SCAMMELL

Trucks and Lorries 1896-1988

Scammell Logo 1

Scammell Ltd
Fate Discontinued
Successor DAF TrucksAlvis Unipower
Founded 1896
Defunct 1988
Headquarters Watford, England
Products Trucks
Parent Leyland Motors Ltd

Scam­mell Lor­ries Limited was a British man­u­fac­turer of trucks, par­tic­u­larly spe­cial­ist and mil­i­tary off-high­way ve­hi­cles, from 1921 to 1988.

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Scammell Pioneer off the road

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Scam­mell started as a late-Vic­to­rian pe­riod wheel­wright and coach-build­ing busi­ness, G Scam­mell & Nephew Ltd in Spi­tal­fields, Lon­don. George Scam­mell, the founder, was joined by his nephew Richard and Richard’s sons Al­fred and James. By the early 1900s, the firm had be­come fi­nan­cially sta­ble, pro­vid­ing main­te­nance to cus­tomers of Foden steam wag­ons. One such cus­tomer, Ed­ward Rudd, had im­ported a Knox Au­to­mo­bile trac­tor from the United States, and im­pressed with its low weight/high haul­ing power had asked Scam­mell if they could make a sim­i­lar model of their own.

How­ever, the out­break of war in 1914 stopped the pro­ject and pre­sented it­self as a turn­ing point in road trans­port his­tory. Me­chan­i­cal trans­port was seen to work, prov­ing its vast po­ten­tial be­yond doubt to for­ward-think­ing com­pa­nies such as Scam­mell. George Scam­mell’s great nephew, Lt Col Al­fred Scam­mell, was in­jured and in­valided out of the army, and he was able to apply the prac­ti­cal ex­pe­ri­ence he had gained dur­ing the war and began de­vel­op­ing the ar­tic­u­lated six wheeler. Percy G Hugh, chief de­signer, con­ceived the idea and at the 1920 Com­mer­cial Motor Show 50 or­ders were taken for the new de­sign. The ve­hi­cle’s very low axle weight al­lowed it to carry 7.5 tonnes (7.4 long tons; 8.3 short tons) pay­load legally at 12 miles per hour (19 km/h), rather than being lim­ited to 5 mph.

Scammell Lorries

Scammell Mechanical
Scammell Scarab and trailer – Steam MuseumSwindon

Scam­mell started pro­duc­tion of the 7.5-ton ar­tic­u­lated ve­hi­cle in 1920. Need­ing to move to new premises, Scam­mell & Nephew floated a new com­pany, Scam­mell Lor­ries Ltd in July 1922, with Col Scam­mell as Man­ag­ing Di­rec­tor. The new firm built a new fac­tory at Tol­pits Lane, Wat­ford, next to Wat­ford West rail­way sta­tion on the branch line from Wat­ford Junc­tion to Crox­ley Green. The orig­i­nal com­pany re­mained in busi­ness in Fash­ion Street, Spi­tal­fields re­fur­bish­ing and body­build­ing until taken over in 1965 by York Trailer Co.

In 1929, Scam­mell de­signed and man­u­fac­tured the “100 Ton­ner” low loader. Only two were pro­duced; the first was de­liv­ered to Marston Road Ser­vices, Liv­er­pool, for the trans­porta­tion of steam en­gines to Liv­er­pool docks. Scam­mell were also look­ing for new mar­kets, and di­ver­si­fied into four- and six-wheel rigid (nonar­tic­u­lated) de­signs. The ‘Rigid Six-wheeler’ found some suc­cess and, with its bal­loon tyres, at last per­mit­ted sus­tained high-speed, long-dis­tance road op­er­a­tion.

In 1934, Scam­mell pro­duced the three-wheeled Me­chan­i­cal Horse, de­signed by Oliver North to re­place horses in rail, postal and other de­liv­ery ap­pli­ca­tions. This fea­tured au­to­matic car­riage cou­pling and the sin­gle front wheel could be steered through 360 de­grees. It was sold in three- and six-ton ver­sions. The three-ton­ner was pow­ered by a 1,125-cc side-valve petrol en­gine and the six-ton­ner by a 2,043-cc en­gine. Kar­rier had in­tro­duced a sim­i­lar ve­hi­cle, the Cob, four years ear­lier.

From 1937, a Citroën Trac­tion Avant-pow­ered ver­sion was made under li­cence in France, by Chenard-Wal­cker-FAR, known as the Pony Mécanique. This con­tin­ued in pro­duc­tion, in var­i­ous ver­sions, until 1970.

