PANHARD (LEVASSOR) Paris France 1891




René Panhard, Émile Levassor
Paris, France
Renault Trucks Defense

1890-95 Panhard et Levassor. This model was the first automobile in Portugal
Panhard et Levassor (1890-1895). This model was the first automobile in Portugal

1894 Panhard et Levassor'sPanhard et Levassor’s
Daimler Motor Carriage, 1894

1933 Panhard et Levassor X741933 Panhard et Levassor X74

1937 Panhard et Levassor Dynamic1937 Panhard et Levassor Dynamic

1955 DB Panhard HBR1955 DB Panhard HBR

1960 Panhard DB Le Mans1960 Panhard DB Le Mans

1963-1967 Panhard 241963-1967 Panhard 24
Panhard is a French manufacturer of light tactical and military vehicles. Its current incarnation was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005. Panhard had been under Citroën ownership, then PSA (after the 1974 Peugeot Citroën merger), for 40 years. The combined company now uses the Panhard name; this was decided based on studies indicating that the Panhard name had better brand recognition worldwide than the Auverland name. Panhard once built civilian cars but ceased production of those in 1968. Many of its military products however end up on the civilian market via third sources and as military/government surplus vehicles. Panhard also built railbuses between the wars.



Panhard was originally called Panhard et Levassor, and was established as a car manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887.

Early Years

Panhard et Levassor sold their first automobile in 1890. based on a Daimler engine license. Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimler’s interests in France. Following Sarazin’s 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazin’s widow Louise to carry on her late husband’s agency. The Panhard et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890. Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, and shared improvements with one another.
These first vehicles set many modern standards, but each was a one-off design. They used a clutch pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox. The vehicle also featured a front-mounted radiator. An 1895 Panhard et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower (3.0 kW; 4.1 PS) with a steering wheel, believed to be one of the earliest employments of the principle.

In 1891, the company built its first all-Levassor design, a “state of the art” model: the Systeme Panhard consisted of four wheels, a front-mounted engine with rear wheel drive, and a crude sliding-gear transmission, sold at 3500 francs. (It would remain the standard until Cadillac introduced synchromesh in 1928.) This was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, who formed his own car company.

In 1895, 1,205 cc (74 cu in) Panhard et Levassors finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr. Arthur Krebs succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, and held the job until 1916. He turned the Panhard et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturer of automobiles before World War I.

Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard et Levassor developed the Panhard rod, which became used in many other types of automobiles as well.
From 1910 Panhard worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology that had been patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard & Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, but these were offered alongside cars powered by sleeve valve power units. Following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhard’s own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard cars used sleeve valve engines.

The First World War

Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, Panhard & Levassor’s 18CV and 20CV models were the official presidential cars.
During the war Panhard, like other leading automobile producers, concentrated on war production, including large numbers of military trucks, V12-cylinder aero-engines, gun components, and large 75 and 105 diameter shells.
The military were also keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP. General Joffre himself (not, till December 1916, promoted Marshal of France) used two 35HP Panhard Type X35s with massive 4-cylinder 7,360cc engines for his personal transport, and these were frequently to be seen by Parisians carrying military leaders between the front-line and the Élysée Palace.

Between two world wars

Following the outbreak of peace in 1918, Panhard resumed passenger car production in March 1919 with the 10HP Panhard Type X19 which used a 4-cylinder 2,140cc engine. This was followed three months later by three more 4-cylinder models which will have been familiar to any customers whose memories pre-dated the war, but they now incorporated ungraded electrics and a number of other modifications. For the 15th Paris Motor Show, in October 1919, Panhard were displaying four models, all with four cylinder engines, as follows:

Panhard Type X19 2,150 cc / 10 HP
Panhard Type X31 2,275 cc / 12 HP
(This replaced the 12 HP Panhard Type 25 for 1920.)
Panhard Type X28 3,175 cc / 16 HP
Panhard Type X29 4,850 cc / 20 HP

