Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Co and Dick, Kerr and Co, had built flying boats during WWI. The aircraft department closed after the last English Electric Kingstonflying boat was built.

1927 See Aberconway for information on the company and its history.

1927 Also see Aberconway for information on the company and its history.

1927 One of the UK’s major electrical-machinery and plant manufacturers, others beings GEC, BTH,Metropolitan-Vickers, and C. A. Parsons and Co .

Late 1920s EE was in a parlous financial state. A complex financial reorganisation, apparently backed by American Westinghouse interests, was needed to save it.

1930 The manufacture of electrical equipment was moved to Bradford. Tramcar, bus body, and rolling stock production stayed at Preston.

1930 The man most associated with EE, George Nelson, became managing director.

1930s EE supplied equipment for the electrification of the English Southern Railway system, which gave it a strong position in the traction market.

1931 AEC Regal built with English Electric

1931 AEC Regal built with English Electric1931 AEC Regal with single deck English Electric 30 seat body

1931 AEC Regal with single deck English Electric 30 seat body

1931 AEC Regal-English Electric single deckers 203 (front, JN823) and 204 (back, JN824) thss203d

1931-aec-regal-english-electric-single-deckers-203-front

1931 AEC Regals 204, JN824 with English Electric body

1931-aec-regals-with-english-electric-b30d-body

1931 Daimler with English Electric B30D body ss203a

1931-daimler-with-english-electric-b30d-body-ss203

1931 v151-p294 1931 Veteran Southend AEC Regal 203, JN823 English Electric body

1931-veteran-southend-aec-regal-203-jn823-english-electric-body

1933 EnV156-p626 1933.Double Deck Trolley Bus AEC and E. E. C.

1934. Tram Blackpool 249. Exhibit at Crich Tramway Museum.

1934. Tram Blackpool 249. Exhibit at Crich Tramway Museum.

1935 AEC 661T with English Electric H26-24R body

1935-aec-661t-with-english-electric-h26-24r-body

1935 Leyland TD4 as 115 with an English Electric H26-24R body

1935-leyland-td4-as-115-with-an-english-electric-h26-24r-body

1935 Leyland TD4 as 117 with an English Electric H26-24R body.

1935-leyland-td4-as-117-with-an-english-electric-h26-24r-body

1935 Leyland TD4 with an English Electric O26-24R body

1935-leyland-td4-with-an-english-electric-o26-24r-body

1935 Leyland TD4 with English Electric body

1935-leyland-td4-with-english-electric-body.

1935 Leyland TS7 with English Electric C31F body

1935-leyland-ts7-with-english-electric-c31f-body

1935-vintage English Electric-bodied Leyland TD4

1935-vintage-english-electric-bodied-leyland-td4

1935-vintage English Electric-bodied Leyland TD4a

1935-vintage-english-electric-bodied-leyland-td4

1936 Leyland Tiger TS7 with English Electric B35C

1936-leyland-tiger-ts7-with-english-electric-b35c

1936 Leyland TS7 with an English Electric C32F body.

1936-leyland-ts7-with-an-english-electric-c32f-body

1936 Leyland TS7 with English Electric body

1936-leyland-ts7-with-english-electric-body

1936 Samuel Ledgard CUG841 seen here at Yeadon is a Leyland TS7 with an English Electric C32F body

1936-samuel-ledgard-cug841-seen-here-at-yeadon-is-a-leyland-ts7-with-an-english-electric-c32f-body

1937 British Industries Fair Advert for domestic electrical goods; fuse gear and fuse fittings. Electric Cookers, fires, Water Heaters, Washing Machines, Iron, F.H.P. Motors. High Rupturing Capacity Industrial Fuse Gear. Distribution Boards, Fuse Switchgear, Overhead Busbar System. sub-station Fuse Gear. Rural Distribution Fuse Fittings. Cartridge Fuses. (Electricity: Industrial and Domestic Section – Stand No. Cb.609)

1937 AEC Regents with English Electric L27-26R body

1937-aec-regents-with-english-electric-l27-26r-body

1938 SOS SON with English Electric B38F body

1938-sos-son-with-english-electric-b38f-body.

1938 SOS SON f with English Electric B38F body

1938-sos-son-f-with-english-electric-b38f-body.