In the late 1940s, the Me­chan­i­cal Horse was su­per­seded by the Scam­mell Scarab, with sim­i­lar fea­tures, but a much less an­gu­lar cab and now with a 2,090-cc, side-valve petrol en­gine in both mod­els and a diesel ver­sion with a Perkins en­gine.

The com­pany mainly con­cen­trated on ar­tic­u­lated and rigid eight-wheeler lor­ries, from the 1920s. One ve­hi­cle not in those lines that be­came well-known was the 6×4 Pi­o­neer. This was an off-high­way, heavy haulage trac­tor, first pro­duced in 1927. It showed out­stand­ing cross-coun­try per­for­mance due to the de­sign that in­cluded the patent beam bogie rear axle, with 2 feet (1 m) of ver­ti­cal move­ment for each of the rear wheels. This de­sign was the work of Oliver Dan­son North. The Pi­o­neer proved pop­u­lar in the oil field and forestry (log­ging) mar­kets, and formed the basis of the British Army‘s Sec­ond World War R100 30-ton tank trans­porter. With the out­break of war, de­vel­op­ment of new ve­hi­cles stopped and pro­duc­tion con­cen­trated on mil­i­tary Pi­o­neers for use as ar­tillery trac­tors, re­cov­ery and trans­porter ve­hi­cles.

Leyland Group subsidiary

Scammell Townsman at the Shildon Lorry Museum
Scammell Townsman at the Shildon Lorry Museum
Scammell Truck
Scammell Routeman 8×4 tipper with Michelotti-designed GRP cab
1990 Scammell Commander 6×4 tractor unloads in the Gulf during Operation Desert Shield
Scammell Commander 6×4 tractor unloads in the Gulf during Operation Desert Shield

Post war, for­eign com­pe­ti­tion and ra­tio­nal­i­sa­tion of the UK man­u­fac­tur­ers led to Scam­mell com­ing under Ley­land Mo­tors Ltd in 1955. This pro­vided ac­cess to ready-made com­po­nents within the Ley­land group, al­low­ing the re­place­ment of the “light­weight” range with the:

Scammell Highwayman. Rapidor. This model was very popular in the British heavy haulage industry. RapidorScammell Highwayman. Rapidor. This model was very popular in the British heavy haulage industry. Rapidor © Len rogers Collection

  • Highwayman: bonneted 4×2

1978 Scammell Routeman TKU 744S of TMC Plant,Tiptree. 1978 at Maldon1978 Scammell Routeman TKU 744S of TMC Plant,Tiptree. 1978 at Maldon

Routeman: forward control 8-wheeler

scammell handymanScammell Handyman © Len Rogers Collection

  • Handyman: forward control 4×2

Both the trac­tor units could be con­fig­ured up to 50 tons (50.8 Tonnes or 55 short tons), and com­ple­mented by the full range of Scam­mell trail­ers made at the Moor Park works, al­lowed the com­pany to con­tinue pro­duc­tion in spe­cial­ist and mil­i­tary mar­kets.

In the 1960s, Scam­mell con­tracted Gio­vanni Mich­e­lotti to de­sign its cabs, re­sult­ing in a se­ries of glass-re­in­forced plas­tic “spring”-like de­signs. The first to be re­designed was the Route­man, fol­lowed by the Handy­man. In 1967, the ‘Scarab’ was re­placed by the ‘Towns­man’, which also had a GRP body. The fac­tory also de­signed the 6×4 Con­trac­tor equipped with a Cum­mins 335 en­gine, Lipe clutch and Fuller semi-au­to­matic gear­box, that went into pro­duc­tion in 1964. Of­fered with a choice of Ley­land 24 tonne or Scam­mell 30 and 40 tonne bo­gies, the Con­trac­tor was pop­u­lar in the UK for 240+ ton GTW op­er­a­tion, over­seas heavy haul, and with the mil­i­tary for tank transport.