By 1925, all Panhard’s cars were powered by Knight sleeve valve engines that used steel sleeves. The steel sleeves were thinner and lighter than the cast iron ones that had been fitted in Panhard sleeve valve engines since 1910, and this already gave rise to an improved friction coefficient permitting engines to run at higher speeds. To reduce further the risk of engines jamming, the outer sleeves, which are less thermally stressed than the inner sleeves, were coated on their inner sides with an anti-friction material, employing a patented technique with which Panhard engineers had been working since 1923. This was one of several improvements applied by Panhard engineers to the basic Knight sleeve-valve engine concept.
In 1925 a 4.8 litre (292ci) model set the world record for the fastest hour run, an average of 185.51 km/h (115.26 mph).
A surprise appeared on the Panhard stand at the 20th Paris Motor Show in October 1926, in the shape of the manufacturer’s first six cylinder model since before the war. The new Panhard 16CV “Six” came with a 3445cc engine and sat on a 3540 mm wheelbase. At the show it was priced, in bare chassis form, at 58,000 francs. Of the nine models displayed for the 1927 model year, seven featured four cylinder engines, ranging in capacity from 1480cc (10CV) to 4845cc (20CV), and in price from 31,000 francs to 75,000 francs (all in bare chassis form). Also on show was an example of the 8-cylinder 6350cc (35CV) “Huit” model which Panhard had offered since 1921 and which at the 1926 show was priced by the manufacturer in bare chassis form at 99,000 francs.
When Panhard presented their 1931 line-up at the Paris Motor Show in October 1930, their last two four cylinder models had been withdrawn, along with the 10CV 6-cylider Type X59. Instead they concentrated on their “S-series” cars, designated “Panhard CS” and “Panhard DS” according to engine size, and introduced a year earlier.[10] Publicity of the time indicated the “S” stood for “Voitures surbaissées” (having an “underslung” chassis,) but, clearly captivated by the power of alliteration, added that “S” also indicated cars that were “…souples, superiéres, stables, spacieuses, silencieuses, sans soupapes (ie using valveless cylinders)…”. Four of the five Panhards exhibited featured increasingly lavish and pricey 6-cylinder engined cars, their engine sizes ranging from 2.35-litres to 3.5-litres. There was also an 8-cylinder 5.1-litre Panhard Type X67 on display, with a generous 3,590 mm (141.3 in) wheelbase and listed, even in bare chassis form, at 85,000 francs.
Panhard et Levassor’s last pre-war car was the unusually styled monocoque Dynamic series, first introduced in 1936.
Panhard et Levassor also produced railbuses, including some for the metre gauge Chemin de Fer du Finistère.
Post-war era
After World War II the company was renamed Panhard (without “Levassor”), and produced light cars such as the Dyna X, Dyna Z, PL 17, 24 CT and 24 BT. The company had long noted the weight advantages of aluminum, and this as well as postwar government steel rationing (designed to limit new car models to ensure an orderly return to production at the major firms), encouraged the firm to proceed with the expensive alternative of making the bodies and several other components out of aluminum; thus the Dyna X and early Dyna Z series 1 had aluminum bodies. Unfortunately, cost calculations by Jean Panhard himself, inheriting son and managing director of the firm, failed to account fully for all of the extra cost of aluminum vs steel, as his calculation were made for the sheet metal panel area actually utilized per body shell, and erroneously did not account for the cut offs and scrap of each of the stampings making up the shell. Once in production, a re-examination cost analysis showed a cost of 55,700fr for aluminum shells and only 15,600fr for steel. The use of aluminum had pushed the firm perilously close to bankruptcy, and a rush engineering job saw the firm return to steel. Thus, the later Dyna Z (from mid September 1955) and the successor PL 17 bodies were steel, and the major stampings retained the heavier gauge intended for durability with aluminum, so as to avoid complete replacement of the stamping dies.
The air-cooled flat-twin engine of the Dyna was also used by Georges Irat for his “Voiture du Bled” (VdB) off-road vehicle, built in Morocco in small numbers in the early 1950s.
The styling of the Dyna Z was distinctively smooth and rounded, with an emphasis on aerodynamics and an overall minimalist design. The 24 CT was a later (fr summer 1963-on) stylish 2+2 seater; the 24 BT being a version of the same with a longer wheelbase and space for four.
For a period after the war, the Panhard-based Monopole racing cars received unofficial support from Panhard (as did DB and other clients such as Robert Chancel), using it to good effect in winning the “Index of Performance” class at Le Mans in 1950, 1951, and 1952. In 1953, Panhard moved on to a more direct involvement with Chancel, which however came to an end after the deadly 1955 Le Mans. In the latter half of the fifties and the early sixties, the Deutsch Bonnet racers (“DB Panhard”) picked up this mantle and went on to dominate the “Index of Performance” as well as other small-engine racing classes.
The last Panhard passenger car was built in 1967. After assembling 2CV panel trucks for Citroen in order to utilize capacity in face of falling sales, and raising operating cash by selling ownership progressively to Citroën (full control as of 1965), in fall of 1967 the civilian branch was absorbed by Citroën, and the marque was retired. Since 1968 Panhard has only made armored vehicles.
In 2004, Panhard lost a competition to another manufacturer of military vehicles, Auverland, for the choice of the future PVP of the French Army. This allowed Auverland to purchase Panhard in 2005, then a subsidiary of PSA Peugeot Citroën. However, the fame of Panhard being greater, it was decided to retain the name; the PVP designed by Auverland would bear a Panhard badge.
Today the only use of the name Panhard is the “Panhard rod” (also called Panhard bar) This is a suspension link invented by Panhard that provides lateral location of the axle. This device has been widely used ever since on other automobiles or as after marked upgrade to rear axles for vintage American cars.
In October 2012, Renault Trucks Defense, division of Swedish Volvo Group since 2001, finalized the acquisition of Panhard for 62.5 million euros.
Car models
Panhard models
Construction period
Panhard Dyna X
Panhard Junior
Panhard Dyna Z
Panhard PL 17
Panhard CD
Panhard 24
Models with Panhard technology
Construction period
Dyna Veritas
Rosengart Scarlette
DB Le Mans
Current military models