1938 Leyland TD6c which with an M.C.C.W. H28-24R body

1938-leyland-td6c-which-with-an-m-c-c-w-h28-24r-body

1938 EnV165-p114 1937 Leyland TS8 with English Electric B35C body

1937-leyland-ts8-with-english-electric-b35c-body

1937 English Electric B35C bodied Leyland TS7

1937-english-electric-b35c-bodied-leyland-ts7

1937 AEC-English Electric double decker

1937-aec-english-electric-double-decker.

1939 Thornes, Bubwith operated this ex-Northern General SE4, CPT921 with English Electric B40F body

1939 Thornes, Bubwith operated this ex-Northern General SE4, CPT921 with English Electric B40F body

1939 Acquired Samlesbury Aerodrome in Lancashire and starts construction of the Handley Page Hampden and Handley Page Halifax.

1940 Daimler COG5 - English Electric H28-26R

1940 Daimler COG5 – English Electric H28-26R1940 Daimler COG5 with English Electric H28-26R body

1940 Daimler COG5 with English Electric H28-26R body

1940 Leyland TB5 - English Electric H28-26R

1940 Leyland TB5 – English Electric H28-26R

WWII: development in the Guided Missiles Division at Luton on analog computers, based on thermionic valve technology and intended for military applications. The machine resulting from this development was code-named the Luton Analogue Computing Engine (LACE).

1942 The company took over Napier and Son, an aero-engine company, and this helped establish the company’s aircraft division. Company factories were converted to build the Handley Page Halifax heavy bomber.

1944 Producing 180 bhp engines for rail cars at the old Willans Works at Rugby.

1945 and after: EE invested heavily in aircraft design. W. E. W. Petter, the chief designer at Westland moved to English Electric to set up the new aircraft division, leading to major successes in the 1950s with the English Electric Lightning interceptor aircraft and the Canberra tactical bomber, which was still flying in 2005 in reconnaissance and other roles with many air forces, including the Royal Air Force.

1946 English Electric Co acquired the holding of Cable and Wireless in Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Co. This reflected an intention to diversify the business from heavy electrical engineering to (what was seen as) the new field of electronics. As well as the whole of the share capital in Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Co, this also gave EE 42% of Marconi International Marine Co and the entirety of Marconi Instruments Ltd. Established English Electric Valve Co to hold the ex-Marconi valve business.

1949 the National Physical Laboratory chose the English Electric Co as industrial partner in computer development, following its Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) project; industry was seen to be needed to improve reliability and performance of the machine. The new computer was called the Digital Electronic Universal Computing Engine (DEUCE).

1952 The Nelson Industrial Estate at Kidsgrove, Staffordshire was begun with construction of a building for electrical engineering on West Avenue which was the “main works” of English Electric

1953 Manufacturer of TV sets

1954 Production of the LACE computer was transferred to Kidsgrove but cut short by the increasing competition of digital computers.

1955 the first version of DEUCE was released, built at Kidsgrove.

1955 EE took over the Vulcan Foundry and Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns, both with substantial railway engineering pedigrees. EE also made steam turbines.

1955 Four industrial groups formed to exploit the information being made available by UKAEA on design of nuclear power “furnaces” – Industrial Atomic Energy Group involving AEI and John Thompson with electrical generating expertise from Metropolitan-Vickers and BTH; English Electric Co and Babcock and Wilcox; C. A. Parsons and Co and Head, Wrightson and Co; GEC and Simon-Carves Ltd.

1958 EE’s aviation business was set up separately, as English Electric Aviation Ltd.

1958 Establishment of a joint company with Automatic Telephone and Electric Co and Ericsson Telephones to develop and manufacture transistors in greater quantities called Associated Transistors.

1960 EE tried to take over one of the other major British electrical companies, GEC.

1960 Rights issue, to fund developments in electric power, EE’s share in the purchase of Hunting Aircraft and establishment of Associated Transistors; English Electric Valve Co‘s interests in transistors had been merged into that company also.

Early 1960s Under government pressure EE rationalised its aircraft division, which later became part of the new British Aircraft Corporation (BAC), English Electric having a 40% stake in BAC.

1961 Group with 22 subsidiaries. Employed 84,200 persons in the group

1961 English Electric Co acquired W. H. Dorman and Co.

1962 New wholly-owned subsidiary formed: English Electric Traction to bring all railway related activities under one management. These included The Vulcan Foundry, Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns and W. G. Bagnall.

1962 The Luton factory was closed; computer production was relocated to Stevenage, later to become part of ICL.

1963 New wholly-owned subsidiary formed: English Electric Diesel Engines to bring under central control all of its interests in diesel engines, including those in W. G. Bagnall and the Deltic division of D. Napier and Son .