Scam­mell launched the three-axle 6×4 Cru­sader at Lon­don’s 1968 Earls Court Com­mer­cial Ve­hi­cle Show. The truck was de­signed for high-speed long dis­tance trans­port, typ­i­cally to cover 250,000 miles a year. The truck in­cluded a ‘re­pair by re­place­ment’ phi­los­o­phy to cut down­time and the con­se­quences of un­sched­uled main­te­nance. The drive line in­cluded a 9.3-litre GM De­troit Diesel 8V71N two-stroke diesel en­gine, rated at 273 bhp. This drove through a Fuller Road­Ranger 16-speed con­stant-mesh gear box, to an Al­bion dou­ble-drive and two-spring bogie, using dou­ble re­duc­tion and cross lock­able drive axles. The final re­duc­tion took place in the hubs to give bet­ter ground clear­ance under the dif­fer­en­tial hous­ings. Scam­mell used the same rear bogie on its highly suc­cess­ful 24-ton Dou­ble Drive Route­man 8×4 tip­per chas­sis, launched at the same ex­hi­bi­tion. As most con­tem­po­rary 32-ton and max­i­mum ca­pac­ity trucks in the UK had en­gine power rat­ings of be­tween 150 and 220 bhp, the Cru­sader’s 273 bhp at­tracted im­me­di­ate at­ten­tion, much of it un­favourable from deeply con­ser­v­a­tive op­er­a­tors.

With ac­tive en­cour­age­ment from Wal­ter Bat­stone, then trans­port en­gi­neer­ing boss at British Road Ser­vices, Scam­mell quickly de­vel­oped a two-axle model, pow­ered ini­tially by a Rolls-Royce Eagle six-cylin­der diesel en­gine, rated at 220 or 280 bhp, de­pend­ing on cus­tomers’ pref­er­ences. This new model ap­peared at the No­vem­ber 1969 Scot­tish Motor Show in Glas­gow’s Kelvin Hall.

Scam­mell went on to de­velop a heavy haulage model, the Sam­son, ba­si­cally a four-axle 8×4 Cru­sader. It sold in lim­ited num­bers in a spe­cialised mar­ket sector.

The 1970s started with a re­or­gan­i­sa­tion of the Ley­land Group, with heavy haul after the clo­sure of the old Thorny­croft works in 1972 con­cen­trated on the newly named Scam­mell Mo­tors site at Wat­ford. The Thorny­croft 6×4 Nu­bian heavy dumptruck was the first trans­fer in­wards, reg­u­larly adapted for the mil­i­tary, fol­lowed by the lighter LD55 6×4 dumptruck.

In the late 1970s, the Con­trac­tor Mk2 was de­vel­oped, to­gether with the Scam­mell Com­man­der tank trans­porter for the British Army. Fit­ted with the Rolls-Royce CV12TCE 26-litre, 48-valve dual-tur­bocharged 625 hp in­ter­cooled V12 diesel en­gine, semi-au­to­matic gear­box and Scam­mell 40-ton bogie, it was plated at 100 ton+ GTW. Be­cause it was in­tended as part of the strat­egy to de­fend West Ger­many’s east­ern Iron Cur­tain bor­der against tank at­tack, it was de­signed to achieve the same ac­cel­er­a­tion and brak­ing per­for­mances as a con­tem­po­rary com­mer­cial 32 tractor. Both trac­tors were brought into pro­duc­tion within the newly built “mov­ing line” con­struc­tion shop, which gave Scam­mell a mod­ern state-of-the-art fac­tory. The Com­man­der fleet came into op­er­a­tion in 1983.

In the late 1970s, Ley­land Group de­cided to de­velop two new trac­tors: the over­seas bon­neted Land­train; the UK for­ward con­trol Road­train. Scam­mell was con­tracted to de­velop the Land­train, which used the same cab and bon­net as the Com­man­der re­place­ment, the S24. Equipped with Cum­mins NT 350 or 400 en­gine, the S24 could be spec­i­fied from 40 tonnes GVW to more than 200 tonnes GTW. Scam­mell also gained the con­tract to de­velop and build the eight-wheeled ver­sion of the Road­train, the Con­struc­tor8. This also al­lowed Scam­mell to de­velop and pro­duce the com­ple­men­tary S26 range of heavy-haul 4×2, 6×2 and 6×4 trac­tors, which was a parts-bin build from the Road­train and 24 components.

Closure

1990's Houses developed on the former Tolpits Lane works
Houses developed on the former Tolpits Lane works
Watford, Camelot Head Office, Tolpits Lane - geograph.org.uk - 732568
Offices of Camelot Group, the company that delivers the UK National Lottery, developed on the business park which now occupies part of the former Tolpits Lane works

In 1986, Scam­mell ten­dered for the British Army hook­lift DROPS ten­der, using the newly de­vel­oped 8×6 vari­ant of the S24. This was equipped with a Rolls-Royce 350 en­gine, ZFau­to­matic gear­box and Kirk­stall axles. How­ever, shortly after win­ning the con­tract to sup­ply 1522 such ve­hi­cles, Ley­land group was bought by DAF of the Nether­lands. DAF elected to build the S26 DROPS at the Ley­land plant in Lan­cashire, and to close the Wat­ford factory.

