EASTERN EUROPEAN CAR COMBINATION X 1981- 2014

1981

1981 Audi 80 1981 Audi 100 1981 Audi 5000 1981 Barkas Red White bus 1981 barkas taxi (1) 1981 Prototype Trabant P601Z. 1981 Rallye Wartburg 1981 ROBUR (1) 1981 robur lo-3000-als-pannenhilfsfahrzeug IFA H 6 1981 Wartburg

1982

Rostock, Überseehafen, LKW W50 1982 Audi 100 C3 1982 Barkas 2 G 1982 Barkas B 1000 Krankentransport 1982 IFA COE 1982 IFA W50 auf einer Briefmarke zum 30. Jahrestag der GST (1982) 1982 IFA W50 TLF 16 der NVA mit Niederdruckreifen 1982 MiNr 2745 Wasch- und Spruehfahrzeug M 25 1982 MiNr 2747 Pritschenfahrzeug LD 3000 1982 MiNr 2748 Pritschenfahrzeug W 50 1982 Robur bus postzegel DDR 1982 Robur LO2500 RoburLO1800A 1982 Volga modified 1982 Wanderer Werke Stamps Germany

1983

1983 Barkas 1100 1983 Barkas B1000 1983 IFA DDR Robur LD 3000 Tipper ESP POR 1983 Brochure 1983 IFA doublecab 1983 robur 28148 1983 Robur LO-3001AKF with extension body, 4x4 1983 Robur Pritschenwagen LO LD 2500 1983 Trabant 601 Tramp und Kübel

1984

1984 Audi 200 front 1984 concept-car Trabant nT OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 1984 moskvich-2141-02 1984 moskvich-logo3 1984 moskvich-svyatogor-02 1984 moskvich-svyatogor-07 1984 Trabant 601 (2) OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 1984 Trabant Limousine 1984 Wartburg

1985

1985 40041418 1985 Audi Quattro S1 Pikes Peak 1985 BMW M635 CSi Engine 3453cc S6 1985 GAZ 1985 GAZ-66-11, 4x4 Bujdosó Attila 1985 Wartburg 353 Kübel 1985 Wartburg 353 Strech Limo 1986 Barkas B-1000

1986

1986 BMW CABRIOLET BAUR 1986 Robur 1986 Trabant 800 RS 1986 Wartburg 353S

1987

1987 Audi 100 C3 BJ 1987 BMW M3 Gruppe A DTM 2,3 vr TCE 1987 GAZ-3301, 4x4 1987 IFA Feurwehrfahrzeug 1987 IFA W50 Mullkipper 1987 IFA W50 TLF 16, allradgetriebenes Tanklöschfahrzeug 1987 Wartburg 353 rally car and renntransporte 1987-90 IFA L60

1988

1988 Bajaj Tempo matador a 1988 Bmw m3 feature e30 m3 cabrio 1988 GAZ bus in Amman Syrië 1988 GAZ bus01 59037A Army 1988 IFA W50 TLF 16 GMK (mit Rollläden) 1988 Kehrmaschine KM 2301 auf IFA W50-Fahrgestell 1988 omnibus-robur--des-drk-75144 1988 Robur Coach 1988 ROBURBUS LD3001 Warlow 1988 Wartburg 353 1988 Wartburg Custom Car by BarneyHH 1988 Wartburg Knight 1988 Wartburg newline ad

1989

1989 Audi 80 avant 1989 Audi 80 1989 Bajaj Tempo Matador F305,F307 1989 GAZ 66 Ambulance, 4x4, with AS 66 1989 IFA L60 mit Schwerhäckselaufbau 1989 Robur Feuerwehr maxresdefault 1989 Wartburg Meiningen

1990

1990 Barkas B1000 1990 GAZ bus in Yekaterinburg 1990 GAZ bus01 59037A 1990 GAZ Chaika sexy-blonde-tests-gaz-14-limo-video 1990 GAZ 1990 IFA 1318 1990 IFA L60 mit LAK aus NVA-Beständen als THW-Einsatzfahrzeug 1990 Melkus MB90

1991

1990 Wartburg (1) OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 1991 Audi Coupe 1991 GAZ 21 Volga by SLAVAKOR 1991 GAZ bus on the road 1991 Robur LD 3004

