Standard Motor Company

Standard Motor Company

Standard-Triumph International Limited
Formerly called
The Standard Motor Company Limited
Industry Automobile
Fate
Founded 1903 in CoventryUK
Founder Reginald Walter Maudslay
Defunct 1968 (British Leyland)
Headquarters CanleyCoventryUK
Key people
Products Motor vehicles and Fergusontractors
Brands Standard, Triumph, Ferguson
Parent

The Standard Motor Company Limited was a motor vehicle manufacturer, founded in Coventry, England, in 1903 by Reginald Walter Maudslay. It purchased Triumph in 1945 and in 1959 officially changed its name to Standard-Triumph International and began to put the Triumph brandname on all its products.

Standard Motor Canley Works Coventry

Moving Pictures about Standard Motor Car Company:

https://youtu.be/UPIEk1tLbZU

https://youtu.be/eNcSOwUCuyE

https://youtu.be/I4khknZnQmM

https://youtu.be/lzWSEnZWa_U

https://youtu.be/TM1rnfIdqtM

https://youtu.be/H3rNe0l1Utw

Looking at this moving pictures is funny and interesting. Take a look. There is much more but I can’t put all film links here.

For many years, it manufactured Ferguson tractors powered by its Vanguard engine. All Standard’s tractor assets were sold to Massey-Ferguson in 1959.

In September 1959, Standard Motor Company was renamed Standard-Triumph International Limited. A new subsidiary took the name The Standard Motor Company Limited and took over the manufacture of the group’s products.

The Standard name was last used in Britain in 1963, and in India in 1988.

History

1903–14

Maudslay, great grandson of the eminent engineer Henry Maudslay, had trained under Sir John Wolfe-Barry as a civil engineer. In 1902 he joined his cousin Cyril Charles Maudslay at his Maudslay Motor Company to make marine internal combustion engines. The marine engines did not sell very well, and still in 1902 they made their first engine intended for a car. It was fitted to a chain-drive chassis. The three-cylinder engine, designed by Alexander Craig  was an advanced unit with a single overhead camshaft and pressure lubrication.

A Roman military Standard of 1 A.D. Maudslay kept a Roman standard at his home

Realising the enormous potential of the horseless carriage and using a gift of £3,000 from Sir John Wolfe-Barry, R. W. Maudslay left his cousin and became a motor manufacturer on his own account. His Standard Motor Company was incorporated on 2 March 1903 and he established his business in a small factory in a two-storey building in Much Park Street, Coventry. Having undertaken the examination of several proprietary engines to familiarise himself with internal combustion engine design he employed seven people to assemble the first car, powered by a single-cylinder engine with three-speed gearbox and shaft drive to the rear wheels. By the end of 1903 three cars had been built and the labour force had been increased to twenty five. The increased labour force produced a car every three weeks during 1904.

1903 Standard 6 hp 1006 cc single cylinder

The single-cylinder model was soon replaced by a two-cylinder model quickly followed by three- and four-cylinder versions and in 1905 the first six. Even the first cars boasted shaft drive as opposed to chains, and the engines were not merely “square” but had 6″ diameter pistons with a 3″ stroke. As well as supplying complete chassis, the company found a good market selling engines for fitting to other cars, especially where the owner wanted more power. Although Alex Craig, a Scottish engineer, was engaged to do much of the detail work, Maudslay himself was sufficiently confident to undertake much of the preliminary layout. One of the several derivations of the name “Standard” is said to have emanated from a discussion between Maudslay and Craig during which the latter proposed several changes to a design on the grounds of cost, which Maudslay rejected, saying that he was determined to maintain the best possible “Standard”.

1910 Standard 30HP cabriolet Veteran Car Club of Great Britain Cotswold Caper

1910 Thirty cabriolet with division

1913 Standard Model S 9,5hp Rhyl 2-seater tourer

1913 Model S 2-seater tourer

In 1905 Maudslay himself drove the first Standard car to compete in a race. This was the RAC Tourist Trophy in which he finished 11th out of 42 starters, having had a non-stop run. In 1905 the first export order was also received, from a Canadian who arrived at the factory in person. The order was reported in the local newspaper with some emphasis, “Coventry firm makes bold bid for foreign markets”.

The company exhibited at the ^ 1905 London Motor Show in  Crystal Palace, at which a London dealer, Charles (later Sir Charles) Friswell 1872-1926 agreed to buy the entire factory output. He joined Standard and later was managing director for many years.

In late 1906 production was transferred to larger premises and output was concentrated on 6-cylinder models. The 16/20 h.p. tourer with side-entrance body was priced at £450. An indication of how much this was can be gained from the fact that a draughtsman earned £3 a week. In 1907 Friswell became company chairman. He worked hard to raise its profile, and the resulting increase in demand necessitated the acquisition of a large single-storey building in Cash’s Lane, Coventry. Even this was inadequate after the publicity gained when a fleet of 20 cars, 16/20 tourers, were supplied for the use of Commonwealth editors attending the 1909 Imperial Press Conference in London.

In 1909 the company first made use of the famous Union Flag Badge, a feature of the radiator emblem until after the Second World War. By 1911 the range of vehicles was comprehensive, with the 8-horsepower model being produced in quantity whilst a special order for two 70 hp cars was at the same time executed for a Scottish millionaire. Friswell’s influence culminated in supplying seventy 4-cylinder 16 hp cars for King George V and his entourage, including the Viceroy of India, at the 1911 Delhi Durbar. In 1912 Friswell sold his interest in Standard to C. J. Band and Siegfried Bettmann, the founder of the Triumph Motor Cycle Company (which became the Triumph Motor Company). During the same year the first commercial vehicle was produced, and the 4-cylinder model “S” was introduced at £195, the first to be put into large-scale production. 1600 were produced before the outbreak of the First World War, 50 of them in the final week of car production. These cars were sold with a three-year guarantee. In 1914 Standard became a public company.

First World War

During the First World War the company produced more than 1000 aircraft, including the Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.12Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8Sopwith Pup and Bristol F.2-B in a new works at Canley that opened on 1 July 1916. Canley would subsequently become the main centre of operations. Other war materials produced included shells, mobile workshops for the Royal Engineers, and trench mortars.

1922 Standard Eleven SLO4 Tourer

1922 Eleven 4-door tourer

1927 Standard Nine

1927 Nine Selby 4-seater tourer

1930 Standard Swallow 2-door sports saloon on a Big Nine chassis

1930 Standard Swallow
2-door sports saloon on a Big Nine chassis

1933 Standard Ten 4-door saloon

1933 Ten 4-door saloon

1934 Standard 10-12 Speedline sports coupé

1934 10/12 Speedline sports coupé

1936 Avon Standard Sixteen Saloon 1936

1936 4-door sports saloon by Avon on a Sixteen chassis

1937 Standard Flying Twelve 4-door saloon RAF

1937 Flying Twelve 4-door saloon RAF

1919–39

Civilian car production was restarted in 1919 with models based on pre-war designs, for example the 9.5 model “S” was re-introduced as the model SLS although this was soon superseded by an 8 h.p. model.

In the early 1920s saloon bodies were first offered; previously all cars had been tourers. The bodies had, since the move to Bishopsgate Green, been made in Coventry by the company itself, but it was not until 1922 that they were mass-produced, using a wooden track along which they were pushed by hand. The company was justifiably proud of the modern factory at Canley, boasting in its advertisements “It is a beautifully lighted and well-aired factory standing on the edge of a breezy common away from the city din and smoke, that the finishing touches and test are given to the All British ‘Standard’ Light cars which issue there to almost every quarter in the world”.

It was about this time during the early 1920s that the slogan “Count them on the road” appeared on every advertisement. By 1924 the company had a share of the market comparable to Austin Motor Company, making more than 10,000 cars in 1924. As the immediate post-war boom faded, many rival marques were discontinued. Cars became steadily larger and more elaborate as manufacturers sought to maintain sales. During the 1920s all the models were named after towns, not only near the factory such as Canley and Kenilworth but also further afield – Teignmouth, Falmouth, and Exmouth.

By the late 1920s profits had decreased dramatically due to great reinvestment, a failed export contract and bad sales of the larger cars. In 1927 the inadvisability of matching the larger more elaborate trend became apparent and the 9 hp Fulham with fabric body was introduced at £185. Production was concentrated mainly on one basic chassis with a 9 hp engine. The importance of standardisation was now appreciated and only one alternative was offered. In 1929 John Paul Black (later Sir John Black) a joint managing director of Hillman took up an appointment at Standard as joint Managing Director.