DAF closed the plant in July 1988. It sold the site for re­de­vel­op­ment, and fur­ther sold the rights to man­u­fac­ture (but not the rights to the name nor the premises) of the S24, Nu­bian, Cru­sader, and Com­man­der to Alvis Unipower. They opened a new plant in West Wat­ford, of­fer­ing on­go­ing sup­port and spare parts for Scam­mell vehicles.

Today the Tol­pits Lane site has been re­de­vel­oped into a hous­ing es­tate, the Vale In­dus­trial Es­tate, and a busi­ness park. Ten­ants in­clude Camelot Group, the com­pany that de­liv­ers the UK Na­tional Lot­tery.

In popular culture

  • In the children’s TV series Thomas & Friends, the road vehicle characters Butch, Max and Monty, Madge and Nelson are all based on Scammell vehicles.
  • An S24 Tank Transporter is Jill’s vehicle in the Terry Gilliam film Brazil.

Vehicle list

Scammell Explorer YAS852
Scammell Explorer fitted as a heavy recovery vehicle
1954 Scammell Constructor
A Scammell Constructor
There is no one to find. I need help??!!
  • 80 Tonner

1929 Scammell 100 tonner. First built in 1929, Pickfords operated them into the 1950's

1929 Scammell 100 tonner. First built in 1929, Pickfords operated them into the 1950’s

  • 100 tonner

Scammell commanderScammel Commander Tank Transporter © Len Rogers Collection

  • Commander

Scammell Super ConstructorScammell Super Constructor

  • Constructor

scammell contractor 10 sunter bros ltdscammell contractor 10 sunter bros ltd

  • Contractor

Scammell Crusader Wrecker (71B - 70F ( Ex Jibup ))Scammell Crusader Wrecker (71B – 70F ( Ex Jibup ))

  • Crusader – +See below

Scammell Explorer 10Ton Recovery Tractor (SJS 920 M)Scammell Explorer 10Ton Recovery Tractor (SJS 920 M)

  • Explorer

2010 Scamell Handyman III - HRL 538E at Tinkers Park2010 Scamell Handyman III – HRL 538E at Tinkers Park

  • Handyman – +See below

Scammell Highwayman BAWScammell Highwayman BAW

  • Highwayman

SCAMMELL Himalayan 6x4 Original Commercials Sales SheetSCAMMELL Himalayan 6×4 Original Commercials Sales Sheet

  • Himalayan

Ford 7V tipper, Dodge 82 Kew built tipper and Scammell mechanical horse with salvage trailer for waste paperFord 7V tipper, Dodge 82 Kew built tipper and Scammell mechanical horse with salvage trailer for waste paper

Scammell Mechanical Horse Southern Railway

Scammell Mechanical Horse Southern Railway © Colin Pickett

1960 Cheval Mécanique Scammell Scarab1960 Cheval Mécanique Scammell Scarab

Scammell Townsman and ambulance

Scammell Townsman and Ford ambulance

  •  Townsman

Scammell MountaineerScammell Mountaineer

  • Mountaineer

1942 Scammell Pioneer tank transporter sets out to collect damaged vehicles1942 Scammell Pioneer tank transporter sets out to collect damaged vehicles

  • Pioneer, Pioneer Semi-trailer (tank transporter)

scammell rigid-8

Scammell Rigid Eight

  • Rigid Eight

1930 Scammel Rigid six-wheeler ad1930 Scammel Rigid six-wheeler ad

  • Rigid Six

1978 Scammell Routeman TKU 744S of TMC Plant,Tiptree. 1978 at Maldon1978 Scammell Routeman TKU 744S of TMC Plant,Tiptree. 1978 at Maldon

  • Routeman

Scammell S24 mixer truckScammell S24 mixer truck

  • S24

scammell s26-

scammell S26 © Len Rogers Collection

Scammell Samson

Scammell Samson

  • Samson

scammell showtrac pioneer-early-tank-transporter

scammell showtrac pioneer-early-tank-transporter

Scammell Showtrac JFJ 367 The Showman of AndertonScammell Showtrac JFJ 367 The Showman of Anderton

  • Showtrac – Showman’s tractor fitted with generator for fairground ride haulage and power supply

Scammell Trunker Mk I 6x4 prototypesScammell Trunker Mk I 6×4 prototypes

  • Trunker – +See below

Products

Rigid 6/8

1939 Scammell Rigid 6, ex Post Office
1939 Scammell Rigid 6

The Rigid 6 and Rigid 8, for the num­ber of wheels, were pro­duced from 1937 to 1958.