1963 English Electric’s guided weapons division was taken over by BAC.

1963 LEO Computers was merged into a joint venture with English Electric which was named theEnglish Electric LEO Co.

1964 English Electric LEO Co became a wholly owned subsidiary of the English Electric Co. English Electric’s Marconi computer operations were merged with it, forming English Electric Leo Marconi.

1964 English Electric wash machine 1964 IMG 9474

1964 English Electric wash machine

1966 Acquired Ruston and Hornsby and Davey, Paxman and Co to become part of English Electric Diesel Engines Ltd

1966/7 Acquired J. G. Statter and Co, a small company involved in transformers and switchgear.

1967 English Electric took over transformer and switchgear company Combined Electrical Manufacturers Ltd, at the same time as AEI was also acquiring a company involved in transformers.

1967 Supplied the turbine generators for Retford power station.

1967 in the first deal arranged by the Industrial Reorganization Corporation, English Electric Co took over Elliott Automation to form the leading European group in computing and process control.

1967-1968 Failed bid for EE by Plessey Co.

1968 Details of their Mechanical Engineering Laboratory at Whetstone.

1968 Announce agreement to develop hydraulic turbo-machinery.

1968 English Electric Leo Marconi was merged with International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) and others to form International Computers Limited (ICL).

1968 English Electric Diesel Engines Ltd was renamed English Electric Diesels Ltd, which includedDavey, Paxman and Co, Dorman (Stafford), Napier, Kelvin (Glasgow), and English Electric.

1968 GEC took over English Electric Co

1968 One of the 2 new companies formed to design and build nuclear power stations was namedBalfour English Electric Nuclear

1969 Balfour English Electric Nuclear was renamed British Nuclear Design and Construction.

 Royal Air Force 1939-1945- Bomber Command C1180Royal Air Force 1939-1945- Bomber Command C1180
 Two Hampden bombers 9 April 1940

 Napier Deltic EngineNapier Deltic engine, cut away for display

 De Havilland Vampire T11 (DH-115) Point Cook Vabre

de Havilland Vampire T11

 Railways

EKD EN80 (5)

 Preserved 1927 EN80 English Electric tram, the last example of a fleet of 20 once used by the Warsaw Commuter Railway
Canberra.pr9.takeoff.arp
Canberra.pr9.takeoff.arp

English Electric Canberra PR.9 of the RAF, 2006

Lightning.xm215.arp.750pix

lightning-xm215-arp

English Electric Lightning F6, UK - Air Force AN1564287 Lightning arrowLightning diamondEnglish Electric Lightning formation Ysterplaat Airshow-2006-09-231930 London Post Office Railway 1930 Stock1930 London Post Office Railway Stock

1964 English Electric wash machine 1964 IMG 9474

1964 English Electric wash machine

Lightning.inflight.arp.750pix

Lightning.inflight

 British Rail Class 83 E3035 on display at Doncaster Works open day on 27 July 2003.
50035 'Ark Royal' at Doncaster Works
 British Rail Class 50 50035 Ark Royal at Doncaster Works on 27 July 2003.
NZR EO class locomotive 03
Tgr za bell bay
Tasmanian Government Railways Za class locomotive at Bell Bay  in February 1978
1986 C1702 Busselton, 1986
There is so much more, but to much for this blog.
I Finish
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ŠKODA Works founded in 1859 in Pilzen, the Austrian Empire – Czech Republic till 1999

Škoda WorksLogo Škody

For the automobile manufacturer, see Škoda Auto.
ŠKODA, a.s.
Former type Private
Industry Conglomerates
Fate divided
Successors
Founded Pilsen, Bohemia, Austrian Empire (1859)
Founders Emil Škoda
Defunct 1999
Headquarters Pilsen, Czech Republic
Area served Worldwide
Products
  • locomotives
  • aircraft
  • ships
  • machine tools
  • steam turbines
  • guns