1992

1992 Bajaj-Tempo Matador

1994

1994 bmw fun car a 1994 bmw fun car

1995

1995 BMW 850 CSi Art Car by David Hockney Left rear

1997

1997 Ambulance GAZ Rus 1997 AUDI 8 white 1997 Audi A4 B5 Avant

1998

1998 Audi cabriolet 1998 BMW 2001 BMW 740 iL and BMW 7 Series 1998 GAZ Bus 07

1999

1999 Audi Cabrio 1999 GAZ 2705 Ambulance Rus OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

2000

2001 Audi NL 2001 GAZ Ambulance Moskou Rus

2001

2002 Audi

2003

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2003 Audi A3 RVV Artsenuitvoering 2003 Audi A3 2003 Audi S3 dolphingray 2003 GAZ 3205 2003 GAZ el-Marshrutka of Piteravto in Tosno

2004

2004 Audi A6-C4 2004 Audi I 2004 BMW E46 back 2004 BMW E46 GAZ Gazellw Taxi Bus OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2004 GAZ Gazelle 3221 2004 GAZ Volga Gazelle 4x4 2004 GAZ-russischer-omnibus

2005

2005 Ambulance GAZ 2705 Ambulance Rus 2005 Audi AS4 Avant ABT 2005 Audi Q7 4 2 quattro IAA 2005 Audi R8 is based upon the Lamborghini Gallardo with an aliminium monoque the car is. OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2005 GAZ Ambu Rus 2005 GAZ Busje 2005 Lloyd Arabella Andernach

2006

2006 Audi A Notartzt 2006 Audi A4 2006 Audi S3 Mk.2 Engine 2000 cc I4 FSI Turbo 2006 BMW Z4 Coupe  Engine 3245cc S6 2006 GAZ siber2 2006 Melkus Wartburg 2006 Volga in Tomsk 2006-14 Audi A6 Allroad Quattro 2006-14 Audi R8 V10 MV59

2007

2007 Audi 80 B4 Cabrio rear 2007 Audi 80 B4 2007 Audi 90 front 2007 Audi 90 h 2007 Audi 90 rear 2007 Audi 100 C4 2007 Audi A5 2007 Audi B4 Cabriolet 2007 Audi Metroproject-Quattro 2007 Audi R8 OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2007 Audi TT 2007 Audi TT-R, ABT Sportsline Tuning 2007 gaz 3111 volga 2007-.. BMW X5 3.0 TDi E70 2008 Audi 2 D 2008 Audi A5 Cabrio 2008 Audi Q5 front white Moscow autoshow 2008 Audi TT-RS 2008 Audi TTS Glutorange 2008 BMW 535i (F10)front 2008-on BMW M3 E92 Engine 3999cc

2009

2009 Audi A4 DTM Eckström amk Der neue Audi A7 Sportback auf der Weltpremiere in Muenchen. 2009 Audi Q5 2009 Audi TTS Roadster Facelift 2009 Gaz a 2009-14 Audi Q7 3.0 TDi SE Facelift 2009-14 Audi TT RS Roadster Engine 2480cc S5 20v DOHC Turbo FSi

2010

2010 Audi A2 Artsenuitvoering 2010 Audi A2 2010 Audi R8 Spyder Engine 4163cc V8 2010 Audi Rosemeyer Modell 2010 BMW Z4 s-drive 3.5si 3500cc V8 2010 GAZ 997

2011

2011 audi q3 2011 audi q5 2011 BMW i8 Concept

2012

2012 Audi A1 1.6 TDI Ambition 2012 Audi A2 2012 Audi A6 Hybrid 2012 Audi R8 GT 2012 Audi RS3 Sportback 2012 Audi S5 Sportback 2012 BMW 650i Convertible 2012 BMW Z4 sDrive28i 2012 GAZ besteller