Standard Swallow and Jaguar

Black encouraged the supply of chassis to external coachbuilders such as Avon and Swallow Coachbuilding and Jensen. The coachbuilding company of Avon during the early 1930s commenced producing cars with a distinctly sporty appearance, using as a foundation, a complete chassis from the Standard Motor Company. These chassis were ordinary production units, used because of their sound engineering design and good performance. Known as Avon Standard Specials they catered for a select market too small for Standard themselves.

1933 Jaguar SS 1

S S One
Engine and chassis by Standard but chassis designed by S S

Swallow decided to produce a car under their own name using a Standard engine and chassis. A prototype S S One was displayed at London’s October 1931 Motor Show and in 1932 Swallow were able to supply three models, two of them used the same body. Swallow’s business was moved to S S Cars Limited and began to use a model name of Jaguar for part of their range then extended it to include their saloons. In 1945 S S Cars became Jaguar Cars and Standard still manufactured Jaguar’s engines though only the smallest remained a standard Standard design.

It was not until 1930, after the replacement of artillery wheels by spoke wheels that the distinctive radiator shape first used on the 6-cylinder models in 1906 was finally abandoned. In 1930, before the worst of the Depression, the Big Nine was introduced which together with the 6-cylinder Ensign and Envoy constituted the complete range. Here standardisation was taken a step further with the bodies on 9 hp four-cylinder and 15 hp six-cylinder being almost indistinguishable except for bonnet length. The Big Nine was soon followed by the Big Twelve and sales for the second six months of 1931 exceeded those of the whole of the previous year. In 1932 there was a Royal visit to the Canley works by the Duke of Gloucester who came to open the Canley Pavilion outside which he took delivery of a new 6-cylinder model.

Founder and Chairman Reginald Maudslay retired in 1934 and died soon afterwards on 14 December 1934 at the age of 64. Charles James Band 1883-1961, a Coventry solicitor and a Standard director since 1920, replaced him as chairman and served in that capacity until the beginning of 1954 though Sir John Black briefly held the appointment before he retired. 1935 saw all production transferred to the Canley site. Extensive re-organisation occurred including a continuous track being laid down in the paint shop on which the cars were completely painted.

Through the 1930s, fortunes improved with new models, the Standard Nine and Standard Ten addressed the low to mid range market. At the 1935 Motor Show the new range of Flying Standards was announced with (semi) streamlined bodies. The Flying Standards came to the market in 1936 with their distinctive streamlined sloping rears virtually replacing the existing range of Nine, Twelve, Sixteen, and Twenty. The Flying Standards were so-called because of the major radiator shell change to a waterfall grille topped by the Union Jack badge apparently streaming backwards in contrast to its previous forward-facing position.

1936 20 hp V8

The Flying Nine, Flying Ten, Flying Twelve, and Flying Fourteen had four-cylinder engines, while the Flying Sixteen and Flying Twenty had six-cylinder engines. At the top of the range was the Standard Flying V-Eight, with a 20 RAC hp side-valve 90 degree V8 engine and a top speed of more than 80 mph (130 km/h). 250 Flying V-Eights were made from 1936 to 1937; they were offered for sale from 1936 to 1938 with the initial price of £349 lowered to ₤325 in the last year to clear inventory.

In 1938 a new factory was opened at Fletchampstead. That year, Standard launched the Flying Eight. The Flying Eight had a new four-cylinder engine smaller than that in the Flying Nine, and was the first British mass-produced light saloon with independent front suspension. The Flying Ten and Flying Twelve were also given new chassis with independent front suspension in 1938.

The aero engine plant at Banner Lane, a shadow factory, began construction in mid 1939 and production began in 1940. It was managed by Standard for the Air Ministry. After the war Standard leased Banner Lane and in partnership with Harry Ferguson made his Ferguson tractors.

By the beginning of the war, Standard’s annual production was approximately 50,000 units.

1946 Eight 2-door saloon

1947 Twelve drophead coupé

1948 Fourteen 4-door saloon

1952 Vanguard Phase 1A

c. 1953 Eight

1956 Ensign. It shared the Vanguard Series III body, but had a reduced specification. It was popular with the RAF.

1958 Vanguard

1959 Ten

Second World War

The company continued to produce its cars during the Second World War, but now mainly fitted with utility bodies (“Tillies”). However, the most famous war-time product was the de Havilland Mosquito aircraft, mainly the FB VI version, of which more than 1100 were made. 750 Airspeed Oxfords were also made as well as 20,000 Bristol Mercury VIII engines, and 3,000 Bristol Beaufighter fuselages.

Other wartime products included 4000 Beaverette light armoured cars and a prototype lightweight “Jeep” type vehicle.

Post-war years

With peace, the pre-war Eight and Twelve the twelve fitted with 1776cc engine sold as 14 hp cars were quickly back in production using tools carefully stored since 1939. Of greater significance was the 1945 purchase, arranged by Sir John Black for £75,000, of the Triumph Motor Company. Triumph had gone into receivership in 1939, and was now reformed as a wholly owned subsidiary of Standard, named Triumph Motor Company (1945) Limited. The Triumph factory was near the city centre and had been completely destroyed in the blitz. A lucrative deal was also arranged to build the small Ferguson Company tractor. This arrangement was considered primarily by Black as a means to securing increased profits to fund new car development.

Ferguson tractor

In December 1945 Standard Motor Company Limited announced that an arrangement had been made to manufacture Mr Harry Ferguson‘s tractors and the Air Ministry‘s shadow factory at Banner Lane Coventry run by Standard during the war would be used for the project. These tractors would be for the Eastern hemisphere, Ferguson tractors built by Ford in America for the Western hemisphere. Production was expected to start in 1946. Implements would be sourced separately by Ferguson who would also merchandise the tractors and the implements.

Standard Vanguard

A one-model policy for the Standard marque (alongside a range of new Triumphs) was adopted in 1948 with the introduction of the 2-litre Standard Vanguard, which was styled on American lines by Walter Belgrove, and replaced all the carry-over pre-war models. This aptly named model was the first true post-war design from any major British manufacturer. The beetle-back Vanguard Phase 1 was replaced in 1953 by the notch-back Phase 2 and in 1955 by the all-new Phase 3, which resulted in variants such as the Sportsman, Ensign, Vanguard Vignale and Vanguard Six.

Standard Eight and Ten

The one-model policy lasted until 1953, when a new Standard Eight small car was added. This was introduced at £481. 7. 6. the cheapest four-door saloon on the market, yet it boasted independent front suspension, hydraulic brakes and an economical O.H.V. engine. At the same time in another part of the same building Standards were producing a very different engine, the Rolls Royce Avon jet aero engine of which 415 were made between 1951 and 1955. In 1954 the Eight was supplemented by the slightly more powerful Standard Ten which featured a wider chrome grille.

Engines

The Phase II Vanguard was powered, like the Phase I, by a 2088 cc 4-cylinder “wet sleeve” engine, now with a modestly increased compression ratio, and producing 68 hp. This engine could be modified by using an additional intake system and two single-barrel Solex carburettors, producing 90 hp. Typically, the Phase II engine was one Solex carburettor, with 85 mm by 93 mm pistons. Standard Motors at the time supplied many of these engines to Ferguson Tractor distributed in the United States.

Standard Pennant

The Ten was followed in its turn in 1957 by the Standard Pennant featuring very prominent tail fins, but otherwise little altered structurally from the 1953 Standard Eight. An option for the Ten, and standard fitment to the Pennant, was the Gold Star engine, tuned for greater power and torque than the standard 948 cc unit. Another tuning set, featuring a different camshaft and twin carburettors, was available from dealers. As well as an overdrive for the gearbox, an option for the Eight, Ten and Pennant was the Standrive, a semi-manual transmission that automatically operated the clutch during gearchanges.

Triumph TR2

During the same year that the ‘8’ was introduced, another car was displayed at the London Motor Show. This was the Triumph 20TS, a sports two-seater with a modified Standard ‘8’ chassis and a Vanguard engine. The 20TS’s lack of luggage space and unsatisfactory performance and handling resulted in production being delayed until the next year when the chassis and drivetrain were developed and the body was restyled to incorporate a generous boot. The car was badged as a ‘Triumph’ rather than a ‘Standard’ and the Triumph TR2 was a winner. Ken Richardson achieved 124 mph (200 km/h) on the Jabbeke Highway in Belgium in a slightly modified car. As a result of the publicity, small manufacturers, including Morgan, Peerless, Swallow, and Doretti, bought engines and other components from Standard Motor Company.