BUSES

1924 Škoda-busse-oldtimer-02b-0034 1936 ŠKODA 1 Tr 1936 Škoda 1Tr Prototype 1936 1937 Škoda t28a 1938 Škoda-606-nd 1939 SKODA 532 bus 1947 Škoda-706-ro-pullmann 1947-58 Škoda 706 RO, stanoviště řidiče 1947-58 Škoda 706 RO 1951 Škoda 706 R 1953 Trolebus ŠKODA 2 Tr a 1953 Trolebus ŠKODA 2 Tr 1954 Škoda-706R 1956 Škoda 706 RTO LIAZ (1956) 1956 Škoda 706 RTO MEX 1956-72 Škoda 706 RTO 1957 Škoda 706 RTO Lux 1958 Škoda 706 RTO a Jelcz P-01 1959 ŠKODA 706 RTO (2) 1959 ŠKODA 706 RTO 1960 Škoda 9Tr Троллейбус в Мумбаи 1961 Škoda 1967 Škoda 706-rto-pro-pzo-motokov-praha 1969 Skoda 9 Tr 14 O-Linienbus Kraftverkehr Eberswalde 1969 Škoda 1203 Bus 1969 Škoda-9Tr14-O-Linienbus-KV-Eberswalde-19-weiss 1995-01 Škoda 21Ab 2009 Škoda 24Tr Irisbus Areál čs. opevnění Darkovičky - interiér CS 363 086-0 in prag Gun turret on SMS Tegetthoff Historický dálkový autobus Karosa ŠD 11 Logo Škody Lokomotive 556.036 LT vz 35 2 Metro Siemens Skoda Holding Plzeň od Karlova Plzeň, Škoda Transportation, rozestavěný vůz metra typu 81-71M II Škoda 6Tr in Slatině IM000844.JPG Škoda 7 Tr - zlinacek stránky Škoda 7 Tr, který v roce 1952 Škoda 7Tr číslo 101 Škoda 7Tr, 1951 Škoda 8 Tr 5 IM000538.JPG Skoda 9 tr Škoda 9-311 Skoda 9Tr 2 Škoda 9Tr a ŠKODA 9Tr Brno Trolleybus Skoda 9Tr Škoda 9tr ŠKoda 9Tr-Riwne-89 Skoda 10Tr

© montaz Anton Brynych

Skoda 14 Tr in Vilnius Skoda 14 Tr Škoda 14T TT Ke Stírce - Elektrárna Holešovice, Trojská, Škoda 14T Škoda 14Tr02

© Aare Olander

Škoda 14TrM 795

© Car-Histo-Bus

Škoda 15T 9247 Škoda 15T Jugla 06.2010 Škoda 15T Škoda 15Ta Škoda 15Tr 1992 Škoda 15Tr 1998 Škoda 15Tr Nr. 1-13

© Aleksandrs Grigorjevs

Škoda 15Tr Nr. 1-16

© Aleksandrs Grigorjevs

Škoda 15tr trolleybus Škoda 15Tr Skoda 18Tr Škoda 19T MPK Wrocław 3117 Skoda 20 TR Škoda 21Tr Ostrava Škoda 21Tr Škoda 22Tr Škoda 24Tr ŠKODA 25 Tr SONY DSC Skoda 28 Tr IM000332.JPG ŠKODA 31 Tr SOR Škoda 31 Tr Škoda 248 Škoda 350 Csorba ŠKODA 706 karosa ŠKODA 706 ROg Škoda 706 RT TN (6A2 2830) a návěsu NO-80 ŠKODA 706 RTO - LUX

© M Küster

Škoda 706 RTO (2) Škoda 706 RTO a Jelcz P-01 Ostrava Škoda 706 RTO Kabriolet OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA ŠKODA 706 RTO MTZ Škoda 706 RTO SPZ AX 49-63 a vleku Jelcz PO-1E SPZ AD-35-82 Škoda 706 RTO, Jan Kukla ŠKODA 706 RTO ŠKODA 706 RTTN Škoda 706RTOvyhlidkovyVM Škoda 1203 0 Škoda 1203 Škoda 2002-09-28 Teplice Bus Nr.22 Škoda Eberswalde obus Škoda Electric Škoda fuel cell hybide bus with proton Motor Fuel cell and 22 L-Ion batteries Škoda historie-v-krnove Škoda RTO II Škoda RTO, interiér Škoda RTO706 Skoda Sanos 70 Tr OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Škoda Sanos S200 Tr Skoda Seal 100 TR SanosS115tr Škoda skodametro 538521 81012 Škoda SM Škoda ŠM11 Škoda T 11 Bus Karosa ŠM 11 Brno IM000587.JPG Škoda Trolley bus ŠKODA TROLLEYBUS 9 TR-O Škoda trolleybuses Škoda U Škoda Skoda_Works_logo Škoda-3Tr Skoda-17-Tr-1 Skoda-17-Tr-2 Škoda-20Tr Skoda-23-Tr SKODA-25-Tr-IRISBUS-2-500 Skoda1203Brumov-BylniceAlofok(4) Škoda-busse-oldtimer-02b-0017 Škodalike bus TNB 18 Škoda

Škoda Works (Czech: Škodovy závody) was the largest industrial enterprise in Austria-Hungary and later in Czechoslovakia, one of its successor states. It was also one of the largest industrial conglomerates in Europe in the 20th century.