Showtrac

The Show­trac was a short-wheel­base 4×2 bal­last trac­tor, one of the few ve­hi­cles ever de­signed specif­i­cally for fair­ground use. It could be sup­plied with a rear body (with half-height roller shut­ter ac­cess doors), winch, and dy­namo with the bal­last block underneath. Eigh­teen were built, to vary­ing spec­i­fi­ca­tions (not all had the body fit­ted, for ex­am­ple), be­tween De­cem­ber 1945 and Sep­tem­ber 1948. Sev­en­teen have been pre­served. There are many look-alike Scam­mell trac­tors, but gen­uine Show­tracs had a spe­cial “Show­trac” badge on the ra­di­a­tor, and a full-width cab.

Handyman

Scammell Contractor hauling a Conqueror ARV2 FV222 Tank Recovery Vehicle
Conqueror ARV2 FV222 Tank Owned by REME Museum. Owned by REME Museum. An armoured recovery vehicle (ARV) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to repair battle- or mine-damaged as well as broken-down armoured vehicles during combat, or to tow them out of the danger zone for more extensive repairs.ARVs are normally built on the chassis of a main battle tank (MBT): in this case the FV214 Conqueror, also known as “Tank, Heavy Gun No 1 120 mm Conqueror”. It was a British Main Battle Tank of the post-war era, sometimes classified as a heavy tank. 27 litre petrol engine Rolls Royce Meteor M120 engine 66 tonnes with a speed of 34 km/hr

Scammell Contractor hauling a Conqueror ARV2 FV222 Tank Recovery Vehicle (REME owned)

The Handy­man ini­tially used a glass-fi­bre cab de­signed by Scam­mell – for the Mark 2 and 3 ver­sions a new Michel­lotti-de­signed “cheeseg­rater” fi­bre­glass cab as used on the 2nd and 3rd ver­sions of the Route­man Rigid was fit­ted.

Early ver­sions were equipped with Scam­mell’s own “gate-change” gear­box but sub­se­quent ver­sions were fit­ted with AEC and David Brown gear­boxes.

En­gines fit­ted in­cluded the Ley­land 680, Gard­ner 150 and Rolls-Royce 220.

1978 Scammell Contractor hauling an LSWR S15 class steam locomotive from Barry Scrapyard (South Wales) for preservation at the Bluebell Railway (East Sussex)
Scammell Contractor hauling an LSWR S15 class steam locomotive from Barry Scrapyard (South Wales) for preservation at the Bluebell Railway (East Sussex) in October 1978

Trunker

Scammell Trunker II by Terry WhaScammell Trunker TRACTOR UNIT FERRYMASTERS FLEETWOOD

The Trunker was a three-axle ver­sion of the Handy­man.

Contractor

1956 Scammell 4x2 contractor unit Reg No GLD 671 & Coleman Aircraft Tug1956 Scammell 4×2 contractor unit Reg No GLD 671 & Coleman Aircraft Tug

The Con­trac­tor was a 6×4 trac­tor used by var­i­ous op­er­a­tors in­clud­ing the Aus­tralian Army as a tank trans­porter or as heavy haulage, usu­ally en­gi­neer­ing plant for the Royal Aus­tralian En­gi­neers. The Aus­tralian mil­i­tary units were con­fig­ured with 335HP Cum­mins diesel en­gines and pneu­mo­cyclic gear­boxes. While one of the tri­als ve­hi­cles which served in the Viet­nam War was branded with the Scam­mell name, most of the re­main­ing units were branded Ley­land. Two trailer spec­i­fi­ca­tions were used, a 24-wheel float with 16 wheel dolly trailer for trans­port­ing the Aus­tralian Cen­tu­rion tank or US Pat­ton tank in Vietnam. The other trailer was a 40 Ton 12 wheel Steco fold­ing goose neck trailer for the en­gi­neer­ing plant.

