1897 Panhard-Levassor world's first military car

1897 Panhard-Levassor world’s first military car

1904 Panhard Levassor truck

1904 Panhard Levassor truck

1911 Panhard-Chatillon К-11, 4x4

1911 Panhard-Chatillon К-11, 4×4

1915 Panhard Chatillon

1913 Panhard-Chatillon К-13, 4x4

1913 Panhard-Chatillon К-13, 4×4



1914 Panhard truck Nogent 1914 News Photo 159147223

1914 Panhard truck Nogent 1914 News Photo 159147223

1914 Tracteur Chatillon-Panhard

1914 Tracteur Chatillon-Panhard

1914-15 Panhard et Levassor 1

1914-15 Panhard et Levassor

1919 Panhard

1919 Panhard

1919 PANHARD04TruckAdv 1919

1919 PANHARD 04 Truck Adv

Panhard ad


1919 PANHARD04TruckAdv 1919-05-29MotorAge

1919 PANHARD 04 Truck Adv


1929-Panhard-Levassor truck

panhard et levassor 1

panhard et levassor


1933 Panhard Truck

1933 Panhard Truck

1939 Panhard-Levassor К-113

1939 Panhard-Levassor К-113

1939 Panhard-Levassor К-125

1939 Panhard-Levassor К-125

1940 Panhard. The Michelines Where the Rubber Met the Road

1940 Panhard. The Michelines Where the Rubber Met the Road

1941 Panhard K125

1941 Panhard K125

Panhard 2


panhard 1


Panhard boordevol overheerlijke Suze

Panhard boordevol overheerlijke Suze


1942 Panhard & Levassor truck

1942 Panhard & Levassor truck


1943 panhard amd178a

1943 German panhard amd 178a

1945 PANHARD K155, moteur 4 cyl essence

1945 PANHARD K155, moteur 4 cyl essence

1946 Panhard 4HL diesel vrachtwagen NL

1946 Panhard 4HL diesel vrachtwagen NL

1946 Panhard truck

1946 Panhard truck ad

1947 Panhard 5t Movic in Poland

1947 Panhard 5t Movic in Poland

1947 Panhard K922

1947 Panhard K922

1947 PANHARD Pub Camions

1947 PANHARD Pub Camions

1948 Panhard ALM VS 237 vu chez ACMAT à St Nazaire

1948 Panhard ALM VS 237 vu chez ACMAT à St Nazaire



1949 Panhard K2241

1949 Panhard K2241

1950 Panhard diesel 10

1950 Panhard diesel 10

1950 PANHARD IE 61 ou IE 63 ou IE 65

1950 PANHARD IE 61 ou IE 63 ou IE 65

1950 Panhard K224

1950 Panhard K224

1951 panhard levassor

1951 panhard levassor

1952 Camion Panhard porte Jeep sur base Dinky Toys

1952 Camion Panhard porte Jeep sur base Dinky Toys

1952 Panhard car transporter

1952 Panhard car transporter

Tracteur Panhard SNCF Dinky Toys

Tracteur Panhard SNCF Dinky Toys

1952 Panhard IE 43 T

1952 Panhard IE 43 T

1952 Panhard K164 Movic

1952 Panhard K164 Movic

1952-59 Somua Panhard Paris Bus,  ISOBLOCK Dinky Toys 1952-1959 Somua Panhard Paris Bus

1952-59 Somua Panhard Paris Bus, ISOBLOCK Dinky Toys

1953 Panhard ALM type VS215 bien fatigué mais a l'abri

1953 Panhard ALM type VS215 bien fatigué mais a l’abri

1953 PANHARD K 224

1953 PANHARD K 224

1953 Panhard pinardier

1953 Panhard pinardier

1953 Panhard3

1953 Panhard 3

1954 Camion citerne dinky toys france 32 C panhard

1954 Camion citerne dinky toys france 32 C panhard


1954 PANHARD IE 63, K332 dernier modèle

1954 PANHARD IE 63, K332 dernier modèle

1954 Panhard Tankwagen Esso

1954 Panhard Tankwagen Esso

1959 Panhard ESSO Tanker 2

Panhard ESSO Tanker

1955 Panhard Movic in Escale à Orly, 1955

1955 Panhard Movic in Escale à Orly

1955 PANHARD movic

1955 PANHARD movic

1955 Panhard France Pathe Marconi

1955 Panhard France Pathe Marconi

1958 Panhard Movic M IE 65 HL OP

1958 Panhard Movic M IE 65 HL OP

1960 Panhard Van1

1959 Panhard Van

1960 AML 245 by Panhard

1960 AML 245 by Panhard



alm-acmat-vlra-tpk-425 Ambulances

2008 Panhard TC45 blinde (4x4) Eurosatory 2009 Panhard VBL MK 2 Kuwait Unclassiefied stefan marx Amberland 2010 Panhard has delivered 80 TC54 trucks and six PVP wheeled armoured vehicles to Togo's Armed Forces . 2012 RTD, Panhard & ACMAT, Eurosatory 2013 Panhard Worldwide Exhibition Internal State of Security Paris France 001 Panhard armoured trucks Panhard renforce Renault Trucks Défense Panhard TC54 OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA panhard_home Panhard-nouveau p-logo

1935 Panhard K91 1935 Panhard k91c-big 1936 Lkw von Panhard & Levassor 1936 Panhard K 91 auf Bahn verladen 1937-40 Panhard K 101a 1937-40 Panhard K 101b 1937-40 Panhard K 125 1939 Panhard K125 1939 Panhard-Levassor К-113 1939 Panhard-Levassor К-125 1940 amdl-panhard 1 1941 Panhard K125 1942-43 Panhard K 155 Ostfront Okt 42 1943 Panhard Lkw Typ 1946 Panhard K162 1946 panhard-26faaac 1949 Panhard K 173 1950- Panhard Camion 7 T 1949-1950 - DSCN5655 1950 Panhard diesel 10 1950 Panhard K224 1952 Panhard K164 Movic 1952 panhard-incendie-big 1953 PANHARD K 224 1953 VEHICULE DE LIVRAISON PANHARD 1954 PANHARD IE 63, K332 dernier modèle 1954 PANHARD IE45 1958 AL SP 43 - CCF Acmat à NEVERS (58) 1958 Panhard Movic M IE 65 HL OP 1960 AML 245 by Panhard Acmat tdk_dakar_14198 Alm Acmat Avril-2012-0206--1--reduite Alm Acmat Himilayanschoolbus_700 ALM-ACMAT - TDK Dakar ALM-ACMAT TPK4-35C divers-panhard-k164-big Le CCF ACMAT 4X4 logo-acmat1 Panhard 4 PANHARD 4HL Panhard 4x4 Panhard Dansk Panhard de Gruijter Panhard Houtstook Panhard K 101 truck Panhard K 173 Panhard K101 (1) Panhard K101 Panhard K113 Panhard K125 MoebelEiweiler 1d Panhard K125 Unusual.. Panhard K125 Panhard K128 Panhard K155 Panhard K-161 IE21 Panhard K224 p (31K) Panhard M3 Panhard Movic Citerne BP Panhard Movic NL Panhard Movic Vine Panhard Movic Im Osten, Schienen-Spähpanzer Panhard P178 Panhard s9 Panhard s43 Panhard SNCF Panhard super Panhard Tanker OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA PANHARD, FAR et SNCF. panhard_home panhard-movic-05 p-logo


FLOIRAT Buses France



Sylvain Floirat

1948 Floirat Logo

Sylvain Floirat était un homme d’affaires français (a French Business Man) né le 28 septembre 1899 à Nailhac en Dordogne et mort le 14 mars 1993.

Floirat Z10 des transports en commun de Mulhouse, actuellement au musée de l'AMTUIR.Autobus Floirat Z10 des transports en commun de Mulhouse, actuellement au musée de l’AMTUIR.

Was son of factor, apprentice charron, first bodybuilder in Saint-Denis (coach Floirat) at the end of the Second World War, then launches into business by getting in 1946 the licensing of airlines in connection with public transport : it is the creation of the company Aigle Azur in April 1946, which starts its activities in North Africa, Lebanon and in Indochina and which still exists. Manager of the company the equipment Automobile 1934-38. In 1951 he bought factory Joseph Besset constructor of coaches at Annonay in difficulty. In 1955, he returned, at the request of the french government, the Europe no 1 radio station then distressed and in fact very quickly one of the most popular radio stations in France. Its founder Charles Michelson sells its stake in the company, 17 July 1956 against the considerable sum for the time, of 245 million francs. In 1962, noticing the huge success of the company, Michelson tries in vain to renegotiate this assignment to higher courts. The case reflects then up to the Summit of States french and monegasque that press hastens of relate with including, an article on the cover of the daily newspaper Le Monde dated 27 January 1962 and Le Figaro, the next day.


3 x Floirat

Taking the direction of Matra gear, it’s actually a profitable industrial complex focused on innovation in telecommunications, transport and military computer.

At the end of the 1960s, Sylvain Floirat bought the famous Hôtel Byblos founded in 1967 by Lebanese billionaire Jean Prosper Gay-Para in Saint-Tropez. The hotel which largely owes its notoriety to the Gallery of stars and “people” who attended it. CEO. of Breguet Aviation between 1955 and 1967, President of the French television company between 1966 and 1968. Mayor of Nailhac, Honorary President of the Chamber of Commerce of Périgueux. Grand Officer of the Legion of honour; President of Essendiéras plantations, he bought the castle ofAndré Maurois in Essendiéras. In 1981, he is a Director of the Hachette group and participates in the Board of the Filipacchi group in 1984.

1948 Floirat

1948 Floirat

The Floirat ( Group specialises in luxury with the Byblos in Saint-Tropez hotel, La Réserve, Saint Jean de Luz and Les Manoirs de Tourgeville at Deauville, in the clubs with Les Caves du Roy in Saint Tropez and the Black Legend in Monaco (opened in 2009) and real estate in the southeast of the France. It is now run by the grandson of the creator, Antoine Chevanne.