2013

2013 AUDI A8 W12 2013 Audi S7 Sportback 2013 Audi S8 2013 BMW i3 Concept 2013 Goggo Heutzutage

2014

2014 Audi Urban concept

UNKNOWN DATES

Audi Allroad Audi Laurent Aiello DTM(ThKraft) AUDI LIMO AUDI Logo Audi Q3 quattro /Standaufnahme Audi quattro concept Audi quattro Audi R8 V-10 de Heffner Elfaro Audi R8 audi r8-gtr-razo Audi R10 1 Audi R15 TDI Plus of Audi Sport Team Joest driven by Rinaldo Capello and Allan McNish at 8 heures du Castellet 2010 AUDI R18 7 Audi RS2 Audi RS4 B5 Audi RS5 Coupé audi RS6 Audi S2 green Audi S4 (Type B5) silverl Audi S5 sideleft Audi S6 C4 US Audi S8 1 Audi Shooting Brake Audi Studie-Nuvolari Audi V8. VF audi Audi-logo_history Audi-Logo-Evolution (1) audi-logo-evolution Audiv8 dtm auto union 1000sp coupe 4 auto union 1938 download Auto Union Ad Auto Union DKW Bus Ad Auto Union DKW Auto Union Logo AUTO UNION autowp.ru gaz logo 1 AWZ Zwickau 70l awz AWZ-Zwickau Car Logo AZLK Logo Wallpaper AZLK_2 bajaj f-logo bajaj logo vector Bajaj-Old-Logo BMW 507 blauwopen BMW Cabrio E46 BMW Cabro Bmw e23 v sst BMW E28 BMW E30 Cabrio BMW E30 front BMW E30 Touring Bmw e31 munchen 8 serie BMW E36 Cabrio Medion   DIGITAL CAMERA BMW E65 front BMW E88 rear BMW E90 front E18 Bmw f01 BMW GINA BMW i4 and i5 concept BMW i8 Megacity BMW Isetta stack BMW M5 1 BMW M5 BMW M8 BMW M8a BMW Motor uitvaart BMW Série 5 GT Concept BMW Series 5 Old Model BMW Series 5 silver BMW Series 6 black (1) BMW SG Alpine Clarity Z4 BMW SG Alpine Clarity BMW X5 silver hl BMW Z1 met de wegzakkende portier! BMW320i E46 Lim BMW-logo Bmw-m3-cabrio-1 bmw-stokvis-1 BMW-Werk Eisenach: Erste Auslieferung Borgward 1 Borgward 2 Borgward B4000 Autotransporter Borgward b4000 Borgward B4500-7 Borgward b4500-17 Borgward b4500f-1 borgward bestel Borgward B-frontstuur Borgward B-meubel CLASSIC MOTORSHOW 2011 Borgward de Lelie front Borgward Diesel Borgward folderp100-3-a-klein Borgward folder-p100-a-klein Borgward H Borgward Henseler Borgward huybrechts meubelen Borgward Isabella TSdeluxe Borgward Kieper Borgward Koelwagen met frontstuur Borgward P&C Borgward P100 with air spring Borgward pullmann-kleinbus Borgward RS 55 racer Borgward RV-60-90 Borgward SJ-84-14 Borgward Taxi Borgward Truckss Borgward TS ad Borgward Veewagen Borgward voor fabriek borgward borgward-ad-dk borgward-hansa 2400 Borgward-Isabella-TSdeluxe BTR-80 in Servië center gaz logo das geburtstagskind Dixi dixi-nefkens DKW (2) dkw -auto union 1000coupe DKW AutoUnion DKW auto-union-1000sp-coupe-12 dkw ballincollig assembly plant DKW Boekhandel2 DKW Cabrio 1 DKW Cabrio 2 dkw emblem DKW F1 DKW F8-700 voorganger Trabant dkw -f91meisterklasse2 DKW F-1000-2 DKW Flintridge – Howard Dutch Darrin’s Last (Built) Sports Car DKW IMOSA 100 DKW IMOSA F100 DKW logo DKW Mercedes 170 und Mercedes 170 Krankenwagen und VW Kaefer und Opel Olympia und DKW Bus DKW Monza DKW Puma 2 DKW SB 500 01 dkw1 (2) DKW-2a dkw-500-04 DKW-1000-S-05 Argentina dkw-bus-09 dkw-engine Dkw-logo dkw-nz-500-01 Eisenach, BMW-Werk, Montagehalle OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Emw 327-totale-nah Emw 340-1 EMW-Logo-fertig Fotothen Framo icon Framo images Framo img021 Framo logo framo Rebell 14 Framo1 framo-katalog framo-logo-2013 Glas Automarke Logo Glas Goggomobil