FNM Fábrica Nacional de Motores Brasil 1942-1988

FNM

Fábrica Nacional de Motores

1942-1988 Brasil

FNM logo, largely inspired by the Alfa Romeo logo.

Fábrica Nacional de Motores (FNM) was a Brazilian manufacturer of engines and motor vehicles based in the Xerém district of Duque de Caxias near Rio de Janeiro that operated between 1942 and 1988.

Origins

The company was created 1942 by the Brazilian state as part of the Estado Novo agenda of President Getúlio Dornelles Vargas. It was one of several business launched by the state during this period (including also Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional launched in 1941 and CHESF in the later 1940s) to kick start an industrial sector in Brazil. Initially the company produced American Curtiss-Wright aircraft engines under license along with ammunition, bicycles, spindles and refrigerators.

1961 FNM D 11000 Brasil Fábrica Nacional de MotoresFNM D-11.000 with Brasinca cabin, 1961

After the Second World War it was decided to diversify production. The government was keen to launch a vehicle manufacturing industry. In 1949 an agreement was reached with the Italian manufacturer, Isotta Fraschini, whereby FNM would produce the Milanese company’s heavy trucks under license. Isotta Fraschini commercial vehicles enjoyed an excellent reputation at this time, but the Italian company was already economically troubled, although its formal bankruptcy would be put off till the end of 1951.

The Alfa Romeo connection

1964 FNM D-11.000 truckFNM D-11.000 truck, 1964

The disappearance of Isotta Fraschini as a vehicle manufacturer left FNM looking for a new technology partner. In 1952 an agreement was signed with Alfa Romeo, another Milanese vehicle manufacturer. Unusually in Europe, Alfa Romeo was (like FNM) a state owned business, following bankruptcy and a government rescue in the 1930s. Under the agreement with Alfa Romeo, FNM would manufacture Alfa Romeo’s commercial vehicle range under license. Though little known north of the Alps, Alfa Romeo commercial vehicles were well established in Italy, and other south European markets. Between 1956 and 1960 FNM built more than 15,000 heavy trucks of Alfa Romeo design: it also manufactured the chassis for buses and coaches. In the Brazilian heavy truck sector which FNM dominated till the early 1970s, FNM was initially the only manufacturer. Trucks produced by FNM were generally nicknamed “Fenemê”.

1968 FNM JK 2000 Alfa Romeo1968 FNM JK 2000

In the mid-fifties a company called Fabral S.A. (Fábrica Brasileira de Automóveis Alfa, “the Brazilian Alfa automobile factory”), a collaboration between Alfa Romeo and Brazilian investor Matarazzo, was set up to build the Alfa Romeo 2000 (tipo 102/B, “B” for Brazil). The car was to be built in Jacareí, in the state of São Paulo. The Matarazzo Group backed out in 1958, following troubled discussions about the suitability of building luxurious cars in poor Brazil. After pressure from then-President Juscelino Kubitschek FNM, in which Alfa Romeo already held a minority interest, took over the project. In 1960 FNM’s first passenger car was launched, the FNM 2000, a Brazilian version of the series 102 Alfa Romeo 2000 four-door sedan (berlina). The factory ended up being built in the Xerém neighborhood, of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro instead. The engine was the same 1,975 cc twin camshaft unit found in the Italian product, but detuned to produce only 95 PS (70 kW) and the car received the FNM logo. This series of cars was named “J.K.” in honor of President Kubitschek who had helped make the deal take place. This was by far the most luxurious, and most expensive, car built in Brazil in the period.

1966 Brazilian made FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni in 1966, over an Alfa Romeo platformBrazilian made FNM Onça, made by Genaro “Rino” Malzoni in 1966, over an Alfa Romeo platform

A coupé version was offered from 1966. Known as the FNM Onça (“Jaguar”), the coupé did not follow the line of any Alfa Romeo design, but featured an elegant locally designed body unmistakably reminiscent of the original Ford Mustang. The regular FNM 2000, meanwhile, was followed by more powerful versions, culminating with the 130 PS (96 kW) TIMB (“Turismo Internazional Modelo Brasileiro”), now boasting usefully more power than was claimed for its Alfa Romeo cousins of the time. The TIMB also featured a flat bonnet with a lower-mounted grille, as suggested by Lincoln Tendler aiming a better aerodynamic penetration, and a divided front bumper to accommodate the lower centerpiece. This same front design was also used for the succeeding FNM 2150, with some detail differences.

Alfa Romeo control

1971 FNM Fúria GT1971 Brazilian made FNM Furia GT, made by Toni Bianco in 1971, over an Alfa Romeo platform

In 1968 Alfa Romeo acquired a controlling share in the hitherto state-owned FNM business. The next year the FNM 2000 was replaced by a restyled version, the FNM 2150, the most obvious visual differences affecting the front of the car. For this application the twin camshaft four cylinder engine saw its capacity increased to 2132 cc, and performance was further enhanced through the installation of a better set of carburetors. The five-speed gearbox was the same one used in all cars made up to that moment. The FNM 2150 would continue in production from 1969 till 1974.

In 1971, another coupé called the Furia GT 2150 was presented to the public. Based on chassis and mechanics of the FNM/JK 2150 cc model, the car was designed by Brazilian designer Toni Bianco. Only a few hand built examples were produced, but the stylish coupé may have helped the public image of the by now aging design of the mainstream FNM 2150. Bianco later made some sporting creations carrying his own name.

Alfa Romeo had disposed of its commercial vehicle operations in Italy in the 1960s, and in 1973 the FNM commercial vehicle business was sold to Fiat‘s industrial vehicle division, while Alfa Romeo retained responsibility for the FNM automobile business – subsequently FNM’s commercial vehicle business ended up being absorbed into Fiat’s Brazilian Iveco business.

1954 FNM 210 clearly shows its Alfa Romeo origins in design.[10]The 1954 FNM 210 clearly shows its Alfa Romeo origins in design.