A VBL of the French Army
A VBL of the French Army

PVPXL / AVXL: an enlarged AVL
TC 54
TC 10
TC 24
Peugeot P4
ERC 90 Sagaie
VBR: enlarged VBL multipurpose armored vehicle
VAP: Véhicule d’Action dans la Profondeur (deep penetration vehicle), VBL based special operations vehicle
VPS: P4 based SAS Patrol vehicle

Vehicles in service
Panhard has supplied more than 18,000 military wheeled vehicles to over 50 countries with a range of combat vehicles weighing less than 10 tonnes, as follows:

5,400 armoured wheeled vehicles (AML, ERC 90 Sagaie, and LYNX VCR 6×6)
2,300 VBL in 16 countries which includes 1600 in service with the French Army
933 A4 AVL—PVP—selected by the French Army
9,500 vehicles under 7 tonnes; most being jeep-like vehicles produced under the Auverland name.


1896 Panhard et Levassor 4 CV with Wagonette body

Panhard et Levassor 4 CV with Wagonette body (1896)

1898 Panhard et Levassor Landaulette type AL

Panhard et Levassor Landaulette type AL (1898)

1900 Panhard et Levassor automobile

Panhard et Levassor automobile circa 1900

1900 Panhard et Levassor water-cooled 2-cylinder automobile engine

Panhard et Levassor water-cooled 2-cylinder automobile engine, circa 1900

1901 Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton coachwork by Kellner

Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton coachwork by Kellner (1901)

1902 Panhard et Levassor 7 CV Voiturette

Panhard et Levassor 7 CV Voiturette (1902)

1903 Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc

Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc (1903)

1914 Panhard et Levassor 10 CV

Panhard et Levassor 10 CV (1914)

1924 Panhard et Levassor X46 2300cc Saloon by Salmons and Son, Tickford

Panhard et Levassor X46 2300cc (1924) Saloon by Salmons and Son, Tickford

1934 Panhard et Levassor Cabrio-Coupé Pourtout

Panhard et Levassor Cabrio-Coupé Pourtout

1934 Panhard et Levassor Eclipse Pourtout

Panhard et Levassor Eclipse (1934) Pourtout

1952 Panhard X 86 1952

Panhard Dyna X 86 Saloon (1952)

1952 Panhard Dyna 750 Coupé Allemano

Panhard Dyna 750 Coupé Allemano (1952)

1953 Panhard Dyna Z

Panhard Dyna Z (1953)

1966 Panhard 24 1ct

Panhard 24 CT, (1966)