T 250 Coupe 1955-1965(7)GMJ display Glas Logo goggo eckart logo GoggoMobil big aufnaeher patch goggomobil Goggomobile, Spain Goliath 1100 Goliath B20992 Goliath Hansa 1100 Coupé Goliath images Goliath Jagdwagen 34 Goliath RadSchmier goliath-600 Goliath-Logo-fotoshowBigImage-52ee95a8-192368 Gutbrod (2) gutbrod emblem Gutbrod motorbouw Duitsland Model Farmax Type Gutbrod Standard Hansa Lloyd images hansa_automobile 1914 hansa_logo2 hansa_logo3 Hansa-Lloyd-Automarken-Logo Heinkel 112 Heinkel 150 02 Heinkel 150 f393ab24a0 Heinkel A1Pamphlet1a Heinkel A2Pamphlet1a Heinkel He 115 Heinkel He 280 HEINKEL HE111 H-6 Heinkel He-177 Heinkel Scooter Colours export Heinkel Scooter Tourist HEINKEL TOURIST 103 A 2 BEIWAGEN Shuco 06540 Heinkel Tourist 424483 Heinkel Tourist with custom Heinkel trailer heinkel Heinkel_Logo heinkel1 Heinkel-2 heinkel-he115_3 Heinkel-He176-Rocket-Plane-Drawing heinkel-logo heinkel-perle horch images horch Horch_Logo Horch-Automarken-Logo IFA Barkas Logo IFA DKW F8. Oben als Lieferwagen IFA F8 Wartburg IFA F8 IFA F9 (2) IFA F9 ifa images a ifa images ifa_logo_upload ifa_logo2 ifa_thumb ifa f9 Ikarus 66 des VEB Kraftverkehr Zwickau KFZ IFA G5, H6, S4000 emblems LF 8-TS 8 Robur 1801 Lloyd 300 Lloyd 300a Lloyd 350 Lloyd 600 Ad Lloyd 602 Lloyd Ad Lloyd Alexander Kombi Lloyd Alexander lloyd alexander22 lloyd arabella c Lloyd Automarke Logo Lloyd beim Tanken Lloyd images Lloyd logo Lloyd LS 600 Kombi Lloyd maicobrochure resized lloyd_logo_2 lloyd-autos-blechschild-aa260 logo logo LOGO-NSU-R logoPraga matador melkus (1) Melkus F3 racer no83 http://www.autogaleria.hu - Melkus original Schleizer Dreick, Sieger Formel III Max Byczkowsky Merkur logo Merkur_logo Miu Takatori from Aiki on a Heinkel Tourist. Moskvich 2716 Moskvich rally Minsk moskvich vozrodi-menya esli-smozhesh 18 Moskvich Moskvich-Aleko 2901 moskvichizh subSilver logo moskvitch 401 Moskvitch 412 Moskvitch 426 Moskvitch images a Moskvitch images Moskvitz 412 logo Berlin, PKW "Moskwitsch" MZMA 410N Moskvich 4x4 nsu logo 1958 NSU Logo 6668 nsu prinz ii 1960 brit-pa-2007 nsu2 Phaenomen-Logo phaenomen-robur phaenowerke Phänomen Bob 98 cc motorcycle Phänomen Embleem Phänomen Granit 1500A Phänomen Granit 0161198 Phänomen hellblau Phänomen Leichtmotorrad BOB Phänomen Schrift Phänomen Sonder Kfz. 1 praga emblem 1 Praga images Praga RND Ambu Rastrojero 3431 RASTROJERO caja-dvd-04 Rastrojero Camper Rastrojero page1 rastrojero-f71-09 ROBUR (2) Robur-Logo ROLLFIX-01 Russian Automaker GAZ Scaldia download Scaldia407 Simson AWO 425 saddle Tempo Hubpritsche Tempo-Logo-Metall temposticker-700x700 Trabant Logo 004 trabant logo Print Trabant p50 prospekt 1 Trabbi 601-S-Typenschild 1 Trabi-XXL.de UAZ Ambulances Ulyanovskiy Avtomobilnyi Zavod logo Vintage DKW SB 500 visitekaartje W1 Wanderer Werke LogoSerbia Wanderer_logo wanderer_logo wanderer1 Wanderer-werke Wartburg (1) Wartburg 311 logotypia Wartburg brochure ifa f9 wartburg images Wartburg Logo upload Wartburg RS 1000 Wartburg wartburg2 wartburg7 Wartburg-back Wartburg-Motorwagen wolga_logo WW images Z Automobilwerk Zwickau Z Die Enstehung des VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau Zwickau Sachsenring (aka) Zwickau Sachsenring 1970 Zwickau trabantlogobild1a

