Abadal – Imperia – Buick


1917 Imperial Abadal

The Imperia-Abadal model was manufactured by Imperia under Abadal license

Abadal Vehicles

The Abadal was a Spanish car manufactured between 1912 and 1923, named after Francisco Abadal. Considered a fast luxury car, it was closely patterned on the Hispano-Suiza and offered in two models. One had a 3104 cc four-cylinder engine while the other had a 4521 cc six-cylinder engine.

Soon after the inception of the Abadal line, the Belgian company Impéria began building Abadals under license as Impéria-Abadals. In 1916 Abadal acquired the Buick agency, and Barcelona-built Abadals after that year had Buick power units and featured custom coachwork. These cars were called “Abadal-Buicks”. M. A. Van Roggen (formerly of Springuel) took over the Belgian operation soon after, and built around 170 more Impéria-Abadals. Among the models produced were a 2992cc 16-valve four-cylinder OHC sports model and three prototype 5630 cc straight-eights. The company ceased automobile production in 1923.

Francisco Abadal (nicknamed Paco) was a Hispano-Suiza salesman and racing driver in Barcelona. He began this enterprise in 1912, and upon its cessation became an agent of General Motors in Spain. General Motors’ plans in 1930 related to a prototype named the Abadal Continental never materialised.

Abadal Y-12 aero-engine

Abadal also produced the Abadal Y-12 aero-engine, a multiple bank in-line engine with twelve cylinders in three banks of four arranged in a Y.


  1. Jump up^ Burgess Wise, David (1979). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles. London: New Burlington Books. ISBN0 906286 16 6.

Imperia Automobiles

  (Redirected from Imperia (car))

Impéria Automobiles
 was a Belgian automobile factory, active from 1906 until 1948. The factory in Nessonvaux, Liège, Belgium, had a rooftop test track since 1928.

1932 Imperia 7-25 CV berline

Imperia 7-25 CV from 1932


1938 Imperia

Imperia TA-9 BS 1938
1948 Imperia TA-8 Sport fl3q

1948 Imperia TA-8 Sport
Imperia Standard Vanguard Convertible (16519977122)

Standard Vanguard convertible built by Imperia

Impéria was a Belgian automobile manufactured from 1906 until 1948. Products of the Ateliers Piedboeuf of Liège, the first cars were designed by the German Paul Henze. These were four-cylinders of 3, 4.9, and 9.9 litres. The next year, the company moved to Nessonvaux, Trooz municipality, and began production in the old Pieper factory. Impéria produced a monobloc 12 hp (8.9 kW) in 1909. In 1910, the company merged with Springuel.

The Nessonvaux factory began producing Impéria-Abadals from about 1916. In 1921, it built three ohc 5.6-litre straight-eights. These were quickly replaced by an ephemeral ohc 3-litre 32-valve four-cylinder which had a top speed of 90 mph (140 km/h). This was followed by an 1100 cc slide-valve 11/22 hp four designed by Couchard, one of the first cars ever built with a sunroof. Its engine rotated counterclockwise, and its transmission brake also served as a servo for those on the front wheels. In 1927 a six-cylinder of 1624 cc appeared; this had been available in three-carburettor Super Sports form from 1930.

In 1925, the company hired Louis de Monge as chief research engineer. Some of his work included torsion bar suspension and automatic transmissions. De Monge left in 1937 to join Bugatti, where he would design the Bugatti 100P racer plane.

Around and on top of the factory buildings, there was a test track over 1 km long. The track was built in 1928. The only other rooftop test tracks were on Fiat’s Lingotto plant, opened in 1923, and Palacio Chrysler in Buenos Aires, opened in 1928.

Over the course of four years, Impéria took over three other Belgian car manufacturers: Métallurgique (1927), Excelsior (1929), and Nagant (1931). From 1934 until the company folded it built mainly front-wheel-drive Adlers with Belgian-made coachwork. The company merged with Minerva in 1934, but they split in 1939.

In addition to its production in Belgium, Impéria made a number of cars in Great Britain; these were assembled at a factory in Maidenhead.

From 1947 to 1949 Impéria built its last model TA-8 which combined an Adler Trumpf Junior-type chassis with an engine originally intended for the Amilcar Compound.

After 1948 Impéria assembled Standard Vanguards under license and also built a unique convertible version. After Standard decided to set up a new factory in Belgium, the factory was left without work and had to close doors in 1957.


Imperia Nessonvaux piste

In popular culture

In Michael Chabon‘s 2004 novel The Final Solution, set in 1944, the Anglican vicar drives a Belgian Impéria.

2009 revival

The Imperia GP was going to be sold in 2013. The car was designed by Denis Stevens. The Imperia GP roadster would have had PowerHybrid motorization technology developed by Green Propulsion.

Pictures from my collection:



  1. Jump up^ Pegasus, newsletter of the Bugatti Association, issue 23
  2. Jump up^ “Trooz (Municipality, Province of Liège, Belgium)”. 12 January 2010.
  3. Jump up^ “Testing cars on the factory rooftop – Imperia (Nessonvaux, Liège, Belgium)”. 21 April 2009.
  4. Jump up^ Ritzinger, André. “Imperia TA-8”http://www.ritzsite.nl. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  5. Jump up^ The Final Solution, pp. 87, 88.
  6. Jump up^ “Imperia Automobiles”. Imperia-auto.be. Retrieved 19 July 2009.

David Burgess Wise, The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Automobile

External links

History of the company (in French)

Site with pictures


Green Propulsion

Buses Bedford VI Bedford SB

Bedford SB

Bedford SB

A preserved Bedford SB from 1959 in the United Kingdom
Manufacturer Bedford (General Motors)
Body and chassis
Doors One behind front axle
Floor type Step entrance
Chassis Straight Ladder frame
Engine Bedford
Capacity 33-41 Seats
Transmission 4-speed synchromesh
Length 27ft 6in, later 30ft
Width 7ft 6in, optionally 8ft and later 2.5m

The Bedford SB is a front-engined bus chassis that was built by Bedford in the United Kingdom. It was launched at the 1950 Commercial Motor Show as the replacement for the Bedford OB.