1950 Brounais car Floirat

1950 Brounais car Floirat

1938-50 Floirat X 123 - Renault ABV

1938-50 Floirat X 123 – Renault ABV

1948 file_floirat_01 1948 file_floirat_02

Floirat Railcar

1948 file_floirat_03 1948 file_floirat_04

1948-file floirat 1 t/m 4

1948 floirat (2)

1948 floirat (railcar)

1948 floirat X 5707 13

1948 floirat x 5707 railcar

Floirat 5006-5007 et 5701a5708

Floirat 5006-5007 et 5701 a 5708 railcar

1948 rem floirat

1948 rem floirat

1949 Autorail Floirat ATLASACB3

1952 Autorail Floirat ATLAS ACB3

1950 Floirat GA1B9

1950 Floirat GA1B9

1953 Floirat C14 56 small

1953 Floirat C14 56 small

1953 Floirat C14 Saca (2)

1953 Floirat C14 Saca

1953 Floirat C14 SACA

1953 Floirat C14 Saca

1953 Floirat C14 SACAa

1953 Floirat C14 Saca

floirat autocar40zw.7744

1953 Floirat C14 Saca

1953 Floirat C14 SACAb

1953 Floirat C14 SACA

1953 FLOIRAT Y55 (le seul)

1953 floirat-y55-02

1953 FLOIRAT Y55 (le seul)

1954 251 Floirat-Mulhouse (Mulhouse) 1954 Floirat Mullhouse 2x 1954 FLOIRAT type Z10

1954 Floirat Z 10 1954 Floirat Z10 des transports en commun de Mulhouse, actuellement au musée de l'AMTUIR.

1954 Floirat Z10 des transports en commun de Mulhouse, actuellement au musée de l’AMTUIR.

1955 Floirat Y 55 a 1955 Floirat Y55i 1956 FloiratY55 56 small 1956 floirat-y55-11

1955 Floirat Y 55



1956-57,je pense à des Floirat.

1956-57,je pense à des Floirat.

1958 Floirat B8R c

1958 Floirat B8R

1958 Floirat B8R II a

1958 Floirat B8R II

1958 Floirat Boulogne

1958 Floirat Boulogne © B Basset

1958 Floirat Hochwaldlinie2k

1958 Floirat Hochwaldliniek

1958 Floirat i093199

1958 Floirat

1958 Floirat oldie

1958 Floirat oldie

1963 Floirat in Chair de poule, Movie, 1963

1963 Floirat in Chair de poule, Movie

1966 JHM-1966-0444 - Mulhouse, autobus Floirat

1966-0444 – Mulhouse, autobus Floirat Y55


Floirat Railcar

autocar floirat

autocar floirat

Beauvais,autocar Floirat

Beauvais, autocar Floirat

Floirat 0sfa

Floirat Z10

EPSON scanner Image

Floirat Z10a FM450 150 pass

Floirat 1002


Floirat anhanger B7gr

Floirat anhanger B7gr

Floirat autocar4so6.8875

Floirat autocar

Floirat CAI B 6 CAI 4 L 65

Floirat CAI B 6 CAI 4 L 65


Floirat Ad

floirat long

floirat long

Floirat Lourdes article126-2

Floirat Lourdes article126-2

Floirat Pinder

Floirat Pinder (Saviem?)

Floirat Trolley Turkey 15

Floirat Trolley Turkey 15

Floirat vlcsnap

Floirat vlcsnap

Floirat Y 53 Catalogue

Floirat Y 53 Catalogue

floirat y55

floirat y55





un floirat transformé par des forains

un floirat transformé par des forains

images floirat

images floirat

Cést Tout


PANHARD (LEVASSOR) since 1981 Paris France


Industry Manufacturing
Founded 1891
Founder(s) René PanhardEmile Levassor
Headquarters ParisFrance
Products Cars
02 Panhard-levassor

Panhard et Levassor (1890-1895). This model was the first automobile in Portugal
03 1894 Panhard & Levassor

Panhard et Levassor’s

Daimler Motor Carriage, 1894

04 1933 PanhardLevassorX74

1933 Panhard et Levassor X74
06 1955 DB Panhard HBR

1955 DB Panhard HBR
07 1960 Panhard DB Le Mans 2 cyl 850 ccm 60 PS

1960 Panhard DB Le Mans
08 Panhard 24

1963-1967 Panhard 24

Panhard is a French manufacturer of light tactical and military vehicles. Its current incarnation was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005. Panhard had been under Citroën ownership, then PSA (after the 1974 Peugeot Citroën merger), for 40 years. The combined company now uses the Panhard name; this was decided based on studies indicating that the Panhard name had better brand recognition worldwide than the Auverland name. Panhard once built civilian cars but ceased production of those in 1968. Many of its military products however end up on the civilian market via third sources and as military/government surplus vehicles. Panhard also built railbuses between the wars.


Panhard was originally called Panhard et Levassor, and was established as a car manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887.

Early Years

Panhard et Levassor sold their first automobile in 1890. based on a Daimler engine license. Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimler’s interests in France. Following Sarazin’s 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazin’s widow Louise to carry on her late husband’s agency. The Panhard et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890. Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, and shared improvements with one another.

These first vehicles set many modern standards, but each was a one-off design. They used a clutch pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox. The vehicle also featured a front-mounted radiator. An 1895 Panhard et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower (3.0 kW; 4.1 PS) with a steering wheel, believed to be one of the earliest employments of the principle.

In 1891, the company built its first all-Levassor design, a “state of the art” model: the Systeme Panhard consisted of four wheels, a front-mounted engine with rear wheel drive, and a crude sliding-gear transmission, sold at 3500 francs. (It would remain the standard until Cadillac introducedsynchromesh in 1928.) This was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, who formed his own car company.

In 1895, 1,205 cc (74 cu in) Panhard et Levassors finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr. Arthur Krebs succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, and held the job until 1916. He turned the Panhard et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturer of automobiles before World War I.

Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard et Levassor developed the Panhard rod, which became used in many other types of automobiles as well.

From 1910 Panhard worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology that had been patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard & Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, but these were offered alongside cars powered by sleeve valve power units. Following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhard’s own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard cars used sleeve valve engines.

The First World War

Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, Panhard & Levassor’s 18CV and 20CV models were the official presidential cars.

During the war Panhard, like other leading automobile producers, concentrated on war production, including large numbers of military trucks, V12-cylinder aero-engines, gun components, and large 75 and 105 diameter shells.

The military were also keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP. General Joffre himself (not, till December 1916, promoted Marshal of France) used two 35HP Panhard Type X35s with massive 4-cylinder 7,360cc engines for his personal transport, and these were frequently to be seen by Parisians carrying military leaders between the front-line and the Élysée Palace.

Between two world wars

Following the outbreak of peace in 1918, Panhard resumed passenger car production in March 1919 with the 10HP Panhard Type X19 which used a 4-cylinder 2,140cc engine. This was followed three months later by three more 4-cylinder models which will have been familiar to any customers whose memories pre-dated the war, but they now incorporated ungraded electrics and a number of other modifications. For the 15th Paris Motor Show, in October 1919, Panhard were displaying four models, all with four cylinder engines, as follows:

  • Panhard Type X19 2,150 cc / 10 HP
  • Panhard Type X31 2,275 cc / 12 HP
(This replaced the 12 HP Panhard Type 25 for 1920.)
  • Panhard Type X28 3,175 cc / 16 HP
  • Panhard Type X29 4,850 cc / 20 HP

By 1925, all Panhard’s cars were powered by Knight sleeve valve engines that used steel sleeves. The steel sleeves were thinner and lighter than the cast iron ones that had been fitted in Panhard sleeve valve engines since 1910, and this already gave rise to an improved friction coefficient permitting engines to run at higher speeds. To reduce further the risk of engines jamming, the outer sleeves, which are less thermally stressed than the inner sleeves, were coated on their inner sides with an anti-friction material, employing a patented technique with which Panhard engineers had been working since 1923. This was one of several improvements applied by Panhard engineers to the basic Knight sleeve-valve engine concept.

In 1925 a 4.8 litre (292ci) model set the world record for the fastest hour run, an average of 185.51 km/h (115.26 mph).

A surprise appeared on the Panhard stand at the 20th Paris Motor Show in October 1926, in the shape of the manufacturer’s first six cylinder model since before the war. The new Panhard 16CV “Six” came with a 3445cc engine and sat on a 3540 mm wheelbase. At the show it was priced, in bare chassis form, at 58,000 francs. Of the nine models displayed for the 1927 model year, seven featured four cylinder engines, ranging in capacity from 1480cc (10CV) to 4845cc (20CV), and in price from 31,000 francs to 75,000 francs (all in bare chassis form). Also on show was an example of the 8-cylinder 6350cc (35CV) “Huit” model which Panhard had offered since 1921 and which at the 1926 show was priced by the manufacturer in bare chassis form at 99,000 francs.

Panhard et Levassor’s last pre-war car was the unusually styled monocoque Dynamic series, first introduced in 1936.

Panhard et Levassor also produced railbuses, including some for the metre gauge Chemin de Fer du Finistère.

Post-war era

After World War II the company was renamed Panhard (without “Levassor”), and produced light cars such as the Dyna XDyna ZPL 1724 CT and 24 BT. The company had long noted the weight advantages of aluminum, and this as well as postwar government steel rationing (designed to limit new car models to ensure an orderly return to production at the major firms), encouraged the firm to proceed with the expensive alternative of making the bodies and several other components out of aluminum; thus the Dyna X and early Dyna Z series 1 had aluminum bodies. Unfortunately, cost calculations by Jean Panhard himself, inheriting son and managing director of the firm, failed to account fully for all of the extra cost of aluminum vs steel, as his calculation were made for the sheet metal panel area actually utilized per body shell, and erroneously did not account for the cut offs and scrap of each of the stampings making up the shell. Once in production, a re-examination cost analysis showed a cost of 55,700fr for aluminum shells and only 15,600fr for steel. The use of aluminum had pushed the firm perilously close to bankruptcy, and a rush engineering job saw the firm return to steel. Thus, the later Dyna Z (from mid September 1955) and the successor PL 17 bodies were steel, and the major stampings retained the heavier gauge intended for durability with aluminum, so as to avoid complete replacement of the stamping dies.

The air-cooled flat-twin engine of the Dyna was also used by Georges Irat for his “Voiture du Bled” (VdB) off-road vehicle, built in Morocco in small numbers in the early 1950s.

The styling of the Dyna Z was distinctively smooth and rounded, with an emphasis on aerodynamics and an overall minimalist design. The 24 CT was a later (fr summer 1963-on) stylish 2+2 seater; the 24 BT being a version of the same with a longer wheelbase and space for four.

For a period after the war, the Panhard-based Monopole racing cars received unofficial support from Panhard (as did DB and other clients such as Robert Chancel), using it to good effect in winning the “Index of Performance” class at Le Mans in 1950, 1951, and 1952. In 1953, Panhard moved on to a more direct involvement with Chancel, which however came to an end after the deadly 1955 Le Mans. In the latter half of the fifties and the early sixties, the Deutsch Bonnet racers (“DB Panhard”) picked up this mantle and went on to dominate the “Index of Performance” as well as other small-engine racing classes.