Crusader

Scammel Crusader Roberts Brothers CircusScammel Crusader Roberts Brothers Circus

The Cru­sader was a 4×2 or 6×4 trac­tor that used a Motor Pan­els-sup­plied steel cab, avail­able in sleeper- or day-cab forms. It had the op­tion of De­troit DieselCum­minsRolls-Royce or Ley­land en­gines.

The Cru­sader was used by the British Army as a 6×4 tow-truck (with EKA un­der­lift equip­ment) and as a 6×4 trac­tor unit nor­mally used for tow­ing 35–tonne plant trail­ers or 30–tonne tank bridge trans­port trail­ers. A re­cov­ery vari­ant was also in use. The British Army re­placed the Cru­sader in the late 1990s by a Sed­don Atkin­son trac­tor unit with a 40–tonne plant trailer and a spe­cial­ist tank bridge trans­porter. Many have seen use in the heavy haulage in­dus­try due to their in­cred­i­bly strong chas­sis.

The mil­i­tary spec­i­fi­ca­tion ve­hi­cles were usu­ally equipped with 15-speed Fuller gear­boxes and an 8–tonne cap­stan winch.

Commander tank transporter

Scammell Commander Tank Transporter

Scammell Commander Tank Transporter

The Com­man­der was in­tro­duced as a tank trans­porter in 1978. De­signed in the late 1970s, they re­placed the Thorny­croft An­tars in the British Army be­gin­ning with the de­liv­ery of the first one on 30 March 1984 fol­lowed by oth­ers to­tal­ing 125 units. The 6×4 units could carry a load of 65 tonnes and were used to trans­port Chal­lenger II tanks. Used dur­ing the Gulf War, they were re­tired in 2002 and re­placed by the Oshkosh M1070F HET.

The Com­man­der is pow­ered by the 26.7L Rolls-Royce/Perkins CV12 TCE twin tur­bocharged diesel en­gine that pro­duces ap­prox­i­mately 625 hp (466 kW) and is cou­pled to an Al­li­son au­to­matic transmission. The Scam­mell Com­man­der CV12 en­gine is very sim­i­lar to the ones used in the Chal­lenger 1 and 2 main bat­tle tanks but with an in­creased power out­put of around 1,200 bhp 895 kW. De­signed to tow loads up to 65 tonnes, the Com­man­der tows a spe­cial semi-trailer onto which tanks can be tail-loaded using a hy­draulic 20–tonne ca­pac­ity winch. A promi­nent bon­net houses the ve­hi­cle’s Perkins (Rolls-Royce) CV 12 TCE V12 and al­though the Com­man­der is pow­ered by the Perkins/Rolls-Royce en­gine, other types were also pro­posed – one of the pro­to­types used a Cum­mins KTA 600 diesel. The cab has pro­vi­sion for up to three or four pas­sen­gers and there is space for two bunks be­hind the front seats. Due to the front axle lock angle, the Com­man­der is highly ma­neu­ver­able and can ne­go­ti­ate a ‘T’ in­ter­sec­tion with only 9.15 me­ters be­tween the walls.

In 1988 the Scam­mell com­pany went bank­rupt, and the rights to the Com­man­der were bought by Unipower Ltd, who opened a new plant in West Wat­ford.

In 1990 dur­ing the op­er­a­tion Desert Storm 70 Scam­mell Com­man­der heavy tank trans­porters were used to trans­port 40 types of var­i­ous mil­i­tary cargo. Each of the ve­hi­cles was on the road 17 hours a day dur­ing a 4-month pe­riod and on av­er­age each ve­hi­cle trav­eled 270 km a day on the desert roads. Most of the 125 British Army Com­man­ders were based in Bel­gium and Ger­many, with only a few in the United King­dom.

See also

1953 Scammell 20LA ballast tractor, Yeovil
1953 Scammell 20LA ballast tractor, Yeovil

1944 Scammell Pioneer recovery vehicle – in RAF livery. (Preserved, 2002)1944 Scammell Pioneer recovery vehicle – in RAF livery

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Armstrong, Aldridge, Boyes, Mustoe & Storey. Companion to British Road Haulage History. NMSI Trading Science Museum. ISBN 1-900747-46-4.
  2. ^ History of Scammell Trucks Classic Motor History Archived 21 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. a b c d e f g h i “History”. ScammellRegister.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
  4. ^ Source: Robin Dickeson, assistant to the publicity manager at Scammell Lorries Limited from 1 July 1968 till late December 1974. He wrote the launch press releases and brochures for the Scammell Crusader and Double Drive Routeman models.
  5. a b “Anderton & Rowlands Scammell Showtracs”. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  6. ^ http://remlr.com/vietnoelp.html
  7. ^ Baldwin, Nick (1981), The Observer’s Book of Commercial Vehicles (#40), London: Frederick Warne, ISBN 0-7232-1619-3
  8. a b “Scammell Commander: Tank transporter”http://www.Military-Today.com. ARG.