It was the first Bedford vehicle to have a “forward control” design, with the driver’s seat located at the right of the engine and the front axle underneath. It used a four-speed synchromesh gearbox, with five-speed gearboxes offered later. It could be fitted with Bedford’s own petrol or diesel engine, with the Perkins R6 and Leyland O.350 and O.370 engines also being offered during the 1950s and 1960s.

Wheelbase length was originally 17 ft 2in (5.23 m), but from 1955 an 18 ft (5.49 m) option was also offered. Bodywork was provided by a wide range of builders, including DuplePlaxtonHarrington, Willowbrook and Marshall of the United Kingdom, Hawke Coachwork, Coachwork International and New Zealand Motor Bodies of New Zealand, and many more.

There were numerous variants of the SB, each determined by the engine fitted:

1951 Bedford SB with Duple C33F bodywork

1951 Bedford SB with Duple C33F bodywork

1951 Bedford SB (3)

1951 Bedford SB

1952 Bedford Duple Vega Ad

1952 Bedford SB Duple Vega Ad

1952 Bedford SB with Duple C35F bodywork.

1952 Bedford SB with Duple C35F bodywork.



1953 Bedford SB with Hainje coachwork

1953 NB-78-49 Bedford SB with Hainje coachwork

1953 Bedford SB 25653 Plaxton C35F seats

1953 Bedford SB 25653 Plaxton C35F seats

1953 Bedford SB 26568 Plaxton C35F seats

1953 Bedford SB 26568 Plaxton C35F seats

1954 Bedford SB 29-AC-83 Mulliner C29F Air Ministry

1954 Bedford SB 29-AC-83 Mulliner C29F Air Ministry

1954 Bedford SB Bedford carr ECF nr 19

1954 Bedford SB carr ECF nr 19

Bedford carr. ECF Vechtstroom 12 ex De Vries

Bedford SB carr. ECF Vechtstroom 12 ex De Vries


Bedford SB –  Edesche Carrosserie Fabriek


1954 Bedford SBG with Mulliner body

1954 Bedford SBG with Mulliner body

1954 Bedford SBG with 'Seagull' body

1954 Bedford SBG with ‘Seagull’ body

1956 Bedford SBG with Burlingham C35F bodywork

1956 Bedford SBG with Burlingham C35F bodywork

1956 Bedford SBG with Burlingham Seagull C35F bodywork.

1956 Bedford SBG with Burlingham Seagull C35F bodywork.

1956 Bedford SBG with Yeates C41C bodywork

1956 Bedford SBG with Yeates C41C bodywork

1956 plaxton consort bus brochure Bedford

1956 plaxton consort bus brochure Bedford SBG

1957 Bedford SBG Yeates Europa C41F

1957 Bedford SBG Yeates Europa C41F


1958 Bedford Duple Vaga SB3

1958 Bedford Duple Vega SB3

1958 Bedford SB3 with Duple Vega C41F bodywork.

1958 Bedford SB3 Duple Vega UK

1958 Bedford SB3 with Plaxton C41F bodywork.

1958 Bedford SB3 with Plaxton C41F bodywork.

1958 Bedford SB3 Duple Vega UK

1958 Bedford SB3 Duple Vega UK


1955 Bedford SBO with Duple C36F bodywork

1955 Bedford SBO with Duple C36F bodywork

1954 Bedford SBO with Duple DP35F body

1954 Bedford SBO with Duple DP35F body

1954 Bedford SBO with Duple Vega C39F body

1954 Bedford SBO with Duple Vega C39F body


1962 Bedford SB5 with Yeates Fiesta C41F bodywork

1962 Bedford SB5 with Yeates Fiesta C41F bodywork


1958 Bedford SB8 with Plaxton C41F bodywork

1958 Bedford SB8 with Plaxton C41F bodywork

1958 Bedford SB8 24DAR was Duple C41F bodied

1958 Bedford SB8 24DAR was Duple C41F bodied

1963 Bedford SB8 Duple Bella Vega (C41F)

1963 Bedford SB8 Duple Bella Vega (C41F)


1965 Bedford SB13 Duple Firefly (C37F)

1965 Bedford SB13 Duple Firefly (C37F)

1965 Bedford SB13 Duple Vega (C41F)

1965 Bedford SB13 Duple Vega (C41F)


Variant Engine
SB Bedford petrol 4.927 L
SBG Bedford petrol 4.927 L
SB3 Bedford petrol 4.927 L
SBO Perkins R6
SB1 Bedford diesel 4.927 L
SB5 Bedford diesel 5.42 L
SB8 Leyland O.350
SB13 Leyland O.370

From 1968, the SB series used computer classification codes from Bedford’s parent company General Motors, with the petrol-engined SB3 variant becoming NFM, and the diesel-engined SB5 variant becoming NJM. However, they were rarely referred to under these codes.

The SB was built for the UK market and export, and production spanned 37 years – longer than any other Bedford bus chassis – until the sale of Bedford Vehicles in 1987.

Versions of the Bedford SB exported to New Zealand were powered by the standard petrol or diesel engines, except the last batch sold to New Zealand Railways Department, which used Caterpillar C7 engines and Allison transmissions. The use of Caterpillar C7 engines and Allison transmissions by New Zealand Railways Road Services is not supported. All the NZRRS SB buses had Bedford petrol or diesel engines. 40 of the Bedford YMT buses had Caterpillar C7 engines. Many were later powered by Caterpillar, Leyland, Scammell, Cummins, Detroit, Isuzu, Mitsubishi, Gardner and GMC engines. While most retained the standard gearbox, many later ran with Eaton/fuller manual, Allison automatic or Daimler epicyclic gearboxes. NZR buses were also fitted with 2 speed Eaton differentials for the country’s hilly terrain and mountain passes.