Standard Atlas van

Atlas van 1959. In a segment dominated, in the UK market, by Bedford, a number of UK automakers competed with under-powered forward control competitors. The Atlas was Standard-Triumph’s contender.

In 1958 the Standard Atlas panel van and pick-up was first vended, a cab-over-engine design. It initially used the 948 cc engine from the Standard 10, making the resulting vehicle woefully underpowered, even with its 6.66:1 final drive ratio. In 1961, the Atlas Major was introduced, and sold alongside the original 948 cc Atlas. This variant was powered by the Standard 1670 cc wet-liner motor, as used with different capacities in the Vanguard cars, and the Ferguson tractor. The same engine was also used in Triumph TR2, TR3 and TR4 sports cars. To use this larger engine, a substantial redesign of the cab interior and forward chassis was necessary. The vehicles were of a high standard but not priced competitively, which resulted in relatively few sales. In 1963 the Atlas Major became the Standard 15, with a new long-wheelbase variant, with 2138 cc engine, became the Standard 20. Later that year, the Standard name became disused by Leyland, and these models were rebranded hastily as Leyland 15 and 20. By 1968 when production ended in the UK, all variants were powered by the 2138 cc engine and badged as Leyland 20s.

These vehicles were badged as Triumphs for export to Canada, and possibly other overseas markets. The van’s tooling was also exported to India after UK production ceased, where the resultant vehicle continued in production until the 1980s.

Triumph Herald

By the later 1950s the small Standards were losing out in the UK market to more modern competitor designs, and the Triumph name was believed to be more marketable; hence the 1959 replacement for the Eight, Ten and Pennant was badged as the Triumph Herald; with substantial mechanical components carried over from the small Standards. Despite the separate chassis and independent rear suspension, the differential, hubs, brakes, engine and gearbox were all common to the last Standard Pennants. In order to build the Herald the company invested £​2 12 million in a new assembly hall extension at the Canley plant which Standard had acquired in 1916. The builders of the three-storey building excavated 250,000 tons of soil and rock. Inside the building were three 1300 ft assembly lines equipped to be one of the most modern car assembly plants in the world. This turned out to be the company’s last investment on such a scale at Canley: investment decisions after the merger with Rover would favour the newer plant at Solihull.

Overseas plants

Overseas manufacturing plants were opened in Australia, France, India and South Africa. Overseas assembly plants were opened in Canada, Ireland and New Zealand.

Sir John Black

During the year ended 31 August 1954 Standard made and sold 73,000 cars and 61,500 tractors and much more than half of those were exported. Since the war Standard had made and sold some 418,000 cars and 410,000 tractors and again much more than half were exported. Appointed to Standard’s then ailing business in 1929, director and general manager since 1930 and appointed managing director in 1934 energetic Sir John Black resigned as chairman and managing director of Standard that year following a serious motorcar accident. He was advised (after consultations with his wife and close friends) to relinquish his offices of chairman and managing director and his membership of the board of directors. His deputy and long-time personal assistant, Alick Dick 1916-1986, took his position as managing director. Air Marshal Lord Tedder was appointed chairman, Tedder would hold that position until the Leyland takeover at the end of 1960. A S Dick resigned in August 1961 when the board was reorganised by Leyland in view of the substantial losses Standard was accumulating.

The company started considering partners to enable continued expansion and negotiations were begun with Chrysler, Massey-Harris-Ferguson, Rootes GroupRover and Renault but these were inconclusive.

Standard’s Vanguard engine

The Vanguard’s engine, later slightly enlarged, powered two saloons, a tractor and three sports cars

Leyland Motors

The Standard-Triumph company was eventually bought in 1960 by Leyland Motors Ltd which paid £20 million and the last Standard, an Ensign Deluxe, was produced in the UK in May 1963, when the final Vanguard models were replaced by the Triumph 2000 model. Triumph continued when Leyland became British Leyland Motor Corporation (later BL) in 1968. The Standard brand was ended on 17 August 1970 when a sudden announcement said that henceforth the Company was to be known as the Triumph Motor Company. The Standard name has been unused in Europe since then and the Triumph or Rover Triumph BL subsidiary used the former Standard engineering and production facilities at Canley in Coventry until the plant was closed in 1980.

BMW

BMW acquired the Standard and Triumph brands following its purchase of BL’s successor Rover Group in 1994. When most of Rover was sold in 2000, BMW kept the Standard brand along with Triumph, MINIand Riley. The management of British Motor Heritage Ltd, gained the rights to the Standard Brand upon their management purchase of this company from BMW in 2001 (reference BMH website linked below).

There was talk of a possible revival of the Standard name by MG Rover for its importation of the Tata Indica (reference Channel 4 website below). However, for reasons relating to the ownership of the brand by BMW, the car was finally launched as the Rover CityRover.

Standard in India

The Standard name had disappeared from Britain during the 1960s but continued for two more decades in India, where Standard Motor Products of India Ltd manufactured the

Indian Triumph Herald Mk3 advert

 Triumph Herald badged as the ‘Standard Herald’ and with the basic 948 cc engine during the 1960s, with increasingly local content and design changes over the years, eventually producing additional four-door and five-door estate models exclusively for the Indian market by the late 1960s.

After 1970, Standard Motor Products split with British Leyland, and introduced a bodily restyled four-door saloon based on the Herald known as the

Standard Gazel 2

Standard Gazel in 1972, using the same 948 cc engine but with a live rear axle, as the Herald’s swing-axle was not liked much by Indian buyers and mechanics alike. Allegedly India’s first indigenous car, the Gazel was built in small numbers – it has been suggested that it did so to keep its manufacturer’s licence – until 1977. With the company concentrating solely on producing commercial vehicles based on the Leyland 20 model, badged as “Standard 20”, production of Standard cars ceased until the Standard 2000, a rebadged Rover SD1, was introduced in 1985. The car was higher and had a slightly modified old 1991 cc Standard Vanguard engine, as the company could not procure the licence to use the original Rover engine on this car. Being expensive and outdated it was not successful, apart from the reasons that it had competition from cars with Japanese and other newer, fuel-efficient technology in India. It ceased production in 1988, with the Bombay factory also closing its operations at the same time, around the same time that the last examples of the SD1 left British showrooms (production had finished in 1986 but stocks lasted for around two more years). After feeble efforts over successive years to revive the company, the premises were auctioned off in 2006 and Britain’s Rimmer Bros. bought up the entire unused stock of SD1 parts. This also signalled the end of the Standard marque.

British car models

Pre World War 1

Year Name RAC
rating
Cubic
capacity
Bore &
stroke
Valves Cylinders Wheelbase Production
1903 Motor Victoria 6 hp 1006 cc 5 in (127 mm) x 3 in (76 mm) side 1 78 in (1,981 mm)
1904–05 Motor Victoria 12/15 hp 1926 cc 5 in (127 mm) x 3 in (76 mm) side 2
1905 16 hp 3142 cc 100 mm (3.9 in) x 100 mm (3.9 in) side 4 108 in (2,743 mm)
1905–08 18/20 4714 cc 100 mm (3.9 in) x 100 mm (3.9 in) side 6 120 in (3,048 mm)
1906 Model 8 16/20 3531 cc 102 mm (4.0 in) x 108 mm (4.3 in) side 4 108 in (2,743 mm) / 120 in (3,048 mm)
1906 Model 9 24/30 5232 cc 4 in (102 mm) x 4 in (102 mm) side 6 120 in (3,048 mm) / 132 in (3,353 mm)
1906 Model 10 10 hp 631 cc 70 mm (2.8 in) x 82 mm (3.2 in) side 2 78 in (1,981 mm)
1906–12 Model 11 50 hp 11734 cc 140 mm (5.5 in) x 127 mm (5.0 in) side 6 132 in (3,353 mm)
1906–12 Model 12 50 hp 11734 cc 140 mm (5.5 in) x 127 mm (5.0 in) side 6 144 in (3,658 mm)
1907 15 hp 1893 cc 70 mm (2.8 in) x 82 mm (3.2 in) side 6 87 in (2,210 mm)
1907–08 Model B 30 hp 5297 cc 102 mm (4.0 in) x 108 mm (4.3 in) side 6 120 in (3,048 mm)
1908–11 Model C 40 hp 6167 cc 102 mm (4.0 in) x 107 mm (4.2 in) side 6 120 in (3,048 mm)
1908–11 Model D 30 hp 4032 cc 89 mm (3.5 in) x 108 mm (4.3 in) side 6 120 in (3,048 mm)
1909–11 Model E 16 hp 2688 cc 89 mm (3.5 in) x 108 mm (4.3 in) side 4 110 in (2,794 mm) / 120 in (3,048 mm)
1912 Model G 25 hp 4032 cc 89 mm (3.5 in) x 108 mm (4.3 in) side 6 116 in (2,946 mm)
1910–11 Model J 12 hp 1656 cc 68 mm (2.7 in) x 114 mm (4.5 in) side 4 96 in (2,438 mm)
1911–12 Model K 15 hp 2368 cc 80 mm (3.1 in) x 120 mm (4.7 in) side 4 120 in (3,048 mm)
1911–13 Model L 20 hp 3620 cc 80 mm (3.1 in) x 120 mm (4.7 in) side 6 126 in (3,200 mm)
1913–14 Model O 20 hp 3336 cc 89 mm (3.5 in) x 133 mm (5.2 in) side 4 121 in (3,073 mm) / 128 in (3,251 mm)
1913–18 Model S 9.5 hp 1087 cc 62 mm (2.4 in) x 90 mm (3.5 in) side 4 90 in (2,286 mm)