The last Panhard passenger car was built in 1967. After assembling 2CV panel trucks for Citroen in order to utilize capacity in face of falling sales, and raising operating cash by selling ownership progressively to Citroën (full control as of 1965), in fall of 1967 the civilian branch was absorbed by Citroën, and the marque was retired. Since 1968 Panhard has only made armored vehicles.

In 2004, Panhard lost a competition to another manufacturer of military vehicles, Auverland, for the choice of the future PVP of the French Army. This allowed Auverland to purchase Panhard in 2005, then a subsidiary of PSA Peugeot Citroën. However, the fame of Panhard being greater, it was decided to retain the name; the PVP designed by Auverland would bear a Panhard badge.

Car models

Panhard models

Type Construction period
Panhard Dyna X 1945–1954
Panhard Junior 1951–1956
Panhard Dyna Z 1953–1959
Panhard PL 17 1959–1965
Panhard CD 1962–1965
Panhard 24 1963–1967

Models with Panhard technology

Type Construction period
Dyna Veritas 1949–1954
Rosengart Scarlette 1952
DB HBR 5 1954–1961
DB Le Mans 1958–1964
Sera-Panhard 1959–1961

Current military models

09 French VBL

VBL of the French Army



PVPXL / AVXL: an enlarged AVL

TC 54

TC 10

TC 24


Peugeot P4

ERC 90 Sagaie

VBR: enlarged VBL multipurpose armored vehicle

VAP: Véhicule d’Action dans la Profondeur (deep penetration vehicle), VBL based special operations vehicle

VPS: P4 based SAS Patrol vehicle

Vehicles in service

Panhard has supplied more than 18,000 military wheeled vehicles to over 50 countries with a range of combat vehicles weighing less than 10 tonnes, as follows:

5,400 armoured wheeled vehicles (AMLERC 90 Sagaie, and LYNX VCR 6×6)

2,300 VBL in 16 countries which includes 1600 in service with the French Army

933 A4 AVL—PVP—selected by the French Army

9,500 vehicles under 7 tonnes; most being jeep-like vehicles produced under the Auverland name.


10 1996 110 ans de l'automobile au Grand Palais Panhard et Levassor Wagonette 2cyl 4 CV
Panhard et Levassor 4 CV with Wagonette body (1896)
11 1898 Panhard-Levassor Landaulet type AL
Panhard et Levassor Landaulette type AL (1898)
12 PSM V57 D609 Panhard and levassor vehicle
Panhard et Levassor automobile circa 1900
13 PSM V57 D609 Motor of vehicle
Panhard et Levassor water-cooled 2-cylinder automobile engine, circa 1900
14 1901 Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton à conduite avancée Carosserie Kellner
Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton coachwork by Kellner (1901)
15 1902 Panhard et Levassor 7 CV bicylindre Voiturette par Clément-Rothschild
Panhard et Levassor 7 CV Voiturette (1902)
16 1903 Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc
Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc (1903)
17 1914 Panhard-Levassor
Panhard et Levassor 10 CV (1914)
18 Castle Hill, Lincoln Vehicle
Panhard et Levassor X46 2300cc (1924) Saloon by Salmons and Son, Tickford
1930 Panhard Cabrio-Coupé - Pourtout
Panhard et Levassor Cabrio-Coupé Pourtout
20 1934 Panhard - 1ère Eclipse, nov. 1934 PourtoutPanhard et Levassor Eclipse (1934) Pourtout
21 1952 Panhard X 86
Panhard Dyna X 86 Saloon (1952)
22 Panhard Dyna Allemano
Panhard Dyna 750 Coupé Allemano (1952)
23 Panhard Dyna Z 3
Panhard Dyna Z (1953)
24 Panhard 24 1ct
Panhard 24 CT, (1966)
25 AMD Panhard 178 Saumur
26 Panhard EBR in the Musée des Blindés, France, pic-4
27 SATORY 9 JANVIER 2014 094
26 Peugeot P4 dsc06852

See also

Panhard et Levassor Dynamic


Panhard et Levassor Dynamic 130, 140, 160

1 1937 MHV P&L Dynamic 011937-mhv-pl-dynamic

Manufacturer Société des Anciens Etablissements Panhard et Levassor
Production 1936 – 1940
Assembly Porte d’Ivry districtParis
Designer Louis Bionier
Body and chassis
Class Large car
Body style 4-door saloon
4-door “6-light” saloon
2-door coupé
2-door cabriolet
Layout Front enginerear-wheel drive
Engine 2,516 cc – 3,834 cc sleeve-valve I6
Wheelbase 2,600 mm (102 in)
2,800 mm (110 in)
3,000 mm (118 in)
Length 4,750 mm (187 in) to 5,150 mm (203 in)
Width 1,900 mm (75 in)

The Panhard et Levassor Dynamic is a large car introduced by the French auto-maker Panhard et Levassor as a replacement for the company’s CS model at the Paris Motor Show in October 1936.

2 1939 PanhardLevassorDynamic140TypX81

1939 Dynamic 140 six-light Berline(X81)
3 1936 MHV P&L Dynamic 05

A Dynamic 140 Coupé Major

The bodies

For the Dynamic, Panhard et Levassor’s in-house designer Louis Bionier came up with a streamlined design, featuring half-covered rear wheel arches, an eye-catching three-piece front windscreen with three wipers, and headlights integrated into the front wings. All these features caught on with other auto-makers in subsequent years, and headlights integrated into the bodywork became mainstream, but in 1936 they gave the car a very modern look.

The bodies were also of great technical interest. Despite its size, the Dynamic offered little comfort to traditional coachbuilders, being the first French car in the luxury class to feature a steel body electrically welded together and constructed as a monocoque, without a separate chassis.

A “six-light” four-door saloon/sedan bodied version was offered with a long passenger cabin, but no trunk/boot. This version, introduced in the fall of 1937, could seat nine. A four-door saloon/sedan (“berline”) was also available with a shorter passenger cabin, but with a protruding boot/trunk. The car was also unusually wide, allowing for three abreast seating: on early cars, Panhard et Levassor positioned the steering wheel in the middle of the front panel. It was hoped that this would provide a superior view out. The centrally mounted steering was probably the feature that attracted the most comment when the car appeared at the 1936 Paris Motor Show, and Panhard et Levassor advertised it as a “common sense” solution during a period when French automakers were switching over from right hand drive (which had been virtually universal in France twenty years earlier) to left hand drive (which would be virtually universal in France twenty years later). However, the market-place found the central steering wheel an innovation too far and drivers complained about the contortions necessary to slide from the side of the wide car to the central position necessary to control it. From 1938 the Panhard et Levassor Dynamic featured a conventionally positioned steering wheel.

There were also two-seater coupé versions and a cabriolet version offered, but by the end of 1938 these “minority“ models had accounted for only 358 cars.


A first prototype, known as the Dynamic 20 CV, was presented in March 1936. This was powered by a six-cylinder in-line engine of 3,485 cm3 with cylinder diameters that indeed corresponded with the French 20 hp taxation class. However, the car that entered production and was offered for sale from May 1935 as the Dynamic 130 came with the six-cylinder in-line sleeve-valve engine of 2,516 cc from the predecessor model, the Panhard et Levassor CS. This placed it in the French 14 CV taxation class. The “130” in the name was to indicate a claimed top speed of 130 km/h (81 mph).

Along with the Dynamic 130, Panhard et Levassor offered a Dynamic 140, which shared its engine with the (initially still in production) “CS Spécial” model. The engine size on this version was 2.861 cc (16 CV). Actual claimed horsepower was 75 hp (55 kW) and it was this “Dynamic 140” that was the most popular with customers, 2,230 having been produced by 1940 when war brought production to an end. By this time the car had become the last production sleeve-valve-engined car in the world.


While three wheelbases were available, the shortest was largely restricted to the (soon discontinued) Coupé Junior model and the longest to the Berline. Most Dynamics (Majors) ended up having the 280 cm wheelbase. In 1937 Panhard et Levassor introduced a range topping “Dynamic 160”, as a successor to the Panhard et Levassor DS. This car was fitted with a 3,834 cc (22 CV) version of the Panhard et Levassor six-cylinder in-line engine, with 100 PS (74 kW). 153 had been produced by 1938.


Panhard et Levassor Dynamics were never particularly cheap, which reflected the technological progress that they represented. However, less than six months after the October 1936 launch Panhard et Levassor updated their price list, many the prices published in February 1937 involving eye-watering increases of more than 20%. After February 1937 the short wheelbase “Junior 130” (coupe) 14CV Dynamic was priced at 53,850 Francs while prices for the four door “Berline 130” started at 58,850 Francs. For comparison, the Renault Primaquatre, admittedly an older and less flamboyant design from a manufacturer who still fitted side-valve engines in all its models, but nonetheless with an engine size and wheelbase length that also placed it squarely in the same 14CV category as the Panhard et Levassor, was priced at 22,500 Francs for a “Berline” (saloon/sedan) in October 1936, which had risen to 25,500 Francs in October 1937 Price lists from Talbot, whose Minor was launched in October 1937 with a list of 42,500 Francs for a 13CV four seater compact four door “Berline” from a manufacturer with a more modern model range, also left the listed prices for the Panhard et Levassor Dynamic looking optimistically high.

Wartime production

In September 1939 France declared war on Germany and in June 1940 the German army rapidly invaded and occupied Northern France. Before September 1939, unlike Renault, Panhard et Levassor had not supplied cars to the French army, but with the outbreak of war Panhard et Levassor received an order for 180 of the larger-engined Dynamics, with the emphasis on the long cabined “six-light” sedans/salons. The army cars, generally reserved for senior ranks, are in most instances recognisable from the spare wheel mounted on the outside of the rear panel. Civilian versions, even with the long cabin body, kept the spare wheel inside the car.

As the war progressed, Panhard et Levassor found it prudent to transfer production to their site at Tarbes in the extreme southwest, and a gazogene powered version of the Dynamic was produced albeit only in small numbers. However, following the defeat of France in June 1940 Panhard et Levassor, along with other auto-makers was increasingly obliged to manufacture military supplies.

