A.C.F. American+ C.C.F Canadian Car and Foundry Company — ACF BRILL

American Car and Foundry Company

1907 American Car and Foundry Company A 1907 postcard depicting the ACF plant at St. Charles, Missouri
1911 Reefers-shorty-Anheuser-Busch-Malt-Nutrine_ACF_builders_photo_pre-1911A refrigerator car built by ACF in 1911.

American Car and Foundry (often abbreviated as ACF) is a manufacturer of railroad rolling stock. One of its subsidiaries was once (1925–54) a manufacturer of motor coaches and trolley coaches under the brand names of (first) ACF and (later) ACF-Brill. Today ACF is known as ACF Industries LLC and is based in St. Charles, Missouri. It is owned by investor Carl Icahn.

History

American Car and Foundry was formed and incorporated in New Jersey in 1899 as the result of the merger of 13 smaller railroad car manufacturers. The company was made up of:

Company Founded Location
Buffalo Car Manufacturing Company 1872 Buffalo, New York
Ensign Manufacturing Company 1872 Huntington, West Virginia
Jackson and Woodin Manufacturing Company 1861 Berwick, Pennsylvania
Michigan-Peninsular Car Company 1892 Detroit, Michigan
Minerva Car Works 1882 Minerva, Ohio
Missouri Car and Foundry Company 1865 St. Louis, Missouri
Murray, Dougal and Company 1864 Milton, Pennsylvania
Niagara Car Wheel Company Buffalo, New York
Ohio Falls Car Manufacturing Company 1876 Jeffersonville, Indiana
St. Charles Car Company 1873 St. Charles, Missouri
Terre Haute Car and Manufacturing Company Terre Haute, Indiana
Union Car Company Depew, New York
Wells and French Company 1869 Chicago, Illinois

Later in 1899, ACF acquired Bloomsburg Car Manufacturing Company (of Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania). Two years later, ACF acquired Jackson and Sharp Company (founded 1863 inWilmington, Delaware), and the Common Sense Bolster Company (of Chicago, Illinois). The unified company made a great investment in the former Jackson & Woodin plant in Pennsylvania, spending about $3 million. It was at this plant that ACF built the first all-steel passenger car in the world in 1904. The car was built for the Interborough Rapid Transit system of New York City, the first of 300 such cars ordered by the railroad.

1904 and 1905 saw ACF build several motor cars and trailers for the London Underground. In these two years, ACF also acquired Southern Car and Foundry (founded 1899 in Memphis, Tennessee), Indianapolis Car and Foundry and Indianapolis Car Company.

ACF produced artillery gun mounts and ammunition, submarine chasers and other boats, railway cars and other equipment during World War I to support the Allies. ACF ranked 36th among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts.

Timeline

Products

1922 Norte_FCNC_boxcarExternal-braced wooden boxcar built for sugar service in Cuba by ACF. ca. 1922

Historically, ACF built passenger and freight cars and covered hopper cars for hauling items like corn or other grains. . One of the largest customers was Union Pacific, whose armour-yellow carbon steel lightweight passenger rolling stock was mostly built by ACF. The famous domeobservation carNative Son, was an ACF product. Today, the American passenger car market is erratic in production, and is mostly handled by specialty manufacturers. Competitors Budd, Pullman-Standard, and St. Louis Car have all either exited the market or gone out of business.

The manufacturing facility located in Milton, Pennsylvania is serviced by the Norfolk Southern railroad and is capable of manufacturing railcars and all related railcar components. The plant is capable of producing pressure vessels in sizes ranging from 18,000 – 61,000 gwc, to include propane tanks, compressed gas storage, LPG storage, and all related components including heads. The plant covers 48 acres providing 500,000 square feet of covered work area and 7 miles of railroad storage track. The Huntington, WV production site was closed in late 2009.

See also

American Car Company

1919 Fort_Collins_streetcar_21_at_City_Park_(1987)
 A Birney car made by the American Car Company, built in 1919, shown here in operation in 1987

The American Car Company was a streetcar manufacturing company based in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. It was one of the country’s leading streetcar builders during the heyday of streetcar operation. The company was founded in 1891 by William Sutton and Emil Alexander, who had previously founded the Laclede Car Company in 1883 also in St. Louis, and had both got their start working in the streetcar business at St. Louis’ horsecar manufacturer, the Brownell Car Company.

The American Car Company was a builder of electric powered streetcars. ACC was bought out by the J. G. Brill Company of Philadelphia in 1902. However, Brill continued to operate the American Car Co. under its own name until 1931, when it was reorganized as J. G. Brill of Missouri.

In 1915, American Car built the very first Birney-type trolley, the prototype of a new design then known as the “Safety Car”, and went on to build more Birney cars than any other manufacturer. The Fort Collins Municipal Railway, in Colorado, and the Fort Smith Trolley Museum, in Arkansas, are examples of operations where preserved Birney cars built by the American Car Company can still be seen running today.

In 1931, only four months after parent company J. G. Brill discontinued use of the American Car Company name, the ex-ACC factory in St. Louis closed permanently.

See also

Canadian Car and Foundry

1954 CCF-Brill trolley bus on the Edmonton trolley bus system Edmonton_CCF-Brill_trolleybus_202A preserved 1954 CCF-Brill trolley bus on the Edmonton trolley bus system.

Canadian Car and Foundry (CC&F) also variously known as “Canadian Car & Foundry,” or more familiarly as “Can Car,” manufactured buses,railroad rolling stock and later aircraft for the Canadian market. CC&F history goes back to 1897, but the main company was established in 1909 from an amalgamation of several companies and later became part of Hawker Siddeley Canada through the purchase by A.V. Roe Canada in 1957. Today the remaining factories are part of Bombardier Transportation Canada.

History

PortablePowerPlantSRMPortable power plant built by Canadian Car and Foundry

Canadian Car & Foundry (CC&F) was established in 1909 in Montreal as the result of an amalgamation of three companies:

In 1911 the CC&F Board of Directors recognized that the company could improve its efficiency if they were able to produce their own steel castings, a component that was becoming common to all their products. They purchased Montreal Steel Works Limited at Longue Pointe, QC, the largest producer of steel castings in Canada, and the Ontario Iron & Steel Company, Ltd. at Welland, ON, which included both a steel foundry and a rolling mill.

Buses were produced at Fort William, Ontario and railcars in Montreal and Amherst. Streetcars were manufactured between 1897 to 1913, however the company focused exclusively on rebuilding existing streetcars after 1913.

A few years later, CC&F acquired the assets of Pratt & Letchworth, a Brantford, ON, rail car manufacturer. In the latter part of World War I, the expanding company opened a new plant in Fort William (now Thunder Bay) to manufacture rail cars and ships which included the French minesweepers Inkerman and Cerisoles which were both lost in Lake Superior; the Amherst plant started by Rhodes & Curry in Amherst was closed in 1931. In an attempt to enter the aviation market, CC&F produced a small series of Grumman fighter aircraft under licence and developed an unsuccessful, indigenous-designed fighter aircraft, the Gregor FDB-1.