(Sources—Standard Motor Club and Graham Robson Book of the Standard Motor Company, Veloce, ISBN 978-1-845843-43-4)

1919–1939

Year Type Engine Production
1919–21 9.5 hp Model SLS 1328 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1921–23 8 hp 1087 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1921–23 11.6 hp SLO 1598 cc ohv 4-cylinder
1922–26 13.9 hp SLO-4 1944 cc ohv 4-cylinder
1923–27 11.4 hp V3 1307 cc ohv 4-cylinder
1926–28 13.9 hp V4 1944 cc ohv 4-cylinder
1927–28 18/36 hp 2230 cc ohv 6-cylinder
1927–30 9 hp 1153 or 1287 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1929–33 15 hp 1930 or 2054 cc side-valve 6-cylinder
1930–33 9.9 hp Big Nine 1287 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1931–35 20 hp Envoy 2552 cc side-valve 6-cylinder
1932–33 Little Nine 1006 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1932–33 Little Twelve 1337 cc side-valve 6-cylinder
1932–33 Big Twelve 1497 cc side-valve 6-cylinder
1934 12/6 1497 cc side-valve 6-cylinder
1934–35 10/12 Speed Model 1608 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1934–36 Nine 1052 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1934–36 Ten 1343 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1934–36 Twelve 1608 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1934–36 Sixteen 2143 cc side-valve 6-cylinder
1935–36 Twenty 2664 cc side-valve 6-cylinder
1937–38 Flying Ten 1267 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1937–40 Flying Twelve 1608 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1937–40 Flying Nine 1131 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1937–40 Flying Light Twelve 1343 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1937–40 Flying Fourteen 1608 cc or 1776 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1936–40 Flying Sixteen 2143 cc side-valve 6-cylinder
1936–40 Flying Twenty 2663 cc side-valve 6-cylinder
1936–38 Flying V8 2686 cc side-valve V-8-cylinder
1938–40 Flying Eight 1021 cc side-valve 4-cylinder

Vanguard Phase I

Vanguard Phase II

Vanguard Vignale

1945–1963

Year Type Engine Production
1945–48 Eight 1021 cc side-valve four-cylinder 53,099
1945–48 Twelve 1608 cc side-valve 4-cylinder 9,959
1945–48 Fourteen 1776 cc side-valve 4-cylinder 22,229
1947–53 Vanguard Phase I 2088 cc OHV 4-cylinder 184,799
1953–55 Vanguard Phase II 2088 cc ohv 4-cylinder
2092 cc ohv 4-cylinder diesel
81,074
1,973
1953–57 Eight 803 cc ohv 4-cylinder 136,317
1954–56 Ten 948 cc ohv 4-cylinder 172,500
1955–58 Vanguard Phase III 2088 cc ohv 4-cylinder 37,194
1956–57 Vanguard Sportsman 2088 cc ohv 4-cylinder 901
1957–61 Ensign 1670 cc ohv 4-cylinder
2092 cc ohv 4-cylinder diesel
18,852
1957–59 Pennant 948 cc ohv 4-cylinder 42,910
1958–61 Vanguard Vignale 2088 cc ohv 4-cylinder 26,276
1960–63 Vanguard Six 1998 cc ohv 6-cylinder 9,953
1962–63 Ensign II 2138 cc ohv 4-cylinder 2,318

Military and commercial

Year Type Engine Production
1940–43 Beaverette 1,776 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1940 -1943 type CD 1943-1945 type UV 12 hp Light Utility 1,608 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1943 Jeep 1,608 cc side-valve 4-cylinder
1947–58 12 cwt 2,088 cc ohv 4-cylinder
1954–62 6 cwt 948 cc ohv 4-cylinder
1958–62 10 hp Atlas 948 cc ohv 4-cylinder
1962–63 Atlas Major 1,670 cc ohv 4-cylinder
1962–65 7 cwt 1,147 cc ohv 4-cylinder

Standard 8 1955 – badge on one of the final basic Standard 8s.

Leyland 15. Rebranded from ‘Standard Atlas’ after Leyland bought out Standard-Triumph in 1961, the ’15’ used the Vanguard 2138cc engine or a diesel.

Standard 10 Companion Estate – badge on bonnet

Standard Ten Pennant – bonnet badge. The name ‘Pennant’ fitted in with the Standard names such as ‘Vanguard’ and ‘Ensign’

Standard Vanguard Phase I – badge on grille
Standard Vanguard Phase II – boot badge

Standard Vanguard Six – bonnet badge

Standard Vanguard Vignale – bonnet badge

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Standard-Triumph Changes. The Times, Tuesday, Oct 06, 1959; pg. 17; Issue 54584.
  2. Jump up to:a b Georgano, N. (2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. London: HMSO. ISBN 1-57958-293-1.
  3. Jump up^ Sir Charles Friswell. The Times, Friday, Dec 17, 1926; pg. 16; Issue 44457
  4. Jump up to:a b “Goodbye Standard long live Triumph”. Motor: 39–40. 15 May 1976.
  5. Jump up^ Apral, K. “Standard 1930”http://www.classiccarcatalogue.com. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  6. Jump up^ Mr. C. J. Band, The Times, Tuesday, Jan 08, 1935; pg. 19; Issue 46956
  7. Jump up^ The Standard Motor Company. The Times, Wednesday, Dec 16, 1953; pg. 12; Issue 52806
  8. Jump up to:a b Robson, Graham (May 2011). The Book of the Standard Motor Company. Poundbury, Dorchester, UK: Veloce Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-845843-43-4. Retrieved 2013-06-11A side-by-side comparison shows that the Eight block was smaller in all dimensions than the Nine/Ten, ensuring that all the major components – block, crankshaft, and camshaft – were new, as were the spacings between cylinder centres.
  9. Jump up to:a b Robson, Graham, The Book of the Standard Motor Company, p. 126
  10. Jump up^ Robson, Graham, The Book of the Standard Motor Company, pp. 63–64
  11. Jump up to:a b Motor Industry Management: Journal of the Institute of the Motor Industry. Burke House Periodicals. 1995. p. 25. Retrieved 2013-08-18Standard Flying Eight – first 8hp car with independent front suspension.
  12. Jump up^ Roberts, Peter (1984). The history of the automobile. Exeter Books. p. 145. ISBN 0-6710-7148-3. Retrieved 2013-08-18The ultimate was probably the Standard Flying Eight which had the new advantage for a small car of independent front suspension…
  13. Jump up^ Robson, Graham, The Book of the Standard Motor Company, p. 69
  14. Jump up^ Robson, Graham, The Book of the Standard Motor Company, pp. 63–64: “However, we do know, for certain, that in the 1938/39 financial year, which ended on 31 August 1939, exactly 50,729 cars were produced …”
  15. Jump up^ Standard Motor Company Record Turnover And Profit, Mr. C. J. Band On Expansion Policy The Times, Friday, Dec 21, 1945; pg. 10; Issue 50331
  16. Jump up^ Sir John Black. The Times, Wednesday, Dec 29, 1965; pg. 8; Issue 56515
  17. Jump up^ Standard Motor Company (Manufacturers of Standard and Triumph Cars, Ferguson Tractors, and Standard Commercial Vehicles). The Times, Thursday, Oct 14, 1954; pg. 13; Issue 53062
  18. Jump up^ Reorganizing Standard Triumph. The Times, Tuesday, Aug 22, 1961; pg. 8; Issue 55166
  19. Jump up^ Guinness, Paul (2015-06-25). “Curios: Standard 2000”HonestJohn Classics. Archived from the original on 2015-06-26.
  20. Jump up^ Robson 2006, p. 
  21. Jump up^ Michael Sedgwick and Mark Gillies, A-Z of Cars 1945-1970, Haymarket Publishing Ltd, 1994, page 185
  22. Jump up to:a b c d Sedgwick & Gillies 1986.