END

Buses FORD USA + all over the world part I

Buses FORD USA & all over the world part I

Ford Motor Company I

001

1914 Ford Model T, Four cylinders, 2900cc, 20 Horsepower

002

“Ford” redirects here. For other uses, see Ford.

Ford Mot002or Company

Type

Public company

Traded as

NYSEF
(S&P 500 Component)

Industry

Automotive

Founded

June 16, 1903 (110 years ago)

Founder(s)

Henry Ford

Headquarters

Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.
(GPS: 42°18′55.00″N83°12′37.00″W)

Area served

Worldwide

Key people

William C. Ford, Jr.
(Executive Chairman)
Alan R. Mulally
(President & CEO)

Products

Automobiles
Automotive parts

Services

Automotive finance
Vehicle leasing
Vehicle service

Revenue

 US$136.26 billion (2011)

Operating income

 US$8.681 billion (2011)

Net income

 US$20.21 billion (2011)

Total assets

 US$178.35 billion (2011)

Total equity

 US$15.07 billion (2011)

Employees

164,000 (2011)

Divisions

Ford
Lincoln
Motorcraft

Subsidiaries

List[show]

Website

Ford.com

BF2-2004

1914 Ford T R Spanje ©David Tejedor

Ford Motor Company (also known as simply Ford) is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. In the past it has also produced heavy trucks, tractors and automotive components. Ford owns small stakes in Mazda of Japan and Aston Martin of the United Kingdom. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership.

004

1916 Ford Model T oldtimer bus L

Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914 these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford’s former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States since 1938.

005

1916 ford T Depot Hack

Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2010 vehicle sales. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe. Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide.

1917 Ford Autobus Model TT

1917 Ford Autobus Model TT

006

1918 T Ford Bus

History

007

Henry Ford (ca. 1919)

008

A 1910 Model T, photographed in Salt Lake City

Main article: History of Ford Motor Company

20th century

009

1920 Ford bus – DD 475

1921 Harmonicabus op basis van Ford T

1921 Harmonicabus op basis van Ford T © Conam

Henry Ford’s first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge (who would later found their own car company). During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue in DetroitMichigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept; and Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era.

010

1922 Ford

Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world’s largest and most profitable companies, as well as being one to survive the Great Depression. As one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world, the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 100 years.

011

1922 FORD T-OMNIBUS

After the first modern automobile was already created in the year 1886 by German inventor Carl Benz (Benz Patent-Motorwagen), more efficient production methods were needed to make the automobile affordable for the middle-class; which Ford contributed to, for instance by introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913.

In 1908 Ford introduced the first engine with a removable cylinder head, in the Model T. In 1930, Ford introduced the Model A, the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low priced V8 engine powered car in 1932.

012

1922 Henry Ford I ©HenryFord.ORG TheOldMotor

Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, and, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, and an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and in the same year offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. The Ford Mustang was introduced in 1964. In 1965 Ford introduced the seat belt reminder light.

With the 1980s, Ford introduced several highly successful vehicles around the world. During the 1980s, Ford began using the advertising slogan, “Have you driven a Ford, lately?” to introduce new customers to their brand and make their vehicles appear more modern. In 1990 and 1994 respectively, Ford also acquired Jaguar Cars and Aston Martin. During the mid- to late 1990s, Ford continued to sell large numbers of vehicles, in a booming American economy with a soaring stock market and low fuel prices.

 013

1922 Henry Fordson II ©HenryFord.ORG TheOldMotor

With the dawn of the new century, legacy healthcare costs, higher fuel prices, and a faltering economy led to falling market shares, declining sales, and diminished profit margins. Most of the corporate profits came from financing consumer automobile loans through Ford Motor Credit Company.

21st century

014

William Clay Ford, Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford, serves as the executive chairman at the board of Ford Motor Company.