01 27 SATORY 9 JANVIER 2014 094 1894 Panhard & Levassor 1896 110 ans de l'automobile au Grand Palais Panhard et Levassor Wagonette 2cyl 4 CV 1898 Panhard-Levassor Landaulet type AL 1901 Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton à conduite avancée Carosserie Kellner 1902 Panhard et Levassor 7 CV bicylindre Voiturette par Clément-Rothschild 1903 Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc 1914 Panhard-Levassor 1916 Panhard special 1925 Panhard & Levassor 16CV Char-à-Bancs 1930 Panhard Cabrio-Coupé - Pourtout 1930 Panhard-Levassor K34 19 1931 Panhard 1933 PanhardLevassorX74 1934 MHV Panhard&Levassor K63 1934 Panhard - 1ère Eclipse,  Pourtout 1936 MHV P&L Dynamic 05 1936 Panhard Bus gazogene 1936 1937 MHV P&L Dynamic 01 1937 MHV P&L Dynamic 1938 PANHARD équivalent du camion PANHARD K93 1939 PanhardLevassorDynamic140TypX81 1947 Verney LP Panhard 4HL Dieselmotor 5700cc 1948 Isobloc Panhard w947 DP2 1948 Isobloc W 947DP Panhard Diesel 5700cc 85ps 1948 Panhard 4HL Touringcar Lourdes 1950 Panhard B-39110a Den Oudsten Woerden 1952 Panhard X 86 1955 DB Panhard HBR 1960 Panhard DB Le Mans 2 cyl 850 ccm 60 PS AMD Panhard 178 Saumur bus-salta-stahv-panhard-salta-img Bussen PANHARD Sla Lourdes 8570463 orig Castle Hill, Lincoln Vehicle French VBL Panhard & Levassor K61 Zuroc Panhard 4HL Touringcar Lourdes Panhard 24 1ct Panhard 24 Panhard Adrien Panhard Autobus Panhard Dyna Allemano Panhard Dyna Z 3 Panhard EBR in the Musée des Blindés, France, pic-4 Panhard IE21 Panhard IE24 gd Panhard Lourdes Panhard Micheline Panhard-levassor panhard-levassor-bus-parisien-900 Peugeot P4 dsc06852 PSM V57 D609 Motor of vehicle PSM V57 D609 Panhard and levassor vehicle Somua-Panhard OP5

Buses Bodybuilder ISOBLOC Lyon France


Autocar Isobloc Logo en achterkant Isobloc Logo en achterkant Isoblock Bus

 is een voormalige Franse coach merk, opgericht door carrosseriebouwer Ardèche Joseph Besset in 1930

Opgericht in Annonay ,  de van oorsprong ambachtsman Joseph Ardèche kocht in 1937 de licentie van de Amerikaanse firma Gar Wood , eigenaar van innovatieve oplossingen in ontwerp zonder kader, die m.b.v. ideeën uit de vliegtuigindustrieen m.b.v. assemblageontwerp metalen – die voor hoge algemene lichtheid en paradoxaal voldoende stijfheid zorgen. De cabine van hun bus is zeer ruim  .

De Gar Wood zelf komt met een geweldige auto de Stout Scarab (1.935-1936)

Stout-scarab 1936

, genoemd naar de uitvinder, de automobiel en luchtvaart ingenieur William B. Stout. Oorspronkelijk afkomstig uit Detroit , Michigan , de oprichting ervan, zeer aerodynamische carrosserie biedt een vrijstaande romp van aluminium – die al snel vervangen word door een meer conventionele romp van staal , vanwege de kosten. Custom verkocht  ze voor $ 5000 per stuk, terwijl ze volledig handgemaakt en gemonteerd waren. Hij maakte een dozijn exemplaren  .

Het moet dan ook innovatieve technische oplossingen niet verdoezelen: de motor moet aan de achterzijde overhangen, voor het vrijmaken van ruimte in de cockpit. Met zijn vlakke vloer en zijn modulariteit, kan de Stout Scarab worden beschouwd als de eerste minivan  .

Begonnen op het verkeerde moment 

Joseph Besset presenteert het prototype bus in 1938 op shows in Lyon en Parijs. Hij opent in beide steden een garage voor het maken van de coaches.

Maar de oorlog kwam snel en die doorbrak de productie. Herstel van de release, meer dan 2.000 eenheden van de lijn tot in de vroege jaren 1950 – totaal 3400.

Vervolgens heeft Joseph Besset niet langer de middelen om zijn bedrijf te ontwikkelen. Vooral omdat haar voertuigen, die wel populair zijn, maar niet vrij van gebreken. Het zwakke punt blijft de motor, dorstig en hebzuchtig. De Benzinemotor van Ford wordt verruild door een Panhard diesel.

20 jaar na het eerste prototype, de naam Isobloc verdwijnt. De zaak werd overgenomen door Saviem .

1936 Autocar Isobloc a Chalon sur Saone

1936 Isobloc aver moteur Berliet a Chalon sur Saone

1937 GARWOODEASTMICH 611-8E was a pre Aerocoach 1937 Model CTF powered by a series C Ford Transit type engine1937 GAR WOOD EASTMICH 611-8E was a pre Aerocoach 1937 Model CTF powered by a series

C Ford Transit type engine

1938 501 isobloc,w149,dp2,besset1938 501 isobloc, w149, dp2, besset © Traveller Dave

IsoblocEmblem1aIsobloc Emblem

1938 Autocar de ligne Isobloc1938 Autocar de ligne Isobloc avec mercedes diesel

1938 Autocar Isobloc Panoramique Inside1938 Isobloc Panoramique Inside

1938 Gar Wood Aerocoach1938 Gar Wood Aerocoach

1938 Gar Wood Model EFI Carolina Coach Company 651938 Gar Wood Model EFI Carolina Coach Company 65 (Isobloc = copie)

1938 GarWood  foto J Fournier1938 Gar Wood © foto J Fournier

1938 GarWood EFS Ford Chassis Hudson Transit Lines- Short Line 971938 Gar Wood EFS Ford Chassis Hudson Transit Lines- Short Line 97

1938 GarWood headingley-Sonnichsen-1961 -W.A.luke1938 Gar Wood headingley-Sonnichsen-1961 – © W.A.luke

1938 Garwood interior front a1938 Gar wood interior front


1939 GarWood Coach Jamaïca1939 Gar Wood Coach Jamaïca

1939 Garwood interior b1939 Gar wood interior

1940 Aerocoach GarwoodEFI Yankee Trailways 1241940 Aerocoach Gar wood EFI Yankee Trailways 124

1940 Isobloc 3-jpg1940 Isobloc 3

1940 Isobloc1940 Isobloc

1940 isobloc 6 6001940 isobloc 6 600 train

1940 IsoblockmitArturundGustav1k1940 Isoblock mit Artur und Gustav 1k

1940 ISOBLOCLOCO10copie1940 ISOBLOC LOCO 10 copie

1942 Autocar Isobloc Bus1941 Isobloc Bus

1942 isobloc 111942 isobloc 11 Ambulance Bus WW

1942 isobloc-843-2-img

1942 isobloc-843

1944 Autocar Isobloc W843M1944 Autocar Isobloc W843M © Traveller Dave

1946 Isobloc met Ford V8 motor F

1946 Isobloc met Ford V8 motor F in the back

1946 Isobloc1946 Isobloc © BIB

1947 Autocar Isobloc bus postwar1947 Autocar Isobloc bus postwar

1947 Isobloc Isidoro Belmonte Ayats py01947 Isobloc Isidoro Belmonte Ayats py0

1947 Isobloc Pegaso bt21947 Isobloc Pegaso bt2

1948 Autocar Isobloc 31948 Autocar Isobloc

1948 Autocar Isobloc 696DP07  W947DP . Ex-Faure1948 Autocar Isobloc 696DP07 W947DP . Ex-Faure © Traveller Dave

1948 Autocar Isobloc by Geo Ham1948 Autocar Isobloc by Geo Ham

1948 Autocar Isobloc Museum1948 Autocar Isobloc Museum

1948 Autocar Isobloc Zaventem België b1958 Autocar Isobloc Zaventem België

1948 Autocar Isobloc Zaventem België c1948 Autocar Isobloc Zaventem België

1948 Autocar Isobloc Zaventem België d1948 Autocar Isobloc Zaventem België

1948 Autocar Isobloc Zaventem België

1948 Autocar Isobloc Zaventem België

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA1948 Entrons dans un autocar ISOBLOC

1948 Isobloc 648 DP1948 Isobloc 648 DP


1948 Isobloc Panhard w947 DP21948 Isobloc Panhard w947 DP2

1948 Isobloc W 947DP Panhard Diesel 5700cc 85ps

1948 Isobloc W 947DP Panhard Diesel 5700cc 85ps

1948 Isoblock historique (0010)1948 Isoblock historique

1949 Isobloc bus excursions1949 Isobloc bus excursions

1950 Car Isobloc1950 Car Isobloc

1950 Isobloc autocar Fort Mahon Plage Avenue de la Plage vers 19501950 Isobloc autocar Fort Mahon Plage Avenue de la Plage vers 1950

1950 isobloc-648-dp-102-saca-011950 isobloc-648-dp-102-saca

1951 Autocar-Isobloc-annees-501951 Autocar-Isobloc-annees-50

1952 Isidoro Isoblock 648 DP2 h01952 Isidoro Isoblock 648 DP2

1952 Isobloc (1)1952 Isobloc

1952 isobloc-652-dh-saca-021952 isobloc-652-dh-saca

1952 isobloc-656-dh-transcar-panoramique-saca-121952 isobloc-656-dh-transcar-panoramique-saca

1952 Isoblock bleu1952 Isoblock bleu

1952 isobloctdf1952 isobloc tdf

1952 wo2941 isoblock1952 wo2941 isoblock

1953 Isobloc 648 DP 102 SACA1953 Isobloc 648 DP 102 SACA

1954 Autocar 3009 ISOBLOC type 648 DP 1021954 Autocar 3009 ISOBLOC type 648 DP 102

1954 Autocar Besset ISOBLOC type 648 DP 1021954 Autocar Besset ISOBLOC type 648 DP 102

1954 isobloc-w843-m-021954 isobloc-w843-m-02

1956 anciennes-isobloc-big1956 anciennes-isobloc-big

1956 BROUNAIS Isobloc1956 BROUNAIS Isobloc

1950 isidoroisobloc20ev1956 isidoroisobloc 2 0ev

1950 Isobloc 656 DH Panoramique. Casuálmente su motor vertical era un Hispano Suiza HS 102V de 6 cilindros y 165 CV.1956 Isobloc 656 DH Panoramique. Casuálmente su motor vertical era un Hispano Suiza

HS 102V de 6 cilindros y 165 CV.