Closing chapter

1974 saw the FNM 2150 replaced with the Alfa Romeo 2300. This was the end for the FNM badged cars: the FNM badge itself, obviously inspired by the Alfa Romeo badge, was also replaced on this car with an actual Alfa Romeo badge. The general look of the new car was very similar to that of the Italian built Alfetta sedan, designed by Giuseppe Scarnati and first offered in Europe in 1972, although the Brazilian car was actually 41 centimetres (16 in) longer and 7 centimetres (2.8 in) wider than the Alfetta. Under the skin, the 2300 was based technically on the older Alfa Romeo 1900. The gear box of the 2300 was conventionally located adjacent to the engine and not (as with the Alfetta) across the rear axle. Like its Brazilian predecessor the 2300 featured a four-cylinder twin-camshaft engine, now of 2310 cc with a claimed output of 140 hp (100 kW). A maximum speed of 170 km/h (106 mph) was claimed. For the 1985 model year the 2300 was renamed as “Alfa Romeo 85”. This model was manufactured until November 1986.

Marketing opportunities were identified in Europe where Alfa Romeo’s locally designed attempt to move upmarket had made little impact on the competition from Bavaria: the Brazilian Alfa Romeo was offered briefly in 1981 under the designation Alfa Rio and distributed by Alfa Romeo Germany. Additionally, around 600 of the cars were shipped to The Netherlands.

The end

Alfa Romeo faced difficulties in Europe during the late 1970s and early 1980s, coming under increasing commercial pressure from the three largest German up-market auto producers even in Italy. Objective financial data concerning nationalized businesses are seldom published, but Alfa Romeo is believed to have operated at a substantial loss for much of its time under state control: in 1986 Romano Prodi who was at the time chairman of the IRI (the government body responsible for nationalised industries in Italy), wishing to reduce the losses of the IRI, transferred Alfa Romeo to the private sector, which in Italy’s mass market automobile business meant at this time Fiat. Since 1976 Fiat had been developing its own Brazilian operation, based in Betim. The Brazilian-based car business that had formerly comprised FNM was accordingly integrated into Fiat’s own Brazilian operation, and in 1988 the FNM badged commercial vehicles – already produced by a Fiat owned business since Alfa Romeo sold the business in 1973 – were rebadged as Iveco products.

Automobile production volumes

Production volumes of the FNM 2000/2150, to the extent these can be determined:

  • 1966: 474
  • 1967: 714
  • 1968:
  • 1969: 555
  • 1970: 1,209
  • 1971: ~800
  • 1972: 525
  • 1978: 4,017
  • 1979: 2,350

Models manufactured

Trucks

FNM D-7300 Truck FNM D-7300a

Alfa FNM D7300

Isotta Fraschini D80 NM Isotta Fraschini D80FNM D-7300

1957 FNM truck 1957 fnm57d9500-lourivaldasilveiralula 1957 ivomacedogenesiofnmd95001957carregadocomotrukdearrasto 1958 fnm d-9500ano58-laurindozatorski Alfa FNM D-9500 Cabine Metro espanta bebe Caio Coach FNM D-9500 FNM Alfa Romeo D-9500 FNM Brasinca D9500 FNM D 9500 DE MIRINHO POSSEBOM FNM D 9500 FNM D-9500 (BR 800.inca) FNM D-9500 a FNM D-9500 b FNM D-9500 Brasinca 4x2 FNM D-9500 c FNM D-9500 em Ponta Grossa FNM D-9500 Paper Model fnm-d-9500-03 Série D-9.500 (Alfa Romeo) ALFA - FNM Somente Alfa Romeo, Fnm 180, d9500 e D11000FNM D-95001960 FNM D11000 1960's FNM Alfa Romeo Truck - for transport of PASSENGERS in RIO DE JANEIRO in the early (1960s) 1961 FNM D 11000 Brasil Fábrica Nacional de Motores 1964 FNM D-11.000 truck 1964 FNM D-11000 – ano 1964 com reboque para transporte de madeira. FNM D-11000 – ano 1964 com basculante Trivellato de 4 m3 e o FNM (de cor cinza) com cabine 1964 FNM D-11000 Standard 1964 (b) FNM 11000 009 FNM Alfa Romeo D11000 - Brasil FNM Alfa Romeo D11000 Brazilia FNM Alfa Romeo of Brazil FNM D11.000 FNM d110000 bus FNM D-110000 truck_ad_2 FNM Isotta-Fraschini truck FNM Trekker before bus FNM Truck fnm-d-11000-05 fnm-d-11000-08 O trio de FNM D-11.000, na BR-116, a caminho de SalvadorFNM D-11000fnm 180-07 1976 fnm 180 brasil truck photo Fnm 180, d9500 e D11000 FNM 180-2 FNM 180-20 fnm 180-03 Fnm 180-3 1975 FNM 180 2572 fnm 180-2 (2) fnm 180-01 FNM 180 8 FNM 180 do Zé do Burro a Lenda By Sonicleiton Rodrigues fnm 180-1 Fnm 180-6 1979 FNM FIAT 180 1979-fr-ld-esq 1972-79 FNM 180 E 210 1979 FNM 180 j FNM 180 10 fnm-180-catalogo-de-pecas-para-reposico- Fnm 180 Alfa Romeu 1965 fnm 180 752FNM 1801975 FNM 210, 4X2, CABINE LEITO 1972-79 FNM 180 E 210 fnm 210 novageracao FIAT FNM 210 FIAT FNM 210 adv FNM 210 T+O fnm 210 cavalo+com+mecanica+fiat+190+santos+sp+brasil__6AF76F_1 FNM fiat 210 scania MLB-F-434 Fnm 210 Gts Fnm 210 aFNM 210

Passenger cars

1962 FNM JK 2000 Brasil 1963 FNM JK 2000 1964 FNM 2000 (R4 cyl, 1975 cc, 95 bhp) 1966 FNM 2000 TiMB 1967 FNM 2000 1968 a FNM 1968 FNM 2000 Ad 1968 FNM 2000 1968 FNM anuncio 1968 FNM JK 2000 Alfa Romeo fnm 13-texto FNM Fabrica1960 FNM 2000 J.K.1966 FNM ONCA a 1966 FNM Onca b 1966 FNM Onca small 1966 FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni over an Alfa Romeo platform red 1966 FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni, over an Alfa Romeo platform