External links

PININFARINA Italian design house and coachbuilder

Pininfarina

Pininfarina S.p.A.
Società per Azioni
Traded as BITPINF
Industry Automotive
Founded Torino, Italy (May 23, 1930)
Founder Battista Farina
Headquarters Cambiano, Italy
Key people
Services Automotive design
€32.9 million (2012)
Number of employees
821 (2012)
Parent Mahindra Group (76.06%)
Website www.pininfarina.com
pininfarina-design-center-exteriorPininfarina Design Center

Pin­in­fa­rina S.p.A. (short for Carozze­ria Pin­in­fa­rina) is an Ital­ian car de­sign firm and coach­builder in Cam­biano, Italy. It was founded by Bat­tista ”Pinin” Fa­rina in 1930.On De­cem­ber 14, 2015, Mahin­dra Group, ac­quired Pin­in­fa­rina S.p.A. in a deal worth about 168 mil­lion euros ($185 million).

Pin­in­fa­rina is em­ployed by a wide va­ri­ety of au­to­mo­bile man­u­fac­tures to de­sign ve­hi­cles. These firms have in­cluded long-es­tab­lished cus­tomers such as Fer­rari, Alfa Romeo, Peu­geot, FIAT, GM, Lan­cia, and Maserati, to emerg­ing com­pa­nies in the Asian mar­ket with Chi­nese man­u­fac­tures like AviChina, Chery, Changfeng, Bril­liance, and JAC and Ko­rean man­u­fac­tur­ers Dae­woo and Hyundai.

Since the 1980s Pin­in­fa­rina has also de­signed high-speed trains, buses, trams, rolling stocks, au­to­mated light rail cars, peo­ple movers, yachts, air­planes, and pri­vate jets. With the 1986 cre­ation of Pin­in­fa­rina Extra they have con­sulted on in­dus­trial de­sign, in­te­rior de­sign, ar­chi­tec­ture, and graphic design.

Pin­in­fa­rina was run by Bat­tista’s son Ser­gio Pin­in­fa­rina until 2001, then his grand­son An­drea Pin­in­fa­rina until his death in 2008. After An­drea’s death his younger brother Paolo Pin­in­fa­rina was ap­pointed as CEO.

At its height in 2006 the Pin­in­fa­rina Group em­ployed 2,768 with sub­sidiary com­pany of­fices through­out Eu­rope, as well as in Mo­rocco and the United States. As of 2012 with the end of se­ries au­to­mo­tive pro­duc­tion, em­ploy­ment has shrunk to 821. Pin­in­fa­rina is reg­is­tered and pub­licly traded on the Borsa Ital­iana (Milan Stock Exchange).

On De­cem­ber 14, 2015, Mahin­dra Group, an­nounced a deal to ac­quire Pin­in­fa­rina S.p.A. in a deal worth about 168 mil­lion euros ($185 million).

History

The days as a specialist coachbuilder

When au­to­mo­bile de­signer and builder Bat­tista ”Pinin” Fa­rina broke away from his brother’s coach build­ing firm, Sta­bil­i­menti Fa­rina, in 1928 he founded “Car­rozze­ria Pinin Fa­rina” with fi­nan­cial help from his wife’s fam­ily and Vin­cenzo Lan­cia. That first year the firm em­ployed eigh­teen and built 50 au­to­mo­bile bodies.

On May 22, 1930 pa­pers were filed to be­come a cor­po­ra­tion, So­cietà anon­ima Car­rozze­ria Pinin Farina head­quar­tered in Turin, Italy, at 107 Corso Trapani. Dur­ing the 1930s, the com­pany built bod­ies for Lan­cia, Alfa Romeo, Isotta-Fras­chini, His­pano Suiza, Fiat, Cadil­lac, and Rolls-Royce. With its close re­la­tion­ship with Lan­cia, the pi­o­neer of the mono­coque in au­to­mo­bile de­sign, Pin­in­fa­rina be­came the first coach­builder to build bod­ies for the new tech­nique also known as uni­body con­struc­tion. This de­vel­op­ment hap­pened in the mid-1930s when oth­ers saw the frame­less con­struc­tion as the end of the in­de­pen­dent coachbilder.

In 1939, World War II ended au­to­mo­bile pro­duc­tion, but the com­pany had 400 em­ploy­ees build­ing 150 bod­ies a month. The war ef­fort against the Al­lies brought work mak­ing am­bu­lances and search­light carriages. The Pin­in­fa­rina fac­tory was de­stroyed by Al­lied bombers end­ing the firm’s operations.

After World War II

cisitalia-202-museo-torinoCisitalia 202 – Museo Torino
nash-healey-roadster-blackNash-Healey roadster

After the war, Italy was banned from the 1946 Paris Motor Show. The Paris show was at­tended by 809,000 vis­i­tors (twice the pre-war fig­ure), lines of peo­ple stretched from the main gate all the way to the Seine. Pinin Fa­rina and his son Ser­gio, de­ter­mined to defy the ban, drove two of their cars – an Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 S and a Lan­cia Aprilia cabri­o­let – from Turin to Paris, and found a place at the en­trance to the ex­hi­bi­tion to dis­play the two new cre­ations. The man­agers of the Grand Palais said of the dis­play, “the devil Pin­in­fa­rina”, but to the press and the pub­lic it was the suc­cess­ful “Turin coach­builder’s anti-salon”.

At the end of 1945 the Cisi­talia 202 Coupé was de­signed. An el­e­gantly pro­por­tioned de­sign with a low hood, it is the car that usu­ally is given credit for es­tab­lish­ing Pin­in­fa­rina’s reputation. The Pin­in­fa­rina de­sign was hon­ored in the Mu­seum of Mod­ern Art’s land­mark pre­sen­ta­tion “Eight Au­to­mo­biles” in 1951. A total of 170 Coupés where pro­duced by Pininfarina.

The pub­lic­ity of the Mu­seum of Mod­ern Art ex­hibit brought Pin­in­fa­rina to the at­ten­tion of Nash-Kelv­ina­tor man­agers. The sub­se­quent co­op­er­a­tion with Nash Mo­tors re­sulted in high-vol­ume pro­duc­tion of Pin­in­fa­rina de­signs and pro­vided a major entry into the United States mar­ket. In 1952, Mr. Fa­rina vis­ited the U.S. for the un­veil­ing of his de­sign for the Nash Am­bas­sador and States­man lines, which, al­though they did carry some de­tails of Pin­in­fa­rina’s de­sign, were largely de­signed by Nash’s then-new in-house styling staff when the orig­i­nal Fa­rina-de­signed model proved un­suited to Amer­i­can tastes, ex­hibit­ing a pop­u­lar 1950s ap­pear­ance called “pon­ton“. The Nash-Healey sports car body was, how­ever, com­pletely de­signed and as­sem­bled in lim­ited num­bers from 1952 to 1954 at Pin­in­fa­rina’s Turin fa­cil­i­ties. Nash heav­ily ad­ver­tised its link to the fa­mous Ital­ian de­signer, much as Stude­baker pro­moted its long­time as­so­ci­a­tion with Ray­mond Loewy. As a re­sult of Nash’s $5 mil­lion ad­ver­tis­ing cam­paign, Pin­in­fa­rina be­came well known in the U.S.

Pin­in­fa­rina also built the bod­ies for the lim­ited-se­ries Cadil­lac El­do­rado Brougham for Gen­eral Mo­tors in 1959 and 1960, as­sem­bled them and sent them back to the U.S. There were 99 Broughams built in 1959 and 101 in 1960. A sim­i­lar arrange­ment was re­peated in the late 1980s when Pin­in­fa­rina de­signed (and par­tially as­sem­bled) the Cadil­lac Al­lanté at the San Giusto Canavese fac­tory. The car bod­ies were as­sem­bled and painted in Italy be­fore being flown from the Turin In­ter­na­tional Air­port to De­troit for final ve­hi­cle assembly.