1956 Isobloc 656dh Panoramique1956 Isobloc 656dh Panoramique

1956 Isobloc 656 DH Transcar Panoramique SACA1956 Isobloc 656 DH Transcar Panoramique SACA

1957 Autocar Isobloc tourbus1957 Autocar Isobloc tourbus

1957 Grasse, autocar Isobloc

 1957 Grasse, autocar Isobloc

1958 Autocar Isobloc lourdes 645F651958 Autocar Isobloc lourdes 645F65

1958 Autocar Isobloc Lourdes Parking1958 Autocar Isobloc Lourdes Parking

1958 Lourdes, autocar Isobloc 21958 Lourdes, autocar Isobloc

1958-0500 - Limoges, autobus Isobloc1958-0500 – Limoges, autobus Isobloc

1958-0526 - Lourdes, autocar Saviem1958-0526 – Lourdes, autocar Isoblock – Saviem (see under Gar Wood)

Les autocars Isobloc - Tellier Nicolas - Etai - 2-7

Autocar Isobloc History Book

Les autocars Isobloc - Tellier Nicolas - EtaiLes autocars Isobloc – Tellier Nicolas – Etai

Les autocars Isobloc - Tellier Nicolas - Etai - 2Les autocars Isobloc – Tellier Nicolas – Etai

Place de l'Opéra sans bus,mais avec un car Isobloc ou FloiratPlace de l’Opéra sans bus,mais avec un car Isobloc ou Floirat

Isobloc Chambery ligne Chambéry-ChigninIsobloc Chambery ligne Chambéry-Chignin

france illustration oct 1948.5 (48)france illustration oct 1948.5

En 1945, un Isobloc W843M neuf fait son entrée dans le parc de la société GRINDLEREn 1945, un Isobloc W843M neuf fait son entrée dans le parc de la société GRINDLER

Autocar Isobloc Perrier 60jIsobloc Perrier 60j

Cést Fini, Thats it !


Buses FORD USA + all over the world part I

Buses FORD USA & all over the world part I

Ford Motor Company I


1914 Ford Model T, Four cylinders, 2900cc, 20 Horsepower


“Ford” redirects here. For other uses, see Ford.

Ford Mot002or Company


Public company

Traded as

(S&P 500 Component)




June 16, 1903 (110 years ago)


Henry Ford


Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.
(GPS: 42°18′55.00″N83°12′37.00″W)

Area served


Key people

William C. Ford, Jr.
(Executive Chairman)
Alan R. Mulally
(President & CEO)


Automotive parts


Automotive finance
Vehicle leasing
Vehicle service


 US$136.26 billion (2011)

Operating income

 US$8.681 billion (2011)

Net income

 US$20.21 billion (2011)

Total assets

 US$178.35 billion (2011)

Total equity

 US$15.07 billion (2011)


164,000 (2011)







1914 Ford T R Spanje ©David Tejedor

Ford Motor Company (also known as simply Ford) is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. In the past it has also produced heavy trucks, tractors and automotive components. Ford owns small stakes in Mazda of Japan and Aston Martin of the United Kingdom. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership.


1916 Ford Model T oldtimer bus L

Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914 these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford’s former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States since 1938.


1916 ford T Depot Hack

Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2010 vehicle sales. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe. Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide.

1917 Ford Autobus Model TT

1917 Ford Autobus Model TT


1918 T Ford Bus



Henry Ford (ca. 1919)


A 1910 Model T, photographed in Salt Lake City

Main article: History of Ford Motor Company

20th century


1920 Ford bus – DD 475

1921 Harmonicabus op basis van Ford T

1921 Harmonicabus op basis van Ford T © Conam

Henry Ford’s first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge (who would later found their own car company). During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue in DetroitMichigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept; and Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era.


1922 Ford

Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world’s largest and most profitable companies, as well as being one to survive the Great Depression. As one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world, the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 100 years.



After the first modern automobile was already created in the year 1886 by German inventor Carl Benz (Benz Patent-Motorwagen), more efficient production methods were needed to make the automobile affordable for the middle-class; which Ford contributed to, for instance by introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913.

In 1908 Ford introduced the first engine with a removable cylinder head, in the Model T. In 1930, Ford introduced the Model A, the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low priced V8 engine powered car in 1932.


1922 Henry Ford I ©HenryFord.ORG TheOldMotor

Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, and, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, and an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and in the same year offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. The Ford Mustang was introduced in 1964. In 1965 Ford introduced the seat belt reminder light.

With the 1980s, Ford introduced several highly successful vehicles around the world. During the 1980s, Ford began using the advertising slogan, “Have you driven a Ford, lately?” to introduce new customers to their brand and make their vehicles appear more modern. In 1990 and 1994 respectively, Ford also acquired Jaguar Cars and Aston Martin. During the mid- to late 1990s, Ford continued to sell large numbers of vehicles, in a booming American economy with a soaring stock market and low fuel prices.


1922 Henry Fordson II ©HenryFord.ORG TheOldMotor

With the dawn of the new century, legacy healthcare costs, higher fuel prices, and a faltering economy led to falling market shares, declining sales, and diminished profit margins. Most of the corporate profits came from financing consumer automobile loans through Ford Motor Credit Company.

21st century


William Clay Ford, Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford, serves as the executive chairman at the board of Ford Motor Company.

By 2005, both Ford and GM‘s corporate bonds had been downgraded to junk status, as a result of high U.S. health care costs for an aging workforce, soaring gasoline prices, eroding market share, and an over dependence on declining SUV sales. Profit margins decreased on large vehicles due to increased “incentives” (in the form of rebates or low interest financing) to offset declining demand. In the latter half of 2005, Chairman Bill Ford asked newly appointed Ford Americas Division President Mark Fields to develop a plan to return the company to profitability. Fields previewed the Plan, named The Way Forward, at the December 7, 2005 board meeting of the company and it was unveiled to the public on January 23, 2006. “The Way Forward” included resizing the company to match market realities, dropping some unprofitable and inefficient models, consolidating production lines, closing 14 factories and cutting 30,000 jobs.


1923 Ford A R Spanje ©Lluis Cuesta

Ford moved to introduce a range of new vehicles, including “Crossover SUVs” built on unibody car platforms, rather than more body-on-frame chassis. In developing the hybrid electric powertrain technologies for the Ford Escape Hybrid SUV, Ford licensed similar Toyota hybrid technologies to avoid patent infringements. Ford announced that it will team up with electricity supply company Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid. Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility’s electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated “in typical customer settings”, according to Ford.


1923 Ford Amaac Uruquay

William Clay Ford Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford (and better known by his nickname “Bill”), was appointed Executive Chairman in 1998, and also became Chief Executive Officer of the company in 2001, with the departure of Jacques Nasser, becoming the first member of the Ford family to head the company since the retirement of his uncle, Henry Ford II, in 1982. Upon the retirement of President and Chief Operation Officer Jim Padilla in April 2006, Bill Ford assumed his roles as well. Five months later, in September, Ford named Alan Mulally as President and CEO, with Ford continuing as Executive Chairman. In December 2006, the company raised its borrowing capacity to about $25 billion, placing substantially all corporate assets as collateral. Chairman Bill Ford has stated that “bankruptcy is not an option”. Ford and theUnited Auto Workers, representing approximately 46,000 hourly workers in North America, agreed to a historic contract settlement in November 2007 giving the company a substantial break in terms of its ongoing retiree health care costs and other economic issues. The agreement included the establishment of a company-funded, independently run Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA) trust to shift the burden of retiree health care from the company’s books, thereby improving its balance sheet. This arrangement took effect on January 1, 2010. As a sign of its currently strong cash position, Ford contributed its entire current liability (estimated at approximately US$5.5 billion as of December 31, 2009) to the VEBA in cash, and also pre-paid US$500 million of its future liabilities to the fund. The agreement also gives hourly workers the job security they were seeking by having the company commit to substantial investments in most of its factories.


1923 Ford T 12-13 zitpl B-6185 NL

The automaker reported the largest annual loss in company history in 2006 of $12.7 billion, and estimated that it would not return to profitability until 2009. However, Ford surprised Wall Street in the second quarter of 2007 by posting a $750 million profit. Despite the gains, the company finished the year with a $2.7 billion loss, largely attributed to finance restructuring at Volvo.


1923 Ford T B-6185 Ameland NL

On June 2, 2008, Ford sold its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors for $2.3 billion.

During November 2008, Ford, together with Chrysler and General Motors, sought government bridge loans at Congressional hearings in Washington, D.C. in the face of conditions caused by the 2008 financial crisis. The three companies presented action plans for the sustainability of the industry. Ford opted not to seek government loans. GM and Chrysler received government loans and financing through T.A.R.P. legislation funding provisions. On December 19, the cost of credit default swaps to insure the debt of Ford was 68 percent the sum insured for five years in addition to annual payments of 5 percent. That meant $6.8 million paid upfront to insure $10 million in debt, in addition to payments of $500,000 per year. In January 2009, Ford reported a $14.6 billion loss in the preceding year, a record for the company. The company retained sufficient liquidity to fund its operations. Through April 2009, Ford’s strategy of debt for equity exchanges erased $9.9 billion in liabilities (28% of its total) in order to leverage its cash position. These actions yielded Ford a $2.7 billion profit in fiscal year 2009, the company’s first full-year profit in four years.


1923 Ford T Ford 20pk carr Verheul GTM1 NL

In 2012, Ford’s corporate bonds were upgraded from junk to investment grade again, citing sustainable, lasting improvements.

On October 29, 2012, Ford announced the sale of its climate control components business, its last remaining automotive components operation, to Detroit Thermal Systems LLC for an undisclosed price.


1923 Ford T NL

On November 1, 2012, Ford announced that CEO Alan Mulally will stay with the company until 2014. Ford also named Mark Fields, the president of operations in Americas, as its new chief operating officer

Corporate affairs


Ford World Headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, USA, known as the Glass House.

Executive management

Members of the Ford board as of 2012 are: Richard A. Gephardt, Stephen Butler, Ellen Marram, Kimberly CasianoAlan Mulally (President and CEO), Edsel Ford II, Homer Neal, William Clay Ford Jr. (Executive Chairman), Jorma Ollila, Irvine Hockaday Jr., John L. Thornton, and William Clay Ford, Sr. (Director Emeritus).



The main corporate officers are: Lewis Booth (Executive Vice President, Chairman (PAG) and Ford of Europe), Mark Fields (Executive Vice President, President of The Americas), Donat Leclair (Executive Vice President and CFO), Mark A. Schulz (Executive Vice President, President of International Operations), and Michael E. Bannister (Group Vice President; Chairman & CEO Ford Motor Credit). Paul Mascarenas (Vice President of Engineering, The Americas Product Development)


1923 Ford-T WSM

Financial results

In 2010, Ford earned a net profit of $6.6 billion and reduced its debt from $33.6 billion to $14.5 billion lowering interest payments by $1 billion following its 2009 net profit of $2.7 billion. In the U.S., the F-Series was the best-selling vehicle for 2010. Ford sold 528,349 F-Series trucks during the year, a 27.7% increase over 2009, out of a total sales of 1.9 million vehicles, or every one out of four vehicles Ford sold. Trucks sales accounts for a big slice of Ford’s profits, according to USA Today. Ford’s realignment also included the sale of its wholly owned subsidiary, Hertz Rent-a-Car to a private equity group for $15 billion in cash and debt acquisition. The sale was completed on December 22, 2005. A 50–50 joint venture with Mahindra & Mahindra of India, called Mahindra Ford India, Limited (MIFL), ended with Ford buying out Mahindra’s remaining stake in the company in 2005. Ford had previously upped its stake to 72% in 1998.