The Second World War

CC&F_HurricaneCC&F Hawker Hurricane X on a test flight over Fort William, Ontario

N.A._CCF_T-6J_20310_G-BSBG_WFD_23.06.96R_edited-3CC&F-built T-6J Harvard

By 1939, with war on the horizon, Canadian Car & Foundry and its Chief Engineer, Elsie MacGill, were contracted by the Royal Air Force to produce the Hawker Hurricane.Refinements introduced by MacGill on the Hurricane included skis and de-icing gear. When the production of the Hurricane was complete in 1943, CC&F’s workforce of 4,500 (half of them women) had built over 1,400 aircraft, about 10% of all Hurricanes built.

Following the success of the Hurricane contract, CC&F sought out and received a production order for the troublesome Curtiss SB2C Helldiver. Eventually, 834 Helldivers were produced by CC&F in various versions from SBW-1, SBW-1B, SBW-3,SBW-4E and SBW-5. Some of the Curtiss divebombers were sent directly to the Royal Navy under Lend-Lease arrangements. CC&F also built the North American AT-6 Texan/Harvard under licence, many of the aircraft being supplied to European air forces to train post war military pilots.

In 1944, the Canadian Car & Foundry built a revolutionary new aircraft in its Montreal shops – the Burnelli CBY-3, also called the Loadmaster. There were two examples built of an aerofoil-fuselage design originally developed by Vincent J. Burnelli. The CBY-3 was never to enter full-scale production and was cancelled less than one year later.

The work of Canadian women building fighter and bomber aircraft at the plant during the Second World War is documented in the 1999 National Film Board of Canada documentary film Rosies of the North.

Postwar developments

After the Second World War, the CC&F returned to its roots as a rail car manufacturer. They also made a successful leap into the streetcar business, supplying Montreal, Toronto, Regina, Calgary, Vancouver, Edmonton, and the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo with various types of streetcars. The company concluded a licencing agreement with ACF-Brill (the successor to J. G. Brill) in 1944 to manufacture and sell throughout Canada buses and trolley coaches of ACF-Brill design as Canadian Car-Brill, in later years often written “CCF-Brill”, for short. CC&F built 1,114 trolley buses[5] and a few thousand buses under the name. Trolleybus production ended in 1954; Edmonton Transit System‘s No. 202, a 1954 CCF-Brill T48A, was the very last Brill trolleybus built for any city.

In 1957, wishing to diversify, the British Hawker Siddeley Group acquired CC&F through its Canadian subsidiary, A.V. Roe Canada Ltd.. In 1962, A.V. Roe Canada was dissolved and its assets became part of Hawker Siddeley Canada. During the 1970s they introduced the BiLevel Coach heavy railway passenger car, which would go on to great success.

CCF re-emerged as Can-Car Rail in 1983 as a joint division between Hawker Siddeley Canada and UTDC. The Can-Car Rail operations were based in Thunder Bay. Sold to SNC-Lavalin in 1986, a financial shakeup led to the firm being returned to the Government of Ontario, and then quickly re-sold to Bombardier Transportation. Through a series of further acquisitions, mergers and rationalisations, CC&F faded from the annals of significant Canadian manufacturers, although the company still exists today as the Bombardier Transportation Canada Inc.railcar facility in Thunder Bay, Ontario.

Products

Transit

Other

Aircraft

Customers

Preservation

Many CC&F-built buses have been preserved as historic vehicles, some in operating condition. For example, the Transit Museum Society, in Vancouver, has at least seven CC&F buses in its collection, including two CC&F-Brill trolleybuses.

See also

J. G. Brill Company

J. G. Brill Company
Private
Industry rail transport
Founded 1868
Founder John George Brill
Headquarters Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,United States
Products streetcars, motor buses, andtrolleybuses

1903 Sintra_tram_7_-_cropped

A 1903 Brill-built streetcar on a heritage streetcar line in Sintra, Portugal in 2010.

The J. G. Brill Company manufactured streetcars and buses in the United States. The company was founded by John George Brill in 1868 as ahorsecar manufacturing firm in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, merged with the American Car and Foundry Company (ACF) in 1944 to become ACF-Brill and ceased production in 1954. Brill manufactured over 45,000 streetcars (also known as trolleys or trolley cars in the U.S.), motor busestrolleybuses and railroad cars. At its height, it was the largest manufacturer of streetcars and interurbans in the U.S. It produced more streetcars and interurbans and gas electrics than any other manufacturer.

History

Brill-21E-Yokohama-Tram-Museum-01Brill-21E

J. G. Brill began operations in 1868 and operated with the Brill name until 1956.

In 1926, ACF Motors Company obtained a controlling interest in J. G. Brill. In 1944 the two companies merged, resulting in the ACF-Brill Motors Company. On January 31, 1946, controlling interest in ACF-Brill was acquired by Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation for $7.5 million. Consolidated Vultee was sold on November 6, 1947, to the Nashville Corporation, which sold its share to investment firm Allen & Co headed by Charles Allen, Jr. on June 11, 1951. In early 1954, ACF-Brill ceased production and subcontracted remaining orders. The properties were sold, and on December 30, 1955, the company was merged with supermarket companies into ACF-Wrigley Stores Inc.

ACF-Brill announced in 1944 that Canadian Car and Foundry of Montreal, Quebec were licensed to manufacture and sell throughout Canada motor buses and trolley coaches of their design as Canadian Car-Brill. The firm built about 1,100 trolley buses and a few thousand buses under the name.

Products

1962 Arhs_brill_057903

 Model 55 and Model 75 Brill Railcars stand at Adelaide, South Australia, in 1962
  • Steel heavy interurban cars built 1920-1930s. The Brill “Center Door” car was typical of suburban trolleys and interurbans built around 1920. These tended to be large, heavy, double-ended cars, with passengers entering and exiting via doors located at the center of the car. Many rebuilt into one man cars.[Springirth,p86-100]
  • Brill “Master Unit,” built 1930s. All-steel; had standard controller stand, capable of 70 mph.[p86-100]
  • Brilliner – Brill’s competitor to the PCC (Presidents’ Conference Car) looked somewhat like the first PCCs. The Brilliner was not successful when compared to the PCC. Underpowered. Few were sold, whereas PCCs were well sold worldwide. Twenty-four built for Atlantic City’s Miss America Fleet.[Springirth p86-100]
  • Brill “Bullet” car. 1929-1932. For suburban/interurban use.[Springirth, p86-100]

1947 Philadelphia_ACF-Brill_trolleybus_215_on_route_79_in_1978,_croppedA 1947 ACF-Brill trolley bus

  • Peter Witt streetcar
    • Large cars with trailers
    • Small cars
  • Numerous models of trolleybuses, including T30, T40, 40SMT, 44SMT and, as ACF-Brill, TC44 and T46/TC46
  • C-36 city bus
  • IC-41 intercity bus

The unique Bullet cars

Bullet Philadelphia_&_Western_Railway_206

 Later-model train from the P&W line, “Bullet” No. 206 on display at Steamtown in Scranton, Pennsylvania.