The Ferrari partnership

It started in 1951 with a meet­ing at a restau­rant in Tor­tona, a small town halfway be­tween Turin and Mod­ena. This neu­tral ter­ri­tory was cho­sen be­cause nei­ther Pin­in­fa­rina nor Enzo Fer­rari wanted to meet at the other’s head­quar­ters. Pinin’s son, Ser­gio Pin­in­fa­rina re­called, “It is not dif­fi­cult to imag­ine how I felt that af­ter­noon when my fa­ther, with­out tak­ing his eyes off the road for one mo­ment told me his de­ci­sion as we drove back to Turin: “From now on you’ll be look­ing after Fer­rari, from A to Z. De­sign, en­gi­neer­ing, tech­nol­ogy, con­struc­tion—the lot!”—I was over the moon with hap­pi­ness.” “

Since that meet­ing the only road-go­ing pro­duc­tion Fer­raris not de­signed by Pin­in­fa­rina are the 1973 Dino 308 GT4 and 2013’s LaFerrari. Their re­la­tion­ship was so close that Pin­in­fa­rina be­came a part­ner of Fer­rari in “Scud­e­ria Fer­rari SpA SEFAC”, the or­ga­ni­za­tion that ran Fer­rari’s race team from 1961–1989, Pinin was a vice pres­i­dent of Ferrari, and Ser­gio later sat on Fer­rari’s board of directors.

The move to large-scale manufacturing

alfa-romeo-giulietta-spiderParis – Mondial de l’automobile 2010 – Alfa Roméo Giulietta Spider

In 1954 to 1955 Pin­in­fa­rina pur­chased land in Grugliasco, out­side of Turin, for a new fac­tory. “The fac­tory in no way would look like the one of Corso Tra­pani. It would be a car no longer on my mea­sure­ments but on those of my chil­dren, built look­ing like them; I had this in mind and wanted it,” said Pininfarina.

Around the same time, Alfa Romeo ac­cepted Pin­in­fa­rina’s de­sign over Bertone for the new Giuli­etta Spi­der. The Alfa was the first ve­hi­cle that Pin­in­fa­rina pro­duced in large num­bers, in fact Alfa Romeo chose Pin­in­fa­rina to pro­duce the Spi­der in large part be­cause they felt con­fi­dent that they could pro­duce 20 cars a day for a run of 1,000 bod­ies. The Spi­der was a huge suc­cess for Alfa Romeo and Pin­in­fa­rina, Max Hoff­man the im­porter for the United States said he could sell as many as they could make. In 1956, the first year of pro­duc­tion, they pro­duced 1025 units which then ex­panded to over 4,000 in 1959 the first full year of the new Grugliasco factory.

usine-pininfarina-406-coupeUsine Pininfarina 406 coupe

The second generation of leadership

Start­ing with the plan­ning for the new plant in Grugliasco in 1956, Pinin started to groom his re­place­ments–Ser­gio his son and Renzo Carli his son-in-law. To his heirs ap­par­ent, Pinin said of the Corso Tra­pani fa­cil­ity “This old plant has reached the lim­its of its growth. It has no room for ex­pan­sion and is far from being up to date. If I were alone I’d leave it as it is. But I want you to de­cide which way to go–to stay as we are or to en­large. Ei­ther way is fine with me. It’s your de­ci­sion to make and I don’t want to know what it is. I’m fin­ished and it’s your time to take over. The fu­ture is ab­solutely up to you.” In 1958, upon leav­ing for a world tour Pinin added “In my fam­ily we in­herit our lega­cies from live peo­ple–not from the dead.”

1961 at the age of 68, “Pinin” Fa­rina for­mally turns his firm over to his son Ser­gio and his son-in-law, Renzo Carli, it was the same year that the Pres­i­dent of Italy for­mally au­tho­rized the change of Fa­rina’s last name to Pininfarina.

Pin­in­fa­rina was run by Bat­tista’s grand­son An­drea Pin­in­fa­rina from 2001 until his death in 2008. An­drea’s younger brother Paolo Pin­in­fa­rina was then ap­pointed as successor.

Modernizing for a new world

Start­ing in the mid-1960s, Pin­in­fa­rina started to make in­vest­ments in the sci­ence of au­to­mo­tive de­sign, a strat­egy to dif­fer­en­ti­ate it­self from the other Ital­ian coachbuilders.

In 1966, Pin­in­fa­rina opened Studi e Ricerche, or the Stud­ies and Re­search Cen­tre in Grugliasco. The re­search cen­tre oc­cu­pied 8000 sq. me­tres (2 acres) and em­ployed 180 tech­ni­cians ca­pa­ble of pro­duc­ing 25 pro­to­types a year.

The Cal­cu­la­tion and De­sign Cen­tre was set up in 1967, the first step in a process of tech­no­log­i­cal evo­lu­tion which, dur­ing the 1970s, would take Pin­in­fa­rina into the lead in au­to­mated body­work design.

Then in 1972 con­struc­tion of a full-sized wind tun­nel was com­pleted. The pro­ject was started in 1966. When it opened, it not only was the first wind tun­nel with the abil­ity to test full-sized cars in Italy, but also one of the first in the world with this ability. To put this fore­sight in per­spec­tive, GM’s full-sized wind tun­nel didn’t open until 1980.

New infrastructure and expansion

The 1980s started a pe­riod of ex­pan­sion for Pininfarina.

In 1982 the com­pany opened “Pin­in­fa­rina Studi e Ricerche” in Cam­biano. It was sep­a­rate from the fac­tory and wind tun­nel in Grugliasco, to keep de­sign and re­search ac­tiv­i­ties in­de­pen­dent from man­u­fac­tur­ing. On Oc­to­ber 14, 2002, Pin­in­fa­rina in­au­gu­rated a new en­gi­neer­ing cen­ter. The new fa­cil­ity, which was built at the Cam­biano cam­pus, to give greater vis­i­bil­ity and in­de­pen­dence to the en­gi­neer­ing operations.

In 1983 Pin­in­fa­rina reached an agree­ment with Gen­eral Mo­tors to de­sign and build the Cadil­lac Al­lanté. The Al­lanté pro­ject led to the build­ing of the San Gior­gio fac­tory in 1985.

In 1996, Mit­subishi en­tered into talks for Pin­in­fa­rina build their new com­pact SUV, the Pa­jero, in Italy. While Mit­subishi rec­og­nized Pin­in­fa­rina’s ex­per­tise in de­sign and en­gi­neer­ing, the rea­son for choos­ing them was that man­u­fac­tur­ing costs were half of those in Germany. After en­ter­ing into an agree­ment in 1996, Pin­in­fa­rina pur­chased an in­dus­trial site at Bairo Canavese near Turin, Italy. in April 1997, Bairo Canavese was ded­i­cated to the pro­duc­tion of the new Mit­subishi Pa­jero Pinin.

Pin­in­fa­rina Sverige AB in Ud­de­valla, Swe­den, was es­tab­lished in 2003 as a joint ven­ture (JV) be­tween Volvo Cars and Pin­in­fa­rina to pro­duce a new Volvo con­vert­ible that will be sold in Eu­rope and the United States. The JV is owned 60% by Pin­in­fa­rina and 40% by Volvo. The C70 model de­signed by Volvo’s John Kin­sey—was launched on 13 April 2006, shar­ing the Volvo P1 plat­form used in the S40.

New economic realities

In April 2008, after three years of se­ri­ous losses to­tal­ing 115 mil­lion euros at the end of 2007, Pin­in­fa­rina made the first of sev­eral moves to raise cap­i­tal and re­struc­ture its enor­mous debt:

April 29, 2008

Pin­in­fa­rina’s an­nounced Piero Fer­rari, Al­berto Bom­bas­sei, chair­man of Brembo, and the Mar­siaj fam­ily, founders of the Sabelt seat­belt com­pany, will join with Vin­cent Bol­lore, a French fi­nancier, and Ratan Tata, head of India’s Tata con­glom­er­ate, who al­ready an­nounced their plans to in­vest, re­ports Reuters. The five will to­gether in­vest €100 million.

Fund­ing will come through the sale of stock to other in­vestors. The Pin­in­fa­rina fam­ily is will­ing to re­duce its share from its cur­rent 55% to 30%, which is still enough to se­cure a con­trol­ling interest.

December 31, 2008

On De­cem­ber 31, 2008, Pin­in­fa­rina an­nounced a debt re­struc­tur­ing that would re­quire the fam­ily to sell its stake in the com­pany. The agree­ment was made after Pin­in­fa­rina’s value dropped 67 per cent dur­ing 2008, and it then had a mar­ket cap­i­tal­iza­tion of about €36 mil­lion. It had total debts of €598 mil­lion at the end of No­vem­ber. Of that amount, €555 mil­lion was the sub­ject of the debt re­struc­tur­ing agree­ment that was agreed on with a con­sor­tium of banks.

