YOUNGMAN Buses, Cars and Trucks China


China Youngman Automobile Group Co., Ltd.
(trading as Youngman)

Industry Automotive
Founded 2001
Founders Pang Qingnian
Headquarters Jinhua, Zhejiang, China
Products Automobiles, buses and trucks
Employees Approx 4,000
Subsidiaries Spyker N.V.(29.9%)
Website Youngman

Youngman (officially China Youngman Automobile Group Co., Ltd.) (Chinese: 青年汽车集团) is a Chinese manufacturer of automobiles, buses and trucks located in Jinhua, Zhejiang province. The company was founded in 2001 by Pang Qingnian.


“Youngman” is an English literalization of the name of the company’s founder, Pang Qingnian.


The Samand car from Iran Khodro

The Samand car from Iran Khodro.
2011 Youngman Lotus L5.

A 2011 Youngman Lotus L5.

Youngman was founded in 2001 by Pang Qingnian. In the early-2000s the company formed joint ventures with two German companies – a bus manufacturing venture with Neoplan (at the time known as Gottlob Auwärter GmbH & Co. KG) and a truck manufacturing venture with MAN. After increasing of orders, the manufacturer has built plants in the cities of Jinan, Tai’an, Lianyungang, Quzhou and some other places to meet the high number of orders.

In September 2006 Youngman established a joint venture with the Iranian state-owned carmaker Iran Khodro for the manufacture of Iran Khodro’s Samand and Soren models at Youngman’s Tai’an plant, with parts supplied by PSA Peugeot Citroën.

In November 2006, Youngman became the official Chinese importer for the British sports car maker Lotus Cars. In another joint-venture with the Lotus Group which was closed in December 2008, Youngman is assembling Lotus and Europestar branded cars in Guangdong for the Domestic Chinese and export market. The units receive a Chinese independent brand to differentiate itself from the British sports car models. With the Lotus joint venture, Youngman is engaged in secondary activities as the exclusive importer of American automotive brand ZAP!. Both brands had its China debut at the Beijing International Auto Show in 2009.

In 2007, Youngman acquired the American electric car maker Detroit Electric, with the intention of manufacturing vehicles for the North American market. In May 2008 it was reported that Youngman had signed two major agreements with the Malaysian carmaker Proton. The first was for the import of 30,000 Proton Gen-2 models from Malaysia to China over two years, to be sold under the EuropeStar marque as the RCR. The second was a licensing deal for Proton’s Lotus-designed Campro engine, whereby Proton would sell 150,000 complete knock down units to Youngman over the subsequent six years.

In June 2010 Youngman announced that it would be making an investment of CNY 4 billion in the construction of new manufacturing facilities in Haining, Zhejiang Province, for the production of passenger cars, alternative energy powertrain systems, vehicle bridges, transmissions and inner and exterior auto components.


On 28 October 2011 it was reported that Youngman and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co had agreed a joint 100-millionEuro (USD140 million) takeover of the Swedish carmaker Saab Automobile and its United Kingdom dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

Both Chinese companies pledged to invest 610 million euros ($844 million), prompting a court to extend the manufacturer’s protection against creditors.

In December 2011 General Motors (GM) blocked the Chinese buy out, since GM has technology licenses in SAAB.

Saab’s restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on 7 November 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month. On 19 December 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

On 6 March 2012 an Indian news paper reported that at least two companies have placed bids for complete SAAB Automobile buy out. These are India‘s Mahindra and Mahindra and China‘s Youngman. It is reported that these bids are in the range $300 million to $400 million.

On 13 June 2012 it was announced that the National Electric Vehicle Sweden had bought Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy estate.

Spyker joint ventures

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Dutch luxury sportscar maker Spyker N.V. for €6.7 million, and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P joint venture will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker respectively. The Spyker Phoenix joint venture will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab’s Phoenix platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker respectively.


Youngman sells passenger cars in China under the Youngman-Lotus marque. Current products include the L3 and L5 models, and are engineered with the assistance of the United Kingdom-based Lotus Engineering.

Youngman currently produces coaches and trucks in collaboration with the Germany-based MAN Truck & Bus. Coaches are sold under the Youngman and Neoplan marques.Trucks are sold under the Youngman and MAN marques.

Youngman-Neoplan a






Yutong (officially Zhengzhou Yutong Group Co., Ltd.)

is a conglomerate based in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China focused on bus manufacturing as the core business, construction machinery and real estate as the strategic business and at the same time giving attention to other investment portfolios.


The company was established in 1963 as the Zhengzhou Yutong Group Co., Ltd.

Yutong Bus

A core part of the company, Zhengzhou Yutong Bus Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Yutong Bus”), is located in Zhengzhou Industrial Parkand now has developed into the largest and most advanced bus manufacturing base in Asia.


In 2012 Yutong delivered 51,688 buses and coaches, a rise of 10.71 percent compared with the same period of last year.

Yutong city bus in Almaty, Kazakhstan

Yutong city bus in Almaty, Kazakhstan.

In 2009, Yutong bus sales reached 28,186 units, while exports slumped 64% from 2008 to 1,010 units due to global financial crisis.

In 2007, sales amount of Yutong Group reached high up to RMB 12,588,000,000, taking up over 22% of the domestic market share. In the same year, 25,522 units of Yutong buses were sold throughout the year, making Yutong Group once again enter into world top 5 considering the sales volume. And among them, 3,319buses were exported with the export amount up to USD187 million, increasing 92% compared with the corresponding period last year. Till now, the possessed number of Yutong buses all over the world exceeds 120 thousand, making Yutong an international large-scale bus manufacturing enterprise.

In 1997, Yutong Bus became the first domestic bus enterprise listed in Shanghai Stock Exchange with its stock code 600066,becoming a long-established blue-chip potential stock in China’s A stock market. The main economic indicators of the enterprise have been growing rapidly for ten continuous years. Yutong Bus has obtained AAA credit from ICBC for eight consecutive years and was awarded by BAAV “The Best Export Marketing Campaign of the Year 2006”, “The Best Marketing Campaign of the Year 2007” and “Coach Builder of the Year” in 2002, 2005 and 2006.


In Apr. 2006, “Three Ministries and Commissions” such as Science and Technology Department embarked jointly on the pilot work of enterprises with independent innovation, and Yutong Bus was designated as such an enterprise. In Aug. 2006, Yutong Bus was titled “National Vehicle CBU Export Base Enterprise”. And in the same month of this year, Yutong passed the special investigation carried out by General Administration of Quality supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the P.R.C and won the first “Certificate for Product Exemption from Export Inspection” in China’s vehicle industry. In Nov. 2006, Yutong brand won “China Brand Award of the Year”(NO.1 in China’s bus industry) issued by World Brand Lab. In 2007, the value of Yutong brand has increased by RMB 471 million and grows up to RMB 7.487 billion, which makes Yutong brand continue to hold the title of No.1 Brand in China’s bus industry for successive four years. According to State Statistics Bureau, Yutong Group ranks 324 in “China’s Top 500 Enterprises” and at the same time stood 41 in “China’s 500 Most Competitive Enterprises of the Year 2006” as the only bus enterprise to enter into this list.

Position within the Industry

Now, after many years’ development, Yutong Bus has achieved a premier position in the bus field with its integrated enterprise strength and also formed its unique enterprise culture and advanced management concept. With market oriented, Yutong Bus carries on its R&D based on the market and programs its products rationally. It has powerful R&D strength, the first post-doctoral science and development working station in the bus industry of China equipped with the world-class test device and instrument, and also the first state-level technology center in the bus industry of China. Yutong Bus has established the entire-process quality control supervision system in order to guarantee the quality of the product. In 2004, Yutong Bus was evaluated by an internationally recognized quality authentication institute—Germany Quality System Authentication Company (DQS), and successfully passed ISO/TS16949: 2002 authentication, which is the first authentication in China’s bus industry, indicating that China’s bus industry represented by Yutong Bus has been progressively geared to the international quality management.

Yutong Group has begun its establishment of management information system since 1994, and at the present time, it has successfully introduced and put into practice the SAP management system and CRM (Customer Relationship Management) system, thus upgrading the inner management level of the enterprise with different information technology.

Development plans

In the management targets of Yutong Group, it has been definitely confirmed that its principle is finding a foothold in the domestic market and concentrating resource for strategy area and its clear development strategy is opening up international market. The development vision of the enterprise is to establish the enterprise brand of Yutong and to become the predominant world enterprise group of moderate diversification with bus making as the key business. Inside, it integrates its affiliate enterprises, properly disposes recourses and takes great advantage of the privilege of Yutong brand. Outside, it forms the benefit of scale and strengthens capital advantages in order to promote side-by-side development. From now on, with products as the leading role, the capital as the cohesion and enterprise culture and management mode as the core, Yutong Group will develop into a trans-regional, diversified, high-tech and large-scale international enterprise group, covering buses, engineering machinery and vehicle components and integrated with manufacturing, science and development, investment and trade, thus becoming No. 1 brand of China’s bus industry and a main international bus supplier.

Places of operation

Zhengzhou Yutong buses are in service in 27 countries/regions, including:


  • Yutong City Master, a retro-style Doubledecker Bus
  • ZK6891HG city bus
  • ZK6108HG city bus
  • ZK6118HG city bus
  • ZK6118HA 11-meter series
  • ZK6120H 12-meter series
  • ZK6120HR 12-meter series
  • ZK6752H
  • ZK6115D front-engine bus

Products (Philippine Market)

  • ZK6100H
  • ZK6107HA
  • ZK6119HA
  • ZK6122HD9
  • ZK6129H
  • Yutong Bus is the exclusive distributor in the Philippines through Auto Bus Transport Industries, Inc. or ABTII, a joint venture between JAC Liner Inc. and Zhengzhou Yutong Group Co., Ltd.

Image gallery

Yutong Bus XHXFL08

Yutong Heavy Industries

Another core part of the Yutong Group is Yutong Heavy Industries, which manufactures various construction equipment. There are about 3,500 employees in this part of the business, and they have more than 120 products. Yutong Heavy Industries was formed in 2003 and has had sale increases of 30% for 7 years.


  • Yutong YT3621 Mining Dump Truck
  • Yutong YT3761 Mining Dump Truck
  • Yutong 952A wheeled loader
  • Yutong 966H wheeled loader
  • Yutong TL210H earth mover
  • Yutong 988H wheeled loader
  • Yutong 956H wheeled loader
  • Yutong YTQH300 hydraulic crane
  • Yutong 6830 compactor
  • Yutong YTQH400A hydraulic crane
  • Yutong YTQU50 crane
  • Yutong WZ30-25 backhoe
  • Yutong WZ30-25G backhoe
  • Yutong WZ30-25H backhoe

YUTONG  CITY BUS  ZK6128HG YUTONG  CITY BUS  ZK6180HG YUTONG  INTERCITY BUS  ZK6116D Yutong 47 seater coach operated by Bengkel Kereta Berakas (BKB) Coach and Bus Rentals Unit and a Scania Irizar coach Yutong a China Yutong b China Yutong Bus in Guangdong, China XHXCB102 Yutong bus in Hangzhou, China Yutong bus in Singapore SMB135E Yutong bus in Taiwan Yutong Bus in The Philippines Yutong Bus XHXFL08 Yutong city bus in Almaty, Kazakhstan Yutong Coach OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Yutong ZK6100HB China Yutong ZK6116HGS Dubbeldekker China Yutong ZK6118HG China Yutong ZK6119HA China Yutong ZK6120H China Yutong ZK6120HA China Yutong ZK6129H China Yutong ZK6502D-1 China Yutong ZK6737D Rusland Yutong ZK6831H Yutong ZK6831HE Havana Cuba Yutong ZK6896HG China Yutong ZK66770HGS China Yutong_logo_2



To my nowledge is Willems a Belgium manufactor of Motors.