The lines that operated interurban passenger cars recognized in the mid-1920s that they needed faster and more efficient equipment. Up to that time, both the wood and the steel interurban cars were large, sat high, and were heavy. Car manufacturers such as Cincinnati Car Co., St. Louis Car Co., and Pullman worked to design equipment for a better ride at speed, improved passenger comfort, and reduce power consumption. This included designing trucks able to handle rough track. Brill, in conjunction with Westinghouse and General Electric, worked on a new design. The result was the 1929 aluminum and steel wind tunnel developed slope roof Bullet MU cars, the first of which were purchased by the Philadelphia and Western Railroad, a third rail line running from 69th Street Upper Darby to Norristown in the Philadelphia region. This line still runs as SEPTA’s Norristown High Speed Line. These Bullets were successful and operated until the 1980s, but not many others were sold. Only the central New York state interurban Fonda, Johnstown, and Gloversville Railroad ordered Bullets, albeit a single-ended, single-unit “trolley-ized” version. Five were procured in mid-Depression 1932. In 1936 the FJ&G sold its Bullets to the Bamberger Railroad in Utah, which ran them in high-speed service between Salt Lake City and Ogden until the mid-1950s. Three of the SEPTA cars are now at the Seashore Trolley Museum.

Clients

Companies

The American Car & Foundry Co. controlled, as of January 26, 1926:

  • The Brill Corporation, which controlled:
    1. American Car & Foundry Motors Co: owned Hall-Scott Motor Car Co (owned 100%) and Fageol Motors (Ohio) (controlled 90%)
    2. The J. G Brill Company, 62nd and Woodland Streets, Philadelphia. Absorbed and owned American Car Co. (not American Car and Foundry), Kuhlman Car Co. of Cleveland, Wason Mfg. Co. of Springfield, MA., Stephenson Car Co. of Elizabeth, NJ, Hall-Scott of San Francisco. In Europe, Cie. J. G. Brill of Gallardon, France, which was sold to Electroforge in 1935.

Other companies that built licensed versions of Brill vehicles:

Canadian railway car builder Preston Car Company was acquired in 1921 and operations were closed in 1923.

See also

References

  • 1. Middleton. List of U.S. interurban car manufacturers, pp416–417. Bullet design, p68-70.
  • 2. Volkmer. Photographs pf P&W Bullets and SEPTA Bullets. Brilliners, built 1932.
  • 3. Hilton. Development of improved interurban car design. (eight pages)
  • 4. Springirth. Development of Bullet design.
  • 5. Bradford, Francis H. Hall-Scott: The Untold Story of a Great American Engine Maker

Bibliography

  1. Jump up^ Young, Andrew D. (1997). Veteran & Vintage Transit, p. 101. St. Louis: Archway Publishing. ISBN 0-9647279-2-7.
  2. Jump up^ Sebree, Mac; and Ward, Paul (1973). Transit’s Stepchild: The Trolley Coach, p. 127. Los Angeles: Interurbans. LCCN 73-84356.
  3. Jump up^ Brill Railcars of the South Australian Railways Bird, K Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, October;November;December 1981 pp213-236;237-260;272-282 January 1982 pp1-8
  4. Jump up^ Brill (2001), p 165.
  • Brill, Debra (2001). History of the J. G. Brill Company. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33949-9. The author of this book is a direct descendant of company founder John George Brill of the JG Brill Company of Philadelphia, manufacturer for many years of street cars, interurban cars, the famous “Bullet” cars, and buses. The largest (number produced) manufacturer of such equipment in the world. Over time, absorbed other manufacturers of interurban cars and street cars.
  • Middleton, Wm. D (2000) [1962]. The Interurban Era. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Books. ISBN 978-0-89024-003-8.
  • Volkmer, Wm. D. Pennsylvania Trolleys in Color, Vol II, Philadelphia Region. 92pp. Morning Sun Books, Scotch Plains, NJ. 1998. ISBN 1-878887-99-8. Photographs of Brilliners and Bullets and other Brill designs on Philadelphia and Westernline and in shops.
  • Hilton, George and Due, John The Interurban Electric Railway in America, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. Reissue 2000.
  • Springirth, Kenneth. Suburban Philadelphia Trolleys 128pp. Arcadia Publishing, 2007. (ISBN 9780738550435)

External links

  1928 ACF Model 508-2-B-3

1930 ACF Brill 1930 ACF Bus Eight Mile Road & Livernois Detroit 1930 ACF E1 Trolley 1 on Cortelyou Rd 1931 ACF Model 508 1933 ACF Model P-516 1937 ACF(American Car & Foundry Motors Co.)Model H-9-P for Greyhound Hall-Scott 6-cylinder engine 1938 ACF Brill 37-P 1938 ACF Brill 37-Pa 1938 ACF BRILL H-9 1938 ACF Brill H-9-P SFe H9P 1939 ACF Brill Model 31-S transit 1940 ACF Brill 29-P 1940 ACF Brill Bus Brochure 1941 ACF Brill 37PB NorthernTrails 1941 ACF Greyhound to Macon hailed by woman unknown photomaker OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 1945 ACF Brill IC37 1945 ACF BRILL IC-41A CANADA 1946 A(C)CF Brill Canadian Car & Foundry IC-41 Selkirk-GWTC601 streamliner2-foto-William A luke 1946 Acf Brill C36 1946 ACF Brill IC37 American Bus Lines 1946 ACF Brill IC-37 P6 1946 ACF Brill IC-37 1946 ACF Brill IC-37a 1946 ACF Brill IC-37b 1946 ACF Brill IC-41 1946 ACF-Brill-opt 1947 ACF Brill Conversion Bus 1947 ACF Brill IC-37 P21 1947 ACF Brill IC-37 1947 ACF Brill IC-41 1947 ACF-Brill Model C-36 1947 ACF-Brill Model C-44 1948 ACF Brill ad 1948 ACF Brill IC-37 1948 ACF-Brill C-10 Jitney Bus 1948 ACF-Brill Model IC-41 1950 ACF Brill ICO-X-001 at Jackson, MS 1950 ACF Brill The Continental Oueen 1951 ACF-Brill C-44-S Carolina Coach Co C-4176 Norfolk Bus Corp 176 1978 ACF-Brill trolleybus 215 on route 79 ACF 170 front ACF Brill 2609 acf brill-bwsuburb-1 acf brill-trackless-1 acf brill-urban-1 ACF H-17-S ACF H-17-Sa ACF Model H-17S ACF onbekend ACF QUEENS NASSAU ACF SHOP ACF trolley ttc-trackless ACF-003 Springfield ACF-BRILL MOTORS COMPANY ACF-ETB Trolley Edmonton1940 ACF Brill Bus Brochure 1947 Brill Bus of  Canada 1952 Brill trolleybus 1955 brill trolley 1956 SAR Brill Bus at Wilderness, Cape Province 1957 Brill Bus 1958 Brill Bus Can 1962 Brill-Prentice 1965 Brill 2200 series of Canadian Car Brills 1965 brill 1966 Brill (1) 1967 Brill hastings-angusmcintyre1 1967 Brill trolleybus with the BC Hydro colours, operating as the Hastings 14 1968 04-14hastings return 1969 Brill hastings-angusmcintyre2 1973 Brill 2100 series of Canadian Car Brills operated by BC Hydro Transit 1978 Philadelphia ACF-Brill trolleybus 215 on route 79 A.C.F. Brill Model IC Coach ACF Brill AD ACF BRILL acfbrill-trackless-1 AFC Brill Brill a Brill acf brill an old acf brill bus Brill c brill company streetcars and buses postcard Brill highway Coaches 37 Brill Honolulu Brill trolley brill sau paulo Brill trolley tour Brill Trolleybus 3093 Canadian BRILL Logo download hsr757onkingatmcnabmain7-11-74 JG Brill History Trams Cartago line from J. G. Brill Co. in PhiladelphiaA Brill trolley with the BC Hydro colours, operating as the 14 Hastings in 1967 Bussen Canadian Car Brill highway coach Bussen Canadian Car IC-41 selkirk-BBL19 412-luke 1946 Bussen Canadian Car IC-41 Selkirk-GWTC601 streamliner2-foto-William A luke 1946 Canadian Brill- ACF Brill Canadian Brill Car of the South African Railways Road Services VV Knysna George 27 Canadian Brill Du Toit's Kloof Tunnel, Cape (1952) SA Canadian Car & Foundry delivered 30 Brill T48A trolley coaches to the City Canadian Car and Foundry Brill logo plate Canadian Car and Foundry C-36 1945-50 Edmonton Transit System 99 Canadian Car and Foundry IC-41 1945-52-Ottawa Electric Railway 300-a Canadian Car and Foundry T-44 Edmonton Transit System 148-a Canadian Car and Foundry T-48A Edmonton Transit System 202-a Canadian Car and Foundry TD-43 1960-62 Mississauga Transit 2021-a Canadian-built Brill Bus Canadian-Car-Brill Bus CC&F Brill-Canadian Car Brill C36's CCF-Brill IC-41 Five Can Brill Trolleys cross Hastings Street 04-14hastings Ford C model pulling a Canadian Car Brill bus  bob316 juin 2010 MT 6041 Canadian Brill Car - OTM - George - CK - 2004 SAR Road Transport Services 41-seater Canadian Brill Bus (1957) The OTC ordered 10 new CCF-Brill (Canada Car and Foundry Co) Two 1960 Canadian-Car-Brill Buses