External links

 Scammell vehicles.

Albion Motors

Albion Motors

Albion Motors
Limited
Industry Automotive industry
Fate acquired by Leyland Motors
Predecessor Albion Motor Car Company
Successor Leyland Motors (1951)
Leyland DAF (1987-1993)
American Axle & Manufacturing (1997)
Founded 1899
Founder Thomas Blackwood Murray, Norman Osborne Fulton,

John Francis Henderson.

Defunct marque defunct 1980
Headquarters Glasgow, Scotland
Number of locations
Scotstoun, Bathgate
Products Commercial vehiclecomponents
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albionmotors-1Albion Motors radiator badge

1901-albion-a2-bs-83001901 Albion A2 BS 83001902-albionAlbion 1902

1904-albion-16hp-wagonetteAlbion 16HP Wagonette 19041911-workers-at-albion-motors-in-1911Workers at Albion Motors in 1911albion-970

ALBION 970 Front of an earlier model

1949-albion-venturerAlbion Venturer 1949

heavy-duty-albion-cx24-recovery-truckHeavy-duty Albion CX24 recovery truck

1963-albion-reiver-1963Albion Reiver 1963

albion-lorriesAlbion Commercial Vehicles at Biggar Vintage Rally, August 20081919-albion-08-jacatra

1922-albion-harvey-model-20-15-seater-bus-12-passengers-in-the-rear-2-passengers-in-front-plus-driver-c20-es-5150

1922 Albion Harvey Model 20 15-seater bus (12 passengers in the rear, 2 passengers in front, plus driver) C20 ES 51501924-albion-sb1924 Albion SB1927-albion-flatbed1927 Albion Flatbed1928-albion

1929-albion-3-21929 Albion Shell-mex1934-albion-kl1271934 Albion KL1271935-40-albion-model-126-1 1935-40-albion-model-126-159451935-40 Albion model 126 159451935-40-albion-model-126-15947 1935-40-albion-model-126-15948Albion model 1261936-albion-az1-bus-567-rogerson-mobile-home1936 Albion AZ1 BUS 567 Rogerson Mobile Home1937-albion-ks127-tippers-bell-brothers-newburgh-a1937 Albion KS127 tippers Bell Brothers, Newburgh1937-albion-ks127-tippers-bell-brothers-newburgh1937 Albion KS127 tippers Bell Brothers, Newburgh1938-albion-wd-ev1 1938-albion-2 1938-albion-by1-6x6 1938-albion-cx27-16607

1938 Albion cx27 166071938-albion-cx27 1938-albion-ft3-flat-bed1938 Albion FT3 Flat Bed1938-albion-gg 1939-albion-cx27-172681939 Albion cx27 17268 1939-cx27-16608

1943-albion-%d1%81%d1%85-22s-6x6 1944-albion-wd-cx22s-hat-engine-9085cc-6-cylinder 1945-albion-ft-15n-6x6 1946-albion-az5-n-yvs 1947-albion-az5n-after-refurb-sx-6215-mobile-shop-baf1947 Albion AZ5N After Refurb SX 6215 Mobile shop BAF 1947-albion-az5n-sx-6215

1948-52-albion-clydesdale-ft102s-caltex 1948-52-albion-clydesdale-ft102s-kerkrade-nl 1948-52-albion-clydesdale-ft102s1948-52 Albion Clydesdale FT102S

Albion Automotive of Scotstoun, Glasgow is a former Scottish automobile and commercial vehicle manufacturer. It is currently involved in the manufacture and supply of Automotive component systems.

From WW1 to the 1950s, Albion had rivalled Foden for the reliability and ruggedness of their trucks. Albion was incorporated into Leyland Motors in 1951, and merely became a badge for their smaller lines. The badge was dropped by British Leyland in 1980.

Today the company is a subsidiary of American Axle & Manufacturing, and manufactures axles, driveline systems, chassis systems, crankshafts and chassis components. It is Scotland’s best known name in the motor industry. Albions were renowned for their slogan “Sure as the Sunrise”.