But there is a problem. I search and search and find nothing about it. In the past there was a site called: De Geschiedenis van de Belgische auto and another one called: Per Autocar door de Twintigste Eeuw and both do not exist anymore. I can only show you the photo’s I found before.

1935 Willems  Ragheno A.403 uit 1935 antwerpse autobussen3

1935 Willems Ragheno

1935 Willems B


1936 Willems-Jonck B


1937 Willems

1938 Willems 1938 chassis B


1938 Willems toerisme B


1939 Willems Centrum Car B

1939-willems-centrum-Van Rompaeye

1939 Willems-Nylon België


1940 Willems-Waukesha-Ruyschaert België


Willems Motor met Henschel Chassis de Muynck B


Willems-Diana 1 B


Willems-Diana 1bis B



Western Flyer Coach

Western Flyer loge 1962

WFC Western Flyer Coach Ltd Winnepeg Manitoba USA 

Western Flyer Coach was founded by John Coval in 1930 as the Western Auto and Truck Body Works Ltd. Reflecting an increased focus on bus manufacturing, it changed its name in 1948 to Western Flyer Coach.

In 1955 the “Canuck” highway coach model was introduced and was redesigned several times over the next ten years. The Canuck 500 and 600 were the last versions to be produced.

1941 Western Flyer

1941 Western Flyer Coach(look at the back)

The Coach market was a very competitive place for a small company like Western Flyer, especially with GMC and MCI dominating the industry. In 1968, Western Flyer decided to end its coach production and delivered its last intercity coach that year.

In the late 1960s, Western Flyer further focused on the urban transit bus market with the introduction of the D700 and E700 models.

Even with the release of the D700 and E700 models, Western Flyer was still a financially weak company. In 1971, the Manitoba Development Corporation stepped in to save Western Flyer and changed its name to Flyer Industries Limited in 1971.

1932 Western SMT - Leyland TS1 coach VA 8935


1941 Western Flyer coach


1947 Western Flyer Selkirk-Beaver Bus Lines 24


1949 1 C40

1949-1-Western Flyer c40

1950 1 C33

1950-1-western flyer-c33

1950 Western Flyer-Brill


1952 Western Flyer


1953 Western Flyer Coach Canuck 500


1953 Western Flyer introduced the Canuck accommodated 33 passengers International Red Diamond engine or a Cummins diesel engine rear-engine


1954 Westen Flyer Eagle Bus Lines 18CT32s 1954 Western Flyer Coach 40 stonewalltbl10wfct32 7470 1954 Western Flyer T-32 Eagle BL-18WFCT32s 1954 Western Flyer T-32 stonewall-TBL10wfcT32s


1956 Western Flyer Coach T-36 2L


1956 Western Flyer T36 2L ex Grey Goose


1956 Western Flyer T-36 2L


1956 Western Flyer T-36-2L,  TBL20WF


1958 Western Flyer T40


1962 Western-flyer-bus-very-old-school-cool


1967 Western Flyer Canuck 600


1967 Western Flyer model T-28 Standard headingly-576-cox Oc12


Western Flyer 6 Western Flyer 8+001 Western Flyer 9 Western Flyer 24 Western Flyer 25 Western Flyer Canuck 500 Regina


Western Flyer Coach - T-40. T-40-Manitoba Transit Heritage Association 75-a


Western Flyer Coach Arrow Coach Lines 51


Western Flyer Coach Canuck 600


Western Flyer Coach T-28


Western Flyer D700A Bus

Western Flyer D700A Bus

That’s it



Buses, Coaches, Trucks and Vans

VW Argentina, VW Australia, VW Brazil, VW Mexico.

Volkswagen Type 2
Volkswagen Type2 T2b Ambulance. Late 1970s Volkswagen Type 2 Ambulance
Manufacturer Volkswagen
Also called Volkswagen Bus
Volkswagen Camper
Volkswagen Delivery Van
Volkswagen Kombi
Volkswagen Microbus
Volkswagen Pick-up
Volkswagen Transporter
Production Nov 1949–Dec 2013
Body and chassis
Class Van (Minibus)
Body style 4-door panel van
4-door minibus
2-door pickup (regular cab)
3-door pickup (crew cab)
Layout Longitudinal rear engine,
rear-wheel drive
Platform Volkswagen Group T platform
Successor Volkswagen Type 2 (T3)
VWcampervan A “Camper” at The Henry Ford
VW Bus_T1_in_Hippie_Colors
 Custom-painted art bus
 T1 Panel Van
1964 VW_T1_Kastenwagen
 1964 T1 Panel Van

The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially (depending on body type) as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus (US) or Camper (UK), is a panel van introduced in 1950 by the German automaker Volkswagen as its second car model. Following – and initially deriving from Volkswagen’s first model, the Type 1 (Beetle) – it was given the factory designation Type 2.

As one of the forerunners of the modern cargo and passenger vans, the Type 2 gave rise to forward control competitors in the United States in the 1960s, including the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A100, and the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the latter adopting the Type 2’s rear-engine configuration. European competition included the 1960s FF layout Renault Estafette and the FR layout Ford Transit.

Like the Beetle, the van has received numerous nicknames worldwide, including the “microbus”, “minibus”, and, because of its popularity during the counterculture movement of the 1960s, “Hippie van”.

Brazil contained the last factory in the world that produced the T2. Production in Brazil ceased on December 31, 2013, due to the introduction of more stringent safety regulations in the country. This marks the end of an era with the rear-engine Volkswagens manufactured (after the 2002 termination of its T3 successor in South Africa), which first originated in 1935 with their Type 1 prototypes.


The concept for the Type 2 is credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. (It has similarities in concept to the 1920s Rumpler Tropfenwagen and 1930s Dymaxion car by Buckminster Fuller, neither of which reached production.) Pon visited Wolfsburg in 1946, intending to purchase Type 1s for import to the Netherlands, where he saw an improvised parts-mover and realized something better was possible using the stock Type 1 pan. He first sketched the van in a doodle dated April 23, 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg (1,520 lb) and placing the driver at the very front. Production would have to wait, however, as the factory was at capacity producing the Type 1.

When capacity freed up, a prototype known internally as the Type 29 was produced in a short three months. The stock Type 1 pan proved to be too weak so the prototype used a ladder chassis with unit body construction. Coincidentally the wheelbase was the same as the Type 1’s. Engineers reused the reduction gear from the Type 81, enabling the 1.5 ton van to use a 25 hp (19 kW) flat four engine.

Although the aerodynamics of the first prototypes were poor (with an initial drag coefficient of Cd=0.75), engineers used the wind tunnel at the Technical University of Braunschweig to optimize the design. Simple changes such as splitting the windshield and roofline into a “vee” helped the production Type 2 achieve Cd=0.44, exceeding the Type 1’s Cd=0.48. Volkswagen’s new chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff (appointed 1 January 1948) approved the van for production on 19 May 1949 and the first production model, now designated Type 2, rolled off the assembly line to debut 12 November. Only two models were offered: the Kombi (with two side windows and middle and rear seats that were easily removable by one person), and the Commercial. The Microbus was added in May 1950, joined by the Deluxe Microbus in June 1951. In all 9,541 Type 2s were produced in their first year of production.

An ambulance model was added in December 1951 which repositioned the fuel tank in front of the transaxle, put the spare tire behind the front seat, and added a “tailgate“-style rear door. These features became standard on the Type 2 from 1955 to 1967. 11,805 Type 2s were built in the 1951 model year. These were joined by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, and it changed the least of the Type 2s until all were heavily modified in 1968.

Unlike other rear engine Volkswagens, which evolved constantly over time but never saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not only evolved, but was completely revised periodically with variations retrospectively referred to as versions “T1” to “T5” (a nomenclature only invented after the introduction of the front-drive T4 which replaced the T25). However only generations T1 to T3 (or T25 as it is still called in Ireland and Great Britain) can be seen as directly related to the Beetle (see below for details).

The Type 2, along with the 1947 Citroën H Van, are among the first ‘forward control’ vans in which the driver was placed above the front roadwheels. They started a trend in Europe, where the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, and 1960 Commer FC also used the concept. In the United States, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van went so far as to copy the Type 2’s rear-engine layout, using the Corvair’s horizontally opposed, air-cooled engine for power. Except for the Greenbrier and various 1950s–70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 remained unique in being rear-engined. This was a disadvantage for the early “barndoor” Panel Vans, which could not easily be loaded from the rear because the engine cover intruded on interior space, but generally advantageous in traction and interior noise.


Volkswagen Samba(1)Volkswagen Samba bus

1961 Volkswagen Type II flatbed pickup truckElectrician-TucsonExample of a 1961 Volkswagen Type II flatbed pickup truck.

VW_T1-BD_20-5031Rail-going draisine

The Type 2 was available as a:

  • Panel van, a delivery van without side windows or rear seats.
  • Double-door Panel Van, a delivery van without side windows or rear seats and cargo doors on both sides.
  • High Roof Panel Van (German: Hochdach), a delivery van with raised roof.
  • Kombi, from German: Kombinationskraftwagen (combination motor vehicle), with side windows and removable rear seats, both a passenger and a cargo vehicle combined.
  • Bus, also called a Volkswagen Caravelle, a van with more comfortable interior reminiscent of passenger cars since the third generation.
  • Samba-Bus, a van with skylight windows and cloth sunroof, first generation only, also known as a Deluxe Microbus. They were marketed for touring theAlps.
  • Flatbed pickup truck, or Single Cab, also available with wider load bed.
  • Crew cab pick-up, a flatbed truck with extended cab and two rows of seats, also called a Doka, from German: Doppelkabine.
  • Westfalia camping van, “Westy”, with Westfalia roof and interior. Included optional “pop up” top.
  • Adventurewagen camping van, with high roof and camping units from Adventurewagen.
  • Semi-camping van that can also still be used as a passenger car and transporter, sacrificing some camping comforts. “Multivan” or “Weekender”, available from the third generation on.

Apart from these factory variants, there were a multitude of third-party conversions available, some of which were offered through Volkswagen dealers. They included, but were not limited to, refrigerated vans, hearses, ambulances, police vans, fire engines and ladder trucks, and camping van conversions by companies other than Westfalia. There were even 30 Klv 20 rail-going draisines built for Deutsche Bundesbahn in 1955.