1918 Brill, 4x4 1920 brill ambulance 1952 Brill trolleybus 1953 Brill ХМ148 Gull, 6x6

01_Christchurch_178_Brill_car 1901 Horse_drawn_tramcars,_Honolulu,_Hawaii,_1901 1903 Council_Crest_streetcar_504,_Portland,_Oregon_-_1918 1903 Sintra_tram_7_-_cropped 1904 Council_Crest_streetcar_507,_Portland,_Oregon_-_1910 1907 American Car and Foundry Company 1911 Reefers-shorty-Anheuser-Busch-Malt-Nutrine_ACF_builders_photo_pre-1911 1913 Brill18 1916 Seattle_Car_and_Foundry_Renton_Works_1916 1919 Fort_Collins_streetcar_21_at_City_Park_(1987) 1922 Norte_FCNC_boxcar 1926 Electric_City_Trolley_Museum_76 1927 ACF bus 2 1927 ACF bus 3, American Car and Foundry 1928 ACF truck 1931 ACF truck 1 1931 ACF truck 2 1931 American Car & Foundry-built R-1 number 107, being delivered at 207th Street Yard in August, 1931 1932 Gauge_(55249195) 1997-04-25 by Steve Morgan 1932 Portland_813_at_Willamette_Shore_Trolley's_Bancroft_St_terminus,_May_2010 1940 King_County_Metro_Brill_Trolley 1940 Seattle_1940_Brill_trolleybus_798_in_1990 1942 acf-eaglet_andrews-03 1946 Pw_4_bryn_mawr_Aug_80cr_-_Flickr_-_drewj1946 1946 Red_arrow_2_media 1946 SEPTA_3_arr_Upper_Darby_on_Garrett 1946 SEPTA_6_Springfield_Rd_at_Woodlawn 1946 SEPTA_88_Sharon_Hill_May76xRP 1947 Montreal_CCF-Brill_trolleybus_4042_at_the_Canadian_Railway_Museum_in_1971 1947 Philadelphia_ACF-Brill_trolleybus_215_on_route_79_in_1978,_cropped 1947 PTC_1947_ACF-Brill_trolley_bus_in_route_79_short-turn_loop,_8th_&_Wolf,_in_1968 1947 Vancouver_CCF-Brill_T44_2040_at_VTC 1947 Vancouver_CCF-Brill_T44_2040_at_VTC_II 1948 ACF_Bril_3093 1948 Chicago_ACF-Brill_trolley_buses_at_North_Station_(garage) Toronto Brill trolleybus in 1968 1948-Ad-Rolling-Stock-Road-Rail-Canadian-Car 1950's Brill 1952 Johnstown_ACF-Brill_trolleybus_734_at_Coopersdale_terminus,_1967 1952 Johnstown_trolley_coach_732_on_Main_at_Franklin_on_Nov-11-1967 1952 Johnstown_trolleybus_734_in_Coopersdale_Loop,_Nov-10-1967 1952 Restored_Montreal_Transit_comission_1952_Canadian_Car_Brill 1953 ACF Brill M56 R2 Dodge Emergenancy Crash Truck a 1953 ACF Brill M56 R2 Dodge Emergenancy Crash Truck b 1953 ACF Brill M56 R2 Dodge Emergenancy Crash Truck c ??????????????????? 1953 Dodge R-2 ACF-BRILL Truck a 1953 Dodge R-2 ACF-BRILL Truck 1953 R-2 Chassis by Dodge & ACF Brill - Oneida Body Works a 1953 R-2 Chassis by Dodge & ACF Brill - Oneida Body Works 1953 R-2 second ACF Brill Armoured Dodge 1954 Edmonton_CCF-Brill_trolleybus_202 1962 Arhs_brill_057903 1968 0623_29_ PTC_228_Snyder_Ave._@_9th_St. 7th & Snyder 1968 Philadelphia_Brill_trolley_bus_228_turning_at_23rd_&_Snyder 1969 0104_28_PST_4_Drexel_Hill_(6792816545) Acf Brill Car 01-gobron-brillie acf brill logo ACF Brill xm148 5530 ACF H-13 ACF tt160 tt175 5528 ACF XM148 Gull Amphibie Arden66 Astoria_Riverfront_Trolley_-_Old_300_at_12th_Street Astoria_Riverfront_Trolley_car_300_at_Maritime_Museum,_July_1999 Brill_(55249169) Brill_Car_with_People BRILL_GE_tram_76_Helsinki Brill-21E-Yokohama-Tram-Museum-01 Bullet Philadelphia_&_Western_Railway_206 C.C.F Ottawa_Electric_Railway_300-a Canadian Car and Foundry TD-43 Mississauga_Transit_2021-a Canadian Car and Foundry CC&F_Hurricane Christchurch_178_Brill_car Christchurch_178_Brill_car_closeup First_EMU_in_Japan_1890 Fremantle_tram_11 FSB_FGC_Cotxe_M-301_Brill- Interior_tranvía_Brill_(Lacroze_-_Tramway_Rural) Japanese_First_Tram_(01)_Scan10044 Japanese_First_Tram_(02)_Scan10044-2 N.A._CCF_T-6J_20310_G-BSBG_WFD_23.06.96R_edited-3 PA_Trolley_Museum PA_Trolley_Museum_071907_003 PA_Trolley_Museum_071907_007 Philadelphia_Tram_78 PortablePowerPlantSRM PTM080 Toronto_CCF-Brill_trolleybus_passing_PCC_streetcar_on_Oakwood_St,_1968 Tranvía_2_Tetepilco_STE_Museo Tranvía_Brill_Semi-Convertible_(truck_Radiax_11ft_wheelbase)_-_Revista_Brill_(Lacroze_-_Tramway_Rural) Tranvía_dormitorio_-_Brill_(Lacroze_-_Tramway_Rural) TTC_9142_4442_Oakwood_&_St._Clair_Toronto_1968 Two_Phila._Brill_trolleybuses_at_Tasker_&_32nd,_route_29,_in_1968 Vancouver_trolleybus_2302_eastbound_on_Robson_Street,_late_1970s