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1967 fnm onca 671966 FNM 2000 Onça1958 FNM 2000 1966 FNM 2000 timb a 1966 FNM 2000 TiMB 1968 FNM 2000 TIMB ( FNM Alfa Romeo)

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1968 manual-f-n-m-2000-timb-alfa-romeo-1968-frete-gratis-14497-MLB4141444863 042013-F 1969 fnm 2000 timb 1970 FNM 2000 Timb FNM 2000 TIMB 4 FNM 2000 TIMB, com bancos reclináveis em couro e alavanca de mudanças no assoalho fnm 2000-timb 04 FNM 2000timB -DF-03 fnm 2000-timb011966 FNM 2000 TiMB1969 FNM Alfa Romeo 2150a 1969 FNM limousines Alfa Romeo do Brasil 1971 FNM 2150 sw 1971 1971 FNM 2150 1971 Quelle mille Alfa brasiliane 2150 sw 1972 FNM 2150 ( FNM Alfa Romeo)a 1972 FNM 2150 duas cabeças - ARCMG Emblema FNM fnm 13-texto fnm 2150-061969-1972 FNM 21501968 FNM 2000 Spider 021968 FNM 2000 Spider 1971 FNM Fúria GT fnm furia-01 fnm furia-02 fnm furia-06 fnm furia-09 fnm furia-111971 FNM Fúria GT

images

alfa 2300 brasil Alfa Romeo 2300 Brasil1974 Alfa Romeo 2300alfa 2300 B 01 Brasil1977 Alfa Romeo 2300 B Alfa-romeo-2300-TI-19771978 Alfa Romeo 2300 ti

1980 Alfa Romeo 2300 slAlfa Romeo 2300 ti41980-1986 Alfa Romeo 2300 ti4

Automobile technical data

Technical data FNM 2000/Onça/2150/2300
FNM: 2000 2000 TIMB Onca 2150 2300 (1975) 2300 ti (1975) 2300 ti4 (1985)
Engine: Straight-4 (four stroke)
Displacement: 1,975 cc (120.5 cu in) 2,131 cc (130.0 cu in) 2,310 cc (141 cu in)
Bore x Stroke: 84,5 x 88 mm 84,5 x 95 mm 88 x 95 mm
Power /rpm: 70 kW (95 PS)
at 5400
77 kW (105 PS) at 5700 85 kW (115 PS) at 5900 81 kW (110 PS)
at 5700
103 kW (140 hp SAE) at 5700 110 kW (149 SAE-PS)
at 5700
95 kW (130 PS)
at 5500
Max. Torque /rpm: 153 N·m (113 ft·lbf) at 3600 167 N·m (123 ft·lbf) at 3900 214 N·m (158 ft·lbf) at 3500 235 N·m (173 ft·lbf) at 3500 235 N·m (173 ft·lbf) at 3500
Fuel system: 1 downdraft double carburetor
Solex 35 APAIG
2 carburetors
Solex 44 PHH
1 downdraft double carburetor
Solex 35 APAIG
1 double carburetor 2 double carburetors 1 double carburetor
Valve gear: DOHC, chain
Cooling: Water cooling
Transmission: 5-speed gearbox 5-speed gearbox
Front wheel suspension: Unequal-length wishbones, coil springs
Rear wheel suspension: semi-trailing arm, coil springs
Brakes: Four-wheel drum brakes Disc brakes in front, drums in the back Disc brakes all around
Steering: Worm and Roller
Body: steel, self-supporting
Track front/rear: 1,400 mm (55.1 in)/1,370 mm (53.9 in) 1,397 mm (55.0 in)/1,400 mm (55.1 in)
Wheelbase: 2,720 mm (107.1 in)
Onca: 2,500 mm (98.4 in)
2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Dimensions: 4,715 mm (185.6 in) x 1,700 mm (66.9 in) x 1,450 mm (57.1 in) mm
Onca: 4,425 mm (174.2 in) x 1,670 mm (65.7 in) x 1,290 mm (50.8 in)
4,690 mm (184.6 in)/4,719 mm (185.8 in) x 1,692 mm (66.6 in) x 1,362 mm (53.6 in)
Unloaded weight: 1,360 kg (3,000 lb)
Onca: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb)
1,412 kg (3,113 lb)
Top speed: 155 km/h (96 mph) 165 km/h (103 mph) 175 km/h (109 mph) 165 km/h (103 mph) 170 km/h (110 mph) 175 km/h (109 mph) 170 km/h (110 mph)
0–100 km/h: not indicated 12,0 s
Consumption (Liter/100 Kilometer): 10.5 L/100 km (27 mpg-imp; 22 mpg-US) not indicated

1950 fnm 2 1952 FNM D-9500 cermava2 1952 FNM Restauracao-de-caminhoes-7 1954 FNM 210 Alfa Romeo 1954-72 FNM 800br1 1956  FNM 3-0 1956 FNM D-11000 1957 FNM d-9500 c 1957 fnm d-9500 o 1957 FNM truck 1958 FNM - BOSCA Diário do Paraná, Curitiba PR 1958 FNM 2000 1958 FNM Buildingtruck 1958 FNM D-11.000, com cabine Brasinca, possivelmente em 1958. 1958 fnm d-9500 l 1958 FNM Grand 1958 FNM Oleo Vegetal 1958 FNM's 1960 anexo05propagandalancamentofnm 1960 FNM Breda. В 80-е 1960 FNM Bus from CMTC in Sao Paulo, Brazil 1960 FNM Bus Truck 1960 FNM cermava14a 1960 FNM D-9.500 1957 1960 FNM D-11.000 1960 FNM 'Fabrica Nachional de Motores - from Brasil harbour 1960 FNM Isotta-Fraschini bus e 1960 FNM Isotta-Fraschini truck 1960 FNM Trekker before bus 1960's FNM Alfa Romeo Truck - for transport of PASSENGERS in RIO DE JANEIRO 1961 fnm 69 nilsonmachadodasilveira2donoa12anos1 1961 FNM D 11000 Brasil Fábrica Nacional de Motores 1962 FNM JK 2000 Brasil 1963 FNM JK 2000 1964 FNM 2000 (R4 cyl, 1975 cc, 95 bhp) 1964 FNM D-11.000 truck 1964 FNM D-11000 – FNM D-11000 – com cabine 1964 FNM D-11000 truck Standard(b) 1964 FNM D11000 1965 fnm 180 752 1966 FNM 2000 timb a 1966 FNM 2000 TiMB 1966 FNM ONCA a 1966 FNM Onca b 1966 FNM Onca small 1966 FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni over an Alfa Romeo platform red 1966 FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni, over an Alfa Romeo platform