In South Africa, it is known as a well-loved variation of the ice cream van (first, second and third generations). The mere sight of one (in South Africa) sparks the familiar rhyme: I scream, We scream, We all scream for Ice-Cream!

First generation (T1; 1950–1967)

Volkswagen Type 2 (T1)
1966 VW_Type2_T1c_Kombi
Production 1950–1967 (Europe and US)
1950–1975 (Brazil)
Assembly Wolfsburg, Germany
Hanover, Germany
São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Melbourne, Australia
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group T1 platform
Engine 1.1 L B4 (petrol)
1.2 L B4 (petrol)
1.5 L B4 (petrol)
Wheelbase 2,400 mm (94.5 in)
Length 4,280 mm (168.5 in)
Width 1,720 mm (67.7 in)
Height 1,940 mm (76.4 in)

The first generation of the Volkswagen Type 2 with the split windshield, informally called the Microbus, Splitscreen, or Splittie among modern fans, was produced from 8 March 1950 through the end of the 1967 model year. From 1950 to 1956, the T1 (not called that at the time) was built in Wolfsburg; from 1956, it was built at the completely new Transporter factory in Hanover. Like the Beetle, the first Transporters used the 1100 Volkswagen air-cooled engine, an 1,131 cc (69.0 cu in),DIN-rated 18 kW (24 PS; 24 bhp), air-cooled flat-four-cylinder ‘boxer’ engine mounted in the rear. This was upgraded to the 1200 – an 1,192 cc (72.7 cu in) 22 kW (30 PS; 30 bhp) in 1953. A higher compression ratio became standard in 1955; while an unusual early version of the 30 kW (41 PS; 40 bhp) engine debuted exclusively on the Type 2 in 1959. This engine proved to be so uncharacteristically troublesome that Volkswagen recalled all 1959 Transporters and replaced the engines with an updated version of the 30 kW engine. Any 1959 models that retain that early engine today are true survivors. Since the engine was totally discontinued at the outset, no parts were ever made available.

The early versions of the T1 until 1955 were often called the “Barndoor” (retrospectively called T1a since the 1990s), owing to the enormous rear engine cover, while the later versions with a slightly modified body (the roofline above the windshield is extended), smaller engine bay, and 15″ roadwheels instead of the original 16″ ones are nowadays called the T1b (again, only called this since the 1990s, based on VW’s restrospective T1,2,3,4 etc. naming system.). From the 1963 model year, when the rear door was made wider (same as on the bay-window or T2), the vehicle could be referred to as the T1c. 1964 also saw the introduction of an optional sliding door for the passenger/cargo area instead of the outwardly hinged doors typical of cargo vans.

In 1962, a heavy-duty Transporter was introduced as a factory option. It featured a cargo capacity of 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) instead of the previous 750 kg (1,653 lb), smaller but wider 14″ roadwheels, and a 1.5 Le, 31 kW (42 PS; 42 bhp) DIN engine. This was so successful that only a year later, the 750 kg, 1.2 L Transporter was discontinued. The 1963 model year introduced the 1500 engine – 1,493 cc (91.1 cu in) as standard equipment to the US market at 38 kW (52 PS; 51 bhp) DIN with an 83 mm (3.27 in) bore, 69 mm (2.72 in) stroke, and 7.8:1 compression ratio. When the Beetle received the 1.5 L engine for the 1967 model year, its power was increased to 40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) DIN.

1966 Volkswagen Kombi1966 Volkswagen Kombi (North America)

German production stopped after the 1967 model year; however, the T1 still was made in Brazil until 1975, when it was modified with a 1968–79 T2-style front end, and big 1972-vintage taillights into the so-called “T1.5” and produced until 1996. The Brazilian T1s were not identical to the last German models (the T1.5 was locally produced in Brazil using the 1950s and 1960s-era stamping dies to cut down on retooling, alongside the Beetle/Fusca, where the pre-1965 body style was retained), though they sported some characteristic features of the T1a, such as the cargo doors and five-stud 205 mm (8.1 in) PCD rims. Wheel tracks varied between German and Brazilian production and with 14″,15″ and 16″ wheel variants but commonly front track varied from 1290mm to 1310mm and rear track from 1370mm to 1390mm.

Be_Your_Own_Goddess_art_bus_(1967_VW_Kombi)_IMG_0136VW Bus Type 2 (T1),hippie colors

Among American enthusiasts, it is common to refer to the different models by the number of their windows. The basic Kombi or Bus is the 11-window(a.k.a. three-window bus because of three side windows) with a split windshield, two front cabin door windows, six rear side windows, and one rear window. The DeLuxe model featured eight rear side windows and two rear corner windows, making it the 15-window (not available in Europe). Meanwhile, the sunroof DeLuxe with its additional eight small skylight windows is, accordingly, the 23-window. From the 1964 model year, with its wider rear door, the rear corner windows were discontinued, making the latter two the 13-window and 21-window respectively. The 23- and later 21-window variants each carry the nickname ‘Samba’, or in Australia, officially ‘Alpine’.

US Chicken Tax

Main article: Chicken tax
 U.S. sales of Volkswagen vans in pickup and commercial configurations were curtailed by the Chicken tax

Certain models of the Volkswagen Type 2 played a role in a historic episode during the early 1960s, known as theChicken War. France and West Germany had placed tariffs on imports of U.S. chicken. Diplomacy failed, and in January 1964, two months after taking office, President Johnson imposed a 25% tax (almost ten times the average U.S. tariff) on potato starch, dextrin, brandy, and light trucks. Officially, the tax targeted items imported from Europe as approximating the value of lost American chicken sales to Europe.

In retrospect, audio tapes from the Johnson White House, revealed a quid pro quo unrelated to chicken. In January 1964, President Johnson attempted to convince United Auto Workers‘ president Walter Reuther not to initiate a strike just before the 1964 election, and to support the president’s civil rights platform. Reuther, in turn, wanted Johnson to respond to Volkswagen‘s increased shipments to the United States.

The Chicken Tax directly curtailed importation of German-built Type 2s in configurations that qualified them as light trucks – that is, commercial vans (panel vans) and pickups. In 1964, U.S. imports of automobile trucks from West Germany declined to a value of $5.7 million – about one-third the value imported in the previous year. After 1971, Volkswagen cargo vans and pickup trucks, the intended targets, “practically disappeared from the U.S. market”. While post-1971 Type 2 commercial vans and single-cab and double-cab pickups can be found in the United States today, they are exceedingly rare. Any post-1971 specimen found ostensibly has had its import tariff paid. As of 2013, the “chicken tax” remains in effect.

Second generation (T2; 1967–1979)

Volkswagen Type 2 (T2)
1973-1980 Volkswagen_Kombi_(T2)_van_01
Production Aug 1967–Jul 1979 (Europe and US)
1971–1996 (Mexico)
1976–Dec 2013 (Brazil)
1981–1986 (Argentina)
Assembly Hanover, Germany
Emden, Germany
General Pacheco, Argentina
São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Puebla, Puebla, Mexico
Melbourne, Australia
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group T2 platform
Engine 1.6 L B4 (petrol)
1.7 L B4 (petrol)
1.8 L B4 (petrol)
1.8 L I4 (petrol)
2.0 L B4 (petrol)
Transmission 4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Wheelbase 2,400 mm (94.5 in)
Length 4,505 mm (177.4 in)
Width 1,720 mm (67.7 in)
Height 1,940 mm (76.4 in)

In late 1967, the second generation of the Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) was introduced. It was built in Germany until 1979. In Mexico, the Volkswagen Kombi and Panel were produced from 1970 to 1994. Models before 1971 are often called the T2a (or “Early Bay”), while models after 1972 are called the T2b (or “Late Bay”).

1978 Volkswagen_Transporter_Pickup_(T2)1978 Volkswagen Transporter Pickup (The Netherlands)

1973-1980 Volkswagen_Kombi_(T2)_van_021973–1980 Volkswagen Kombi (T2) van (Australia)

Volkswagen_T2_AmbulanceT2 used as an ambulance in Brazil

This second-generation Type 2 lost its distinctive split front windshield, and was slightly larger and considerably heavier than its predecessor. Its common nicknames are Breadloaf and Bay-window, orLoaf and Bay for short. At 1.6 L and 35 kW (48 PS; 47 bhp) DIN, the engine was also slightly larger. The new model also did away with the swing axle rear suspension and transfer boxes previously used to raise ride height. Instead, half-shaft axles fitted with constant velocity joints raised ride height without the wild changes in camber of the Beetle-based swing axle suspension. The updated Bus transaxle is usually sought after by off-road racers using air-cooled Volkswagen components.

The T2b was introduced by way of gradual change over three years. The first models featured rounded bumpers incorporating a step for use when the door was open (replaced by indented bumpers without steps on later models), front doors that opened to 90° from the body, no lip on the front guards, unique engine hatches, and crescent air intakes in the D-pillars (later models after the Type 4 engine option was offered, have squared off intakes). The 1971 Type 2 featured a new, 1.6 L engine with dual intake ports on each cylinder head and was DIN-rated at 37 kW (50 PS; 50 bhp). An important change came with the introduction of front disc brakes and new roadwheels with brake ventilation holes and flatter hubcaps. Up until 1972, front indicators are set low on the nose rather than high on either side of the fresh air grille – giving rise to their being nicknamed “Low Lights”. 1972’s most prominent change was a bigger engine compartment to fit the larger 1.7- to 2.0-litre engines from the Volkswagen Type 4, and a redesigned rear end which eliminated the removable rear apron and introduced the larger late tail lights. The air inlets were also enlarged to accommodate the increased cooling air needs of the larger engines.

In 1971 the 1600cc Type 1 engine as used in the Beetle, was supplemented with the 1700cc Type 4 engine – as it was originally designed for the Type 4 (411 and 412) models. European vans kept the option of upright fan Type 1 1600 engine but the 1700 Type 4 became standard for US spec models.

1968 1973 and 1973-1980 Volkswagen Kombi (T2) vansPre-facelift (left) and facelifted (right)Volkswagen Kombi (T2) vans (Australia)

In the Type 2, the Type 4 engine was an option for the 1972 model year onward. This engine was standard in models destined for the US and Canada. Only with the Type 4 engine did an automatic transmission become available for the first time in the 1973 model year. Both engines displaced 1.7 L, DIN-rated at 49 kW (67 PS; 66 bhp) with the manual transmission and 46 kW (63 PS; 62 bhp) with the automatic. The Type 4 engine was enlarged to 1.8 L and 50 kW (68 PS; 67 bhp) DIN for the 1974 model year and again to 2.0 L and 52 kW (71 PS; 70 bhp) DIN for the 1976 model year. The 1978 2.0 L now featured hydraulic valve lifters, eliminating the need to periodically adjust the valve clearances as on earlier models. The 1975 and later U.S. model years received Bosch L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection as standard equipment; 1978 was the first year for electronic ignition, utilizing a hall effect sensor and digital controller, eliminating maintenance-requiring contact-breaker points. As with all Transporter engines, the focus in development was not on power, but on low-end torque. The Type 4 engines were considerably more robust and durable than the Type 1 engines, particularly in Transporter service.