TWIN COACH Kent, Ohio, USA 1927 – 1955

The-Twin-Coach            Twin Coach

 1940 Twin Coach trolley bus in Seattle
 A restored 1940 Twin Coach trolley bus in Seattle

Twin Coach was an American vehicle manufacturing company from 1927 to 1955, based in Kent, Ohio, and a maker of marine engines and airplane parts until the 1960s. It was formed by brothers Frank and William Fageol when they left the Fageol Motor Company in 1927. They established the company in Kent to manufacture and sell buses with a new concept design. The body structure of this new bus was unique in that the body also became the frame and two engines – “twin” engines – were used to allow for larger passenger loads. This concept was patented by William B. Fageol.

1953 Twin Coach postal vanTwin Coach “Pony Express” postal van, circa 1953

Over the years, Twin Coach made transit buses, trolley buses, small delivery vehicles, Fageol six-cylinder gasoline/propane bus and marine engines, Fageol four-cylinder marine engines, and aircraft and truck components. The company was sometimes referred to as “Fageol-Twin Coach”. The company was acquired by Flxible in 1955 and merged with it, but use of the “Twin Coach” name in marketing continued for a few years, and the name was briefly revived (as a brand name only) in the late 1960s by a related company called Highway Products, Inc.

Production overview

Trolley buses

Trolley bus production lasted from 1928 to 1951. Notably, the company’s very first order and its very last were also its only export orders ever for trolley buses: eight vehicles for Manila, Philippines, in 1928 and four for Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 1951. All other orders went to U.S. cities., none to Canadian cities.

In the 1930s and 1940s, Twin Coach was one of the largest producers in the very limited field of trolley bus manufacturing in North America. Until the late 1940s, only three other U.S. companies built more trolley buses: the Brill companies (J.G. Brill and successors ACF-Brill and CCF-Brill), Pullman and St. Louis Car Company. Another builder, Marmon-Herrington, only entered the field in 1946, but eventually surpassed Twin’s total. All told, Twin Coach manufactured only 670 “trolley coaches” – as such vehicles were commonly called at the time – but sold them to 16 different cities (all in the U.S.), which equates to around one-third of all of the trolley bus systems ever to exist in the United States. Overall, the company’s best customer for trolley coaches was the Seattle Transit System, which bought a total of 177, all between 1940 and 1943.

In 1940, Twin Coach also pioneered the development of the articulated trolley bus in North America, although the first such vehicle in the world was built in Europe slightly earlier, in 1939 (by Isotta Fraschini/Stanga in Italy). The company built only two articulated trolley buses, and each was marketed as a “Super Twin” model. Both were originally built as demonstrators. The 1940 unit was eventually sold to the Cleveland transit system and entered service there. The second was built as a gas-powered bus in 1946, but was converted into a trolley bus in 1948, leased to the Chicago Transit Authority and was sold to CTA in 1954. With both vehicles, the articulation joint allowed only vertical, not horizontal, movement. These two prototypes never led to any series production, so each remained unique. The 1948 Chicago vehicle is preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum. Until 1985, these two vehicles remained the only articulated trolley buses ever built in North America by any manufacturer. Motor buses

Twin Coach Lucerne

 A Twin Coach/Herkules 38-S-DT (1948) in Lucerne, Switzerland

Twin Coach also built motor buses (buses powered by internal combustion engines). Fuels included at least gasoline and propane. Between 1927 and 1934 alone, the company built more than 1,100 motor buses, including 21 with gas-electric drive. Bus production continued through to the time of the company’s acquisition by Flxible, in the 1950s.

Sale of bus division

In 1955, the bus manufacturing operations were sold to Flxible, which was also based in Ohio. For a time, Flxible used the Twin Coach name – along with its own – in its marketing and some buses carried front name plates that gave both names and combined the companies’ two logos into one. By 1963, use of the Twin Coach name on buses had been discontinued.

The marine-engine and aircraft divisions continued as Twin Coach. In 1958, the company sold the marine division and moved its remaining production to Cheektowaga, New York. In 1962, the company’s name was changed to Twin Industries.

A portion of the company called Highway Products produced a number of products, such as small Post Office vehicles, mobile post offices used in rural areas, small boats for military and commercial uses, missile launchers and a variety of other products. This later became an Alco Standard company, and it produced a small bus which was sold under the “Twin Coach” name from 1969-1975.

1927 Twin Coach Model 40 1928 Fageol Twin Coach 1930 Twin Coach model 401930 Twin Coach, Kent, Ohion(USA) - M.C. van der Wal, Haarlem Adam busserie23 1931 Twin Coach 352071-1000-0 1931 TWIN COACH BQ TRANSIT 1931 Twin Coach Chattanooga Twin Model 15 1931 Twin Coach Deliver 1931 Twin Coach Delivery Van 1931 Twin Coach Model ‘40’ JAMAICABUSTWINCOACH 1931 1931 Twin Coach Model '20' ATWINMODEL20 1934 Other Twin Coach Delivery 1937 Twin Coach 23R, ex Winnipeg Electric 1937 Twin Coach 23R 1937 Twin Coach bus 1937 Twin Coach Company Model 23R 1938 Twin Coach 2 1938 twin Coach Los Angeles Motor Coach Bus Type 38 1940 Twin Coach trolley bus in Seattle 1942 Twin Coach 1946 Twin Coach 41S 1946 Twin Coach 1947 Twin Coach bus 1312 Super Twin 1947 Twin Coach Nr.76 LU 91122 U 1947 Twin Coach 1947 Twin Coach-artic at-DSR e Super Twin 1947 Twin Coach-Herkules 38-S-DT Nr. 76 1948 Twin Coach  Maarse Kroon Twin Coach op Schiphol 1948 Twin Coach Chicago.QueenMary 1948 Twin Coach Fageol Maarse-Kroon 1948 Twin Coach Fageol Maarse-Kroon-05 1948 Twin Coach Lucerne 1949 Twin Coach, modelo 44TTW, Trolley's San Fransisco 1953 Twin Coach postal van bus_bery1204 Flxible Twin Coach ad images L A Motor Coach 4208 driver side ext The-Twin-Coach

Twin Coach 9763 Chicago-TCartic Twin Coach timeline1 Twin Coach trolley bus Twin Coach. It is Model 23-R. Twin Coach

This is a beautiful impression of Twin Coaches

MAARSE en KROON

mk-4.large

Maarse & Kroon

Maarse en Kroon logo

N.V. Autobusonderneming Maarse & Kroon (MK),

eerst gevestigd te Leimuiden en vanaf 1933 te Aalsmeer, was een Nederlandsautobusbedrijf dat van 1923 tot 1973 streekvervoer exploiteerde in delen van de provincies Noord-HollandZuid-Holland en Utrecht.