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1967 FNM 2000 1967 FNM JK 2000 1967 1967 fnm onca 67 1968 a FNM 1968 anuncio de novos o^nibus FNM OESP_18.02.1968 - WILLIAM GUARUBUS 1968 FNM 2000 Ad 1968 FNM 2000 manual-f-n-m-2000-timb-alfa-romeo-1968-frete-gratis-14497-MLB4141444863 042013-F 1968 FNM 2000 Spider 02 1968 FNM 2000 TIMB ( FNM Alfa Romeo)

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1968 FNM 2000 1968 FNM 2000-timbManual-alfa-romeo-frete-gratis-14497-MLB4141444863 042013-F 1968 FNM anuncio 1968 FNM Fabrica National de Motores 1968 FNM JK 2000 Alfa Romeo 1968 FNM V12 - adv (1968) 1968 manual-f-n-m-2000 1969 fnm 2000 timb 1969 FNM Alfa Romeo 2150a 1969 FNM limousines Alfa Romeo do Brasil 1969 FNMs vistos em algum lugar da construção da Variante Pinhalzinho - Uvaranas, obra do Tronco Principal Sul, em Janeiro de 1969 1969, a FNM lançou o 2150 1970 FNM 2000 Timb 1970 FNM Alfa Romeo 2150 Pick-up - from Brasil

1971 Brazilian made FNM Furia GT, made by Toni Bianco over an Alfa Romeo platform 1971 FNM 2150 sw 1971 1971 FNM 2150 1971 FNM Fúria GT 1971 Placa de Telemaco Borba-PR Arquivo de Miklos Stammer e digitalizaçao de Werner Keifer 1971 Quelle mille Alfa brasiliane 2150 sw 1972 FNM 2150 ( FNM Alfa Romeo)a 1972 FNM 2150 duas cabeças - ARCMG 1972 FNM D11.000 v12  do Sr. Geraldo de Guarapuava 1972 FNM-4Rodas-Dezembro 1972-79 FNM 180 E 210 1973 fnm 180 cv 1973 FNM 210-1 adv 1975 FNM 180 2572 1975 FNM 180 de propriedade de Geraldo Beleski a 1975 FNM 180 de propriedade de Geraldo Beleski b 1975 FNM 210, 4X2, CABINE LEITO 1976 Alfa Romeo 2300 1976 Caminhão FNM Antigo 1976 fnm 18 caminho-catalogo-truck-fiat-prospecto-14550-MLB78146592_4474-O 1976 fnm 180 brasil truck photo 1976 FNM 180 1976 FNM FIAT 180 1976 em Piracicaba-SP 1976 fnm180 prop-alceuviero 1979 FNM 180 j 1979 FNM FIAT 180 1979-fr-ld-esq 1983 Alfa-Romeo 2300 Ti4 - Brasil alfa 2300 B 01 Brasil alfa 2300 brasil Alfa Romeo 85 Um Carro Com Historia Alfa Romeo 2300 75 propaganda Alfa Romeo 2300 Brasil Alfa Romeo 2300 ti4 alfa romeo 2300 Alfa-romeo-2300-TI-1977 Alfa-Romeo-2300-TL Alfa-Romeo-2300-VI Emblema FNM F.N.M. Brasilia motorkap FIAT FNM 210 adv FIAT FNM 210 FIAT-FNM FNM - adv FNM - Baixo Guandu-ES. FNM - BRASIL A-JE-8099 FNM - BRASIL Bus FNM - BRASIL remover FNM - BRASIL under water FNM  Brazilian Alfa Romeo Truck - adv FNM - Cabine CAIO (1)Caio Papa-Fila FNM - Modelo 210 - Nova Geração FNM (2) FNM 1 fnm 3 texto fnm 13-texto fnm 18-texto fnm 31-texto-x1 fnm 33-texto1 FNM 69 Nilson Machado da Silveira FNM 180 - BRASIL FNM 180 8 FNM 180 10 Fnm 180 Alfa Romeu FNM 180 do Zé do Burro a Lenda By Sonicleiton Rodrigues FNM 180 trabalhando Fnm 180, d9500 e D11000 FNM 180, o caminhão amarelo está a 3 anos. fnm 180-01 fnm 180-1 fnm 180-2 (2) FNM 180-2 fnm 180-03 Fnm 180-3 fnm 180-05 Fnm 180-6 fnm 180-07 FNM 180-20 fnm 180-catalogo-de-pecas-para-reposico- FNM 190-210 Fnm 210 a fnm 210 cavalo+com+mecanica+fiat+190+santos+sp+brasil__6AF76F_1