Panhard 178

Panhard 178

Panhard EBR

Engin Blindé de Reconnaissance 75

Panhard French Army

Auto Mitrailleuse Légère HE-60-7

Panhard Peugeot

See also

The 1916 St Chamond tank
Panhard 178
Panhard EBR
Panhard AML
Arthur Constantin Krebs, Panhard General Manager from 1897 to 1916

1892 Pahard Levassoir


1893+1943 Panhard

1893 R 1943 L-panhard

1894 Panhard-Levassor


1898 Panhard-Levassor


1899 Panhard & Levassor


1899 Panhard-Levassor


1900 Panhard et Levassor automobile


1900 Panhard-Levassor


1901 Panhard-Levassor


1902 Panhard & Levassor 10HP a


1903 Panhard Levassor S4M (Mod)Engine 13500cc


1903 Panhard-Levassor


1906 Panhard-Levassor


1906 Panhard-Levassor 24CV (Panhard-Genty),


1906 Panhard-Levassor a


1908 Panhard-Levassor


1909 Panhard 18HP Limousine op straat


1910 Panhard-Levassor


1912 panhard

1912-panhard and levassor ad


1914 Panhard et Levassor 10 CV


1922 Panhard 10HP Torpédo uit


1924 Panhard et Levassor X46 2300cc Saloon by Salmons and Son, Tickford


1924 Panhard Levassor Engine 6300cc


1926 Panhard Lame de Rasoir 1-5litre2

panhard-lame-de-rasoir-1-5 litre

1926 Panhard Lame de Rasoir 1-5litre1


1925 Panhard 4


1927 Panhard Levassor


1929 Panhard 28CV Cab Spyder


1930-34 Panhard


1931 Panhard 6CS de Graaff NL


1931 Panhard-Levassor


1932 Panhard et Levassor X72 6CS RL Conduite Interieure, 7 passengers


1933 Panhard et Levassor X74


1934 Panhard et Levassor Cabrio-Coupé Pourtout


1934 Panhard et Levassor Eclipse Pourtout


1934 Panhard_X72_ar

1934-panhard x72 ar

1934 Panhard_x72_av

1934-panhard x72 av

1934 Panhard_x72_pdb

1934-panhard x72 pdb

1935 Panhard Sans Soupape 6 cyl


1936 - panhard


1936 Panhard Dynamic 140


1936 Panhard Dynamic a


1936 Panhard Dynamic advert


1936 Panhard Dynamic b


1936 Panhard Dynamic Four Door Saloon

1936-panhard-dynamic-four-door-saloon1936 Panhard Dynamic


1937 Dynamic_ar

1937 panhard-dynamic ar

1937 Dynamic_av

1937 panhard-dynamic av

1937 Hab_Dyn

1937-panhard dynamic inside

1937 Panhard & Levassor X77 Dynamic


1937 Panhard et Levassor Dynamic Coupé.


1937 Panhard et Levassor Dynamic


1938 Panhard Dynamic Panoramic


1948 Panhard Dinavia


1948 panhard dynavia  (2)