Geschiedenis

1923 Maarse-Kroon 03 small1923 Maarse-Kroon 03

1923_foto_via_Jack_Oosterbosch

1923 Een autobus van de firma Maarse en Kroon

1925 bij Het Wapen van Alkemade

1925 GMC van Maarse en Kroon bij Het Wapen van Alkemade

1925 Ford_1925_foto_via_Jack_Oosterbosch

1925 Ford Maarse & Kroon

mk-2.large

1928 Maarse & Kroon ., Aalsmeer Wilnis

1928 Maarse & Kroon Aalsmeer Wilnis

Op 1 februari 1923 werd de firma opgericht te Leimuiden onder de naam Fa. Wegman, Kroon en Co. Er werd gereden op de route Rijnsaterwoude – Leimuiden – Leiden. Het busbedrijf begon met één bus, spoedig kwam een tweede wagen in dienst. Nadat de firmant Wegman zich had teruggetrokken ging het bedrijf verder als Jac. Maarse en C. Kroon. In 1927 werd de N.V. “Autobusonderneming” van J.J. Poort en J.P. Sloothaak te Amstelveen opgekocht. In de jaren twintig en dertig breidde het bedrijf zich uit met nieuwe lijnen, waaronder Leimuiden – Alphen aan den Rijn in 1931 en Haarlemmermeer – Leiden in 1934. Vanaf 1933 was het bedrijf gevestigd te Aalsmeer onder de naam N.V. “Autobusonderneming” (dir. Maarse en Kroon).

6a5d065e-7ec7-4c21-1d81-23da20f173ea

Maarse en Kroon nr.?

1923-48 Maarse en Kroon

1923-48 Maarse en Kroon

Op 1 januari 1936 vond een grote uitbreiding plaats door overname van het lijnennet van de fa. J.H. van Kalmthout & P. van Niel te Hoofddorp, met lijnen vanuit de Haarlemmermeer naar Amsterdam en Haarlem. Dit had te maken met de opheffing van de Haarlemmermeerspoorlijnen en vervanging door busdiensten. In 1939 werd het bedrijf van M. van Poelgeest te Amstelveen overgenomen met lijnen van Amsterdam naar Schiphol, Amstelveen en Ouderkerk aan de Amstel. In 1942 werd de verbinding Uithoorn – Nieuwkoop geopend.

1931 Cees_van_Immerzeel

1931 Maarse & Kroon

1932 Maarse & Kroon  - 96 - Heel oud

1932 Maarse & Kroon – 96 –

1935 Maarse & Kroon 8 Lijndienst R'dam-Waalhaven foto KLM

1935 Mercedes Benz van Maarse & Kroon 8 Lijndienst R’dam-Waalhaven foto KLM

1935_ex-_LABG_9

1935 Maarse & Kroon

1937-Bus-H-amsterdam Maarse & Kroon

1935-Bus-H-amsterdam Mercedes Benz Maarse & Kroon

1936 Maarse en Kroon Tram-en-bus-Haarlem

1936 Maarse en Kroon Tram-en-bus-Haarlem

1939 Maarse en Kroon 43 (1950) Leyland Verheul

1939 Maarse en Kroon 43 (foto1950) Leyland Verheul

1939_foto_via_Jack_Oosterbosch

1939 Maarse & Kroon

In 1947 werd de officiële bedrijfsnaam N.V. Autobusonderneming Maarse & Kroon. In de jaren na de Tweede Wereldoorlog werd het busbedrijf verder uitgebreid, mede door de groei van de Luchthaven Schiphol. Vanaf 1954 werd de lijn uit Haarlem via Hoofddorp en Uithoorn verlengd naar Utrecht via de snelweg A2. In 1962 ging de lijn Amsterdam – Abcoude – Vinkeveen rijden, in 1964 Uithoorn – Mijdrecht – Woerden. In 1968 werd de lijn Kockengen – Utrecht overgenomen van de UVO. Vanaf 1969 werden de lijnen van de verbinding Amstelveen – Amsterdam geïntegreerd met die van het GVB. In 1970 gebeurde hetzelfde met de verbinding Badhoevedorp – Amsterdam.

1940 Opel Blitzbus 51 verheul-maarse n-kroone

1940 Opel Blitzbus 51 verheul-maarse & kroon

Uiteindelijk werden busdiensten uitgevoerd in het gebied tussen Amsterdam, Vinkeveen, Utrecht, Woerden, Nieuwkoop, Leimuiden, Leiden, de Haarlemmermeer en Haarlem. Ten westen en noorden van het vervoergebied reed de NZH, ten oosten de NBM en ten zuiden de NAL en Citosa (later Westnederland).

1_4_werd_RTM_28

Van Maarse & Kroon naar RTM

Maarse & Kroon was, samen met de Gelderse Tramwegen (GTW), een van de twee grootste particuliere openbaar vervoerbedrijven in Nederland, dus zonder binding met overheid of NS. Naast het openbaar vervoer had Maarse & Kroon ook een omvangrijk touringcarbedrijf. Ook een belangrijke bedrijfsactiviteit was het besloten busvervoer voor de werkenden op het terrein van de luchthaven Schiphol.

4 4 werd VAVO 26

van Maarse & Kroon naar VAVO

Op 1 januari 1971 werd het familiebedrijf Maarse & Kroon uiteindelijk toch een dochteronderneming van de NS. Per 3 juni 1973 fuseerde het bedrijf met een andere NS-dochter, de NBM te Zeist. De aldus ontstane autobusonderneming kreeg de naam Centraal Nederland.

4afe09b8-fcbf-8872-8dd5-e1ac17856ec3

Maarse & Kroon

Museummaterieel

Vijf voormalige Maarse & Kroon-bussen zijn bewaard gebleven.