Subaru Corporation

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915

In 1932 it became: Nakajima Aircraft Company

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Coordinates: 36°17′51″N 139°22′05″E / 36.2975685°N 139.368058°E / 36.2975685; 139.368058

Subaru Corporation
Native name
Industry Automobile manufacturing
Founded July 15, 1953; 63 years ago (1953-07-15)
Founder Kenji Kita
Chikuhei Nakajima(predecessor)
Headquarters Ebisu, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan
Area served
Key people
Yasuyuki Yoshinaga, (Representative Director, President and CEO)
Jun Kondo, (Representative Director & Vice-President)
Products Automobiles
Divisions Subaru Tecnica International
Website Subaru Global

Subaru (スバル?) (/ˈsbər/ or /sᵿbˈɑːr/;Japanese pronunciation: [sɯ.ba.ɾɯ]) is the automobile manufacturing division of JapanesetransportationconglomerateSubaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI)), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.

Subaru cars are known for the use of a boxer engine layout in most vehicles above 1500 cc. Most Subaru models have used the Symmetrical All Wheel Drive drive-train layout since 1972. The flat/boxer engine and all-wheel-drive became standard equipment for mid-size and smaller cars in most international markets by 1996, and is now standard in most North American market Subaru vehicles. The lone exception is the BRZ, introduced in 2012, which uses the boxer engine but instead uses a rear-wheel-drive structure. Subaru also offers turbocharged versions of their passenger cars, such as the Impreza WRX and the Legacy 2.5GT. The 2.0XT trims of the Outback and Forester also include a turbocharged engine.

In Western markets, the Subaru brand has traditionally been popular among a dedicated core of buyers. Marketing is targeted towards specific niches centered on those who desire the company’s signature drive train engine, all-wheel/rough-road capabilities or affordable sports car markets.

Subaru is the Japanese name for the Pleiades star cluster M45, or “The Seven Sisters” (one of whom tradition says is invisible – hence only six stars in the Subaru logo), which in turn inspires the logo and alludes to the companies that merged to create FHI.

All pictures from my collection: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214689494617313&set=ms.c.eJxVWFkOHTEIu1GFwWz3v1jFU9VxfubDGpawxQTmYM1yWehA~%3BME~%3BJJzosHRBvBAm~%3BzgwaU7~_RzKiY3zxH8EOuWv7~%3BeOZMTb16TGU7c58UpNdm~%3BtZ5yy60f0g0WjRA2ea54r1ntnZVM1Rm~%3BNpRjtnvUyR9PXCg9R6STSmbVmeGo1s82iRCrP1DtUzXK~%3BPQxo901JiaM3tik9zBNDh~%3Bmgm14eP5llve3LR4xpDtO~%3BF~%3BslFj82nuayrDLGPrVmfz5~%3BcInZyRKroBhuVKluXnKbX7MA1zoRvGOTsju408dmBTkrecXWxw1Ipz077ouGcAlAS~_dmorSfvjLNeivhsmER~_J4JrWmNRa77fKbjcvvRIfHx7uwUpOtYyJBfJS5FU5kb49kBsua15Sr5yPWddusnCstO1EtJsw7VP7wyaQTq4SUHQidp4aiydG66VkO0b1L7IixI1p0XbSK2EHG6Qzz~_Xjkcqa6M0O7W10S~%3BiG63W6zSXetjkxtMXfZpHzzWopanmCV8~_ldDpG6PI~_HWrRmyGS6j12Vq6at6z9UR1u5Z8~%3BllfSj1j7GxlPv~_cVOs~%3B5FJn3cBm2Trr7KQ0hrtmu659YVcPpVJIX~_rZx1GrXYk53VzVgzvFPlJ~_9amanbapU2K8bBOq5~_ZY6pSYyBtbqjmM~_9T8xE31UA~_vuzNVKs~_fUc3l3DI~_yE0z9bmNW4~_tq59KtXW1UZqvmdOcj1T7Vqk~%3B18jV2u8ZbfGc4mqstMJvuG31qlSelNbG5s06nZlXLW16M1rWNrQ2rA9RKdRsa3f~%3BaqoZirRv60xYd27r2dejtlM1~_~%3Bkj1euRtTaPrTg9vQ8y25rBq~_4dlCK~%3Ba0bnKrd2tCu3UDsPt7FJ33qYg9tOj0odknr2OnbR6k~_fZrmtnLUB~_MOI0nchebc4pkBFEmGm3MbS0qz5IGsm~%3Be6We4xDpX6UzVRzRxukxk6qzVZ8TuPCYSp19zRVc88aqNanw1D6z1oaHp9n0iBxdttsg9Sq224b1B~%3BY3YNmihzXkuqNqkoC1H82zB0P0uZSCQ7vNi~_15QPzGkEugsriHHHW1WeQsDCVIsKU29w3LR4P02HhKlVMC~_0LVIRFKgOpWYvWaLSvKa9zNA9RdtoDi9VTTITx4TZDGPUUbpXGEp~%3B9ajW1Vn3QpvPQr02t1cNYW1tlywwCFuLPEuFPxMgBTHIRPy2lNU9OwrSiyG6Y5pTpCdOZycyG8l5nMmGjHLKOeGt8WDhEPSxP4GGebQs8J~_1KKKN2NhpwtT6nOfEgDWhUObOARpVruNVAkfPnOelyb09TpBuQvcCPMOLpr7S7G7RT8pYtjwch4JrBxABORdwvGA9yUsIPPSMDrvtghl14VCom4csHWbhsdp5EI3R3mPJLs0qxAN1zPSv6~_lmR32ap0bgMxqwidv~_o9cuXssroHDCeaAwX1Lmasw1ljF5mACnxKViCOkULtlCm5~_V15SO26qKqrMmLtchSKXYgdWJXR6M0y5UDpM6NupM~_~%3BV6TgZJ92WsHt098SBsTykC87be2SjQ67Ee9BWHEUVRBEo3R3pmrw51QZIBV6~_O8ApeonjV3Pft6t~_tdQLvKgH~%3B~%3BhB1XUM52Hh8i~%3B9zs9ZGOOyR9ZLYEuttnHwZy641k5zgJfHX63ZobprfelV3Y6rtNIUJnVHhZhq3sjMuI1aiGz9GUx~%3BotW5A75ZAMnS0R19ruL3Krp0iFzwVIThFVGSF3yiH3Eeu8FZay~_QZtO3SXyWDtBFQqNyKF~%3BwQ3Ikp26vgt66WRzztF6ynyXgtauE3knaL1FBmF6FGEGTHC6yJ~%3BS6RGIzMiJuSfCwaBF~_mbkTJJ3EGdoockXTh2tGXzYUQdcQ8aipDJkB6MvqencNVTG9Qtm2uGxs7zT1N38~_iupE7I6GOHdPV5Z0mJ6r06ZisjijHPc1IQ1I1DsT5EMOWujGElUytq8lcNUglXZnwqYcPBFoYfS4JjisQ2W7hoHLvn4kEGXHxSNFoeh1bEkfr~_U9YXV42G1a8WJfLWtxwLl~_AN1XTZknj3ZOocO6TzmWNgROpLV11Lmksv34tQJmVGMTu79OWE0R058rpL78os4TasuFVYz0UflGl8Mu6tR7JzUlnJ5xU0o0vuL2adP~%3BJGxLonvdRo3JNIQU~%3BhdR5CkTFkyQ1LXjeb2joOWcohGfdWOjIlyDYUpMIZZXl3vPxzDxMQ9p429nv~%3B~_v65~%3Bbn0tZDN7Brp5RybXQonYbNQIzc~_~_~_6PDX0tBHda3hjZy7uWHyneA5nEZ7LQJh3Hyey26b~%3BRouQc.bps.a.10214689172449259.1073742084.1422084541&type=3&theater