History

Originally known as Albion Motor Car Company Ltd, the company was founded in 1899 by Thomas Blackwood Murray and Norman Osborne Fulton (both of whom had previously been involved in Arrol-Johnston) they were joined a couple of years later by John F Henderson who provided additional capital. The factory was originally on the first floor of a building in Finnieston Street, Glasgow and had only seven employees. In 1903 the company moved to new premises in Scotstoun.

The Albion Motor Car Company Ltd was renamed Albion Motors in 1930.

In 1951, Leyland Motors took over. After the British Leyland Motor Corporation was founded in 1968, production continued with the Albion Chieftain, Clydesdale & Reiver trucks and the Albion Viking bus models. Production of these was then moved to the Leyland plant at Bathgate in 1980. In 1969, the company took over the neighbouring Coventry Ordnance Works on South Street, which it continues to operate from.

Leyland dropped the Albion name when the company name was changed to Leyland (Glasgow) and later to Leyland-DAF from 1987 when it became a subsidiary of that Dutch concern.

A management buy-out in 1993 brought Albion Automotive as it was thenceforth known back into Scottish ownership. A new owner, the American Axle & Manufacturing Company (AAM) of Detroit, Michigan, took over Albion in 1998.

Passenger car manufacturing

In 1900 they built their first motor car, a rustic-looking dogcart made of varnished wood and powered by a flat-twin 8hp engine with gear-change by “Patent Combination Clutches” and solid tyres.

In 1903 Albion introduced a 3115 cc 16 hp vertical-twin, followed in 1906 by a 24 hp four. One of the specialities the company offered was solid-tired shooting-brakes. The last private Albions were powered by a 15 hp monobloc four of 2492 cc.

Passenger car production ceased in 1915 but in 1920 the company announced that estate cars were available again based on a small bus chassis, it is not known if any were actually made.

Car models

  • Albion 8 (1900–1904) 2080 cc twin-cylinder
  • Albion 12 (1900–1906) 2659 cc twin-cylinder
  • Albion 16 (1905–1913) 3141 cc twin-cylinder
  • Albion 24/30 (1906–1912) 3164 cc 4-cylinder
  • Albion 15 (1912–1915) 2492 cc 4-cylinder

Commercial vehicle production

Although the manufacture of motor cars was the main industry in the first ten years of its existence, it was decided in 1909 to concentrate on the production of commercial vehicles. During World War 1 they built for the War Office large quantities of 3 ton trucks powered by a 32 hp engine using chain drive to the rear wheels. After the war many of these were converted for use as charabancs.

Trucks and buses (single and double deckers) were manufactured in the Scotstoun works until 1980 (1972 for complete vehicles). The buses were exported to Asia, East Africa, Australia, India and South Africa. Almost all Albion buses were given names beginning with “V”, these models being the Victor, Valiant, Viking, Valkyrie, and Venturer.

1949-albion-1-3 1949-albion-clydesdale-ft102s 1949-albion-ft103n-clansman-6x4-tanker-htw-876-t 1950-albion-clansman-ft103n 1950-albion-clansman 1950-albion-ft103n-clansman-6x4-machinery-55-bd-02 1951-albion-ft37l-chieftan-flatbed-engine-4000cc-registration-ohu-948 1951-albion-ft103n-clansman-6x4-machinery-ds-6538-2 1951-albion 1952-albion-ft103 1953-albion-kd23 1953-albion-peters-ice-cream 1953-albion-wd-hd-23s 1954-albion-chieftain-ft37ht 1954-albion-chieftain 1954-albion-wd-hd-23n-fv-11102-6x6 1957-61-albion-caledonian-24c-3-1 1957-61-albion-caledonian-24c-4 1957-61-albion-caledonian-24c-16868 1957-61-albion-caledonian-24c-shell 1957-61-albion-caledonian-24c-3-16867 1957-61-albion-caledonian-24c-3t 1957-61-albion-caledonian-24c5-17013 1960-61-albion-caledonian-24c-5-1 1960-61-albion-caledonian-24c-5-17014 1960-61-albion-caledonian-24c5-17015 1960-61-albion-caledonian-24c5-17016 1961-albion-claymore 1963-albion-reiver-1963 1965-albion-lowlander-lr7-new-to-western-smt-preserved-in-the-colours-of-second-owner-highland-omnibuses-ltd 1966-albion-chieftain-grh 1966-albion-reiver-re25a 1966-albion-super-reiver-6-wheeler-flatbed-registered-fea-926-d 1967-albion-reiver 1968-albion-wpx135f