In 1972, for the 1973 model year, exterior revisions included relocated front turn indicators, squared off and set higher in the valance, above the headlights. Also, square-profiled bumpers, which became standard until the end of the T2 in 1979, were introduced in 1973. Crash safety improved with this change because of a compressible structure behind the front bumper. This meant that the T2b was capable of meeting US safety standards for passenger cars of the time, though not required of vans. The “VW” emblem on the front valance became slightly smaller.

Later model changes were primarily mechanical. By 1974, the T2 had gained its final shape. Very late in the T2’s design life, during the late 1970s, the first prototypes of Type 2 vans with four-wheel drive (4WD) were built and tested.

1979 Vw silverfish

1979 Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) “Silverfish” last-edition bus. These were a limited edition model to mark the final production of T2 models in Europe

1968 VW Volk_bus_1968a1968 Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) Hard-Top Westfalia “Cream” bus

2005 VW_Kombi_Silver_Limited_Edition Brazil

Brazilian Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) – 2005 Limited Edition


Brazilian water-cooled Volkswagen Type 2 (T2)




 T2c in Brazil

The T2c, which has a slightly raised roof – by about 10 cm (3.9 in) – in the early 1990s, is built for the South American and Central American markets. It can be imported into other countries, such as the United Kingdom.

Since 1991, the T2c has been built in México with the water-cooled 1.8 L inline four-cylinder 53 kW (72 PS; 71 bhp) carbureted engine, easily identified by their large, black-coloured, front-mounted radiators, and since 1995 with the 1.6 L air-cooled engines for the Brazilian market.

Since production of the original Beetle was halted in late 2003 as a 2004 model, the T2 remained the only Volkswagen model with the traditional air-cooled, rear-mounted boxer engine until the Brazilian model shifted to a water-cooled engine on 23 December 2005. There was a 1.6 L 50 hp (37 kW; 51 PS) water-cooled diesel engined version of the T2, which was manufactured from 1981 to 1985 in Brazil. This version was very economical – values from 15 km/l to 18 km/l are reported – but it suffered from low performance and an insufficiently capable cooling system, which led to short engine life.

The end of the Volkswagen air-cooled engine on a worldwide basis was marked by a Special Edition Kombi. An exclusive Silver paint job, and limited edition emblems were applied to only 200 units in late 2005, and were sold as 2006 models.

Brazilian_Kombi_pair water and air cooled

An aircooled and a watercooled VW Kombi (T2), made in Brazil. Model years 2005 and 2006.

More onerous emissions laws introduced by the Brazilian government for 2006 forced a shift to water-cooled engines. The new “Flex Fuel” water-cooled engine will run on petrol as well as alcohol. Borrowed from the Volkswagen Fox, the engine is a rear-mounted EA-111 1.4 L 8v Total Flex1,390 cc (84.8 cu in), 58 kW (79 PS; 78 bhp) on petrol, and 60 kW (82 PS; 80 bhp) when run on ethanol, and 124 N·m (91 lbf·ft) torque. This version has been very successful, despite the minor changes made to the overall T2-bodied vehicle. It still includes the four-speed transmission, but with a new final drive ratio it can cruise at 120 km/h (75 mph) at 4,100 rpm. Top speed is 130 km/h (81 mph). 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) is achieved in 22.7 seconds (vs. 29.5 seconds for the last air-cooled version). Improvements were made with 6.6% better fuel economy, and nearly 2 decibel (dB) less noise (again vs. the air-cooled version).

The Volkswagen Type T2 is by far the longest model run in Brazil, having been introduced in September 1950 as the Volkswagen “Kombi”, a name it has kept throughout production. The fierce competition from European front-wheel drive newer generation vans still cannot match the Kombi’s unparalleled cost-benefit equation. Only produced in two versions, bus (nine-seater or 12-seater – a fourth row is added for metro transportation or school bus market) or panel van, it offers only one factory option: the rear window defog. As of June 2009, the T2 is built at the Volkswagen Group’s São Bernardo do Campo plant at a rate of 97 per day.

The production of the Brazilian Volkswagen Kombi ended in 2013 with a production run of 600 Last Edition vehicles. The phaseout of the T2c marks the end of an era which lasted since 1945 (when started the second generation of Volkswagen Type-1 – it will be the final production of metal-made bumper cars after 68 years. A short movie called “Kombi’s last wishes” was made by VW Brazil.

Post-Type 2 generations

Third generation (T3; 1979–1992)


 Volkswagen Type 2 (T3/Vanagon/T25)

The Volkswagen Type 2 (T3) also known as the T25, (or Vanagon in the United States), the T3 platform was introduced in 1980, and was one of the last new Volkswagen platforms to use an air-cooled engine. The Volkswagen air-cooled engine was phased out for a water-cooled boxer engine (still rear-mounted) in 1984. Compared to its predecessor the T2, the T3 was larger and heavier, with square corners replacing the rounded edges of the older models. The T3 is sometimes called “the wedge” by enthusiasts to differentiate it from earlier Kombis.

Fourth generation (T4; 1990–2003)

Early 1990s Multivan Allstar T4

Since 1990, the Transporter in most world markets has been front-engined and water-cooled, similar to other contemporary Volkswagens, almost two decades later than it did for the passenger cars. T4s are marketed as Transporter in Europe. In the United States, Volkswagen Eurovan is the brand name.

Fifth generation (T5; 2003–present)

2004 VW_Eurovan_T5_Multivan
 2004 Volkswagen Transporter T5

The Volkswagen Transporter T5 range is the fifth generation of Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles medium-sized light commercial vehicle and people movers. Launched 6 January 2003, the T5 went into full production in April 2003, replacing the fourth generation range.

Key markets for the T5 are Germany, the United Kingdom, Russia, France and Turkey. It is not sold in the US market because it is classed as a light truck, accruing the 25% chicken tax on importation. The T5 has a more aerodynamic design. The angle of the windshield and A-pillar is less; this makes for a large dashboard and small bonnet.

In June 2009, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles announced the one-millionth T5 rolled off the production line in Hanover.

Additional developments

2006 BSB_Flex_cars_118_09_2008_VW_Kombi_Total_Flex_with_logo_blur

Brazilian Air Force 2006 Kombi Total Flex is a flexible-fuel vehicle

In 2001, a Volkswagen Microbus Concept was created, with design cues from the T1 generation in a spirit similar to the New Beetle nostalgia movement. Volkswagen planned to start selling it in the United States market in 2007, but it was scrapped in May 2004 and replaced with a more cost-effective design to be sold worldwide.

Names and nicknames

Like the Beetle, from the beginning, the Type 2 earned many nicknames from its fans. Among the most popular, at least in Germany, are VW-Bus and Bulli (or Bully) or Hippie-van or the bus. The Type 2 was meant to be officially named the Bully, but Heinrich Lanz, producer of the Lanz Bulldog farm tractor, intervened. The model was then presented as the Volkswagen Transporter and Volkswagen Kleinbus, but the Bully nickname still caught on.

The official German-language model names Transporter and Kombi (Kombinationskraftwagen, combined-use vehicle) have also caught on as nicknames. Kombi is not only the name of the passenger variant, but is also the Australasian and Brazilian term for the whole Type 2 family; in much the same way that they are all called VW-Bus in Germany, even the pickup truck variations. In Mexico, the German Kombi was translated as Combi, and became a household word thanks to the vehicle’s popularity in Mexico City‘s public transportation system. In Peru, where the term Combi was similarly adopted, the term Combi Asesina (Murdering Combi) is often used for buses of similar size, because of the notorious recklessness and competition of bus drivers in Lima to get passengers. In Portugal it is known as Pão-de-Forma (Breadloaf) because its design resembles a bread baked in a mold. Similarly, in Denmark, the Type 2 is referred to as Rugbrød (Rye bread). Finns dubbed it Kleinbus (mini-bus), as many taxicab companies adopted it for group transportation; the name Kleinbus has become an appellative for all passenger vans. The vehicle is also known as Kleinbus in Chile.

In the US, however, it is a VW bus, a “vee-dub”, a minibus, a hippie-mobile, hippie bus, or hippie van, “combie”, Microbus or a Transporter to aficionados. The early versions produced before 1967 used a split front windshield (giving rise to the nickname “Splitty”), and their comparative rarity has led to their becoming sought after by collectors and enthusiasts. The next version, sold in the US market from 1968 to 1979, is characterised by a large, curved windshield and is commonly called a “bay-window”. It was replaced by the Vanagon, of which only the Westfalia camper version has a common nickname, “Westy”.

It was called Volksie Bus in South Africa, notable in a series of that country’s TV commercials. Kombi is also a generic nickname for vans and minibuses in South Africa and Swaziland, often used as a means of public transportation. In Nigeria it was called Danfo.

In the UK, it is known as a “Campervan”. In France, it was called a “camping-car” (usually hyphenated) though this has been expanded to include other, often more specialized vehicles in more recent times.

Mexican production

T2 production began in 1970 at the Puebla assembly factory.

Offered initially only as a nine-passenger version called the Volkswagen Kombi, and from 1973 also its cargo van version called the Volkswagen Panel, both variants were fitted with the 1.5 L air-cooled boxer engine and four-speed manual gearbox. In 1974, the 1.6 L 44 bhp (33 kW; 45 PS) boxer engine replaced the 1.5 previous one, and production continued this way up to 1987. In 1987, the water-cooled 1.8 L 85 bhp (63 kW; 86 PS) inline four-cylinder engine replaced the air-cooled 1.6 L. This new model is recognisable by its black grille (for its engine coolant radiator), bumpers and moldings.

In 1975, Volkswagen de Mexico ordered two specially-made pickups from Germany, one single cab and one double cab, for the Puebla plant. These were evaluated for the possibility of building pickups in Mexico, and were outfitted with every option except the Arctic package, including front and rear fog lights, intermittent wipers, trip odometer, clock, bumper rubber, PVC tilt, and dual doors on the single cab storage compartment. VW de Mexico was interested in having the lights, wiring, brake systems and other parts manufactured in Mexico. Ultimately, VW de Mexico declined to produce pickups, and the pickups were sold to an Autohaus, a Volkswagen dealer in San Antonio, Texas, since they could not be sold in Mexico. By law, no German-made Volkswagens were to be sold in Mexico. These are probably the only pickups that were produced in Germany for Mexican import, and have the “ME” export code on the M-code plate. The green double cab was sold to a new owner in New York, and has been lost track of. The light gray (L345, licht grau) single cab still exists. Pickups were not manufactured in Mexico, nor were they imported into Mexico from Germany, save for these two examples.

In 1988, a luxury variant – the Volkswagen Caravelle – made its debut in the Mexican market to compete with the Nissan Ichi Van, which was available in cargo, passenger and luxury versions.