March 24, 2009

Pin­car, Pin­in­fa­rina’s fam­ily hold­ing com­pany, an­nounced it has hired Leonardo and Co to find a buyer for its 50.6% stake in Pin­in­fa­rina per the debt re­struc­tur­ing agree­ment reached in December.

January 4, 2011

Pin­in­fa­rina re­leased a state­ment say­ing that it is still gath­er­ing “pos­si­ble of­fers from po­ten­tial buy­ers,” adding it would re­lease more in­for­ma­tion when it was appropriate.

Com­pany sources added, the fam­ily will not sell its en­tire 50.7% stake but that Pin­car would no longer be a ma­jor­ity shareholder.

February 14, 2012

Italy’s Pin­in­fa­rina fam­ily is set to lose con­trol of the car de­sign com­pany as lengthy debt re­struc­tur­ing talks head to­ward the fin­ish line, peo­ple fa­mil­iar with the sit­u­a­tion said on Tues­day. A 16.9 mil­lion euros loss in the first nine months of 2011 oc­curred after clos­ing its man­u­fac­tur­ing op­er­a­tions to re-in­vent it­self as a smaller niche de­sign player.

An agree­ment with cred­i­tor banks in­clud­ing In­tesa San­paolo, Uni­Credit, Mediobanca and Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena to re­struc­ture net debt of 76 mil­lion euros is on track and will be reached in the com­ing months, said three sources close to the sit­u­a­tion. “The debt sit­u­a­tion is sta­ble and the talks are not con­tentious, so there is no hurry,” said one of the sources, speak­ing on con­di­tion anonymity. “The agree­ment will fix the cap­i­tal struc­ture for the fore­see­able future.”

When fi­nalised, the debt ac­cord will give con­trol of the fam­ily’s 77 per­cent stake to its cred­i­tor banks, end­ing the Pin­in­fa­rina fam­ily’s ownership.

The deal will close a chap­ter that began in 2008 when the banks swapped 180 mil­lion euros in debt in ex­change for a promise of pro­ceeds from a fu­ture sale of part of the Pin­in­fa­rina’s fam­ily stake.

But no tak­ers ma­te­ri­alised. Po­ten­tial buy­ers were not will­ing to ac­quire a de­sign com­pany when they can eas­ily con­tract its ser­vices, said one of the peo­ple fa­mil­iar with the situation.

February 15, 2012

In a state­ment re­leased on 15 Feb­ru­ary, the Cam­biano-based com­pany, which owes over €100 mil­lion to a num­ber of Ital­ian banks, said its debt re­pay­ment date has been ex­tended to 2018, from 2015.

The agree­ment, which will be signed in the next few weeks, will also see the com­pany take ad­van­tage of in­ter­est rates “sig­nif­i­cantly lower than [cur­rent] mar­ket rates”. With the new debt re­struc­tur­ing deal with its cred­i­tors Pin­in­fa­rina will re­main under the con­trol of the Pin­in­fa­rina family.

May 16, 2012

Au­to­mo­tive News re­ports Pin­in­fa­rina pro­jects it will turn a profit for 2012, thanks in part to debt re­struc­tur­ing. The Ital­ian de­sign stu­dio hasn’t seen a profit in eight years, but signed a deal in April to re­struc­ture $182.6 mil­lion in debt. The move ef­fec­tively stretched the stu­dio’s re­pay­ment dead­line from 2015 to 2018. At the same time, Pin­in­fa­rina an­nounced it will likely see an op­er­at­ing loss this year, but a one-time gain of $57.6 mil­lion will re­sult in the net profit. Last year, the com­pany lost $8.3 mil­lion in the first quar­ter, though that fig­ure has dropped to just under $4 mil­lion dur­ing Q1 2012.

Pin­in­fa­rina also saw its net rev­enue in­crease by $2.9 million.

March 26, 2013

Pin­in­fa­rina in the black for first time since 2004 Ital­ian de­sign house Pin­in­fa­rina pre­dicted last May that it would face an op­er­at­ing loss for 2012 but still come out with a net profit. Both pre­dic­tions have come true – the com­pany is re­port­ing an op­er­at­ing loss of 8.2 mil­lion euros and a net profit of 32.9 mil­lion euros ($42.5 mil­lion US).

Ac­cord­ing to Reuters, the good news came be­cause of a debt re­struc­tur­ing arranged last year that gives the com­pany three more years to repay its $182.6 mil­lion in debt, and a one-time gain of roughly 45 mil­lion euros ($57.6 mil­lion US). It is the com­pany’s first profit since 2004.

Acquisition by Mahindra group (2015–present)

Mahin­dra Group, owner of In­dian au­to­mo­bile com­pany Mahin­dra & Mahin­dra agreed to buy Ital­ian car de­signer Pin­in­fa­rina SpA in a deal worth about 168 mil­lion euros ($185 million). Mahin­dra group, to­gether with af­fil­i­ate Tech Mahin­dra, have 76 per­cent stake from hold­ing com­pany Pin­car for 25.3 mil­lion euros. The In­dian com­pany will offer the same price for the re­main­ing stock. In ad­di­tion to buy­ing stock, Mahin­dra will in­vest 20 mil­lion euros in Pin­in­fa­rina and pro­vide a guar­an­tee to cred­i­tors of 114.5 mil­lion euros.

Corporate Governance (2016)

  • President:Paolo Pininfarina
  • CEO – General Manager: Silvio Pietro Angori
  • Board of Directors: Manoj Bhat, C.P.Gurnani, Romina Guglielmetti, Jay Itzkowitz, Licia Mattioli, Sara Miglioli, Antony Sheriff.
  • Statutory Auditors: Nicola Treves (president), Margherita Spaini, Giovanni Rayneri.

The end of car production operations

On De­cem­ber 10, 2011 Pin­in­fa­rina an­nounced it would end all au­to­mo­tive pro­duc­tion. In truth pro­duc­tion ended in No­vem­ber 2010 with the con­clu­sion of the con­tract to pro­duce the Alfa Romeo Brera and Spi­der at the San Gior­gio plant.

Grugliasco factory

Opened in 1958 with nearly 1,000 em­ploy­ees, by 1960 out­put ex­ceeded 11,000 car bodies. In 2009 Pin­in­fa­rina sold the fac­tory to Fin­piemonte, the pub­lic fi­nance of the Pied­mont Re­gion, at the price of 14.4 mil­lion euro. Fin­piemonte, as part of the deal, leases the plant to Gian Mario Rossig­nol at a rent of €650,000 per year for six years renewable.

The Grugliasco sale did not in­clude an ad­ja­cent struc­ture that houses the wind tunnel.

San Giorgio plant

Opened in 1986 to build Cadil­lac Al­lante bod­ies for Gen­eral Motors, the same year Pin­in­fa­rina was first listed on the Stock Ex­change in Milan. Au­to­mo­tive pro­duc­tion ended at San Gior­gio with the con­clu­sion of the Ford pro­duc­tion in July 2010, and Alfa Romeo pro­duc­tion in No­vem­ber 2010.

Fol­low­ing the end of con­tract man­u­fac­tur­ing ac­tiv­i­ties San Gior­gio Canavese is being used for pro­duc­tion of spare parts for cars man­u­fac­tured in the past.

Bairo Canavese

Pin­in­fa­rina opened its third man­u­fac­tur­ing plant in 1997. Cur­rently Pin­in­fa­rina leases the plant and 57 em­ploy­ees to the Ce­comp Group. This agree­ment to pro­duce 4,0002016-pininfarina-autolib-paris-at-loadingstationelec­tric Bol­loré Blue­cars runs April 1, 2011 to De­cem­ber 31, 2013. On Sep­tem­ber 13, 2013 a new lease agree­ment was an­nounced, this new agree­ment will run from Jan­u­ary 1, 2014 until the end of 2016.

Uddevalla, Sweden Pininfarina Sverige AB

A joint ven­ture be­tween Pin­in­fa­rina S.p.A. and Volvo Car Cor­po­ra­tion began in 2003. Volvo and Pin­in­fa­rina S.p.A. have agreed upon the ter­mi­na­tion of the joint ven­ture agree­ment re­gard­ing Pin­in­fa­rina Sverige AB and its op­er­a­tions in Ud­de­valla, Swe­den. As of De­cem­ber 31, 2011 the ter­mi­na­tion this agree­ment would re­sult in a 30 mil­lion euros fee paid to Pininfarina.

On June 25, 2013 the last Volvo C70 was pro­duced and the Ud­de­valla as­sem­bly plant was closed.