Former logo on a Subaru 360 showing six stars in an arrangement similar to the Pleiades open star cluster

Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI) and Subaru’s first cars

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915, headed by Chikuhei Nakajima. In 1932, the company was reorganized as Nakajima Aircraft Company, Ltd and soon became a major manufacturer of aircraft for Japan during World War II. At the end of the Second World War Nakajima Aircraft was again reorganized, this time as Fuji Sangyo Co, Ltd. In 1946, the company created the

Fuji Rabbitmotor scooter with spare aircraft parts from the war. In 1950, Fuji Sangyo was divided into 12 smaller corporations according to the Japanese Government’s 1950 Corporate Credit Rearrangement Act, anti-zaibatsu legislation. Between 1953 and 1955, four of these corporations and a newly formed corporation decided to merge to form Fuji Heavy Industries. These companies were: Fuji Kogyo, a scooter manufacturer; coachbuildersFuji Jidosha; engine manufacturers Omiya Fuji Kogyo; chassis builders Utsunomiya Sharyo and the Tokyo Fuji Dangyotrading company.

1955 Subaru 1500, a.k.a. the P-1

Kenji Kita, CEO of Fuji Heavy Industries at the time, wanted the new company to be involved in car manufacturing and soon began plans for building a car with the development code-name P-1. Mr. Kita canvassed the company for suggestions about naming the P1, but none of the proposals was appealing enough. In the end he gave the company a Japanese name that he had “been cherishing in his heart”: Subaru, which is the name of the Pleiades star cluster in Japanese. The first Subaru car was named the Subaru 1500. Only twenty were manufactured owing to multiple supply issues. Subsequently, the company designed and manufactured dozens of vehicles including the 1500 (1954), the tiny air-cooled 360 (1958), the Sambar (1961), and the 1000 (which saw the introduction of the Subaru boxer engine in 1965).

 1958 Subaru 360

Later partnerships

Nissan acquired a 20.4% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, Subaru’s parent company, in 1968 during a period of government-ordered merging of the Japanese auto industry in order to improve competitiveness under the administration of Prime MinisterEisaku Sato. Nissan would utilize FHI’s bus manufacturing capability and expertise for their Nissan Diesel line of buses. In turn many Subaru vehicles, even today, use parts from the Nissan manufacturing keiretsu. The Subaru automatic transmission, known as the 4EAT, is also used in the first generation Nissan Pathfinder. While under this arrangement with Nissan, Subaru introduced the R-2 (1969), the Rex and the Leone (1971), the BRAT (1978), Alcyone (1985), the Legacy (1989), the Impreza (1993) (and its WRX subtype), and the Forester (1997).

Upon Nissan’s acquisition by Renault, its stake in FHI was sold to General Motors in 1999. Troy Clarke, of General Motors served as representative to Fuji Heavy Industries on their corporate board. During that time, Subaru introduced the Baja (2003), and the Tribeca (2005). The Subaru Forester was sold as a Chevrolet Forester in India in exchange for the Opel Zafira being sold as a Subaru Traviq in Japan. Also, the Chevrolet Borrego concept was presented in 2002, a crossover coupe/pickup truck being derived from the Japanese-market Legacy Turbo platform. During the brief General Motors period, a “badge engineeredImpreza was sold in the United States as the Saab 9-2X. An SUV (Subaru Tribeca / Saab 9-6X) was also planned but the Saab version did not proceed, and styling was recycled in the 2008 Tribeca refresh.