The main differences between the two are that the Caravelle was sold as an eight-passenger version, while the Combi was available as a nine-passenger version, the Caravelle was only painted in metallic colors, while the Combi was only available in non-metallic colors, and the Caravelle was fitted with an AM/FM stereo cassette sound system, tinted windows, velour upholstery, reading lights, mid and rear headrests, and wheel covers from the European T25 model.

In 1991, the 10 cm (3.9 in) higher roof made its debut in all variants, and the Combi began to be offered in eight- or nine-passenger variants. In 1991, since Mexican anti-pollution regulations required a three-way catalytic converter, a Digifant fuel injection system replaced the previous carburetor. The three variants continued without change until 1994.

In 1994, production ended in Mexico, with models being imported from Brazil. The Caravelle was discontinued, and both the Combi and the Panel were only offered in white color and finally in 2002, replaced by the T4 EuroVan Pasajeros and EuroVan Carga, passenger and cargo van in long wheelbase version, inline five-cylinder 2.5 L 115 bhp and five-speed manual gearbox imported from Germany.

1945 Volkswagen-83 (KdF-83), 4x4 1950-67 Volkswagen Kombi Type 2 Mark T1 also called Transporter Originally with an engine of 1131cc. 1950-67 Volkswagen T2 Type T1 1952_VW_Barndoor_brown_back 1952_VW_Barndoor_brown_back2 1953 Volkswagen Samba 1953 Volkswagenbus 1953 VW Samba_21_windows 1955 Volkswagen Microbus 1956 Volkswagen T1 2-26 sform W 385 1350857323 1956 Volkswagen Transporter-1-221 1956 VW Deluxe_front Berlin, Friedrich-Ebert-Straße, Ruine 1957 Volkswagen T1 - Lelystad 2009 1957 1957 VW Bus Brandweer - Fire engine 1959 Volkswagen T1 1961 Volkswagen Type II flatbed pickup truckElectrician-Tucson 1961-VW-Bus-Brochure 1964 VOLKSWAGEN BUS 1964 VW BUS AMBULANCE VINTAGE 1964 Rio de Janeiro Brasil 1964 VW_T1_Kastenwagen 1966 Volkswagen Kombi 1966 VW Transporter T1 Pickup BE-44-99 1966 VW_Type2_T1c_Kombi 1967 Volkswagen T1 1967 VW Blue-Samba 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer a 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer b 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer brochure 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer c 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer d 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer e Limo 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer f metro 1967 VW Bus Samba (Bulli) 4cyl boxer 1967 VW T1b Samba-Bus 1967-79 Volkswagen Type 2 T2b Camper (Europe) 1968 1973 and 1973-1980 Volkswagen Kombi (T2) vans 1968 VW Volk_bus_1968a 1969 VW T1 Auwärter Carlux 1972 Volkswagen German Volkswagen ambulance D 1972-79 volkwsagen-bus-16 1973 VW Bus + aanhanger 1973-1980 Volkswagen_Kombi_(T2)_van_01 1973-1980 Volkswagen_Kombi_(T2)_van_02 1974 VOLKSWAGEN (391 119 503 33-1-1974) 1977 Volkswagen_Kombi_Westfalia_(Auto_classique_Salaberry-De-Valleyfield_'11) 1978 Volkswagen camperbus 1978 Volkswagen Transporter 1970's Minibus Rome Colosseum 1978 Volkswagen_Transporter_Pickup_(T2) 1978 VW LT 28 Kasten - Hochdach 1979 Volkswagen -183 Iltis, 4x4, 1979 1979 Vw silverfish 1979-84 VW-LT31 1981 Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus Ltda (VWC) 1981- Brazilië 1982 Volkswagen Transporter-3-255 1983 Ikarus-MAN-Volkswagen 1988 Volkswagen T2 combi autobus 02-EJ-17 1988 Volkswagen Transporter-3-247 Syncro, 4x4 1988-98 VW LT31 1989 Volkswagen Omnibus I, type 2, Caravelle CL 1990 VOLKSWAGEN T4 A MULTIVAN ALLSTAR 1990 VW T3 Bus 1990-03 VW Trans Caravelle GLA T4 Engine 2461cc Petrol 1991-03 Volkswagen T4 Multivan Allstar 1992 VW minibus-eignet-sich-durch-78598 1992 VW_Eurovan_T4a_Multivan_Allstar 1993 Volkswagen LT35 1996 VW Transporter 1999 VOLKSWAGEN LT 46 TDI 1999 Volkswagen Volksbus-Rosmo Bus Honduras 2000 Volkswagen 16.210 CO-Marcopolo Torino GV Bus Ecuador 2000 VW mauri montisola 2001 Volkswagen LT35 Litouwen 2001 Volkswagen Microbus Concept. 2002 Volkswagen -Kutsenits City III Non-Step Bus Tokio OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2004 VW_Eurovan_T5_Multivan 2005 VW Bus 2005 VW T5 Transporter 2005 VW_Kombi_Silver_Limited_Edition Brazil 2006 BSB_Flex_cars_118_09_2008_VW_Kombi_Total_Flex_with_logo_blur 2007 Volkswagen Crafter 50 Litouwen 2007 Volkswagen Crafter UK 2009 Volkswagen Constellation de 2009 (Brésil) 2009 volkwsagen-bus-33 2010 Comil_Versatile_Volkswagen_-_Buses_Schuftan___Ago_2010 2011 Volkswagen Bulli rear 2011 Tokyo Motor Show 2012 VW Bulli concept 2013 Volkswagen Craftfter 2013 Be_Your_Own_Goddess_art_bus_(1967_VW_Kombi)_IMG_0136 Brazilian_Kombi_pair water and air cooled Brazilian_Watercooled_Kombi Brazilian_Watercooled_Kombi_Engine Brazilian_Watercooled_Kombi_Interior BusscarVisstaBussHiVolkswagenBusesBioBio132 CaioGiro3400VolkswagenBusesInterbus_2 DoubleBack-VW-campervan-07 IKARUS 521 op VW LT55TD Ikarus 526-os, az Ikarus 405-ös VW Kombi_Pick_Up_Aço Marcopolo_Senior_-__Volkswagen_Buses_Landeros_Reg._Metrop_____Jun_2009 MarcopoloSeniorVolkswagenBusesDhinos modern_reinterpretation_of_the_classic_vw_westfalia_camper_van-2 Neobus_Spectrum_-_Volkswagen_Buses_Serena_Mar_IV_Reg______Oct_2008 Party_VW_Type_2 Porsche_Diesel_Bus_blau Satélite 15851 - Busscar Urbanuss Ecoss VW 17-230 EOD VETTER-VW Volkswagen - Den Oudsten en zn., Woerden Volkswagen 9.150 ECE Armored Truck 1 VOLKSWAGEN 40 300 Volkswagen 250 AutoBomba Volkswagen Brazilië Tanker Volkswagen Brazilië Volkswagen buses KRESPOL Sokółka Volkswagen Chascomus VOLKSWAGEN CONSTELLATION Volkswagen Crafter tamlans pegabus ambulance Volkswagen D Volkswagen en Magirus Volkswagen HAP UTRECHT 9-871 Volkswagen ingwhite1 Volkswagen L80 1994–2000 (Brazilian built) Volkswagen LT 40 D Volkswagen LT 40a D Volkswagen LT NL Volkswagen LT Rosenbauer Volkswagen Portugal Volkswagen Samba(1) Volkswagen T1 LEGO Volkswagen T1 type2 Crew Cabin (1950-67 Europe 1950-75 Brazil) Engines 1193 cc, 1200 cc and 1493 cc. Volkswagen T5 ambulance Nikola Tesla Airport Servië Volkswagen Type2 T2b Ambulance. Late 1970s Volkswagen Type 2 Ambulance VOLKSWAGEN USINE SUD-AMERICAINE Volkswagen Volksbus 17.230 EOD with a Marcopolo body on a Brazilian street Volkswagen Volksbus 17.240 with a CAIO body on a Brazilian street. Volkswagen Volkswagen_Kombi_(Auto_classique_Laval_'11) Volkswagen_LT_Camper_Karmann_Mobil Volkswagen_T2_Ambulance Volkswagen_T2_in_Brazil volkswagen8 Volkswagen-Bus-Inspired-Dub-Box-Camper-Trailer-9 VOLKSWAGEN-DEN OUDSTEN (RSP690 601) Volkswagon AF02FTa Volkswagon PortMacquaireDay3001 Volkswagon YVD358a volkwagen LT Enhabo Volswagen Volksbus 17.240 with a Marcopolo body on a Brazilian street Volswagen Volksbus 18.310 OT with a Marcopolo body on a Colombian way OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA VW Australië VW Bolletje reclame VW Bruneï VW Bus zestiger jaren VW Bus_T1_in_Hippie_Colors VW Cabriolet bus VW Camper Super VW Camper verhoogd VW Constellation Argentina mercado-externo3 VW Constellation BRA VW Crafter ambulance Digital StillCamera VW Doorzicht bus VW Feuerwehr VW Golf bestel PTT VW Hout bus VW IJsbus VW Italië VW Kleinbus von Bernhuber-Österreich VW Krankenwagen VW L80 VW Limo Bus VW LIMO VW Lublijana VW MAN-VW G90 (eerste jaren MT-serie genoemd), de MAN L2000... VW Monstruositeit VW Paris F VW Post Nutzfahrzeug VW T1 bus ned PTT VW T1 Clinomobil VW T1bus Deutsche PTT VW T2b HS RK VW Touran Chweiz VW Transporter SN54KHDa VW Transporter VW v VW vanagontrailer VW Westfalia_Campingbox_7 VW Yorkshire Ambulance GB VW Zdravotnická.jpg VW_LT28_Behindertenfahrdienst_2 VW_T1_Doka VW_T1_Porschetransporter_r VW_T1-BD_20-5031 VW_T2_Airport Vw_transporter_t3_luft_v_sst vw-bus-brochure-5 vw-bus-concept vw-bus-limo-3 VWcampervan VW-L80-Pritschen-Lkw-rot vw-lt ad

VDL Groep Van Der Leegte Eindhoven The Netherlands

VDL Groep

VDL Groep
Type Private
Industry Diversified Manufacturing
Founded 1953 by Pieter Van Der Leegte
Headquarters Eindhoven, the Netherlands
Revenue Increase 1.1 billion (2007)
Operating income Increase €87.9 million (2007)
Net income Increase €64.1 million (2007)
Employees 7,321

Established in 1953, the VDL Groep is an international industrial and manufacturing company. From its head office in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, VDL supervises its subsidiaries, which have a high level of autonomy and responsibility for results.

The bus and coach division consists of coaches, public transport buses, chassis modules, second-hand buses and mini & midi buses. The finished products sector is extensive: suspension systems for the automotive industry, production automation systems, heating, cooling and air-technical systems, systems for the oil, gas and petrochemical industry, sunbeds and roof boxes, container handling equipment, systems for the agricultural sector, cigar-making and packaging machines, production systems for optical media and medical systems.