Designers

Al­though Pin­in­fa­rina rarely gave credit to individuals, that pol­icy seems to have changed in re­cent years and many of the de­sign­ers of the past have be­come known. As of 2011 Pin­in­fa­rina em­ploys 101 peo­ple in their styling de­part­ment. That is down from 185 in 2005.

 Paolo Martin at work
Paolo Martin at work
  • Franco Scaglione 1951, designer for two months before he left for what is now known as Gruppo Bertone
  • Franco Martinengo 1952–72, Director of the Centro Stile
  • Adriano Rabbone
  • Francesco Salomone
  • Aldo Brovarone 1954–74, Designer; 1974–88, Managing Director Studi e Ricerche
  • Tom Tjaarda 1961–65, Designer
  • Filippo Sapino 1967–69
  • Paolo Martin 1968–72, Chief of the Styling Department
  • Diego Ottina 1970—
  • Lorenzo Ramaciotti 1973-2005 deputy director of Pininfarina Studi e Ricerche, Director General and Chief Designer, CEO of Pininfarina SpA Research and Development
  • Ian Cameron 1975–81
  • Enrico Fumia 1976–91; 1982: Manager at Pininfarina R&D – Models and Prototypes Development; 1988: Manager at Pininfarina R&D – Design and Development; 1989: Deputy General Manager at Pininfarina R&D
  • Guido Campoli
  • Emanuele Nicosia 1977–85
  • Elvio d’Aprile 1982–95
  • Piero Camardella 1984–93
  • Marco Tencone
  • Leonardo Fioravanti 1988–91, Managing Director and CEO of Pininfarina Studi e Ricerche
  • Maurizio Corbi 1989-
  • Davide Arcangeli
  • Jeremy Malick 2000–02, Designer; 2009—-, Senior Designer
  • Dimitri Vicedomini 2001–12, Senior Car Designer
  • Jason Castriota 2001–08
  • Ken Okuyama 2004–06, Creative Director
  • Luca Borgogno 2005— , Lead Designer
  • Nazzareno Epifani 2006— , Lead Designer
  • Lowie Vermeersch 2007–10, Design Director
  • Brano Mauks 2007— , Senior Designer
  • Carlo Palazzani 2010— , Lead Designer
  • Felix Kilbertus 2011— , Lead Designer
  • Fabio Filippini 2011— , Vice President Design and Chief Creative Officer

Vehicles

Pin­in­fa­rina de­signs, man­u­fac­tures, as­sem­bles, and tests pro­to­types and pro­duc­tion ve­hi­cles under con­tract for other automakers.

Past production

As of De­cem­ber 10, 2011 Pin­in­fa­rina an­nounced it would end all mass au­to­mo­tive pro­duc­tion with the sale of its 40% stake in the Ud­de­valla, Swe­den plant to Volvo in 2013. In the past Pin­in­fa­rina has pro­duced both cars and car-bod­ies under con­tract from other au­tomak­ers. This pro­duc­tion in­cludes Pin­in­fa­rina-de­signed cars and ve­hi­cles de­signed by others.

A sortable list of com­plete cars or car bod­ies man­u­fac­tured in one of the five Pin­in­fa­rina factories:

1947-maserati-a6-1500-pininfarina-fl

1947-maserati-a6-1500-rr1947 Maserati A6 1500 PininFarina1953-maserati-a6g-2000-bodied-by-zagato-pininfarina1953 Maserati A6G 2000 bodied by Zagato PininFarina1951-cistialia-202-sc-pininfarina-coupe1951 Cistialia 202 SC Pininfarina Coupéalfa-romeo-6c-2500-ss-pinin-farina-cabrioletAlfa Romeo 6C 2500 SS Pinin Farina Cabrioletalfa-romeo-6c-2500-ss-coupe-coachbuilding-by-pininfarinaAlfa Romeo 6C 2500 SS Coupé, coachbuilding by Pininfarina1949-maserati-a6-1500-coupe1949 Maserati A6 1500 Coupé Pininfarina1950-52-lancia-aurelia-b50-cabriolet-by-pinin-farina1950-52 Lancia Aurelia B50 cabriolet by Pinin Farinalancia-aurelia-b20-gt-6th-series-lancia-flaminia-coupe-pininfarina1950-58 Lancia Aurelia B20 GT, 6th Series. Lancia Flaminia Coupe Pininfarina1952-alfa-romeo-1900-ti-pantera-built-for-the-police-special-foces1952 Alfa Romeo 1900 C Cabriolet PF1952-alfa-romeo-1900-c-sprint-pininfarina-coupe1952 ALFA ROMEO 1900 C SPRINT PININFARINA COUPE1952-alfa-romeo-1900c-pf-cabriolet1952 Alfa Romeo 1900C PF 2+2 Cabriolet1952-ferrari-212-inter-pininfarina-coupe1952 Ferrari 212 Inter Pininfarina coupé1952-lancia-d20-pininfarina-21952-lancia-d20-pininfarina1952-pinin-farina-lancia-d20-coupe-a1952-pinin-farina-lancia-d20-coupe1953-le-mans-lancia-d20-pf1952 Lancia D20 Pininfarina + last one at le mans 19531953-nash-healey-pininfarina-roadstar1953 Nash Healey Pininfarina Roadstar1954-ferrari-375-mm-and-ingrid-bergman-and-her-husband-robert-rossellini-to-her-right-carrozzeria-pinin-farina1954 Ferrari 375 MM and Ingrid Bergman and her husband Robert Rossellini to her right.Carrozzeria Pinin Farina1953-lancia-d23-pinin-farina-wikiwand1953-lancia-d23-sport-pinin-farina-spyder1953-lancia-d23-spyder-pininfarina1953 Lancia D23 Spider Pininfarina

1953 Lancia D24 Pininfarina Spider Sport; top car design rating and specifications
1953 Lancia D24 Pininfarina Spider Sport; top car design rating and specifications

1953-lancia-d24-spider-sport-01-autophotositecom1954-lancia-d24-pininfarina-spyder-dv-081953-54 Lancia D24 Spyder Sport PininFarina1954-fiat-1100-tv-coupe-pininfarina-1954-italie1954 fiat-1100-tv-coupe-pininfarina-1954-(italie)

fiat-1100-103-tv-coupe-pininfarina1954 FIAT 1100 TV PininFarina1955-lancia-aurelia-b24-spyder-ar-pf1955-lancia-aurelia-b24-pininfarina1955-lancia-aurelia-b24-spider-pininfarina1955-lancia-aurelia-b24-spyder-america-roadster-pininfarina1954-lancia-aurelia-b24-s-pininfarina1956-lancia-aurelia-b24s-convertible-pininfarinaLancia Aurelia B24 (+B25 remakes) Spider America PininFarina1953-maserati-a6gcs-berlinetta-pinin-farina-20561953-maserati-a6-gc53-berlinetta-pininfarina1954-maserati-a6-gcs-pininfarinaMaserati A6 GCS/53 Berlinetta PininFarina1956-lancia-aurelia-b24s-spider-boasts-a-race-developed-v6-engine-outstanding-handling-and-beautiful-pininfarina-styling1956 Lancia Aurelia B24S Spider boasts a race-developed V6 engine, outstanding handling and beautiful Pininfarina styling1956-alfa-giulietta-spider-pininfarina-grey-main1956 Alfa Giulietta Spider Pininfarina Grey Main1958-lancia-appia-series22-pininfarina-coupe1958 LANCIA APPIA SERIES2+2 PININFARINA COUPE1959-ferrari-250-gt-coupe-pininfarina1959 Ferrari 250 GT Coupé Pininfarinaalfa-giulietta-spider-pininfarina1962 Alfa Giulietta Spider Pininfarina1959-cadillac-eldorado-brougham-by-pininfarina1959 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham by Pininfarina1959-lancia-flaminia-coupe-pinin-farina1959 Lancia Flaminia Coupé Pinin Farina1961-ferrari%e2%80%85250%e2%80%85gte%e2%80%8522-pininfarina1961 Ferrari 250 GTE 2+2 Pininfarina1966-peugeot-404-pininfarina-coupe1966 Peugeot 404 Pininfarina Coupé1967-peugeot-404-coupe-cabriolet-pininfarina1967 Peugeot 404 Coupe Cabriolet Pininfarina1962-mhv-lancia-flavia-pininfarina-coupe-011962 MHV Lancia Flavia Pininfarina Coupé-011965-lancia-flavia-pininfarina-mk11965 Lancia Flavia-Pininfarina Mk11968-lancia-flavia-pininfarina-convertibile1968 Lancia Flavia Pininfarina Convertibile