History

1859 to 1899: establishment of Škoda

The noble Waldstein family founded the company in 1859 in Plzeň; Emil Škoda bought it in 1869. It soon established itself as Austria-Hungary‘s leading arms manufacturer producing heavy guns for the navy, mountain guns or mortars along with the Škoda M1909 machine gun as one of its noted products. Besides producing arms for the Austro-Hungarian military, Škoda also manufactured locomotives, aircraft, ships, machine toolssteam turbines and equipment for power utilities and still does so.

In 1859, Count Wallenstein-Vartenberk set up a branch of his foundry and engineering works in Plzeň. The output of the plant, employing over a hundred workers, included machinery and equipment for sugar mills, breweries, mines, steam engines, boilers, iron bridge structures, and railway facilities. In 1869, the plant was taken over by Emil Škoda, an industrious engineer and dynamic entrepreneur.

Škoda soon expanded the firm, and in the 1880s founded what was then a very modern steelworks capable of delivering castings weighing dozens of tons. Steel castings and, later, forgings for larger passenger liners and warships went on to rank alongside the sugar mills as the top export branches of Škoda’s factory.

1899 to 1945: before and during World War II

1918 German anti-tank gun & crew AWM H13453

In 1899, the ever expanding business was transformed into a joint-stock company, and before the First World War Škoda Works became the largest arms manufacturer in Austria-Hungary. It was a navy and army contractor, mainly supplying heavy guns and ammunition.

Exports included castings, such as part of the piping for the Niagara Falls power plant or for the Suez Canal sluices, as well as machinery for sugar mills in Turkey, breweries throughout Europe, and guns for the Far East and South America.

The First World War brought a drop in the output of peacetime products. Huge sums were invested into expanding production capacities. By this time, Škoda Works already held majorities in a number of companies in the Czech lands and abroad that were not involved in arms manufacture. In 1917, the company had 35,000 employees in Plzeň alone.

Following the emergence of the Czecho-Slovak Republic in 1918, in the complex economic conditions of post-war Europe the company was transformed from what was exclusively an arms manufacturer into a multi-sector concern. In addition to traditional branches, the production programme embraced a number of new concepts, such as steam (and later electric) locomotives, freight and passenger vehicles, aircraft, ships, machine tools, steam turbines, power-engineering equipment, etc.

In 1923, the company’s world-famous registered trademark—the winged arrow in a circle—was entered in the Companies Register. The deteriorating political situation in Europe saw arms production rise again in the mid-thirties.

Škoda manufactured the world’s first triple-barrelled gun turrets for the Tegetthoff-class battleships of the Austro-Hungarian navy. Prior to World War II Škoda produced LT-35 tanks, which are better known under their German designation Panzer 35(t). These tanks were originally produced for the Czechoslovak army and were used extensively by the Wehrmacht in the Polish campaign, the Battle of France and also in the German invasion of the Soviet Union. In July 1944 Skoda started production of Jagdpanzer 38(t).

In 1924, Škoda Works acquired the Laurin-Klement car manufacturer, later known as Škoda Auto. Both companies became separated after 1945, when the entire Czechoslovak economy came under government control.

CS 363 086-0 in prag

ES499.1 locomotive

1945 to 1989: after World War II

Skoda 14 Tr in Vilnius

Škoda 14 Tr trolley bus in Vilnius

After WWII, in 1945 (the year when nationalisation efforts began in Czechoslovakia and when the Communists started to come to power) Škoda was nationalized and many sections were split from the company (e.g. the car works in Mladá Boleslav (Škoda Auto), the aircraft plant in Prague, some factories in Slovakia, and other plants producing food-industry equipment). The company was renamed Závody Vladimíra Iljiče Lenina (Vladimir Ilyich Lenin Plants) in 1951, but since the new name caused losses of sales abroad, the name was changed back to Škoda in 1953. The factory concentrated on markets in the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc. The company produced a wide range of heavy machinery such as nuclear reactors andlocomotives. A lack of updates to its product designs and infrastructure considerably weakened the company’s competitive position and its brand.