FNM 210 clearly shows its Alfa Romeo origins in design Fnm 210 FIAT 2737 Fnm 210 Gts FNM 210 interior fnm 210 novageracao FNM 210 T+O FNM 2000 TIMB 4 FNM 2000 TIMB, com bancos reclináveis em couro e alavanca de mudanças no assoalho Fnm 2000-4 fnm 2000-09 fnm 2000-timb 04 FNM 2000timB -DF-03 fnm 2000-timb01 FNM 2908 512c25 FNM 11000 009 FNM ad 1 FNM adv FNM Alfa Brazil FNM Alfa Romeo - from Brasil P FNM Alfa Romeo 1000 Caminhoes FNM Alfa Romeo adv FNM Alfa Romeo cabine Brasinca FNM Alfa Romeo Caminhao - Truck FNM Brasil Shield B+W FNM Bus Brasil inspecäo FNM Bus Brasil super FNM Bus Brasil FNM Bus Vitoria Brasil FNM Cabine nao identificada! FNM CAMINHÕES E ÔNIBUS - BRASIL FNM COBRACO Brasil Adv FNM D 11.000 8x8 z-w FNM D 9500 DE MIRINHO POSSEBOM FNM D 9500 FNM D 11000 Pecas genuies FNM D-9.500 (Alfa Romeo)  ALFA - FNM FNM D-11.000 8x8 Yellow FNM D-11.000 8x8 FNM D-11.000 A10-3728 FNM D-11.000 ainda na atividade FNM D-11.000 Bi Truck FNM D-11.000 Bl Brazil FNM D-11.000 Blauw other side FNM D-11.000 Blauw side FNM D-11.000 Blauw FNM D-11.000 Cabine Brasinca - BRASIL Drawing FNM D-11.000 kap FNM D-11.000, na BR-116, a caminho de Salvador FNM D-11.000. Davi Boçon Local Paranaguá FNM D11.000 FNM D7300 Eliziário Micro-Ônibus Alfa FNM D-7300 Truck FNM D-7300 FNM D-7300a FNM D-9500 (BR 800.inca) FNM D-9500 a FNM D-9500 Alfa Romeo a ad FNM D-9500 Alfa Romeo ad FNM D-9500 Alfa Romeo FNM D-9500 b FNM D-9500 Brasinca 4x2 FNM D-9500 Brasinca FNM D-9500 c FNM D-9500 Cabine Metro espanta bebe FNM D-9500 Cabine Standard Intermediária FNM D-9500 Caio Coach FNM D-9500 em Ponta Grossa FNM D-9500 Paper Model FNM D-9500 Yellow Brasil FNM D-9500 fnm d-9500-03 FNM D-11000 - 02 FNM D-11000 - BRASIL adv FNM D-11000 -Alfa Romeo Brasil FNM D-11000 Alfa Romeo Brazilia FNM D-11000 Alfa Romeo of Brazil FNM D-11000 Alfa Romeo Truck 2 colores FNM D-11000 Alfa Romeo Truck FNM D-11000 alfa FNM D-11000 Bra Yel FNM d-11000 bus FNM D-11000 Cegonheira da Brazul transportando veículos VW à serem exportados para o Chile fnm d-11000-05 fnm d-11000-08 FNM D-110000 truck ad 2 FNM Dirt truck FNM Drawing FNM dsc05359 FNM Fabrica FNM fiat 210 scania MLB-F-434 FNM FIAT Red eumajoiabemlimpoepolidomoyzes-94 FNM Fiat fnm furia-01 fnm furia-02 fnm furia-06 fnm furia-09 fnm furia-11 FNM GMF Brasil fnm hist 7 fnm history FNM imagenssonyericsson021 FNM images FNM img00621-copia FNM Interior FNM Isotta Franchini Trucks FNM Isotta Fraschini D80 NM FNM Isotta Fraschini D80 FNM Isotta-Fraschini bus g FNM Isotta-Fraschini truck (2) FNM Isotta-Fraschini truck b FNM Isotta-Fraschini truck c FNM Isotta-Fraschini truck d FNM JK 2000-2150 FNM ladodireito FNM LANCA O V-12 FNM logo, largely inspired by the Alfa Romeo logo. FNM marlon143 FNM Nielson Bus AVG-0064 Brasil FNM Nielson Bus Brasil FNM Nielson Diplomata Alfa-Romeo D 11.000 FNM nielson1a FNM nt-9611 31 FNM of BRAZIL farm4 FNM of Brazil FNM OLD BRAZILIAN TRUCK FNM p4060016 FNM pas restorado brasil fnm pbmiklos16-1 FNM PESANT I3 FNM REBOQUE-2 FNM Small FNM Trolleybus Brasil FNM tru FNM Truck met oplegger FNM TRUCK. Fábrica Nacional de Motores Brazilië FNM Trucks Brazilië FNM Twice dsc01496 fnm vermelho FNM, BRAZIL FNM FNM's from train brasil FNM's times five FNN Brazilië ROGNINI Ellettrolocomotive Milano

That’s what I could find on the WWW.

STUDEBAKER – E-M-F – ERSKINE – ROCKNE South Bend Indiana USA 1852 – 1967

 Studebaker

Studebaker Corporation
Industry Vehicle manufacture
Founded February 1852
Founders Studebaker brothers (pictured below)
Defunct May 1967
Headquarters South Bend, Indiana, USA
Products Automobiles
historic wagons, carriages, buses and harness
Parent Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company

1917 Studebaker logo

Studebaker “turning wheel” badge on cars produced 1912–1934

Studebaker (1852-1967, /ˈst(j)dəbkə/ stew-də-bay-kər) was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. Founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1868 under the name of the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, the company was originally a producer of wagons for farmers, miners, and the military.

1902 Studebaker advertisement 1902 Studebaker 1903 studebaker electric 1 1904 Studebaker Victoria Phaeton 1905StudebakerElectricAd1 1906 Studebaker 1908 STUDE Elec 4 8 p 413 truck XX 1909 studebaker elec model 22 1911 Studebaker electric car

Studebaker entered the automotive business in 1902 with electric vehicles and in 1904 with gasoline vehicles, all sold under the name “Studebaker Automobile Company”. Until 1911, its automotive division operated in partnership with the Garford Company of Elyria, Ohio and after 1909 with the E-M-F Company. The first gasoline automobiles to be fully manufactured by Studebaker were marketed in August 1912. Over the next 50 years, the company established an enviable reputation for quality and reliability. After years of financial problems, in 1954 the company merged with luxury carmaker Packard to form Studebaker-Packard Corporation. However, Studebaker’s financial problems were worse than the Packard executives thought. The Packard marque was phased out and the company returned to the Studebaker Corporation name in 1962. The South Bend plant ceased production on December 20, 1963 and the last Studebaker automobile rolled off the Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, assembly line on March 16, 1966.