1924 tet ford-bussen

1924 tet ford-bussen


1925 Ford T Carr. v d Bos & Br NL


Ford has manufacturing operations worldwide, including in the United States, Canada, Mexico, China, the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Australia and South Africa. Ford also has a cooperative agreement with Russian automaker GAZ.


1925 Ford T carr. Hainje Heerenveen B-5225 NL

North America


Ford dealer in Garden City, New York, ca. 1930-1945

In the first five months of 2010, auto sales in the U.S. rose to 4.6 million cars and light trucks, an increase of 17% from a year earlier. The rise was mainly caused by the return of commercial customers that had all but stopped buying in 2009 during the recession. Sales to individual customers at dealerships have increased 13%, while fleet sales have jumped 32%. Ford reported that 37% of its sales in May came from fleet sales when it announced its sales for the month increased 23%. In the first seven months of 2010, vehicle sales of Ford increased 24%, including retail and fleet sales. Fleet sales of Ford for the same period rose 35% to 386,000 units while retail sales increase 19%. Fleet sales account for 39 percent of Chrysler’s sales and 31 percent for GM’s.






Main article: Ford of Europe


Ford’s Dunton Technical Centre inLaindonUnited Kingdom, the largest automotive research and development facility in the country

030 Ford Duitsland

The Ford Research Center in AachenGermany

At first, Ford in Germany and Ford in Britain built different models from one another until the late 1960s, with the Ford Escort and then the Ford Capri being common to both companies. Later on, the Ford Taunus and Ford Cortina became identical, produced in left hand drive and right hand drive respectively. Rationalisation of model ranges meant that production of many models in the UK switched to elsewhere in Europe, including Belgium and Spain as well as Germany. The Ford Sierra replaced the Taunus and Cortina in 1982, drawing criticism for its radical aerodynamic styling, which was soon given nicknames such as “Jellymould” and “The Salesman’s Spaceship.”


1928-Poelgeest-bussen ©


1928 Ford V8 Hainje Heerenveen B-9274 NL

Increasingly, the Ford Motor Company has looked to Ford of Europe for its “world cars”, such as the Mondeo, Focus, and Fiesta, although sales of European-sourced Fords in the U.S. have been disappointing. The Focus has been one exception to this, which has become America’s best selling compact car since its launch in 2000

In February 2002, Ford ended car production in the UK. It was the first time in 90 years that Ford cars had not been made in Britain, although production of the Transit van continues at the company’s Southampton facility, engines at Bridgend and Dagenham, and transmissions at Halewood. Development of European Ford is broadly split between Dunton in Essex (powertrain, Fiesta/Ka, and commercial vehicles) and Cologne (body, chassis, electrical, Focus, Mondeo) in Germany. Ford also produced the Thames range of commercial vehicles, although the use of this brand name was discontinued circa 1965. Elsewhere in continental Europe, Ford assembles the Mondeo range in Genk (Belgium), Fiesta in Valencia (Spain) and Cologne (Germany), Ka in Valencia, and Focus in Valencia, Saarlouis (Germany) and Vsevolozhsk (Russia). Transit production is in Kocaeli (Turkey), Southampton (UK), and Transit Connect in Kocaeli.


1928 Ford NL

Ford also owns a joint-venture production plant in Turkey. Ford-Otosan, established in the 1970s, manufactures the Transit Connect compact panel van as well as the “Jumbo” and long-wheelbase versions of the full-size Transit. This new production facility was set up near Kocaeli in 2002, and its opening marked the end of Transit assembly in Genk.


1929 Ford

Another joint venture plant near Setúbal in Portugal, set up in collaboration with Volkswagen, formerly assembled the Galaxy people-carrier as well as its sister ships, the VW Sharan and SEAT Alhambra. With the introduction of the third generation of the Galaxy, Ford has moved the production of the people-carrier to the Genk plant, with Volkswagen taking over sole ownership of the Setúbal facility.


1931 Ford V8 Cupido uitvoering 5 B-27189 NL

In 2008, Ford acquired a majority stake in Automobile Craiova, Romania. Starting 2009, the Ford Transit Connect was Ford’s first model produced in Craiova, followed, in 2012, by low-capacity car engines and a new small class car, the B-Max.

Ford Europe has broken new ground with a number of relatively futuristic car launches over the last 50 years.


1931 Ford AA Bus

Its 1959 Anglia two-door saloon was one of the most quirky-looking small family cars in Europe at the time of its launch, but buyers soon became accustomed to its looks and it was hugely popular with British buyers in particular. It was still selling well when replaced by the more practical Escort in 1967.

The third incarnation of the Ford Escort was launched in 1980 and marked the company’s move from rear-wheel drive saloons to front-wheel drive hatchbacks in the small family car sector.


1931 Ford-Hainje Cupido 8 NL

The fourth generation Escort was produced from 1990 until 2000, although its successor – the Focus – had been on sale since 1998. On its launch, the Focus was arguably the most dramatic-looking and fine-handling small family cars on sale, and sold in huge volumes right up to the launch of the next generation Focus at the end of 2004.


1932 Ford – Den Oudsten, Woerden – Domburg A’dam NL

The 1982 Ford Sierra – replacement for the long-running and massively popular Cortina and Taunus models – was a style-setter at the time of its launch. Its ultramodern aerodynamic design was a world away from a boxy, sharp-edged Cortina, and it was massively popular just about everywhere it was sold. A series of updates kept it looking relatively fresh until it was replaced by the front-wheel drive Mondeo at the start of 1993.


1932 Ford A Visser  B-13634a NL

The rise in popularity of small cars during the 1970s saw Ford enter the mini-car market in 1976 with its Fiesta hatchback. Most of its production was concentrated at Valencia in Spain, and the Fiesta sold in huge figures from the very start. An update in 1983 and the launch of an all-new model in 1989 strengthened its position in the small car market.

On October 24, 2012, Ford announced that it would be closing its Genk assembly plant in eastern Belgium by the end of 2014.


1932 Ford A Visser  B-13634b NL

Asia Pacific


1932 Ford A Visser B-13634 NL

Ford formed its first passenger-vehicle joint venture in China in 2001, six years behind GM and more than a decade after VW. It has spent as of 2013 $4.9 billion to expand its lineup and double production capacity in China to 600,000 vehicles This includes Ford’s largest-ever factory complex in the southwestern city of Chongqing. Ford had 2.5 percent of the Chinese market in 2013, while VW controlled 14.5 percent and GM had 15.6 percent, according to consultant LMC Automotive. GM outsells Ford in China by more than six-to-one.

041 Ford_stamping_plant_Geelong

The Ford stamping plant in Geelong, Australia

The Ford India plant in ChennaiTamil Nadu

In Australia and New Zealand, the popular Ford Falcon has long been considered the average family car and is considerably larger than the Mondeo, Ford’s largest car sold in Europe. Between 1960 and 1972, the Falcon was based on a U.S. model of the same name, but since then has been entirely designed and manufactured in Australia, occasionlly being manufactured in New Zealand. Like its General Motors rival, the Holden Commodore, the Falcon uses a rear wheel drive layout. High performance variants of the Falcon running locally built engines produce up to 362 hp (270 kW). A ute (short for “utility”, known in the US as pickup truck) version is also available with the same range of drivetrains. In addition, Ford Australia sells highly tuned limited-production Falcon sedans and utes through its performance car division, Ford Performance Vehicles.


1932-35 Ford. Bouwjaren NL

In Australia, the Commodore and Falcon have traditionally outsold all other cars and comprise over 20% of the new car market. In New Zealand, Ford was second in market share in the first eight months of 2006 with 14.4 per cent. More recently Ford has axed its Falcon-based LWB variant of its lineup – the Fairlane and LTD ranges, and announced that their Geelong engine manufacturing plant may be shut down from 2013. They have also announced local manufacturing of the Focus small car starting from 2011.


1932-ford-model-b-school-bus ©Old Bus

However, with the acquisition of a stake in Japanese manufacturer Mazda in 1979, Ford began selling Mazda’s Familia and Capella (also known as the 323 and 626) as the Ford Laser and Telstar, replacing the European-sourced Escort and Cortina.

In Australia, the Laser was one of Ford Australia‘s most successful models, and was manufactured in Ford’s Homebush plant from 1981 until the plant’s closure in September 1994. It outsold the Mazda 323, despite being almost identical to it, due to the fact the Laser was manufactured in Australia and Ford was perceived as a local brand.


1933 Ford carr. Postma Rottevalle

In New Zealand, the Ford Laser and Telstar were assembled alongside the Mazda 323 and 626 until 1997, at the Vehicle Assemblers of New Zealand (VANZ) plant in WiriAuckland. The Sierra wagon was also assembled in New Zealand, owing to the popularity of station wagons in that market.

Through its relationship with Mazda, Ford also acquired a stake in South Korean manufacturer Kia, which built the (Mazda-based) Ford Festiva from 1988–1993, and the Ford Aspire from 1994–1997 for export to the United States, but later sold their interest to Hyundai (which also manufactured the Ford Cortina until the 1980s). Kia continued to market the Aspire as the Kia Avella, later replaced by the Rio and once again sold in the US.


1933 Ford V8 Carr. Brouwers Holwerd NL

Ford’s presence in Asia has traditionally been much smaller, confined to Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Taiwan, where Ford has had a joint venture with Lio Ho since the 1970s. Ford began assembly of cars in Thailand in 1960, but withdrew from the country in 1976, and did not return until 1995, when it formed a joint venture with Mazda called Auto Alliance. Now in Bo-win Sub District, Sriracha District of the Chonburi it is located The Ford Motor Company (Thailand) Limited, making passenger automobiles.

Ford India began production in 1998 at ChennaiTamil Nadu, with its Ford Escort model, which was later replaced by locally produced Ford Ikon in 2001. It has since added Fusion, Fiesta, Mondeo and Endeavour to its product line.


1934 Ford Carr. Postma Rottervalle NL

On March 9, 2010, Ford Motor Co. launched its first made-for-India compact car. Starting at 349,900 ($7,690), the Figo is Ford’s first car designed and priced for the mass Indian market. On July 28, 2011, Ford India signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the State of Gujarat for the construction of an assembly and engine plant in Sanand, and planned to invest approximately US$1 billion on a 460-acre site.