VDL companies

  • VDL Berkhof – bus and coach builder in Valkenswaard.
  • VDL Bova – a luxury coachbuilder based in Eindhoven, Netherlands
  • Jonckheere – a motor coach and bus builder in Roeselare, Belgium
  • VDL Bus Chassis – bus builder which originated from the bus-building business of DAF.
  • VDL Nedcar – a brand independent car manufacturing plant in Born

VDL Bus & Coach

VDL Bus & Coach
VDL Bus & Coach
Motto of slagzin “MOVE. TOGETHER”
Oprichting 2005 (basis in 1993 gelegd)
Sleutelfiguren Rémi Henkemans / Henri Koolen
Land Vlag van Nederland Nederland
Hoofdkantoor De Vest 51, Valkenswaard
Producten Autobussen, touringcars
Portaal  Portaalicoon Economie
2012 VDL Futura 2012 De nieuwe Futura was internationale touringcar van het jaar 2012.
De Futura (Classic) is de succesvolste en de langst in productie zijnde bus in het assortiment van VDL Bus & Coach. Meer dan 11.000 stuks verlieten sinds 1982 de fabriek van BOVA.
Berkhof Ambassador presentation
 De Ambassador werd mede door het lichtgewicht een populair streekbustype in Nederland. De 12 meter versie is opgevolgd door de VDL Citea LLE120.
Citea 1103 (GVB)
 De stads- en streekbussen van VDL worden sinds 2011 vrijwel allemaal onder de naam Citea verkocht. De reeks verving de Ambassador 200, Jonckheer SB250, Transiten Diplomat. Het bustype was Bus Of The Year  2011.
Procity Frysker bus 01
 De Procity werd in Nederland na twee geleverde orders en één geannuleerde order uit het aanbod geschrapt. De kortere Jonckheere versie voor de belbussen van De Lijn werd langer geproduceerd, maar is inmiddels ook uit het assortiment verdwenen.
2006 Hermes 1210 Eindhoven Noord Brabantlaan 14-07-2006
De Phileas is een geleide bus met trameigenschappen. Bij dit project is VDL nauw betrokken.
BR-HG-37 (NL)
 De Parade, MidCity en MidEuro zijn omgebouwde Mercedes-Benz Sprinter bussen. De bussen zijn voorzien van een ander koetswerk met een verlaagde vloer, verhoogd dak, grotere ramen, dubbele busdeuren, meer zitplaatsen en een filmbak.
Arriva bus 1426 VDL SB200 Wrightbus Pulsar II NK09 EKB in Darlington 5 May 2009
VDL Bus & Coach levert ook losse chassis. Onder meer de Britse carrosseriebouwer Wrightbus is een groot afnemer.

VDL Bus & Coach is de busdivisie van de VDL Groep. De belangrijkste activiteiten bestaan uit de ontwikkeling, productie, verkoop en onderhoud van mini-, midi- en grote bussen en chassis modules. Het bedrijf heeft fabrieken in Nederland en België. Er wordt geëxporteerd naar meer dan dertig landen. Daarnaast is het bedrijf actief in de handel van gebruikte bussen.


De basis van wat nu VDL Bus & Coach is wordt in 1993 gelegd, als vrachtwagen- en autobussenfabrikant DAF wordt meegesleept in het faillissement van moederbedrijf United Bus. De vrachtwagenpoot (DAF Trucks) maakt een doorstart in afgeslankte vorm. Het bedrijf Van der Leegte, dat in die tijd al bestond uit diverse metaal- en apparatenbouwbedrijven, neemt de chassisproductie van bussen over (DAF Bus International). Negentien procent van de aandelen komt weer in handen van DAF Trucks. VDL heeft een goede band met DAF, want op zijn beurt is het weer een toeleverancier van de Eindhovense vrachtwagenfabrikant.

VDL bleef de naam DAF Bus International nog jaren gebruiken. Het bedrijf fabriceert zowel chassis voor openbaarvervoerbussen als voor touringcars. Motoren kwamen toen alleen van de leveranciers DAF en Cummins. Het assortiment motoren in het segment openbaar vervoer heeft VDL in 2012 uitgebreid met het merk Fiat Powertrain Technologies (FPT).

In de zomer van 1996 nam DAF Bus International Smit uit het Friese Joure over. Dit was het begin van de carrosseriebouw binnen de VDL Groep. Eind september 1998 wordt de VDL Groep uitgebreid met zes bedrijven door de aankoop van de Berkhof Jonckheere Groep. Deze maatschappij bestond uit:

De overname van de Berkhof Jonckheere Groep betekende voor Smit Joure al snel het einde. Het bedrijf draaide al langer verlies en in december 1998 ging het bedrijf bankroet. De productie van touringcars in de fabriek stopte definitief in 1999 en zou aanvankelijk worden overgeheveld naar de fabriek Berkhof Heerenveen en gedeeltelijk naar die van Postma. Vanwege ruimtegebrek door een grote hoeveelheid orders werd er uiteindelijk gekozen voor de fabriek in Valkenswaard. Hiermee verdween de touringcarfabrikant na 82 jaar uit Friesland.

Berkhof had zoveel bestellingen op het programma staan dat het bedrijf lang de fabriek van Smit Joure gebruikte om onderdelen voor stads- en streekbussen te maken, voor onder meer de MAN Scout. Nadat Berkhof in mei 2001 uit de fabriek was vertrokken ontstond dezelfde maand nog het carrosserie- en wagenbouwbedrijf FCB (Friesland Coach Builders). Dit bedrijf is opgericht door een aantal oud-medewerkers van Smit. In de beginperiode bestonden de werkzaamheden voornamelijk uit het repareren en onderhouden van Smit-bussen, maar tegenwoordig voert het bedrijf reparatie- en restauratiewerkzaamheden uit aan verschillende stads- en streekbussen en touringcars. In eerste instantie was het de bedoeling om ook nieuwe bussen te gaan bouwen, dit is echter vanwege een beperkt budget nooit van de grond gekomen.

In 2003 nam VDL één van de laatste grote concurrenten in Nederland over, de touringcarfabrikant BOVA uit Valkenswaard. De busbedrijven worden datzelfde jaar uit strategisch oogpunt onder de naam VDL Bus Groep op de internationale markt gepositioneerd. Vanaf nu is het één van de grootste busproducenten van Europa en door het eerdere faillissement van Den Oudsten uit Woerden in 2001 nog de enige busproducent in Nederland. In België heeft het bedrijf nog steeds een grote concurrent onder de naam Van Hool.

Het huidige marktaandeel bedraagt bijna 8 procent, daarmee staat VDL op een 6e positie in de Europese bussenmarkt.


In 2005 wordt er als vervolg op de VDL Bus Groep voor alle busbedrijven een centrale organisatie opgericht onder de naam VDL Bus & Coach. Het is 2010 als alle verschillende merknamen (BOVA, Berkhof, Jonckheere, Kusters) worden vervangen door het merk VDL. De fabrieken ondergaan in 2011 allen een naamswijziging en de afzonderlijke websites worden uit de lucht gehaald. VDL wil hiermee de busactiviteiten nog beter profileren. Om dat extra kracht bij te zetten krijgt het bedrijf een apart logo (tot dan toe werd het logo van de moedermaatschappij gebruikt) en een slogan: “MOVE. TOGETHER.“. MOVE staat voor mobiel zijn en in beweging blijven. De producten van VDL Bus & Coach zijn immers in beweging: er worden mensen vervoerd. Ook de organisatie staat niet stil, maar is constant in ontwikkeling. ‘TOGETHER’ refereert aan de slogan ‘Kracht door samenwerking’ van het moederbedrijf de VDL Groep.



De bouw van touringcars vindt in Nederland plaats bij VDL Bus Modules (voorheen Berkhof en VDL Berkhof Valkenswaard), bij VDL Bus Valkenswaard (voorheen BOVA en VDL Bova) en in Vlaams België bij VDL Bus Roeselare (voorheen VDL Jonckheere). De eerste touringcars binnen de VDL Groep werden tussen 1996 en 1999 gebouwd bij Smit Joure. Deze waren van de types Smit Orion en Smit Stratos, beide bussen stonden op een DAF Bus SB3000 chassis. Na de overname van het Valkenswaardse touringcarbedrijf Berkhof werd de Axial onder VDL geproduceerd. In 2003 kon ook de succesvolle bus Futura en de Magiq aan het assortiment worden toegevoegd na de overname van Bova. In 2007 werd ook nog de VDL Bova Lexio ontwikkeld.

Tegenwoordig produceert VDL Bus & Coach onderstaande voertuigen:

  • Futura
  • Jonckheere
  • Synergy
  • Citea
  • Phileas
  • MidCity
  • MidEuro
  • Tsxi- en rolstoelvoertuigen
  • Pacific
  • Mistral
  • Politiebussen

Openbaar vervoer

In het openbaar vervoer zijn diverse bussen de revue gepasseerd, waaronder

Alle bussen zijn ontwikkeld en gebouwd door Berkhof in Heerenveen op onderstellen van VDL Bus Chassis en voorgangers. De Berkhof 2000NL en Duvedec zijn overigens ook gebouwd op Volvo chassis. De productie van de Ambassador werd in 2005 uitgebreid naar VDL Berkhof Valkenswaard vanwege een grote order. Dan was er ook nog de Transit, een product van Jonckheere.

De huidige generatie grote openbaarvervoerbussen draagt de naam VDL Citea en wordt geproduceerd bij VDL Bus Modules, VDL Bus Heerenveen en VDL Bus Roeselare. Er is ook nog een 10,6 meter bus in productie onder de naam Ambassador ALE-106. Ook werkt het bedrijf mee aan de productie en ontwikkeling van de Phileas door haar aandeel van 70% in het Helmondse APTS.

Mini- en midibussen

Het bedrijf Kusters, tegenwoordig VDL Bus Venlo, is al sinds 1921 gespecialiseerd in klein materieel. Ooit begonnen met carrosserieën voor bussen ten behoeve van mijnwerkers, tegenwoordig bouwt men allerlei bestelbussen om voor verschillende doeleinden. Op het gebied van openbaar vervoer produceerde Kusters de Parade. De huidige bussen zijn de VDL MidCity en VDL MidEuro. Daarnaast levert VDL aangepaste bussen voor de politie en biedt het een legio aan oplossingen om bestaande taxi’s rolstoelvriendelijk te maken.

Speciale projecten

VDL bouwt niet alleen een standaardaanbod, maar ook naar wens van de afnemer. Speciale projecten zijn bijvoorbeeld de VDL Pacific en VDL Jonckheere Schoolbus. De eerste is een robuust bustype die geschikt is voor passagierstransport in slecht toegankelijke gebieden waar zowel de toestand van de wegen als de klimaatcondities speciale verwachtingen stellen. VDL Bus & Coach produceert en levert deze bus in diverse uitvoeringen voor landen zoals Ghana, Burkina Faso en Ethiopië. De Jonckheere schoolbus werd gebouwd in Heerenveen voor Parijs en is een bus met een kop van de DAF LF vrachtwagen.