History

1910 Studebaker

1910

19th-century wagonmaker

1912 E-M-F Model 30 Roadster 1912

1912 E-M-F Model 30 Roadster 1912

German forebears

1913 Studebaker

1913

According to the official Studebaker history written by Albert R. Erskine, History of the Studebaker Corporation, South Bend, Indiana, published in 1918, “The ancestors of the Studebaker family first arrived in America at the Port of Philadelphia on September 1, 1736, on the ship Harle, from Rotterdam, Holland, as shown by the original manuscripts now in the Pennsylvania State Library at Harrisburg, and included Peter Studebecker, age 38 years; Clement Studebecker, age 36 years; Henry Studebecker, age 28 years; Anna Margetha Studebecker, age 38 years; Anna Catherine Studebecker, age 28 years. The last part of the name, “becker,” was afterwards changed to “baker.” The tax list of what was then Huntington Township, York County, Pennsylvania, in 1798-9, showed among the taxable were Peter Studebaker, Sr., and Peter Studebaker, Jr., wagon-makers, which trade later became the foundation of the family fortune and the corporation which now bears the name.

1916 Studebaker SF Tourer a 1916 Studebaker SF Tourer

1916 Studebaker SF Tourer

In Albert Russel Erskine‘s official history, John Studebaker, father of the five brothers, born in Adams County, Pennsylvania, was the son of Peter Studebaker. Anyone with interest can view the pages of Erskin 1918 annual report on Bakers Lookout exhibit page for Albert R. Erskine.

1916 Studebaker 16 pass. winnipeg-WEC101-104buses-crmw

1916 Studebaker 16 pass. winnipeg Buses1916 Studebaker Speedster 1916 Studebaker Touring

In any event, John Studebaker (1799–1877) moved to Ohio in 1835 with his wife Rebecca (née Mohler) (1802–1887)—and taught his five sons to make wagons. They all went into that business as it grew to gigantic proportions with the country.

The five brothers

The five Studebaker brothers—founders of the Studebaker Corporation. Left to right, (standing) Peter and Jacob; (seated) Clem, Henry, and John M.

1916 Studebaker Speedster

1916-studebaker-speedster

The five sons were, in order of birth: Henry (1826–1895), Clement (1831–1901), John Mohler (1833–1917), Peter Everst (1836–1897) and Jacob Franklin (1844–1887). The boys had five sisters. Photographs of the brothers and their parents are reproduced in the 1918 company history, which was written by Erskine after he became president, in memory of John M., whose portrait appears on the front cover.

South Bend operation

1916 Studebaker Touring

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Clement and Henry Studebaker, Jr., became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana, in February 1852. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of complete wagons. At this time, John M. was making wheelbarrows in Placerville,California. The site of his business is California Historic Landmark #142.

1916 Studebaker

1916

The first major expansion in Henry and Clem’s South Bend business came from their being in the right place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush that began in 1849.

1918 Studebaker Ambulance by Armstrong & Hotson emergency

1918 Studebaker Ambulance by Armstrong & Hotson emergency

1918 Studebaker RHTCbus

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From his wheelbarrow enterprise at Placerville, John M. had amassed $8,000. In April 1858, he quit and moved out to apply this to financing the vehicle manufacturing of H & C Studebaker, which was already booming because of a big order to build wagons for the US Army. In 1857, they had also built their first carriage—”Fancy, hand-worked iron trim, the kind of courting buggy any boy and girl would be proud to be seen in”.

1919 Studebaker

1919

1919 Studebaker WECo 16 seats Winnipeg

1919 Studebaker WECo 16 seats Winnipeg

That was when John M. bought out Henry’s share of the business. Henry was deeply religious and had qualms about building military equipment. The Studebakers were Dunkard Brethren, conservative German Baptists, a religion that viewed war as evil. Longstreet’s official company history simply says “Henry was tired of the business. He wanted to farm. The risks of expanding were not for him”. Expansion continued from manufacture of wagons for westward migration as well as for farming and general transportation. During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons used were Studebakers. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings for other builders in Missouri for another quarter-century.

1920 Studebaker a 1920 Studebaker

1920

The fourth brother, Peter E, was running a successful general store at Goshen which was expanded in 1860 to include a wagon distribution outlet. A major leap forward came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the Civil War (1861–65). By 1868, annual sales had reached $350,000. That year, the three older brothers formed the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company—Clem (president), Peter (secretary), and John M. (treasurer). By this time the factory had a spur line to the Lake Shore railroad and, with the Union Pacific Railroad finished, most wagons were now dispatched by rail and steamship.

1921 Studebaker 2 1921 Studebaker Nwk

1920 NL

World’s largest vehicle house

Studebaker wagon hauled by eight Budweiser Clydesdales in Wisconsin, 2009

In 1875, the youngest brother, 30-year-old Jacob, was brought into the company to take charge of the carriage factory, making sulkies and five-glass landaus. Following a great fire in 1874 which destroyed two-thirds of the entire works, they had rebuilt in solid brick, covering 20 acres (81,000 m2) and were now “The largest vehicle house in the world”.[8]:p.43 Customers could choose from Studebaker sulkies, broughams, clarences,phaetons, runabouts, victorias, and tandems. For $20,000 there was a four-in-hand for up to a dozen passengers, with red wheels, gold-plated lamps and yellow trim.