  • Bij de Stichting Veteraan Autobussen:
    • Bus 1605 uit 1971, een Leyland LVB568-Verheul lijndienstbus met zelfdragende carrosserie uit een serie van 12 stuks, die is afgebouwd door de busbouwer Domburg te Montfoort nadat de Verheul-fabriek door brand was verwoest.
    • 1971 Leyland-Verheul LVB  Maarse & Kroon 1605
    • 1971 Leyland-Verheul LVB / Maarse & Kroon 1605
    • 1971 Leyland-Verheul LVB  Maarse & Kroon 1605 st. Vet
    • 1971 Leyland-Verheul LVB / Maarse & Kroon 1605
  • Bij het Nationaal Openbaar Vervoermuseum (NOV) te Ouwsterhaule:
    • Bus 413 uit 1966, een Leyland Royal Tiger Worldmaster lijndienstbus uit een serie van 25 met een Roset-carrosserie met aluminium beplating.
    • 1966 Maarse en Kroon 413 galerij Leyland Royal Tiger Worldmaster
    • 1966 Maarse en Kroon 413 galerij Leyland Royal Tiger Worldmaster
  • Bij de Stichting Youngtimerbussen te Nieuwkoop:
    • Bus 182 uit 1959, een Leyland Royal Tiger Worldmaster met een carrosserie van Verheul.
    • OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
    • 1959, een Leyland Royal Tiger Worldmaster met een carrosserie van Verheul
    • 1946 Maarse-Kroon 22952
    • 1946 Maarse-Kroon
    • 1947 Leyland Maarse-Kroon GZ-85134
    • 1946 Maarse-Kroon
  • 1948  0000_collJanVoerman
  • 1948 Maarse & Kroon
  • 1948 Maarse & Kroon 48-SVA GMC Twin Coach
  • 1948 Maarse & Kroon 48-SVA GMC Twin Coach Fageol
  • 1948 Leyland autobus van Maarse & Kroon NB-45-08 in onzachte aanraking met de tram van lijn 3 (motorwagen 438)
  • 1948 Leyland autobus van Maarse & Kroon NB-45-08 in onzachte aanraking met de tram van lijn 3 (motorwagen 438)
  • 1948 Maarse en Kroon 98 Leyland Verheul
  • 1948 Maarse en Kroon 98 Leyland Verheul
  • 1948 Maarse en Kroon Fageol
  • 1948 Maarse en Kroon Fageol
  • 1948 MK Dienstregeling
  • 1948 MK Dienstregeling
  • 1948 Twin Coach  Maarse Kroon Twin Coach op Schiphol
  • 1948 Twin Coach Maarse Kroon Twin Coach op Schiphol
  • 1948 Twin Coach Fageol Maarse-Kroon 48-01
  • 1948 Twin Coach Fageol Maarse-Kroon 48-01
  • 1948 Twin Coach Fageol Maarse-Kroon 48-05
  • 1948 Twin Coach Fageol Maarse-Kroon 48-01
  • 1949 Maarse en Kroon 122 (1950) Leyland Comet Verheul
  • 1949 Maarse en Kroon 122 (1950) Leyland Comet Verheul
  • 1950 Maarse en Kroon bus 74
  • 1950 Maarse en Kroon bus 74
  • 1948 Twin Coach Fageol Maarse-Kroon 48-01 1948 Twin Coach Fageol Maarse-Kroon 48-05 1949 Maarse en Kroon 122 (1950) Leyland Comet Verheul 1950 Maarse en Kroon bus 74 1950 Maarse en Kroon Guy Arab met Verheul carrosserie is samen met haar zusje in 1955 verkocht aan de RTM. 1951 Maarse en  Kroon bus 143 Verheul Leyland Tiger 1951 maarse en kroon 114 smit-appingedam-guy 1953 MK Dienstregeling 1953 OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 1959 Maarse & Kroon 35 1959 Verheul bodied Leyland Worldmaster Maarse en Kroon Centraal Nederland semi tour bus Nr 182 1959-Vijfrittenkaart-maarse 1960 Leyland Verheul stamt uit 1960 heeft plek voor 70 p Maarse-Kroon 73-11 1960 Leyland Verheul-lijndienstbus 73 1962 Leyland Tiger Verheul (NB-45-24), Maarse & Kroon, Aalsmeer 1962 1963 251 20 1963 Foto M&K  Jaap en Maarten D'Oliveira 1963 Jules Verne 1963 Jules Vernes 1963 Leyland carrosseriebouwer Roset Maarse-Kroon-JulesVerne 1963 Leyland-Roset VIP-bus 251 Jules Verne Museumbus Jules Verne Maarse en Kroon 251 1966 Maarse en Kroon 413 galerij Leyland Royal Tiger Worldmaster 1968 Magirus Deutz MAARSE en KROON Aalsmeer 3, Lijn 1, Amstelveenseweg 1969 Leyland-Verheul LVB668-semitouringcar Maarse & Kroon 515 1971 Leyland-Verheul LVB  Maarse & Kroon 1605 st. Vet 1971 Leyland-Verheul LVB  Maarse & Kroon 1605 1973 Maarse en Kroon 302 Leyland Hainje Heereveen Bus 32. Aan de ex Maarse & Kroon 32 is nog veel werk Een bus van Maarse & Kroon op een karakteristiek weggetje in de buurt van Schiphol Leyland MK bus 182 Maarse & Kroon Leyland Tiger Verheul 73 Maarse & Kroon Leyland Tiger Verheul Beauty Maarse en Kroon 73 MAARSE en KROON Leyland Aalsmeer 128, KLM MAARSE en KROON Leyland Aalsmeer 179 nu op Ruigoord MAARSE en KROON Leyland Aalsmeer 179, Lijn 11, Amstelstation Maarse en Kroon logo maarse-en-kroon-lijn-140 Maarse-Kroon 04 Maarse-Kroon 05 Maarse-Kroon 182 maarse-kroon 185 Maarse-Kroon 405 Maarse-Kroon 22952 Maarse-Kroon CN mk-2.large mk-4.large SB-42-46 autobus (bus nr. 18) van Maarse en Kroon

Buses, Coachbuilders, Hearses, Ambulances FLXIBLE Ohio USA

flxible [1434]
flxible [1434] (Photo credit: brianjmatis)
Buses, Coachbuilders, Hearses, Ambulances FLXIBLE Ohio USA

Flxible

001

@002

A 1987 Flxible Metro-B, owned by WMATA Metrobus, parked in Washington, D.C.

The Flxible Co. (originally the Flexible Sidecar Company) was an American manufacturer of motorcycle sidecars, funeral cars, ambulancesintercity coachesand transit buses, based in the U.S. state of Ohio. It was founded in 1913 and closed in 1996.

003

Flxible 1963 Buick hearse conversion

History

In 1913, Hugo H. Young and Carl F. Dudte founded the Flexible Sidecar Co. in Loudonville, Ohio, to manufacture motorcycle sidecars with a flexible mounting to the motorcycle. The flexible mounting allowed the sidecar to lean on corners along with the motorcycle, and was based on a design patented by Young.

In 1919, the company’s name was changed to The Flxible Co. (still pronounced “flexible”) so that the name could be registered as a trademark.

After low-priced automobiles became available in the 1920s, the motorcycle sidecar demand dropped and in 1924, Flxible turned to production of funeral cars (hearses), and ambulances, which were primarily manufactured on Buick chassis, but also occasionally on StudebakerCadillac and REO chassis, and intercity buses, initially (1930s and early ’40s) built on GMC truck chassis, and powered with Buick Straight 8 engines.

004

1947 Flxible Clipper highway coach

In 1953, Flxible absorbed the bus-manufacturing portion of the Fageol Twin Coach Company, and accepted its first order for transit buses from the Chicago Transit Authority. In 1964, Flxible purchased Southern Coach Manufacturing Co. of Evergreen, Alabama, and built small transit buses at the former Southern Coach factory until 1976. Flxible was purchased by Rohr Industries in 1970, and a new factory and corporate headquarters were built in Delaware, Ohio, in 1974, with the original factory in Loudonville, Ohio, being used to manufacture parts and sub-assemblies. Flxible was sold to Grumman Corporation in 1978 and became known asGrumman Flxible. The name reverted to Flxible when Grumman sold the company in 1983 to General Automotive Corporation. In 1996, Flxible declared bankruptcy and its assets were auctioned. The last Flxible vehicles produced were eight 35 ft (11 m) CNG-fueled Metro buses that went to Monterey-Salinas Transitin MontereyCalifornia. The former Flxible factory in Loudonville, Ohio, is now a bus maintenance facility for Motor Coach Industries, while the former factory in Delaware, Ohio, is now a parts facility for North American Bus Industries.