1934 Ford Lawrie CL-BB Winnipeg ©Foote

The scheduled closure of Ford’s Australian manufacturing base in 2016 was confirmed in late May 2013. Headquartered in the Victorian suburb of Broadmeadows, the company had registered losses worth AU$600 million over the five years prior to the announcement. It was noted that the corporate fleet and government sales that account for two-thirds of large, local car sales in Australia are insufficient to keep Ford’s products profitable and viable in Australia. The decision will affect 1200 Ford workers—over 600 employees in Geelong and more than 500 in Broadmeadows—who will lose their jobs by October 2016.


1934 Ford V8 – Kusters & Lemmens  BBA 63 Autobus SVA 63 erfg NL

Ford of Japan

Ford established a manufacturing facility in the port city of Yokohama in February 1925, where Model T vehicles were assembled using imported knock-down kits. The factory subsequently produced 10,000 Model A’s up to 1936. Production ceased in 1940 as a result of political tensions between Japan and the United States.


1934 Ford V8 Kusters & Lemmens- BBA 63 NL

After World War II, Ford did not have a presence in Japan, as the Ford facility was appropriated by the Japanese Government until 1958, when property was returned as a possession of the Ford Motor Company and became a research and development location for Ford partner Mazda. In 1979, Ford acquired a 24.5% ownership stake in Mazda, and in 1982 Ford and Mazda jointly established a sales channel to sell Ford products in Japan, including vehicles manufactured in North America, at a dealership called Autorama (Japanese). The Autorama sales channel was renamed Ford Sales of Japan in 1997.


1934 Ford, type V8-40 Kusters en lemmens UB-93-63 NL

Vehicles sold at Autorama locations were the North American assembled Ford Explorer, Probe (1989–1998), Mustang, Taurus (1989–1997), Thunderbird (1990–1993), Lincoln Continental, and Lincoln LS. Ford products manufactured in Europe that were sold in Japan were the Ford MondeoKaFocusFocus C-MAXFiesta, and the Galaxy. Mazda manufactured Ford vehicles in Japan and sold them as Fords at the Autorama locations. They were the Ford Telstar (Mazda Capella), LaserFestivaFestiva Mini WagonIxion (Mazda Premacy), Freda (Mazda Bondo Friendee), Spectron (Mazda Bongo), and commercial trucks J80 and the J100 (Mazda Bongo truck).


1934 Ford, type V8-40 Kusters en lemmens NL

Ford increased its shareholding in Mazda to 33.4% in 1996. Ford currently sells a small range of vehicles in Japan; as of October 2010, the Ford Mustang, Escape, Explorer (and Explorer truck), Ford KugaLincoln Navigator and Lincoln MKX were available in Japan. Ford maintains a regional office in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

South America


1934 Ford © Hank Suderman

During much of the 20th century, Ford faced protectionist government measures in South America, with the result that it built different models in different countries, without particular regard to rationalization or economy of scale inherent to producing and sharing similar vehicles between the nations. In many cases, new vehicles in a country were based on those of the other manufacturers it had entered into production agreements with, or whose factories it had acquired. For example, the Corcel and Del Rey in Brazil were originally based on Renault vehicles.


1935 Ford B-38868 NL

In 1987, Ford of Brasil and Ford of Argentina merged their operations with the Brazilian and Argentinan operations of Volkswagen Group, forming a new joint-venture company called Autolatina with a shared model range. Sales figures and profitability were disappointing, and Autolatina was dissolved in 1995. With the advent of Mercosur, the regional common market, Ford was finally able to rationalize its product line-ups in those countries. Consequently, the Ford Fiesta and Ford EcoSport are only built in Brazil, and the Ford Focus only built in Argentina, with each plant exporting in large volumes to the neighboring countries. Models like the Ford Mondeo from Europe could now be imported completely built up. Ford of Brazil produces a pick-up truck version of the Fiesta, the Courier, which is also produced in South Africa as the Ford Bantam in right hand drive versions.


1935 Ford V8 Den Oudsten en Domburg B-21037 NL

Africa and Middle East

In Africa, Ford’s market presence has traditionally been strongest in South Africa and neighbouring countries, with only trucks being sold elsewhere on the continent. Ford in South Africa began by importing kits from Canada to be assembled at its Port Elizabeth facility. Later Ford sourced its models from the UK and Australia, with local versions of the Ford Cortina including the XR6, with a 3.0 V6 engine, and aCortina-based ‘bakkie’ or pick-up, which was exported to the UK. In the mid-1980s Ford merged with a rival company, owned by Anglo American, to form the South African Motor Corporation (Samcor).


1935 Ford V8 Hainje B-20623 Rally Monte Carlo NL

Following international condemnation of apartheid, Ford divested from South Africa in 1988, and sold its stake in Samcor, although it licensed the use of its brand name to the company. Samcor began to assemble Mazdas as well, which affected its product line-up, and saw the European Fords like the Escort and Sierra replaced by the Mazda-based Laser and Telstar. Ford bought a 45 per cent stake in Samcor following the demise of apartheid in 1994, and this later became, once again, a wholly owned subsidiary, the Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa. Ford now sells a local sedan version of the Fiesta (also built in India and Mexico), and the Focus. The Falcon model from Australia was also sold in South Africa, but was dropped in 2003, while the Mondeo, after briefly being assembled locally, was dropped in 2005.


1935 Ford V-8 Intercity Bus

Ford’s market presence in the Middle East has traditionally been even smaller, partly due to previous Arab boycotts of companies dealing with Israel. Ford and Lincoln vehicles are currently marketed in ten countries in the region. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the UAE are the biggest markets. Ford also established itself in Egypt in 1926, but faced an uphill battle during the 1950s due to the hostile nationalist business environment. Ford’s distributor in Saudi Arabia announced in February 2003 that it had sold 100,000 Ford and Lincoln vehicles since commencing sales in November 1986. Half of the Ford/Lincoln vehicles sold in that country were Ford Crown Victorias. In 2004, Ford sold 30,000 units in the region, falling far short of General Motors‘ 88,852 units and Nissan Motors‘ 75,000 units.

Products and services


See also: List of Ford vehicles and List of Mercury vehicles

058 2013_Lincoln_MKS_--_2012_DC

The 2013 model year Lincoln MKS

As of 2012 Ford Motor Company sells a broad range of automobiles under the Ford marque worldwide, and an additional range of luxury automobiles under theLincoln marque in the United States. The company has sold vehicles under a number of other marques during its history. The Mercury brand was introduced by Ford in 1939, continuing in production until 2011 when poor sales led to its discontinuation. In 1958, Ford introduced the Edsel brand, but poor sales led to its discontinuation in 1960. In 1985, the Merkur brand was introduced in the United States to market products produced by Ford of Europe; it was discontinued in 1989.


1935 ford-busse-oldtimer

Ford acquired the British sports car maker Aston Martin in 1989, later selling it on March 12, 2007, although retaining a 15% stake, and bought Volvo Cars of Sweden in 1999, selling it to Zhejiang Geely Holding Group in 2010. In November 2008, it reduced its 33.4% controlling interest in Mazda of Japan to a 13.4% non-controlling interest. On November 18, 2010, Ford reduced their stake further to just 3%, citing the reduction of ownership would allow greater flexibility to pursue growth in emerging markets. Ford and Mazda remain strategic partners through exchanges of technological information and joint ventures, including an American joint venture plant in Flat Rock, Michigan called Auto Alliance. Ford sold the United Kingdom-based Jaguar and Land Rover companies and brands to Tata Motors of India in March 2008.


1935 LINDBERGH op Ford R-Series NL             ^ Fotograaf

In 2011, J.D. Power ranked Ford 23rd in initial quality, a drop from fifth in 2010. Consumer Reports magazine likewise decided not to recommend several new Ford SUVs, blaming the Sync entertainment and phone system used.


Country of origin

Years used/owned


Ford United States 1903 to present Global
Lincoln United States 1922 to present North America, Middle East
Mercury United States 1939 to 2011 North America
Edsel United States 1958 to 1960 North America
Merkur United States 1985 to 1989 North America
Jaguar United Kingdom 1989 to 2008 Global
Aston Martin United Kingdom 1989 to 2007 Global
Volvo Sweden 1999 to 2010 Global

Land Rover

United Kingdom

2000 to 2008



061 Ford_1939

An advert for the 1939 Ford V-8 pick-up truck

062 Ford_1961

An advert for the 1961 Ford H-Series truck

Ford has produced trucks since 1908. Countries where Ford commercial vehicles are or were made include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada (badged Mercury too), France, Germany, India, Netherlands, Philippines, Spain (badged Ebro too), Turkey, UK (badged also Fordson and Thames) and USA.


1936 Ford V8 Hainje NL

From the 1940s to late 1970s Ford’s Ford F-Series were used as the base for light trucks for the North American market.

Most of these ventures are now extinct. The European one that lasted longest was the lorries arm of Ford of Britain, which was eventually sold to Iveco group in 1986, and whose last significant models were the Transcontinental and the Cargo.

In the United States, Ford’s heavy trucks division (Classes 7 and 8) was sold in 1997 to Freightliner Trucks, which rebranded the lineup as Sterling. Freightliner is in the process of discontinuing this line.


1936 Ford V8 New Zealand

Line of heavy trucks made by Ford for the North American market:


1936 Ford V-8 Transit Bus

Ford continues to manufacture medium duty trucks under the F-650 and F-750 badges. In 2001, the company entered into a joint venture with Navistar International to produce medium duty commercial trucks. The first new model from the new corporation, known as Blue Diamond Truck Company LLC, was the 2006 model year LCF, the first Ford branded cab-over-engine design in the United States since Freightliner’s acquisition of the Cargo in the mid-1990s. The LCF was discontinued in 2009 and Ford’s 2011 medium-duty commercial offerings are limited to the two F-Series.

In 1999 the end of the F800 meant Ford was not producing in any F-series heavy truck chassis.

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit jumbo van which is classed as a Large Goods Vehicle and has a payload of up to 2,265 kg, there are options of a panel van, pickup or chassis cab. The Ford Transit is also available as a light van called the Ford Transit Connect and the Ford Ranger pickup is available.