GM liquidated their holdings in FHI in 2005. Nearly all Saab-Subaru joint projects were dropped at that time, other than Subaru supplying parts for the Saab 9-2x.Toyota Motors bought a little over 40% of GM’s former FHI stock, amounting to 8.7% of FHI. (The rest of GM’s shares went to a Fuji stock buy-back program.) Toyota and Subaru have since collaborated on a number of projects, among them building the Toyota Camry in Subaru’s Indiana U.S. plant beginning in April 2007. Subaru introduced the Exiga in 2008.

Toyota increased their share of FHI to 16.5% in July 2008. Subsequently, Toyota and Subaru jointly developed the Toyota 86, first sold in January 2012 as the Subaru BRZ and by Toyota under various names.

Marketing efforts

Some of the advertising slogans Subaru has used in the past include “Inexpensive, and built to stay that way” (USA 1970s – early 1980s), “The World’s Favourite Four Wheel Drive” (in the UK), “Plus on y pense, plus on a le gout de la conduire” (Literally: “The more one thinks, the more one has the taste (or desire, impulse, drive) of driving it”) in French Quebec, “We built our reputation by building a better car”, “What to Drive”, “The Beauty of All-Wheel Drive”, “Driven by What’s Inside”, “Think, Feel, Drive”, “Love. It’s what makes Subaru, a Subaru” (USA early 2010s) and currently “Confidence in Motion” in North America, “All 4 The Driver” in Australia, and “Uncommon Engineering, Uncommon Stability, Uncommon Roadholding, Uncommon Sense” in the UK and “Technology that gives you Confidence in Motion” in Southeast Asia.

As a result of this refocused advertising campaign, Subaru products began to attract a following among the young and educated, who saw the car as a practical alternative to the SUV craze. Subaru has historically been popular in the Northeastern United States as well as the Pacific Northwest. According to Automotive Lease Guide, Subaru ranked second place in vehicles that have the highest overall predicted resale values among all industry and all luxury vehicles for MY 2009. The awards are derived after carefully studying segment competition, historical vehicle performance and industry trends. According to a study done by J.D. Power and Associates for the 2008 Customer Retention Study, Subaru ranked at 50.5%, which was above the national average of 48%.

Hōkago no Pleiades (Original net animation)

Subaru launched an animation series Hōkago no Pleiades (放課後のプレアデス?, Hōkago no Pureadesu, lit. ‘After School Pleiades’) developed jointly with Gainax. The 4-part mini episode series was released on YouTube on February 1, 2011. It featured a magical girl plot with Subaru as a leading protagonist.

Current operations

Subaru’s corporate headquarters are located in Ebisu, Tokyo.

Manufacturing facilities

Subaru is distinct from many of its Japanese competitors in that as of early 2016 it still made almost 75% of its cars sold internationally in Japan. Subaru’s facilities designated to automotive manufacturing are located in Ōta, Gunma Prefecture, consisting of four locations. Subaru-chō is where the Subaru BRZ/Toyota 86 is built, having been re-purposed from kei car production, Yajima Plant is where all current Subaru cars are built, Otakita Plant is where commercial kei trucks are built (originally a factory location of Nakajima Aircraft Company), and Oizumi Plant is where engines and transmissions are built.

Subaru’s only overseas manufacturing facility is located in Lafayette, Indiana; the factory is called Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc.. Due to continued sales growth in North American markets, vehicle production capacity at the Lafayette assembly plant is set to expand to 390,000 vehicles annually. Under the current strategic plan, Subaru will have a total production capacity of 1,026,000 vehicles per year at the end of 2016.

Subaru in Canada

Subaru Canada, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Fuji Heavy Industries of Japan. Headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of 88 authorized dealers throughout Canada.In 1976, Canadians got their first exposure to Subaru vehicles when Subaru Auto Canada Limited (SACL) began offering the Subaru Leone. In 1989, the privately owned SACL was purchased by the Toronto-based Subaru Canada, Inc. who, under the guidance of parent company Fuji Heavy Industries, began an expansion process that would eventually see over 100 Subaru Dealers in operation across the country.

Subaru in the Philippines

Subaru has entered the Philippine operations started in 1996 under the Columbian Motors Philippines ownership but withdrew in 2000. It returned in 2006 under a new ownership by Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc. Subaru has eleven dealerships in the country: Greenhills, Fort Bonifacio, Manila Bay, Alabang, Davao, Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Iloilo, Santa Rosa, Batangas, and Pampanga.

Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc., part of Motor Image Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hong Kong-based Tan Chong International Limited under businessman Glenn Tan, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of six dealerships in the Philippines.

Subaru in the United Kingdom

In 1974 Robert Edmiston was finance director at sports car manufacturer Jensen Motors. When the company went bankrupt, he used a £6,000 redundancy payout to set up International Motors, which acquired the UK franchise for Subaru and Isuzu. The Coleshill based company is still the parent for Subaru in the UK.

Subaru in the United States

Subaru of America was established in 1968 in Philadelphia by Malcolm Bricklin and Harvey Lamm. It relocated to Pennsauken, New Jersey shortly thereafter and moved to its current headquarters in Cherry Hill, New Jersey when Fuji Heavy Industries acquired full ownership. Subaru of America operates regional offices, zone offices and parts distribution centers throughout the United States. Subaru of America also operates port facilities on both the West and East coasts.

In 1989 Subaru and then-partner Isuzu opened a joint factory in Lafayette, Indiana called Subaru-Isuzu Automotive, or SIA, which initially manufactured the Subaru Legacy and Isuzu Rodeo. In 2001 Isuzu sold their stake in the plant to FHI for $1 due to flagging sales and it was renamed Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. SIA has been designated a backyard wildlife habitat by the National Wildlife Federation and has achieved a zero-landfill production designation (the first automotive assembly plant in the United States to earn that designation).

According to the Kelley Blue Book in 2015, two Subaru models Forester and the Outback in the United States had very short inventory time (the time between being received by a dealer to being sold).