By 2005, both Ford and GM‘s corporate bonds had been downgraded to junk status, as a result of high U.S. health care costs for an aging workforce, soaring gasoline prices, eroding market share, and an over dependence on declining SUV sales. Profit margins decreased on large vehicles due to increased “incentives” (in the form of rebates or low interest financing) to offset declining demand. In the latter half of 2005, Chairman Bill Ford asked newly appointed Ford Americas Division President Mark Fields to develop a plan to return the company to profitability. Fields previewed the Plan, named The Way Forward, at the December 7, 2005 board meeting of the company and it was unveiled to the public on January 23, 2006. “The Way Forward” included resizing the company to match market realities, dropping some unprofitable and inefficient models, consolidating production lines, closing 14 factories and cutting 30,000 jobs.

015

1923 Ford A R Spanje ©Lluis Cuesta

Ford moved to introduce a range of new vehicles, including “Crossover SUVs” built on unibody car platforms, rather than more body-on-frame chassis. In developing the hybrid electric powertrain technologies for the Ford Escape Hybrid SUV, Ford licensed similar Toyota hybrid technologies to avoid patent infringements. Ford announced that it will team up with electricity supply company Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid. Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility’s electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated “in typical customer settings”, according to Ford.

016

1923 Ford Amaac Uruquay

William Clay Ford Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford (and better known by his nickname “Bill”), was appointed Executive Chairman in 1998, and also became Chief Executive Officer of the company in 2001, with the departure of Jacques Nasser, becoming the first member of the Ford family to head the company since the retirement of his uncle, Henry Ford II, in 1982. Upon the retirement of President and Chief Operation Officer Jim Padilla in April 2006, Bill Ford assumed his roles as well. Five months later, in September, Ford named Alan Mulally as President and CEO, with Ford continuing as Executive Chairman. In December 2006, the company raised its borrowing capacity to about $25 billion, placing substantially all corporate assets as collateral. Chairman Bill Ford has stated that “bankruptcy is not an option”. Ford and theUnited Auto Workers, representing approximately 46,000 hourly workers in North America, agreed to a historic contract settlement in November 2007 giving the company a substantial break in terms of its ongoing retiree health care costs and other economic issues. The agreement included the establishment of a company-funded, independently run Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA) trust to shift the burden of retiree health care from the company’s books, thereby improving its balance sheet. This arrangement took effect on January 1, 2010. As a sign of its currently strong cash position, Ford contributed its entire current liability (estimated at approximately US$5.5 billion as of December 31, 2009) to the VEBA in cash, and also pre-paid US$500 million of its future liabilities to the fund. The agreement also gives hourly workers the job security they were seeking by having the company commit to substantial investments in most of its factories.

017

1923 Ford T 12-13 zitpl B-6185 NL

The automaker reported the largest annual loss in company history in 2006 of $12.7 billion, and estimated that it would not return to profitability until 2009. However, Ford surprised Wall Street in the second quarter of 2007 by posting a $750 million profit. Despite the gains, the company finished the year with a $2.7 billion loss, largely attributed to finance restructuring at Volvo.

018

1923 Ford T B-6185 Ameland NL

On June 2, 2008, Ford sold its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors for $2.3 billion.

During November 2008, Ford, together with Chrysler and General Motors, sought government bridge loans at Congressional hearings in Washington, D.C. in the face of conditions caused by the 2008 financial crisis. The three companies presented action plans for the sustainability of the industry. Ford opted not to seek government loans. GM and Chrysler received government loans and financing through T.A.R.P. legislation funding provisions. On December 19, the cost of credit default swaps to insure the debt of Ford was 68 percent the sum insured for five years in addition to annual payments of 5 percent. That meant $6.8 million paid upfront to insure $10 million in debt, in addition to payments of $500,000 per year. In January 2009, Ford reported a $14.6 billion loss in the preceding year, a record for the company. The company retained sufficient liquidity to fund its operations. Through April 2009, Ford’s strategy of debt for equity exchanges erased $9.9 billion in liabilities (28% of its total) in order to leverage its cash position. These actions yielded Ford a $2.7 billion profit in fiscal year 2009, the company’s first full-year profit in four years.

019

1923 Ford T Ford 20pk carr Verheul GTM1 NL

In 2012, Ford’s corporate bonds were upgraded from junk to investment grade again, citing sustainable, lasting improvements.

On October 29, 2012, Ford announced the sale of its climate control components business, its last remaining automotive components operation, to Detroit Thermal Systems LLC for an undisclosed price.

020

1923 Ford T NL

On November 1, 2012, Ford announced that CEO Alan Mulally will stay with the company until 2014. Ford also named Mark Fields, the president of operations in Americas, as its new chief operating officer

Corporate affairs

021

Ford World Headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, USA, known as the Glass House.