After 1962, Škoda became well known in the USSR and other countries as a trolley bus manufacturer, beginning to export Škoda 9 Tr, one of its most successful models. The successor, Škoda 14 Tr, manufactured between 1982 and 1997, is still widely used, for example, in post-Soviet states.

In 1978 the company was turned into the government-owned group of companies (“koncern”) Škoda. It was based in Plzeň and consisted of the companies: První brněnská strojírna [First Machine Works of Brno], ČKD Blansko, ČKD Dukla Praha-Karlín in Prague, Slovenské energetické strojárne S. M. Kirova [Slovak S. M. Kirov Energy Machine Works] in Tlmače, and Výzkumný ústav energetických zařízení [Energy Facilities Research Institute] in Brno.

1989 to 2011: after the fall of communism

Škoda 15T Jugla 06.2010

 The latest model of Škoda tram—Škoda 15 T featuring 100% low floor, pivoting bogies and 999,9HPPlzeň, Škoda Transportation, rozestavěný vůz metra typu 81-71M II
 Hall of transportation section, parts of tram Škoda 14 T on left, modernized metro wagon 81-71 on right.

After the Communist Party lost power in late 1989, the company was privatized into the hands of management. Mismanagement and asset stripping led to a collapse—the company was restructured and some factories closed. Except for some smaller companies named Škoda and Škoda Auto, after the chaotic 1990s period, the Czech Škoda companies were again regrouped within the holding company Škoda Holding a.s. in 2000. In 2010, the holding company changed its name to Škoda Investment, a.s..

Following the change in the political climate in 1989, Škoda started along a path of privatization, and used this time to come up with an optimal production programme, making new business contacts, and looking for markets other than those that had so far been its priority markets, i.e. the Communist Bloc countries and the Soviet Union, which collapsed after 1989.

In 1991, a foreign partner for the passenger car works Škoda Auto a.s. was sought by the Czech government. Volkswagen was chosen, and the German firm initially took a 30% stake, rising to 100% ownership by 1999. Škoda Auto is now a completely independent entity from other companies bearing the Škoda name.

In 1992, the company was privatized by the so-called Czech method. It began expanding its production activities, acquiring the TATRA and LIAZ vehicle works and constructing a plant to produce aluminum soft drink cans. This expansion put the company’s financial stability in jeopardy. In 1999, it concluded an agreement with creditor banks, and restructuring of the entire capital structure of the Škoda group was undertaken. The result was legal and financial stability at the company. Currently a sectoral restructuring of production companies in the group is under way. In April 2000, Škoda Holding, a.s. took over the helm, controlling nineteen primary subsidiaries and most product lines.

In 2003, the Czech government sold its 49% stake to the Appian Group for 350 CZK million, later that year the Appian Group acquired the rest of its stake in a liquidation of the previous owner. The Appian Group is a holding company incorporated in the Netherlands and controlled through a screen of shell companies. The real owner or owners are unknown, despite investigations by the Czech police. In September 2010, a group of four managers (current or former Škoda or Appian managers) announced that they would acquire Škoda from Appian for an undisclosed price. The Czech media speculated that the acquisition was only a formality, as the managers probably owned the parent company Appian.

Škoda was subsequently focused solely on the transport sector. Other divisions have been sold, a large part of them to the Russian company OMZ (the price was not published, estimated at around 1 CZK billion). Simultaneously some smaller transport companies were acquired, for example a part of the Hungarian company Ganz, VÚKV (owner of the Velim railway test circuit) and some transport-related assets of the former ČKD, now called Škoda Vagonka. In 2009, Škoda holding announced that the South Korean conglomerate Doosan will acquire its power section for 11,5 CZK billion ($656 million). Finally in March 2011 Škoda sold its Škoda Transportation subdidiary to Cyprus based company SKODA INDUSTRY (EUROPE) LTD, later renamed CEIL (CENTRAL EUROPE INDUSTRIES) LTD.

As of 2012 Škoda Investment still own Škoda brand and some real estate, but does not perform any industrial activity. Between 2007 and 2012 the company paid dividends to Appian – a whopping sum of 32 CZK billion (app. 1.18 billion Euro/1.6 billion USD).

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