1922 Studebaker a 1922 Studebaker b 1922 Studebaker c 1922 Studebaker d 1922 Studebaker e 1922 Studebaker

1922

1922 Studebaker Big Six Child's Hearse 1922 Studebaker Child's Hearse

In the 1880s, roads started to be surfaced with tar, gravel, and wooden blocks. In 1884, when times were hard, Jacob opened a carriage sales and service operation in a fine new Studebaker Building on Michigan Avenue, Chicago. The two granite columns at the main entrance, 3 feet 8 inches (1.12 m) in diameter and 12 feet 10 inches (3.91 m) high, were said to be the largest polished monolithic shafts in the country. Three years later in 1887, Jacob died—the first death among the brothers.

1923 Studebaker

1923 Studebaker van Maessen

1923 Studebaker van Maessen NL

In 1889, incoming President Harrison ordered a full set of Studebaker carriages and harnesses for the White House. The only issue was that the harness fell apart during a ride and all of the horses escaped. As the twentieth century approached, the South Bend plant “covered nearly 100 acres (0.40 km2) with 20 big boilers, 16 dynamos, 16 large stationary engines, 1000 pulleys, 600 wood- and iron-working machines, 7 miles (11 km) of belting, dozens of steam pumps, and 500 arc and incandescent lamps making white light over all”.

1924 studebaker amb 3 1924 studebaker ambulance 2

1924 Studebaker Ambulance-Hearse-Policecar

1924 Studebaker bus in Wassenaar Voor de oorlog 42

1924 Studebaker Buses in Wassenaar Holland

1924 Studebaker Gotfredson bus4

1924 Studebaker bus Gotfredson

The worldwide economic depression of 1893 caused a dramatic pause in sales and the plant closed down for five weeks, but industrial relations were good and the organized workforce declared faith in their employer.

1925 Studebaker Bender Bus

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1925 Studebaker body5 9litre6cyl 1925 Studebaker Bus a

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1925 Studebaker Bus Catalog-01 1925 Studebaker Bus Catalog-08

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1925 Studebaker Bus

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1925 Studebaker van Kerckhoffs, die is ingebracht in de VAD-Central1925-studebaker-van-kerckhoffs-die-is-ingebracht-in-de-vad-central 1 NL

1925 Studebaker Police Paddy Wagon.

1925 Studebaker Police Paddy Wagon.

The impressive wagons pulled by the Budweiser Clydesdales are Studebaker wagons modified to carry beer, originally manufactured circa 1900.

Family association continues

The five brothers died between 1887 and 1917 (John Mohler was the last to die). Their sons and sons-in-law remained active in the management, most notably lawyer Fred Fish after his marriage to John M’s daughter Grace in 1891. Col. George M Studebaker, Clement Studebaker Jr, J M Studebaker Jr, and [Fred Sr’s son] Frederick Studebaker Fish served apprenticeships in different departments and rose to important official positions, with membership on the board. Erskine adds sons-in-law Nelson J Riley, Charles A Carlisle, H D Johnson, and William R Innis.

1926 studebaker hearse

1926 Studebaker Hearse

1926 Studebaker Six Duplex Phaeton

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1926 Studebaker Bus (middle) in Manitoba

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1926 studebaker camperbus ad mbldg forum

1926-studebaker-camperbus-ad-mbldg-forum © Richard Zuinn

1926 STUDEBAKER Pennock

1926 Studebaker Carr. Pennock The Hague The Netherlands

1926 Studebaker Six Duplex Phaeton

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1926 Studebaker Taxi lede 1926 Studebaker taxi 1926 StudeTaxi

Studebaker automobiles 1897–1911

In the beginning

In 1895, John M. Studebaker’s son-in-law Fred Fish urged for development of ‘a practical horseless carriage’. When, on Peter Studebaker’s death, Fish became chairman of the executive committee in 1897, the firm had an engineer working on a motor vehicle. At first, Studebaker opted for electric (battery-powered) over gasoline propulsion. While manufacturing its own Studebaker Electric vehicles from 1902 to 1911, the company entered into body-manufacturing and distribution agreements with two makers of gasoline-powered vehicles, Garford of Elyria, Ohio, and the Everitt-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit and Walkerville, Ontario). Studebaker began making gasoline-engined cars in partnership with Garford in 1904.

Garford

1908 Studebaker-Garford B limousine

1908 Studebaker-Garford B limousine

1912 Studebaker Bus

1912 Studebaker bus

Under the agreement with Studebaker, Garford would receive completed chassis and drivetrains from Ohio and then mate them with Studebaker-built bodies, which were sold under the Studebaker-Garford brand name at premium prices. Eventually, vehicles with Garford-built engines began to carry the Studebaker name. Garford also built cars under its own name and, by 1907, attempted to increase production at the expense of Studebaker. Once the Studebakers discovered this, John Mohler Studebaker enforced a primacy clause, forcing Garford back on to the scheduled production quotas. The decision to drop the Garford was made and the final product rolled off the assembly line by 1911, leaving Garford alone until it was acquired by John North Willys in 1913.

E-M-F

EMF30logo

Studebaker’s agreement with the E-M-F Company, made in September 1908 was a different relationship, one John Studebaker had hoped would give Studebaker a quality product without the entanglements found in the Garford relationship, but this was not to be. Under the terms of the agreement, E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and Studebaker would distribute them exclusively through its wagon dealers.

1909 auto show emfs 1909 EMF 30 DV 05 HH 01 1909 EMF

E-M-F 1909

The E-M-F gasoline-powered cars proved disastrously unreliable, causing wags to say that E-M-F stood for Every Morning Fix-it, Easy Mark’s Favorite, and the like. Compounding the problems was the infighting between E-M-F’s principal partners, Everitt, Flanders, and Metzger. Eventually in mid-1909, Everitt and Metzger left to start a new enterprise. Flanders also quit and joined them in 1912 but the Metzger Motor Car Co could not be saved from failure by renaming it the Flanders Motor Company.