Subaru Rally Team Japan led by Noriyuki Koseki (founder of Subaru Tecnica International, STI) ran Subaru Leone coupé, sedan DL, RX(SRX) and RX Turbo in the World Rally Championship between 1980 and 1989. Drivers for individual rallies included Ari Vatanen, Per Eklund, Shekhar Mehta, Mike Kirkland, Possum Bourne and Harald Demut. Mike Kirkland finished 6th overall and won the A Group at the 1986 Safari Rally. That year Subaru was one of the only manufacturers combining 4WD and turbo after Audi‘s successful quattro system had been introduced in 1980, but Audi withdrew from the WRC after safety concerns and Ford’s serious accident early in the 1986 season. Subaru changed the rally model to Legacy RS for the 1990–1992 period and took part in the first complete season in the World Rally Championship with the same model in 1993.

Modified versions of the Impreza WRX and WRX STi have been competing successfully in rallying. Drivers Colin McRae (1995), Richard Burns (2001) and Petter Solberg (2003) have won World Rally Championshipdrivers’ titles with the Subaru World Rally Team and Subaru took the manufacturers’ title three years in a row from 1995 to 1997. Subaru’s World Rally Championship cars are prepared and run by Prodrive, the highly successful British motorsport team. Several endurance records were set in the early and mid-nineties by the Subaru Legacy. The Subaru Justy also holds the world record for the fastest sub 1.0L car without a turbo: 123.224 mph average, it was set in 1989.

Subaru was briefly involved in Formula One circuit racing when it bought a controlling interest in the tiny Italian Coloni team for the 1990 season. The Coloni 3B’s 12-cylinder engine was badged as a Subaru and shared the boxer layout with the company’s own engines, but was an existing design built by Italian firm Motori Moderni. The cars were overweight and underpowered and the partnership broke down before the season finished. With the rise of rally racing and the Import scene in the US, the introduction of the highly anticipated Subaru Impreza WRX in 2001 was successful in bringing high-performance AWD compact cars into the sports car mainstream. Subaru supplies a factory-backed team, Subaru Rally Team USA for Rally America and has won the driver’s title six times, most recently in 2011 with David Higgins.Grassroots Motorsports awarded Subaru with the Editors’ Choice Award in 2002.

On 16 December 2008, it was announced that Subaru would no longer be competing in the World Rally Championships. The decision was made by Subaru’s parent company, Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI), partly as a result of the economic downturn but also because it was felt Subaru had achieved its sporting and marketing objectives. Mr Ikuo Mori denied that alterations to the WRC technical regulations in 2010 or a rumoured deterioration in the working relationship with Prodrive had any impact on the decision. He also said that the possibility of a Subaru car back in the top category of WRC in the future is not zero, but for this moment there can be no assumption of a comeback.

Since 2005, Cusco Racing have entered an Impreza sedan and a BRZ in the Super GT championship. In 2008, the Impreza was the first 4-door and first 4WD vehicle to win a race.

Starting in 2006, Subaru of America (SOA), as the official distributor of Subaru vehicles in the United States participates in the Subaru Road Racing Team (SRRT) with a Subaru Legacy 2.5 GT Spec-B in the Grand-Am Street Tuner class. In 2010, SRRT campaigns a Subaru Impreza WRX STI in the Grand Sport class. In 2011, SRRT switched from the hatchback to a 2011 Subaru Impreza WRX STI sedan.

On 4 May 2012, Subaru Rally Team USA announced that a new rallycross team, Subaru Puma Rallycross Team USA will participate in the 2012 Global RallyCross Championship season with Dave Mirra, Bucky Lasek, and Sverre Isachsen. They also competed in the 2014 FIA World Rallycross Championship.

In 2011, Mark Higgins used a stock Impreza to set a lap record at the Isle of Man TT course. In 2016, Higgins again broke the record in a modified WRX STI.

The impreza has won hillclimbs such as the Silverstone Race to the Sky and Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race.



The 2007 Frankfurt International Motor Show saw Subaru introduce a horizontally opposed, water-cooled, common railturbodiesel using a variable geometry turbocharger called the Subaru EE engine, the first of its type to be fitted to a passenger car. Volkswagen had experimented with this idea during the 1950s and made two air-cooled boxer prototype diesel engines that were not turbocharged. VW installed one engine in a Type 1 and another in a Type 2.

The Subaru engine was rated at 110 kW (150 PS; 148 hp) and 350 N·m (260 ft·lbf) with a displacement of 2.0 litres. In March 2008 Subaru offered the Legacy sedan and wagon and the Outback wagon with 2.0 litre turbodiesel in the EU with a 5-speed manual transmission.

In September 2008 Subaru announced that the diesel Forester and diesel Impreza will be introduced at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, with Forester sales to begin October 2008 and diesel Impreza sales to start January 2009. The Forester and Impreza will have a 6-speed manual transmission, whereas the Legacy and Outback have 5-speed manual transmissions.

United States Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy estimated is:

City Ranges
32.7 mpg‑US (7.2 L/100 km; 39.3 mpg‑imp)
33.6 mpg‑US (7.0 L/100 km; 40.4 mpg‑imp)
Highway Ranges
45.2 mpg‑US (5.20 L/100 km; 54.3 mpg‑imp)
49.0 mpg‑US (4.80 L/100 km; 58.8 mpg‑imp)

Electric vehicles

In June 2006, Fuji Heavy Industries, Inc. (FHI) launched its

Subaru StellaPlug-in electric vehicle which is a kei car equipped with a lithium-ion battery pack. The vehicle has a short range of 56 miles (90 km) but it actually costs more than the Mitsubishi iMiEV, at ¥4,380,000 (US$44,860), including Japanese Government consumption taxes with an exemption of $2,240. It will also qualify for a rebate from the Japanese Government of up to $14,200, bringing the price down to $30,660. The vehicle is much like the i-MiEV, with a 47-kilowatt motor and a quick-charge capability, but the two-door mini-car has a boxy shape. FHI plans to start delivery in late July and plans to sell 170 vehicles by March 2010.