Executive management

Members of the Ford board as of 2012 are: Richard A. Gephardt, Stephen Butler, Ellen Marram, Kimberly CasianoAlan Mulally (President and CEO), Edsel Ford II, Homer Neal, William Clay Ford Jr. (Executive Chairman), Jorma Ollila, Irvine Hockaday Jr., John L. Thornton, and William Clay Ford, Sr. (Director Emeritus).

022

1923 FORDSON BUS

The main corporate officers are: Lewis Booth (Executive Vice President, Chairman (PAG) and Ford of Europe), Mark Fields (Executive Vice President, President of The Americas), Donat Leclair (Executive Vice President and CFO), Mark A. Schulz (Executive Vice President, President of International Operations), and Michael E. Bannister (Group Vice President; Chairman & CEO Ford Motor Credit). Paul Mascarenas (Vice President of Engineering, The Americas Product Development)

023

1923 Ford-T WSM

Financial results

In 2010, Ford earned a net profit of $6.6 billion and reduced its debt from $33.6 billion to $14.5 billion lowering interest payments by $1 billion following its 2009 net profit of $2.7 billion. In the U.S., the F-Series was the best-selling vehicle for 2010. Ford sold 528,349 F-Series trucks during the year, a 27.7% increase over 2009, out of a total sales of 1.9 million vehicles, or every one out of four vehicles Ford sold. Trucks sales accounts for a big slice of Ford’s profits, according to USA Today. Ford’s realignment also included the sale of its wholly owned subsidiary, Hertz Rent-a-Car to a private equity group for $15 billion in cash and debt acquisition. The sale was completed on December 22, 2005. A 50–50 joint venture with Mahindra & Mahindra of India, called Mahindra Ford India, Limited (MIFL), ended with Ford buying out Mahindra’s remaining stake in the company in 2005. Ford had previously upped its stake to 72% in 1998.

1924 tet ford-bussen

1924 tet ford-bussen

024

1925 Ford T Carr. v d Bos & Br NL

Operations

Ford has manufacturing operations worldwide, including in the United States, Canada, Mexico, China, the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Australia and South Africa. Ford also has a cooperative agreement with Russian automaker GAZ.

025

1925 Ford T carr. Hainje Heerenveen B-5225 NL

North America

026

Ford dealer in Garden City, New York, ca. 1930-1945

In the first five months of 2010, auto sales in the U.S. rose to 4.6 million cars and light trucks, an increase of 17% from a year earlier. The rise was mainly caused by the return of commercial customers that had all but stopped buying in 2009 during the recession. Sales to individual customers at dealerships have increased 13%, while fleet sales have jumped 32%. Ford reported that 37% of its sales in May came from fleet sales when it announced its sales for the month increased 23%. In the first seven months of 2010, vehicle sales of Ford increased 24%, including retail and fleet sales. Fleet sales of Ford for the same period rose 35% to 386,000 units while retail sales increase 19%. Fleet sales account for 39 percent of Chrysler’s sales and 31 percent for GM’s.

027

1927-ford-blue-bird-school-bus

Europe

028

1927-ford-blue-bird-school-bus

Main article: Ford of Europe

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Ford’s Dunton Technical Centre inLaindonUnited Kingdom, the largest automotive research and development facility in the country

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The Ford Research Center in AachenGermany

At first, Ford in Germany and Ford in Britain built different models from one another until the late 1960s, with the Ford Escort and then the Ford Capri being common to both companies. Later on, the Ford Taunus and Ford Cortina became identical, produced in left hand drive and right hand drive respectively. Rationalisation of model ranges meant that production of many models in the UK switched to elsewhere in Europe, including Belgium and Spain as well as Germany. The Ford Sierra replaced the Taunus and Cortina in 1982, drawing criticism for its radical aerodynamic styling, which was soon given nicknames such as “Jellymould” and “The Salesman’s Spaceship.”