1910 EMF Model 30 1910 EMF Model 30a 1910 EMF 1910 road race emf

E-M-F 1910

1911 EMF Demi Tonneau 1911 EMF factory team race car 1911 EMF Model 30 1911 EMF 1911emf-tr

E-M-F 1911

Studebaker’s president, Fred Fish, had purchased one-third of the E-M-F stock in 1908 and followed up by acquiring all the remainder from J. P. Morgan in 1910 and buying E-M-F’s manufacturing plants at Walkerville, Ontario, Canada, and across the river in Detroit.

1912 EMF Model 30 Roadster 1912 EMF Model 30a 1912 Studebaker Flanders Roadster 1912emf2 EMF 30 Fore-door E-M-F 's la-car-concours-mercer-and-emf

E-M-F 1912

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Studebaker marque established in 1911

Studebaker Dealer Neon

In 1910, it was decided to refinance and incorporate as the Studebaker Corporation, which was concluded on 14 February 1911 under New Jersey laws. The company discontinued making electric vehicles that same year. The financing was handled by Lehman Brothers and Goldman Sachs who provided board representatives including Henry Goldman whose contribution was especially esteemed.

1927

1927 Studebaker Bus 1927 Studebaker Hearse 1927 Studebaker 1927 Studebaker-bus-no29-1927

After taking over E-M-F’s facilities, Studebaker sought to remedy the customer dissatisfaction by paying mechanics to visit each disgruntled owner and replace defective parts in their vehicles, at a total cost of US$1 million. The worst problem was rear-axle failure. Hendry comments that the frenzied testing resulted in Studebaker’s aim to design ‘for life’—and the consequent emergence of “a series of really rugged cars… the famous Big and Special Sixes”. From that time, Studebaker’s own marque was put on all new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities as an assurance that the vehicles were well built.

Engineering advances from WWI

The corporation benefited from enormous orders cabled by the British government at the outbreak of World War I. They included 3,000 transport wagons, 20,000 sets of artillery harness, 60,000 artillery saddles, and ambulances, as well as hundreds of cars purchased through the London office. Similar orders were received from the governments of France and Russia.

1928

1928 Studebaker ah 1928 Studebaker Bus at the Battle Creek Sanitarium a 1928 Studebaker Bus at the Battle Creek Sanitarium 1928 Studebaker Bus at the Battle Sanitarium Bus 1928 Studebaker Bus in Colorado 1928 Studebaker by 7 1928 Studebaker Rack Side Flatbed Truck 1928 studebaker superior 1928 Studebaker.19281930.type.D5521.carr.JanKarsijns.rezij

The 1913 six-cylinder models were the first cars to employ the important advancement of monobloc engine casting which became associated with a production-economy drive in the years of the war. At that time, a 28-year-old university graduate engineer, Fred M. Zeder, was appointed chief engineer. He was the first of a trio of brilliant technicians, with Owen R. Skelton and Carl Breer, who launched the successful 1918 models, and were known as “The Three Musketeers“. They left in 1920 to form a consultancy, later to become the nucleus of Chrysler Engineering. The replacement chief engineer was Guy P. Henry, who introduced molybdenum steel, an improved clutch design, and presided over the six-cylinders-only policy favored by new president Albert Russel Erskine who replaced Fred Fish in July 1915.

End of horse-drawn era

John M. Studebaker had always viewed the automobile as complementary to the horse-drawn wagon, pointing out that the expense of maintaining a car might be beyond the resources of a small farmer. In 1918, when Erskine’s history of the firm was published, the annual capacity of the seven Studebaker plants was 100,000 automobiles, 75,000 horse-drawn vehicles, and about $10,000,000 worth of automobile and vehicle spare parts and harness.

1929

1929 Studebaker 15 Passenger Bus 1929 Studebaker Coach 1929 Studebaker Commander Superior Samaritan [FD] 1929 Studebaker Commander Superior 'Samaritan' Ambulance 1929 studebaker presdent straight eight roadster for four 1929 Studebaker President Eight Roadster 1929 studebaker property of my grandfather 1929 Studebaker RV 1929 studebaker

In the preceding seven years, 466,962 horse-drawn vehicles had been sold, as against 277,035 automobiles, but the trend was all too clear. The regular manufacture of horse-drawn vehicles ended when Erskine ordered removal of the last wagon gear in 1919. To its range of cars, Studebaker would now add a truck line to replace the horse-drawn wagons. Buses, fire engines, and even small rail locomotive-kits were produced using the same powerful six-cylinder engines.

First auto proving ground

In 1925, the corporation’s most successful distributor and dealer Paul G. Hoffman came to South Bend as vice-president in charge of sales. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States to open a controlled outdoor proving ground on which, in 1937, would be planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that spelled “STUDEBAKER” when viewed from the air. Also in 1926, the last of the Detroit plant was moved to South Bend under the control of Harold S Vance, vice-president in charge of production and engineering.

1930

1930 Studebaker brandweerwagen victoria 1930 Studebaker Bus 1930 Studebaker Commander Eight Brougham 1 1930 Studebaker Commander Eight Brougham 1930 Studebaker Hearse or Ambulance 1930 studebaker president coupe 1930 studebaker President Sedan 1930 Studebaker unknown

That year, a new small car, the Erskine Six was launched in Paris, resulting in 26,000 sales abroad and many more in America. By 1929, the sales list had been expanded to 50 models and business was so good that 90 per cent of earnings were being paid out as dividends to shareholders in a highly competitive environment. However, the end of that year ushered in the Great Depression that saw many layoffs and massive national unemployment for several years.

Facilities in the 1920s

Studebaker’s total plant area was 225 acres (0.91 km2), spread over three locations, with buildings occupying seven-and-a-half million square feet of floor space. Annual production capacity was 180,000 cars, requiring 23,000 employees.

The original South Bend vehicle plant continued to be used for small forgings, springs, and making some body parts. Separate buildings totaling over one million square feet were added in 1922–23 for the Light, Special, and Big Six models. At any one time, 5,200 bodies were in process. South Bend’s Plant 2 made chassis for the Light Six and had a foundry of 575,000 sq ft (53,400 m2), producing 600 tons of castings daily.

1931

1931 Studebaker ambulance by finhead4ever