DAF Bus International, het begin van VDL Bus & Coach, veranderde na een reorganisatie in september 2003 in VDL Bus International. Per 5 september 2010 is de huidige naam VDL Bus Chassis ingevoerd. Het bedrijf is verantwoordelijk voor de productie van onderstellen voor autobussen en touringcars. De helft van geproduceerde chassis wordt verkocht aan derden, de andere helft gaat naar de koetswerkbedrijvenbinnen de groep. Een groot afnemer is het Britse Arriva plc. In november 2008 bestelde dit bedrijf bijvoorbeeld meer dan 350 chassis van het type SB200 voor levering in 2008/2009. In 2011 werd er nog eens een order geplaatst voor 311 buschassis. Het koetswerk wordt er in Engeland opgebouwd door Wrightbus. Dit is de grootste order die Arriva ooit bij VDL Bus & Coach heeft geplaatst voor ‘right hand drive’ voertuigen. Op 27 januari 2012 maakte VDL Bus & Coach bekend dat het Britse Arriva plc een order voor 80 buschassis van het type SB200 heeft geplaatst.

Een overzicht van de chassis die worden/werden geproduceerd:

  • SB200 (vervanger van het SB220 chassis. Wordt toegepast op de Ambassador 200 en VDL Citea LLE. Veel export naar buitenland)
  • SB180 (verkort chassis, vervanger van het SB120 chassis)
  • SB230 (toegepast op Transit en Citea 12 + 12,9 meter variant)
  • SBR230 (twee assen + derde sleepas, toegepast op Transit en Citea 13,7 en 14,5 meter variant)
  • SB4000+ (touringcar-chassis)
  • SBR4000+ (touringcar twee assen + derde sleepas)
  • TB2175 (voor de VDL Pacific)
  • SB260 (toegepast op de Citea CLF-120)
Voormalige chassis
  • SB120 (verkort chassis, toegepast op Ambassador 120) – vervangen door SB180 chassis
  • SB220 (Berkhof 2000NL)
  • SB225
  • SB250 (Berkhof Premier en Berkhof Jonckheer)
  • DB250 (geschikt voor dubbeldekkers)
  • DB250+ (geschikt voor dubbeldekkers)
  • SB2750 (geschikt voor touringcars)
  • SB3000 (geschikt voor touringcars)
  • SBR3000 (geschikt voor touringcars)
  • SBR3015 (geschikt voor touringcars)
  • SB4000 (touringcar, Berkhof Axial)

Onderhoud, reparatie en onderdelen

In Eindhoven is een gespecialiseerde werkplaats voor onderhoud, reparatie en schadeherstel van alle merken touringcars en bussen onder de naam VDL Busland. Onderdelen van bussen zijn verkrijgbaar bij VDL Parts te Veldhoven.


VDL heeft een locatie voor verkoop, aftersales en onderdelen voor alle VDL Bus & Coach producten in de landen Nederland, België (ook voor Luxemburg), Duitsland, Frankrijk, ItaliëNoorwegen, Polen, Servië, Tsjechië (ook voor Slowakije), Zuid-Afrika en Zwitserland.

In Servië heeft VDL bovendien eind 2010 de autobusfabriek Ikarbus in Belgrado overgenomen. De Servische overheid heeft een belang van 20% in dat bedrijf. In de fabriek werken 250 mensen en er zullen op jaarbasis 250 bussen worden geproduceerd. VDL kocht de fabriek omdat de in Nederland geproduceerde bussen te duur zijn voor de Oost-Europese markt.

Gebruikte bussen van alle merken en typen worden ingekocht en verkocht bij VDL Bus Center (voorheen VDL Coach & Bus Center, VDL CBC) in Nederland, Duitsland en Frankrijk.

VDL Apts Phileas

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2006 Hermes 1210 Eindhoven Noord Brabantlaan 14-07-2006 2007 APTS PHILEAS Hermes1201Eindhoven 2008 APTS city transport coaches on the Metrobus Road Istanboel Turkey APTS 3 phileas 2 Testbus APTS PHILEAS 1201 Eindhoven Airport APTS Phileas back APTS PHILEAS Bus Station Eindhoven APTS Phileas Duo Busstation Eindhoven APTS Phileas APTS VDL Bus & Coach Hybrid IMG 9282-border APTS VDL Hybrid IMG 9283-border GVB 007 (APTS Phileas) Amsterdam NL

VDL Berkhof

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA 2004 VDL BERKHOF Hrvn Ambassador 2005 VDL Berkhof Diplomat city bus 2006 VDL Procity  bus van Connexxion 2007 VDL bus van Koningin Beatrix 2010 VDL Berkhof Ambassador 200 Veolia Valkenburg NL 2011 VDL Berkhof, Heerenveen Berkhof Ambassador presentation Citea 1103 (GVB) VDL Berkhof Diplomat 309 werkenbijhtm VDL Citea Hybridebus (2) VDL Citea hybridebus


1993 VDL BOVA coach WA09AZF DCF 1.0 VDL Bova coach Schotland

VDL Bus Roeselare

2009 Arriva bus 1426 VDL SB200 Wrightbus Pulsar II NK09 EKB in Darlington 5 May 2009 De Transit, een model gericht op het openbaar vervoer, hier in Oostende Stadsbus van Yokohama Jonckheere Monaco. VDL logo-III

VDL Bus&Coach

2003 VDL AMBASSADOR 120 2007 VDL AMBASSADOR 200 2007 VDL AMBASSADOR ALE 2007 VDL AMBASSADOR 2007 VDL CITEA CLF (FR329029) 2007 VDL FUTURA FHD-FLD (FR240397) 2007 VDL LEXIO LLD (FR240403) 2007 VDL MAGIQ MHD (FR240391) 2007 VDL MIDCITY (329034) 2007 VDL MIDEURO (32931) 2007 VDL PICARDIE (329033) 2011 VDL Bus & Coach BV., Heerenveen ; Advanced Public Transport Systems bv  2011 VDL PROCITY (329032) VDL SYNERGY SDD (FR240385)

VDL Heerenveen

2000NL NoordNed 4748 Leeuwarden Ambassador Stadsbus Katwijk Citea 1 Diplomat Duvedec Connexxion Volvo Berkhof Duvedec B 10 M-6X2-ARTT Jonckheer SB250 Novio1 Standaardbus ST2000 Premier NZH 1386 Procity Frysker bus 01

VDL Jonckheere

2007 VDL JONCKHEERE JSD 2011 VDL Jonckheere sleeper coach 2011 VDL Jonckheere special OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Externe link

Bronnen, noten en/of referenties

 artikelen_fotos_23727_800 Hoofdkantoor-VDL-Groep Eindhoven m1nydbvb7iuv_600 VDL Citea LLE voor Syntus VDL_CITEA_MLE-88-180_-_III VDL_haak_Roteb_gez_brandweer VDL-3 VDL-NedCar-Mini-IndustrieBlog Wim van der Leegte in de MINI in VDL-uitvoering









DEPLA en DENOLF Bus and Coachbuilders Belgium

Carrosserie DENOLF & DEPLA Belgium


tot 1991 zelfstandig, toen overgenomen door VDL

825BCZ Mercedes-Benz O817 Denolf & Depla Evidence F23 (1994)

825BCZ Mercedes-Benz O817 Denolf & Depla Evidence F23 (1994)

Bussen DENOLF en DEPLA (RAI 1992)

Bussen DENOLF en DEPLA (RAI 1992)

Denolf & Depla Peugeot Belbus

Denolf & Depla Peugeot Belbus “de LIJN” België

Mercedes-Benz O 614D Denolf & Depla

Mercedes-Benz O 614D Denolf & Depla

Bussen DENOLF&DEPLA (Car&Bus 1997)

Bussen DENOLF & DEPLA (Car & Bus 1997)

ProCity van Denolf & Depla

ProCity van Denolf & Depla (VDL) Station Leeuwarden Fryslan NL

Denolf & Depla 609D

 Mercedes-Benz  Denolf & Depla 609D Belbus “de LIJN” België

Bussen DENOLF&DEPLA (Car&Bus 1999)

Bussen DENOLF & DEPLA (Car & Bus 1999)

Denolf & Depla on MAN chassis was built in 1996 belgabus-100424

Denolf & Depla on MAN chassis was built in 1996 belgabus

Bussen DENOLF&DEPLA Midimix (Car&Bus 1999)

DENOLF & DEPLA Midimix (Car & Bus 1999)

Denolf & Depla Pro-City n° 3931 TEC België

Denolf & Depla Pro-City n° 3931 TEC België


Peugeotbus Boxer van Denolf & Depla v d Lijn in Oostende

Bussen DENOLF&DEPLA Pro-City (Car&Bus 1997)

DENOLF & DEPLA Pro-City (Car & Bus 1997)

Peugeot Denolf & Depla Pro City #23

Peugeot Denolf & Depla Pro City #23

Mercedes-Benz O 614D Denolf & Depla

Mercedes-Benz O 614D Denolf & Depla



VAN HOOL BELGIUM 1947 Bus and Coachbuilders

Van Hool
Type Private
Industry Automotive manufacture
Automotive engineering
Founded 1947
Headquarters Koningshooikt, Belgium
Key people Bernard Van Hool (founder)
Filip Van Hool (CEO)
Products Bus
Subsidiaries Van Hool USA

02Van Hool Astromega TD927 coach for the Oxford Tube

03Van Hool Alizée HE-II body on a ScaniaK113CRB coach for New Enterprise Coaches

04A British spec double deck Van Hool coach.

05A bi-articulated Van Hool AGG300

06Front view of AGG300.

07A Van Hool single articulated bus with North American specifications north of Toronto, Canada.

Van Hool NV is a Belgian family-owned coachbuilder and manufacturer of buses, coaches, trolleybuses, and trailers.

The company was founded in 1947 by Bernard Van Hool in Koningshooikt, near to Lier, Belgium. In the early years, the company introduced serial production and exported their products all over Europe. Since the mid-1980s, the company has also been active on the North American market, where it has become an important player.

On February 15, 1957, Van Hool signed a commercial agreement with Fiat; Van Hool would incorporate Fiat engines and other mechanical components (gearboxes, axles, steering) in its vehicles. It developed from a coachbuilder to a Belgian manufacturer of integral buses and coaches, known as Van Hool-Fiat. Alongside these activities, the company continued as a renowned coachbuilder, enabling further expansion.

The Van Hool-Fiat co-operation was immediately a great success: a year and a half after the agreement was signed, in August 1958, the 100th Van Hool-Fiat was delivered, and by July 1961, the figure had exceeded 500. The co-operation agreement with Fiat was terminated in 1981.

In 1990, Van Hool purchased the coachbuilding business of LAG Manufacturing and continued producing their EOS models for about ten years.

Most of the buses and coaches are built totally by Van Hool, with engines and axles sourced from Caterpillar, Cummins, DAF and MAN and gearboxes from ZF or Voith, with some of their production still consisting of building bus and coach bodies on separate bus chassis from manufacturers such as Volvo and Scania.

Worldwide, Van Hool employs 4,500 people and manufactures over 1,700 buses and coaches (bodyworks and complete vehicles combined) and 5,000 trailers each year. It sells an average of 600 coaches, annually, in the US.