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1928-Poelgeest-bussen ©Amstelveenweb.com

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1928 Ford V8 Hainje Heerenveen B-9274 NL

Increasingly, the Ford Motor Company has looked to Ford of Europe for its “world cars”, such as the Mondeo, Focus, and Fiesta, although sales of European-sourced Fords in the U.S. have been disappointing. The Focus has been one exception to this, which has become America’s best selling compact car since its launch in 2000

In February 2002, Ford ended car production in the UK. It was the first time in 90 years that Ford cars had not been made in Britain, although production of the Transit van continues at the company’s Southampton facility, engines at Bridgend and Dagenham, and transmissions at Halewood. Development of European Ford is broadly split between Dunton in Essex (powertrain, Fiesta/Ka, and commercial vehicles) and Cologne (body, chassis, electrical, Focus, Mondeo) in Germany. Ford also produced the Thames range of commercial vehicles, although the use of this brand name was discontinued circa 1965. Elsewhere in continental Europe, Ford assembles the Mondeo range in Genk (Belgium), Fiesta in Valencia (Spain) and Cologne (Germany), Ka in Valencia, and Focus in Valencia, Saarlouis (Germany) and Vsevolozhsk (Russia). Transit production is in Kocaeli (Turkey), Southampton (UK), and Transit Connect in Kocaeli.

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Ford also owns a joint-venture production plant in Turkey. Ford-Otosan, established in the 1970s, manufactures the Transit Connect compact panel van as well as the “Jumbo” and long-wheelbase versions of the full-size Transit. This new production facility was set up near Kocaeli in 2002, and its opening marked the end of Transit assembly in Genk.

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1929 Ford

Another joint venture plant near Setúbal in Portugal, set up in collaboration with Volkswagen, formerly assembled the Galaxy people-carrier as well as its sister ships, the VW Sharan and SEAT Alhambra. With the introduction of the third generation of the Galaxy, Ford has moved the production of the people-carrier to the Genk plant, with Volkswagen taking over sole ownership of the Setúbal facility.

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1931 Ford V8 Cupido uitvoering 5 B-27189 NL

In 2008, Ford acquired a majority stake in Automobile Craiova, Romania. Starting 2009, the Ford Transit Connect was Ford’s first model produced in Craiova, followed, in 2012, by low-capacity car engines and a new small class car, the B-Max.

Ford Europe has broken new ground with a number of relatively futuristic car launches over the last 50 years.

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1931 Ford AA Bus

Its 1959 Anglia two-door saloon was one of the most quirky-looking small family cars in Europe at the time of its launch, but buyers soon became accustomed to its looks and it was hugely popular with British buyers in particular. It was still selling well when replaced by the more practical Escort in 1967.

The third incarnation of the Ford Escort was launched in 1980 and marked the company’s move from rear-wheel drive saloons to front-wheel drive hatchbacks in the small family car sector.

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1931 Ford-Hainje Cupido 8 NL

The fourth generation Escort was produced from 1990 until 2000, although its successor – the Focus – had been on sale since 1998. On its launch, the Focus was arguably the most dramatic-looking and fine-handling small family cars on sale, and sold in huge volumes right up to the launch of the next generation Focus at the end of 2004.

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The 1982 Ford Sierra – replacement for the long-running and massively popular Cortina and Taunus models – was a style-setter at the time of its launch. Its ultramodern aerodynamic design was a world away from a boxy, sharp-edged Cortina, and it was massively popular just about everywhere it was sold. A series of updates kept it looking relatively fresh until it was replaced by the front-wheel drive Mondeo at the start of 1993.

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1932 Ford A Visser  B-13634a NL

The rise in popularity of small cars during the 1970s saw Ford enter the mini-car market in 1976 with its Fiesta hatchback. Most of its production was concentrated at Valencia in Spain, and the Fiesta sold in huge figures from the very start. An update in 1983 and the launch of an all-new model in 1989 strengthened its position in the small car market.

On October 24, 2012, Ford announced that it would be closing its Genk assembly plant in eastern Belgium by the end of 2014.

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1932 Ford A Visser  B-13634b NL

Asia Pacific

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1932 Ford A Visser B-13634 NL

Ford formed its first passenger-vehicle joint venture in China in 2001, six years behind GM and more than a decade after VW. It has spent as of 2013 $4.9 billion to expand its lineup and double production capacity in China to 600,000 vehicles This includes Ford’s largest-ever factory complex in the southwestern city of Chongqing. Ford had 2.5 percent of the Chinese market in 2013, while VW controlled 14.5 percent and GM had 15.6 percent, according to consultant LMC Automotive. GM outsells Ford in China by more than six-to-one.