Production outside the United States

005

Mexican-made DINA Flxliner bus, in second-class service, berthed in the SilaoGuanajuato central terminal, 2006.

006

A Changjiang CJ6800G1QH bus in Beijing,China, showing the similarity to the Flxible Metro.

Flxible’s intercity buses were popular in Mexico and in Latin American countries. However, high import duties into these countries limited sales. In the early 1960s, Flxible began licensing a producer in Mexico, DINA S.A. (Diesel Nacional), to manufacture Flxible designed intercity coaches, and this continued until the late 1980s. In 1965 and 1966, Flxible also licensed its “New Look” transit bus design to Canadair Ltd., an aircraft manufacturer in Ville St-Laurent, Quebec.

In 1994, Flxible’s parent company, General Automotive Corporation, and three other American companies, Roger Penske, Mark IV Industries, and Carrier, entered into a joint venture with Changzhou Changjiang Bus, a Chinese manufacturer located in ChangzhouJiangsu province, to produce buses based on the Flxible Metrodesign and with the Flxible name. The resulting company, China Flxible Auto Corporation,[citation needed] manufactured buses in a variety of lengths, from 8 m (26 ft 3 in) to 11 m (36 ft 1 in). These buses, which include both front- and rear-engine designs, and share only their general exterior appearance with the American-built Flxibles, were sold to many transit operators in major Chinese cities, including Beijing and Shanghai. A trolleybus version was manufactured for just one operator, the Hangzhou trolleybus system, which bought a total of 77 between the late 1990s and 2001. However, for these vehicles, Changzhou Changjiang supplied the chassis and Metro-style bodies to the Hangzhou Changjiang Bus Company (in Hangzhou), and that company equipped them as trolleybuses.

Charles Kettering and General Motors

007

Charles F. Kettering

Charles Kettering, a Loudonville, Ohio native and vice president of General Motors, was closely associated with Flxible for almost the entire first half of the company’s existence. In 1914, Flxible was incorporated with the help of Kettering, who then became president of the company and joined the board of directors. Kettering provided significant funding for the company in its early years, particularly after 1916, when Kettering sold his firm, the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco), to GM for $2.5 million. Kettering continued to serve as president of Flxible, until he became chairman of the board in 1940, a position he held until his death in 1958. After selling Delco to GM in 1916, Kettering organized and ran a research laboratory at GM, and by the 1950s, held the position of vice president at GM. As a result of Kettering’s close relationship with both GM and Flxible, many GM parts were used in the production of Flxible vehicles, particularly prior to GM’s 1943 purchase of Yellow Coach (a competing bus manufacturer, of which GM had been a majority owner since 1925). For example, most Flxible ambulanceshearses, and buses from the mid-1920s to the early-1940s were built on Buick chassis, and Flxible’s “Airway” model buses of the mid-1930s were built on a Chevrolet chassis.

008

1955 Flxible VistaLiner (VL100)

In 1958, and as a result of the consent decree from the 1956 anti-trust case, United States v. General Motors Corp., GM was mandated to sell their bus components, engines, and transmissions to other manufacturers, free of royalties. However, in the early 1950s and prior to the consent decree, Flxible built a small number of buses with GM diesel engines while Kettering still served on the board. It has been postulated that GM may have made its diesel engines available to Flxible to reduce the criticisms of GM’s business practices that some felt were monopolistic. The same has been said about GM’s decision in the 1960s and 1970s not to produce a 35 ft (11 m) “New Look” transit bus with an 8-cylinder engine. However, it is also possible that GM chose not to enter this market because the potential sales did not warrant the added costs of engineering and production. Another result of the consent decree (which was not settled in its entirety until 1965) was that GM was barred from having any of its officers or directors serve as an officer or director for any other bus manufacturing company. This provision would have applied to Kettering, had he not died in 1958.

870 frame problems

Main article: Flxible Metro#Litigation resulting

In the mid-1980s, several Grumman 870 buses operated by the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) developed cracks in their underframes. This prompted NYCTA President David Gunn to remove the entire fleet from service. Soon, several other companies reported cracked 870 frames. However, the frame issues primarily affected NYCTA 870s and not the 870s owned by the franchisees of the New York City Department of Transportation. NYCTA attempted to get the remainder of its pending order for new buses transferred to GM, but was barred from doing so unless they could prove that the 870s were flawed and unsafe. The buses were eventually returned to Flxible and resold to Queen City Metro and New Jersey Transit. Grumman blamed the problems with the NYCTA 870s on NYCTA’s maintenance practices, despite the fact that transit operations in ChicagoWashington, D.C.Houston, and Los Angeles had also reported problems with their 870s. Ironically, NYCTA ordered fifty Metros in 1995, but Flxible closed its doors while the order was being produced, and NYCTA obtained the remaining new buses from Orion.

Flxible Owners International

009

Clipper-era Flxible nose emblem

Flxible Owners International (see external link) was founded in the mid-1980s as an offshoot of the Family Motor Coach Association, and is dedicated to the preservation of buses and coaches produced by Flxible. The organization holds a rally in Loudonville biannually, in even-numbered years and normally in mid-July, where many preserved Flxible coaches and buses may be seen.

The majority of vehicles owned by members are of the Clipper series (Clipper, Visicoach, Starliner) that were produced from the 1930s until 1967. However, there are also quite a few “non-clipper” Flxible coaches that are owned, maintained, and operated by proud Flxible owners. This includes the Starliner, VL100 (VistaLiner), Hi Level, and Flxliner as well as some of the more modern transit buses. Most of these vehicles have been converted to motor homes; however, there are still a few examples of seated coaches belonging to members.

Products

010

Unitrans Flxible New Look.

011

1925 Flxible Buick-Bus

012

1927 Flxible Bus

013

1930 Flxible in Hillsboro Road Garage Durham North Carolina

014

1932 FLXIBLE BUICK CHASSIS

015

1932 FLXible BUICK Flxible Parlor Coach body mounted on a 1932 Buick commercial chassis

016

1934 Flxible WoodFrame

017

1934 Flxible-Airway Ader Coach Lines 23

018

1937 Flxible 20-CL-78 MacKenzie Trailways 103 at Park Square Boston

019

1937 Flxible Chevrolet Clipper-Demo

020

1937 Flxible first Clipper Airway

021

1938 First al steel 1st clipper

022

1938 Flxible 29BR-38 Bowen Motor Coaches 401

023

1938 Flxible-Bus

024

1939 Flxible 29CR Clipper Tri-State Trailways 261

025

1941 Flxible 25-CR-41 1941

026

1941 Flxible All Steel Clipper

027

1941 Flxible-Clipper

028

1944 Flxible 29BR-44 Continental Bus System 580

029

1946 Flxible 29BR-46

030

1946 Flxible bus ©Tommy Beech

031

1946 Flxible-Bus

032

1946 flxible-bus ©Tommy Beech

033

1947 Flxible 29BR BZ-ShortLine RI-372

034

1947 Flxible 29BR-47 Capitol Bus Company 64

035

1947 Flxible 29BR-Airporter Demo

036

1947 Flxible 67360015

037

1947 Flxible Aerocoach Early bumper Trailways