In Japan, Subaru is currently testing two electric vehicles called the Subaru G4e and the Subaru R1e.

The Subaru Hybrid Tourer Concept is a four-seat vehicle with gull-wing doors that combines a 2-liter turbocharged direct-injection gasoline engine with a continuously variable transmission and two axle-mounted motors. A lithium-ion battery pack provides energy storage for the vehicle.


Since the 2005 model year, Subaru has adopted the CAN bus technology for the USA and Canada markets. Starting in the 2007 model year, all Subaru vehicles use the CAN technology. Typically, two CAN-buses are used on vehicles: a high-speed CAN running at 500 kbit/s for powertrain communication, and a low-speed CAN running at 125 kbit/s for body control functions and instrument panels. A body-integrated unit (BIU) is used between these two networks.

Clarion and Harman Kardon are among the audio, video, and navigation technology suppliers for Subaru products in North America. Clarion announced in 2015 that it was introducing its “Smart Access” platform, formerly only offered on Clarion’s aftermarket products, to the units to be installed in certain Subaru 2015 models in North America. Smart Access is able to work with the driver’s smartphone (either iPhone or Android) and allows access to various car-safe apps running on the phone via the car’s built-in infotainment screen. Subaru and Clarion have also, with Liberty Mutual Insurance, introduced the “RightTrack” in-vehicle app which will be able to monitor the driver’s habits, make suggestions for safer driving, and possibly offer insurance discounts.

Environmental record

 2009 USA-spec Subaru Legacy PZEV

Subaru claims to have implemented advanced policies which include recycling, reducing harmful emissions, and educating their employees. Their efforts have helped them in their environmental initiatives. The Subaru plant in Lafayette, Indiana (SIA) was the first auto assembly plant to achieve zero landfill status; nothing from the manufacturing process goes into a landfill. The company has developed a recycling plan for the “end-of-life” of their cars. Most of their modern products use highly recyclable materials throughout the vehicle, in the engine, transmission, suspension and elsewhere in each vehicle leaving Subaru with a 97.3% recycling ratio rate for their end-of-life vehicles.

An excerpt from the Subaru website stated “In 2006, SIA was awarded the United States Environmental Protection Agency´s Gold Achievement Award as a top achiever in the agency’s WasteWise program to reduce waste and improve recycling.” The website also stated that “It also became the first U.S. automotive assembly plant to be designated a wildlife habitat.”

Subaru currently offers a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) certified Legacy, Outback, Impreza, XV/Crosstrek and Forester models which are available for sale anywhere in the U.S. Subaru PZEV vehicles meet California’s Super-Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle exhaust emission standard. All other models have been certified LEV2.

Current and former Subaru vehicles


360 (1958-1971)

1000 (1966-1969)

1500 (1954)

FF-1 G (1971-1972)

FF-1 Star (1969-1973)

R-2 (1969–1972)


1971 Subaru Leone hardtop coupé A22

Leone (1971-1994)

BRAT (1978-1994)

Rex (1972-1992)


Sumo / Libero / Domingo / Columbuss / E series / Estratto (1983-1998)

Justy / Tutto(1984-2010, 2016-present)

XT / Alcyone / Vortex (1985-1991)

Legacy / Liberty (1989-present)


Vivio (1992-1998)

Impreza (1992-present)

Impreza WRX (2001-2014)

and Impreza WRX STI (2001-2014)

Outback Sport / Gravel Express / RV (1994-present)

Alcyone / SVX (1991-1996)

Forester (1997-present)

Traviq (rebadged Opel Zafira) (1999-2005)


Baja (2003-2006)

R2 (2003-2010)

R1 (2005-2010)

Tribeca (2005-2014)

Trezia (2005-2017)

Exiga (2008-present)


BRZ( Toyota 86 ) (2012-present)

Subaru XV (2012-present)

Levorg (2014-present)

Subaru WRX (2015-present)

Other manufacturers

Subaru has partnered with various manufacturers over time – here are some of the models are sold in Asia and Europe. In Japan they are in the Kei car class with either front or all wheel drive and a straight engine. An article posted by Autoblog on April 16, 2008 stated that due to a corporate investment by Toyota, all Kei cars built by Subaru will be replaced by Daihatsu models beginning in 2010.






Concept vehicles

The following concepts vehicles did not go forward as production vehicles:

Subaru SRD-1 (Experimental design study introduced in 1990)

Subaru Suiren ( Concept replacement for the BRAT/Brumby )

Subaru Exiga (1996, wagon)

Subaru B9 Scrambler

Subaru B11S

Subaru B5 TPH (Turbo Parallel Hybrid) (Japanese: Subaru B5-TPH)

Subaru Fleet-X

Subaru HS500

Subaru VIZIV

See also

Prodrive Motorsport team selected by Subaru to run their World Rally Team

Subaru Tecnica International (also known as STI)

List of Subaru engines

List of Subaru transmissions

Subaru EA engine series

Subaru EF engine series

Subaru EJ engine series

Symmetrical All Wheel Drive


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External links

Official website

Fuji Heavy Industries

Subaru Tecnica International

Subaru at DMOZ

Subaru at the Internet Movie Cars Databas

OPEL Automobiles and Commercial vehicles Rüsselheim, Hesse, Germany 1862 – present Part II


Automobiles and Commercial Vehicles

Rüsselheim, Hesse, Germany 1862-present Part II


Only Pictures:

1862 Old Adam Opel logo1868 Adam und Sophie Opel

1886 Victoria Blitz 1899–1902 Opel Lutzmann 1901 Opel Experience History Heritage 9 hp Motor Car 1901 Opel Nähmaschinen 1901 Opel_Experience_History_Heritage_1901_Advertisement_for_pel_Darracq_304x171_25038 1902 03-Opel-Darracq monocylindre 8HP 1902 OPEL Darracq (2) 1902 Opel Darracq 1903 Opel Darracq Rennwagen 1904 opel darracq99 1905 opel darracq by tricoloreone77 1905 Opel Darracq monocylindre c 1909 Opel Logo.svg

1909 Opel 1910 Opel 4-8 PS Doktorwagen 1910 Opel 6-14-HP Touring 1910 Opel Logo 1910 the blue eye Opel 4 20 1929-1931 1911 Opel Hetzer 1912 Opel 5-12 PS 1 1913 Opel Ei 1914 Opel 12,3L Rennwagen 1921-22 Opel-Bahnrennmaschine 1924 Opel 10-35 PS 1 1928 Opel Motorrad 1929 Neumann-neander 1931 Opel 1.8B 2 1931 Opel Elite 500 Fahrzeugmuseum Chemnitz 1

1931-34 Opel 1,2 Liter 1935 Opel 00 1935-37 Hood ornament of the Opel Olympia 1935-37 Opel Olympia

Scherl: Die neue Lastwagenfabrik, Wek Brandenburg, der Adam Opel A.G. Am Ende der großen Fertig-Montagbandes: bei einer Produktion von 50 Wagen in einer Schicht wird alle 10Minuten ein Wagen fertig. 15469-36
Die neue Lastwagenfabrik, Wek Brandenburg, der Adam Opel A.G.
Am Ende der großen Fertig-Montagbandes: bei einer Produktion von 50 Wagen in einer Schicht wird alle 10Minuten ein Wagen fertig.

1936 Opel kadett 1936 Opel Olympia (2) 1937 1950 Opel Logo Handel.svg 1937 Hood ornament flying through the ring 1937 Opel Gläser Cabriolet (only 2 built) 1937 Opel Kadett 1937 Opel P4 1937-39 1945-47 Opel Olympia OL38 1937-39 Opel Admiral convertible 1938 Logo on spare wheel cover of a 1938 Kapitän 1938 Opel Admiral (2) 1938 Opel Admiral 11 1938 Opel Admiral 1938 Opel kapitan 1938 Opel Olympia Cabrio-Limousine

1938 Opel Super6 Cabrio 1938-40 opel Kapitän 1939 Opel Blitz-LF15 1939 Opel folder-0k 1939 Opel Kadet folder-8k 1939 Opel Kadet folder-10ak 1939 Opel Kadet 1939 opel kapitän bw 1939 Opel Kapitän works Cabriolet folder-5k 1939 opel kaptein 2500cc 6 cyl noorwegen 1939 Opel Olympia Coach folder-13k 1939 Opel Olympia folder-14k 1939 Opel Olympia OL38 1939 opel super 6 a 1939 opel super 6 interior 1939 opel super 6 1939 Opel-0k 1940's Opel-Fridgidaire 1942 Opel Blitz by Ludewig Bros. Eastern Front Italien, Soldaten auf LKW Opel-Blitz 1948 opel olympia 1949 Opel kaptein -chassis01 1950 opel kapitän advert 1950 Opel Kapitan Painting 1950 OPEL KAPITAN pic6

1950 opel kapitän press 1950 opel kaptein folderzij 1950 Opel olympia cabriolet coach 1950 opel olympia 1950's Opel Admiral (1) 1950s Opel Blitz with words in horizontal lightning 1950's Opel Diplomat B V8 1950's Opel kapitan 2 1951 Logo on the rear of a 1951 Kapitän 1951 Opel Kadett A 1951 opel kapitän 1951 opel kaptein-a 1951 opel olympia cabrio coach 1951 Opel Olympia Cabrio 1951 opel olympia-a 1952 Opel Olympia Berline (saloon-sedan) 1952 Opel Olympia 1953 opel olympia cabriolet 1953 opel olympia record 1953 Opel Rekord Skodaman 1953-54 Opel Olympia Rekord sharkmouth ca 1954 1953–57 Opel Olympia Rekord, Bj. 1955 (retusch) 1954 opel blitz-panoramabus-02 1954 opel kapitän-a 1954-64 Opel.svg

1955 Opel Kapitan R 1955 Opel Kapitein 1955 opel olympia-a 1955 Opel Rekord Cabriocoach 1955 Opel rekord 1956 Chevrolet Bel Air 4 Door Sedan (Rekord P1) 1956 Opel Kapitän (2) 1956 Opel Kapitän 1956 opel kapitän-pr 1956 Opel Olympia Rekord 2-Door Sedan 1956 Opel Olympia Rekord Lieferwagen Modell 1956 opel olympia 1956 opel olyympia record 1956 Opel, ein Kapitän 1957 opel kapitän-a 1957 opel kapitein c 1957 opel kapitein l 1957 Opel Olympia Rekord

Wohnungsbau: Frankfurt/Main, Albert Schweitzer-Siedlung 17. - 20. Juli 1961
Wohnungsbau: Frankfurt/Main, Albert Schweitzer-Siedlung
17. – 20. Juli 1961

1957 Opel Olympia Rekord BW 1 1957 opel record olympia 1957 Opel Rekord Reclame 1957-60 Opel Rekord 1700 P1 1957-60 Opel Rekord Olympia Caravan 1958 opel kapitän-a

1958 opel kapitän-b 1958 opel kapitän-c 1958 opel olympia rekord p1-a 1958 Opel Rekord caravan 2 1958 Opel Rekord caravan 5 1958 Opel Rekord P1 Welsch Lijkwagen 1959 Opel Kapitän 1959 Opel Rekord Caravan 1960 opel kapitän-a 1960 opel kapitein L