065 1980sThomasFordSheffield

A Ford B700 bus chassis, with a body byThomas Built

Ford manufactured complete buses in the company’s early history, but today the role of the company has changed to that of a second stage manufacturer. In North America, the E-Series is still used as a chassis for small school buses and the F-650 is used in commercial bus markets. In the 1980s and 1990s, the medium-duty B700 was a popular chassis used by school bus body manufacturers including Thomas BuiltWard and Blue Bird, but Ford lost its market share due to industry contraction and agreements between body manufacturers. Older bus models included:

Prior to 1939, Ford buses were based on truck bodies:

  • Model B – 1930s
  • Model T – 1920s
  • F-105 school bus


1936 Ford V8T carr. Hainje Heerenveen B-7387 NL

During World War II Ford manufactured Ford Transit bus, a series of small transit buses with bodies built by second party:

  • 09-B/19-B City transit bus – 1939–1941
  • 19-B/29-B City transit bus – 1941–1942
  • 49-B/79-B City transit bus – 1944–1947
  • 69-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 29-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 72-T transit bus – 1944–1945

After 1946 the Transit City bus was sold as Universal Bus with the roof changed from fabric/wood to all metal:

  • 79-B Universal transit bus – 1946–1947

Succeeding the Ford Transit bus was the Ford 8M buses:

  • 8MB transit bus – with Wayne Works 1948–?

Following World War II and from 1950s onwards Ford lost out to General Motors. This led to the end of transit buses for Ford in North America.

  • B500 or B-series – 1950-1990s based on Ford F-series truck chassis used by school bus body manufacturers

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit Minibus which is classed in Europe as a Passenger Carrying Vehicle and there are options of 12, 15 or 17 seaters. In the past European models included:

  • EM
  • N-138
  • D series buses (Australia)


1936 Ford Verheul NL


068 Ford-Tractor

A Ford N series tractor

The “Henry Ford and Son Company” began making Fordson tractors in Henry’s hometown of Springwells (later part of Dearborn), Michigan from 1907 to 1928, from 1919 to 1932, at Cork, Ireland, and 1933–1964 at Dagenham, England, later transferred to Basildon. They were also produced in Leningrad beginning in 1924.


1936 Ford-Hainje, gefotografeerd door ©Jan Voerman op 4-8-1940 in Den Bosch NL

In 1986, Ford expanded its tractor business when it purchased the Sperry-New Holland skid-steer loader and hay baler, hay tools and implement company fromSperry Corporation and formed Ford-New Holland which bought out Versatile tractors in 1988. This company was bought by Fiat in 1993 and the name changed from Ford New Holland to New Holland. New Holland is now part of CNH Global.


1937 Ford carr. Veth ZEGO194 NL

Financial services


1937 Ford Greyhound Bus


1937 Ford Greyhound Bus


1937 Ford Super Coaches Australia

Ford offers automotive finance through Ford Motor Credit Company.

Automotive components

075 isobloc

1937 Ford Isobloc met V8 motor F

Ford’s FoMoCo parts division sells aftermarket parts under the Motorcraft brand name. It has spun off its parts division under the name Visteon.



1937 Ford van Koopmans Jubbega met carroserie van Hainje NL

Main article: Ford Racing


1938 Ford A Hainje Heerenveen NL

Along with Shelby and Chevrolet, Ford is one of only three American constructors to win titles on the international scene at the FIA World Championships. As a constructor, Ford won the World Sportscar Championship three times in 19661967 and 1968, and the World Rally Championship three times in 19792006 and 2007.


1938 Ford Hainje B-21375 NL

Stock car racing

079 Todd_Kluever

NASCAR Ford Fusion race car

Ford is one of four manufacturers in NASCAR‘s three major series: Sprint Cup SeriesNationwide Series, and Camping World Truck Series. Major teams includeRoush Fenway Racing and Yates Racing and Richard Petty Motorsports. Ford is represented by the mid-size Fusion in the Sprint Cup, the Mustang in the Nationwide Series, and by the F-150 in the Camping World Truck Series. Some of the most successful NASCAR Fords were the aerodynamic fastback Ford Torino,Ford Torino TalladegaMercury Cyclone Spoiler II, and Mercury Montegos, and the aero-era Ford Thunderbirds. The Ford nameplate has won eight manufacturer’s championships in Sprint Cup, while Mercury has won one. In the Sprint Cup Series, Ford earned its 1,000th victory in the 2013 Quicken Loans 400. The Ford Fusion is also used in the ARCA Remax Series.


1938 Ford Kusters & Lemmens VADAH-bus 8 lijn Sittard- Echt-Roermond NL

Formula One

Ford was heavily involved in Formula One for many years, and supplied engines to a large number of teams from 1967 until 2004. These engines were designed and manufactured by Cosworth, the racing division that was owned by Ford from 1998 to 2004. Ford-badged engines won 176 Grands Prix between 1967 and 2003 for teams such as Team Lotus and McLaren. Ford entered Formula One as a constructor in 2000 under the Jaguar Racing name, after buying the Stewart Grand Prixteam which had been its primary ‘works’ team in the series since 1997. Jaguar achieved little success in Formula One, and after a turbulent five seasons, Ford withdrew from the category after the 2004 season, selling both Jaguar Racing (which became Red Bull Racing) and Cosworth (to Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven).


1938 Ford V8 COE B-15822 Hainje NL


082 Rally

Jari-Matti Latvala driving the Ford Focus RS WRC 09 in 2010.

Main article: Ford World Rally Team


1938 Ford V8, 798W, Hainje NL

Ford has a long history in rallying and has been active in the World Rally Championship since the beginning of the world championship, the 1973 season. Ford took the 1979 manufacturers’ title with Hannu MikkolaBjörn Waldegård and Ari Vatanen driving the Ford Escort RS1800. In the Group B era, Ford achieved success withFord RS200. Since the 1999 season, Ford has used various versions of the Ford Focus WRC to much success. In the 2006 seasonBP-Ford World Rally Teamsecured Ford its second manufacturers’ title, with the Focus RS WRC 06 built by M-Sport and driven by “Flying Finns“ Marcus Grönholm and Mikko Hirvonen.Continuing with Grönholm and Hirvonen, Ford successfully defended the manufacturers’ world championship in the 2007 season. Ford is the only manufacturer to score in the points for 92 consecutive races; since the 2002 season opener Monte Carlo Rally.


1938 FordBus

Sports cars

Main article: Ford GT#Racing


1939 Ford AA NL

Ford sports cars have been visible in the world of sports car racing since 1964. Most notably the GT40 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans four times in the 1960s and is the only American car to ever win overall at this prestigious event. Ford also won the 1968 International Championship for Makes with the GT40, which still stands today as one of the all-time greatest racing cars. Swiss team Matech GT Racing, in collaboration with Ford Racing, opened a new chapter with the Ford GT, winning the Teams title in the 2008 FIA GT3 European Championship.

086 Ford Mustang Barbers02

Ford Mustang GT (racing GT car)

Main article: Ford Mustang#Racing


1939 Ford op afsluitdijk B-21037a NL

The Ford Mustang has arguably been Ford’s most successful sports car. Jerry Titus won the 1965 SCCA Pro B National Championship with a Mustang and the model went on to earn Ford the SCCA Trans-Am Championship title in both 1966 and 1967. Ford won the Trans-Am Championship again in 1970 with Parnelli Jonesand George Folmer driving Boss 302 Mustangs for Bud Moore Engineering. Ford took the 1985 and 1986 IMSA GTO Championship with Mustangs driven by John Jones and Scott Pruett before returning to Trans-Am glory with a championship in 1989 with Dorsey Schroeder. Ford dominated Trans-Am in the 1990s with Tommy Kendal winning championships in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Paul Gentilozi adding yet another title in 1999. In 2005 the Ford Mustang FR500C took the championship in the Rolex Koni Challenge Series in its first year on the circuit. In 2007 Ford added a victory in the GT4 European Championship. 2008 was the first year of the Mustang Challenge for the Miller Cup, a series which pits a full field of identical factory built Ford Mustang race cars against each other. Also in 2008, Ford won the manufacturers championship in the Koni Challenge Series and HyperSport drivers Joe Foster and Steve Maxwell won the drivers title in a Mustang GT.


1939 Ford-Verheul  2 foto via Frank vd Boogert KLM NL

Touring cars

089 Winterbottom2008

Ford Performance Racing Ford Falcon V8 Supercar at Eastern Creek in Australia in 2008.

Ford has campaigned touring cars such as the FocusFalcon, and Contour/Mondeo and the Sierra Cosworth in many different series throughout the years. Notably, Mondeo drivers finished 1,2,3 in the 2000 British Touring Car Championship and Falcon drivers placed 1,2,3 in the 2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series.


1940 Ford met carrosserie van Hainje NL


In the Indianapolis 500, Ford powered IndyCars won 17 times between 1965 and 1996[citation needed]. Ford has also branched out into drifting with the introduction of the new model Mustang. Most noticeable is the Turquoise and Blue Falken Tires Mustang driven by Vaughn Gittin Jr, A.K.A. “JR”. with 750 RWHP (Rear Wheel Horsepower). In drag racingJohn Force Racing drivers John ForceTony Pedregon, and Robert Hight have piloted Ford Mustang Funny Cars to several NHRA titles in recent seasons. Teammates Tim Wilkerson and Bob Tasca III also drive Mustangs in Funny Car. Formula Ford, a formula for single-seater cars without wings and originally on road tires were conceived in 1966 in the UK as an entry-level formula for racing drivers. Many of today’s racing drivers started their car racing careers in this category.


1940 Ford O98W158 carr v Eerten GTW197 M-15291 NL

Environmental initiatives

092 Ford_leaf_road_logo

All Ford’s alternative fuel and hybridmodels are identified by Ford’s leaf road logo badge.


1940 Ford O98W158 carr v Eerten GTW198 M-15292 M-15068 NL

Compressed natural gas

The alternative fossil fuel vehicles, such as some versions of the Crown Victoria especially in fleet and taxi service, operate on compressed natural gas—or CNG. Some CNG vehicles have dual fuel tanks – one for gasoline, the other for CNG – the same engine can operate on either fuel via a selector switch.


1940 Ford V8 Werkspoor met verduisterde koplampen. ATO-13 NL

Flexible fuel vehicles

095 Ford_Focus_Flexifuel_in_Madrid_with_flexifuel_badging

The Ford Focus Flexifuel was the first E85 flexible fuel vehicle commercially available in the European market.

Flexible fuel vehicles are designed to operate smoothly using a wide range of available ethanol fuel mixtures—from pure gasoline, to bioethanol-gasoline blends such as E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) or E100 (neat hydrous ethanol) in Brazil. Part of the challenge of successful marketing alternative and flexible fuel vehicles in the U.S., is the general lack of establishment of sufficient fueling stations, which would be essential for these vehicles to be attractive to a wide range of consumers. Significant efforts to ramp up production and distribution of E85 fuels are underway and expanding. Current Ford E100 Flex sold in the Brazilian market are the CourierFord EcoSportFord FiestaFord Focus and Ford Ka.


1940 Frederiks Ford bus de TET 28 NL

Electric vehicles

Ford expects