Product range (Europe)

In Europe, Van Hool has the broadest range of coaches of all manufacturers on the market, though all designs share similar looks and are based on the same platform, the T9. The same philosophy is used on the transit bus range, the A-series. Many different versions are available, all sharing the same looks. In recent years, the company has been focussing on new propulsion technologies, introducing fuel-cell hybrid buses as well as diesel-electric hybrids.

Discontinued products

T8 series touring coach

The T8 platform was introduced in 1979. The body was based on the Alizee bodywork that had been launched the previous year. Over the course of several years, a large range of touring coaches were developed based on this platform, each distinguished by a number and a name, following a clear naming convention. For example, in ‘TD824 Astromega’:

  • T = Touringcar (touring coach)
  • D = Dubbeldek (double deck)
  • 8 = Part of the T8 series
  • 24 = theoretical maximum number of seat rows
  • Astromega = name of the double deck integrals

In 1991, an updated ‘T8 New Look’ was introduced. But this was called the T9 in its North American version. Production was ended in the late 1990s, following the introduction of the new (European) T9 platform.

A-series transit bus

In the 1980s, European countries started to move away from standard bus designs, leaving the design of transit buses to the manufacturers. Van Hool’s response was the development of the A-series transit buses. The first member, the A500, was introduced in 1985. A complete family would follow, again following a clear naming convention. For example, in ‘AG500’:

  • A = Autobus (transit bus)
  • G = Geleed (articulated)
  • 500 = height of the floor, in millimeters

Production of the A-series continued into the early 21st century, when it was replaced by the newA-series.

Current products

T9 series touring coaches

The new T9 series (not to be confused with the US T9 series, which corresponds with the European T8 New Look) was launched in 1995. It included a completely new body design, as well as many other improvements. The same philosophy as with the T8 was applied: one platform, many different versions. Also, the naming convention was retained. Over the years, many new variants have been developed, making the T9-series the most extensive series of motorcoaches available today. Different models (all available in at least 2 lengths, see ‘products’ below) include the Atlino and Atlon, so-called double earners, with different floor heights, the Alicron, Acron and Astron, standard touring coaches with different heights and thus different luggage space, the Altano, which has an underfloor cockpit, the Astronef, which features a sloping theatre-style floor, and the double deck Astromega.

Additionally, the T9 body is also available on chassis by Scania, Volvo and VDL, though only in Sweden and on the British Isles. These motorcoaches are referred to as Alizee (single deck) and Astrobel (double deck).

TX series touring coaches

08A Megabus Van Hool TDX27 Astromega at Buchanan Bus Station

At Busworld 2011 in Kortrijk, Belgium, Van Hool presented the successor to the T9 series. The new series is called TX.

newA series transit buses

In 2001, Van Hool introduced the newA series transit buses, replacing the A series. It featured a new body design and many other improvements. A complete family was developed, with different length and configurations.

ExquiCity BRT solution

In April 2011 Van Hool launched a new Multi Propulsion Platform called ExquiCity, aimed specifically at the BRT market. The bus has the styling and comfort of a tram, with the flexibility and cost of a bus. The ExquiCity was launched in two lengths, the single-articulated ExquiCity 18 and the double-articulated ExquiCity 24. Both are available as trolley buses, diesel-electric hybrids, fuel-cell hybrids or full-electric buses. First orders were placed by the Italian city of Parma (ExquiCity 18 trolley) and the French city of Metz (ExquiCity 24 diesel electric hybrid). A mock-up was presented at the UITP Congress in Dubai.

EX series touring coaches

09A Van Hool EX16M produced in Macedonia. Shown at the IAA 2014

At the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung 2014 in Hanover, Germany, Van Hool presented a new series of touring coaches for the European market. This new line is called EX. It is produced in the Van Hool factory in Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonia is considered to be alow-wage country where production costs are much lower than in Belgium.

Product range (North America)

Due to American Federal Safety requirements and other unique factors, only highway touring coaches were introduced in the US initially. Transit coaches by Van Hool were not introduced until 2002. Currently, Van Hool has four separate product lines for sale: the T21-series deluxe touring coaches, the C20-series touring coaches, the

Van Hool TD925 double-decker coach a Van Hool TD925 double-decker coach

Van Hool TD925 double-decker coach

TD925 double-decker coach, and the A-series transit buses. Van Hool’s exclusive dealer in the US is ABC Companies.

Discontinued products

T8 series touring coach

VAN HOOL T815 ACRON (PR 10 9) Van Hool T815 ACRON VAN HOOL T815 Alizée VAN HOOL T815

The T815 was first introduced to the US market in 1987. Later subsequent models are collectively known as the T8 series. The earliest use Cummins L10 diesels. Later versions use Cummins M11 diesels.

It was available as 30, 40 and 45 foot length versions.

T9 series touring coach

T9 series are almost identical to the T8 series visually, and are largely identical mechanically as well, except for incremental updates. T9 series upgraded the suspension airbags to larger heavy-duty versions, as well as upgraded front axle to disc brakes instead of drum brakes. However, many of the earliest T9’s indeed lack these upgrades. What’s even more interesting, Van Hool’s VIN consider T8 and T9 to be the same family.

1997 Van Hool T945

1997 Van Hool T945

It was available as 40-foot (T940) or extended 45-foot (T945) versions.

Current products

T21 series luxury touring coach

Introduced in 1996 and based on the European T9 platform, the T21 series features an updated stream-line design and more engine choices. Whereas T8 and T9 series are almost exclusively powered by Cummins diesel engines, T21 are available with Cummins M11 plus engine, Detroit Diesel series 60 engine, or the latest Caterpillar C13 ACERT “clean diesel” engine. Most recent versions simplified the windshield into 2 panes only, replaced headlight assemblies with individual projector lamps, and consolidated the driver console.

Van Hool T2145 at Harbor and Katella in Anaheim

Van Hool T2145 at Harbor and Katella in Anaheim © Andrew Novak

Available as 40-foot (T2140) or extended 45-foot (T2145) versions.

C20 series touring coach

Introduced as a lower-cost coach intended for long-line duty, the C20 series, with similar European looks to the T21 series, was introduced in 2000 to the US market. C20 is available with Cummins ISX12 or Detroit Diesel DD13 engine. Previous generations could also be equipped with Cummins M11 plus, Detroit Diesel series 60 and Caterpillar C13 engine. Both Allison B500 automatic and ZF AS Tronic automated gearboxes are available.

Greyhound operates a fleet of C2045s along with its MCI buses in Michigan.

SD956 Megabus Van Hool C2045E

SD956 Megabus Van Hool C2045E

Available as extended 45-foot (C2045) version only. Current model is C2045E.

A3 transit bus series

10An AC Transit 30-foot Van Hool A300K bus

The popularity of A3 series in Europe led Van Hool and ABC to partner with AC Transit (Alameda and Contra Costa counties, California) to demo the A3 series as a future transit alternative in 2002. The A330 and AG300 low floor transit coaches formally entered service in AC transit fleet in June 2003. AC Transit now has over 330 Van Hool buses either in its fleet or on order as of August 2009.

Van Hool is building 16 hydrogen fuel cell buses for the USA at present (August 2009). These buses are powered by fuel cells from UTC Power and lithium batteries from EnerDell. Twelve of the buses are being purchased by AC Transit and four by CT Transit of Hartford Connecticut. This project is unusual in that the buses have been designed from the ground up as fuel cell buses and are designed, built, and integrated by a single manufacturer.

Van Hool AG 300 - CTS - Strasbourg

Van Hool AG 300 – CTS – Strasbourg

The AG300 is an articulated 60-foot bus, while the A330 is a 40-foot bus.

In 2008, AC Transit took delivery of a fleet of new model A300L forty-foot buses. These buses are unique in the US market as they have their engines mounted in the wheelbase which makes their ride quality extremely stable and smooth. The new layout capitalizes on basic architectural design of the A300L’s earlier released little brother the 30-foot A300K (K stands for kort, “short” in Dutch and L for lang, “long”). A recent survey of AC Transit riders overwhelmingly approves of the design and quality of the new buses.

Salt Lake City (Utah Transit Authority) has purchased ten A300L 40-foot buses for its MAX Bus Rapid Transit system. These buses differ from AC Transit’s A300Ls as they have three doors and are equipped for cold weather and high altitude operations. They have also recently placed an order for four more because of overwhelmingly positive support of the first 10 buses and the “MAX” BRT service they operate.

York Region Transit (north of Toronto, Ontario) uses the A330 and AG300 buses on its Viva routes, though the A330 buses are being transferred to the conventional YRT service as more Nova LFX buses arrive for the Viva services. The Reseau de transport de Longueuil (south of Montreal, Quebec) also uses the AG300 buses, and was the first to use Van Hool transit buses in North America (AG700) in 1989.


Van Hool AG 700 Divia 707

Washington, D.C.‘s Circulator uses the A330 buses. These 29 buses were purchased from AC Transit in 2005. In addition to the A330 models, the Circulator now uses the new A300K buses, which first went into service in April 2009. The Circulator recently took delivery of 14 A300K, 31-foot buses to build out its route structure. The A300K was chosen because of its unique ability to do the work of forty-foot buses for nearly all operations in the smaller envelope and with the smaller engine of a midi bus.

FirstTransit took delivery of 12 A300Ls and 4 AG300s in early 2009, for use on the University of Minnesota Campus Connector.

Baltimore, Maryland‘s Charm City Circulator have recently ordered and since put 5 A300Ls into service early 2011. The A300L was a supplement order to their already existing but rehabbing Designline buses.

2009 Van Hool A300L

Van Hool A300L

TD925 Astromega double-deck touring motorcoach

The TD925 Astromega is a closed-top US-spec double decker motorcoach that is a variant of the TD925 Astromega coach available in Europe.


11A Van Hool TD925 bus in New York City

12A Van Hool C2045-L in New York

13Van Hool T916 Astronef

Transit buses

  • A308 midibus, full low floor, with side-mounted engine. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A309 midibus, low entry (low floor up to the second door). Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A320 standard bus (out of production)
  • A300 standard bus, full low floor, with side-mounted engine. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A300 CNG standard bus
  • A360 standard bus, low entry. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A330 standard bus, full low floor, engine placed horizontally in the back. Also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • A330 CNG standard bus
  • AG300 articulated bus, also available as diesel-electric hybrid
  • AGG300 bi-articulated bus
  • A330T trolleybus
  • AG300T articulated trolleybus
  • AG300 CNG articulated bus
  • ExquiCity 18 articulated BRT bus (diesel electric hybrid, trolley, fuel cell or electric)
  • ExquiCity 24 bi-articulated BRT bus (diesel electric hybrid, trolley, fuel cell or electric)
  • A308E Electric bus
North America
  • newA300K 30 ft bus, shortened A300L
  • newA300L 40 ft full low floor bus, side-mounted midship engine
  • newA330 40 ft full low floor bus, side-mounted rear engine
  • newAG300 60 ft articulated full low floor bus, side-mounted midship engine

Touring coaches


  • T915 Atlon