1948 Panhard Dynavia


1948 Panhard Dynavia 610cc 22pk 130km-p-u


1948 panhard dynavia a


1948 Panhard Levassor Dynavia


1948 Panhard Levassor Dynavia a


1949 panhard dyna a


1949 Panhard dyna bw


1949 Panhard Dyna X84 Canadienne Dynavia


1949 Panhard X86 décapotable-1


1950 Panhard Dyna Sedan


1950 panhard dyna X


1950 Panhard Dyna X86 Roadster


1951 Panhard Dyna X86 Cabriolet (750cc)


1951-61 Panhard Dyna DD-58-23

1951-61-panhard-dyna-dd-58-23 NL

1952 Panhard Dyna 750 Coupé Allemano


1952 Panhard Dyna X 86 Saloon


1952 Panhard Dyna X86


1952 Panhard Junior rood a


1952 panhard junior


1952 Panhard Veritas Dyna Sport


1953 Panhard Colli Sportscar Allemano Berlinetta


1953 Panhard Dyna Z


1953 Panhard Dyna Z1


1953 Panhard Junior


1954 Panhard Devin


1954 panhard dyna


1954 panhard dyna a


1954 Panhard dyna commerciale

1954-panhard-dyna-commerciale.1954 Panhard Dyna Z1


1955 Panhard HBR


1955 Panhard Rafale Carrosserie Futuriste POTIER


1955 Panhard SERA Coupe Rafale


1956 Panhard Dyna Junior


1956 Panhard Dyna RP-34-64

1956-panhard-dyna-rp-34-64 NL

1956 Panhard Dyna Z12(NL)

1956-panhard-dyna-z NL

1956 Panhard Dyna Z12


1956 panhard-dyna-fv

1956-panhard-dyna-fv ad

1957 Panhard Dyna Z Sedan


1957 Panhard PL17


1957 Panhard Z 12


1958 panhard dyna cabrio


1958 Panhard Dyna Z11

1958-panhard-dyna-z1958 Panhard Dyna Z15


1958 panhard dyna

1958-panhard-dyna ad

1959 Panhard 2 vanuit auto Hanne D 2009-06-25

1959 Panhard 3
1959 Panhard
1959 PANHARD Dyna Z Break Pichon-Parat
1959 Panhard DynaZ
1959 Panhard PL17 L1
1959-65 Panhard_PL17_005
1960 panhard
1960 Panhard DB Le Mans
1961 Panhard PL 17
1961 Panhard PL17 L4(NL)
1962 Panhard CD Le Mans
1963 Panhard 17B
1963 Panhard 17B Break
1963 panhard 17b-jr
1963-panhard-17 ad
1963 Panhard 24CT(NL)
1963-panhard-24 NL
1963 Panhard CD Tourisme - coupe body
1963 Panhard PL 17 Tigre with matching traile
1963 Panhard PL17 L8
1963-65 Panhard_CD_001
1963-65-panhard cd
1963-1967 Panhard 24
1964 Panhard 24
1964 panhard 24b-640
1964 Panhard CD Sport
1964 panhard le mans
1965 panhard 17a-jr
1965-panhard-17 ad
Panhard_PL17_Cabriolet 002
1965 panhard pl17 cabriolet
1965 Panhard 24 CD
1965 panhard 24b-b
1965 Panhard 37 24BT
1965 Panhard CT 24 Coupe
1966 Panhard 24 1ct
1966 Panhard b
1966-panhard 24
1967 Panhard 24 CT
1967 Panhard 24 CTa
1967 Panhard 24CT
1979 PANHARD la doyenne
Panhard Mulhouse France
panhard g
panhard-vbl-01 amphibie voertuig
panhard lemans
1991 Panhard-Levassor
1991 PANHARD Les premiers tours
cést tout

Rochet-Schneider Ltd. Cars, Buses and Trucks Lyon France 1894 – 1932


Rue Feuillat - Catalogue photo of Rochet et Schneider factories

Rue Feuillat – Catalogue photo of Rochet et Schneider factories

Founded 1894
Defunct 1932
Headquarters Lyon, France
Key people Edouard Rochet
Eugène Schneider
Products Automobiles
1900 Rochet-Schneider 4 places Avec Capote

early Rochet-Schneider

1914 Rochet-Schneider

1914 Rochet-Schneider

Rochet-Schneider was a French company, based in Lyons, that produced automobiles between 1894 and 1932. The Rochet-Schneider sales slogan was “strength, simplicity and silence”.

Like other motorcars of the so-called “brass era“, the cars made by Rochet-Schneider were largely intended for wealthy hobbyists and made use of brass fittings, pattern leather, hand-crafted wood and other expensive components.

Early period

Edouard Rochet and his father were bicycle manufacturers before entering motorcar production. In 1894 they were joined by Théophile Schneider, a relative of the eponymous armaments family.

Between 1895 and 1901, the company built approximately 240 single cylinder cars “Benz-type” cars. At the 1901 Paris Salon, the company introduced a range of two and four-cylinder cars. Around 1903, these were redesigned along similar lines to Mercedes.

Rochet-Schneider Ltd.

By this time, Rochet-Schneider had become one of the most respected car manufacturers in France. In 1904 the company was sold for 4.5 millionfrancs and a London-based company called “Rochet-Schneider Ltd.” was formed. Production averaged less than 250 cars year and by late 1907 the company was in liquidation.

Carburateurs Zenith

Théophile Schneider bought the company bearing his name and a subsidiary called “Carburateurs Zenith” was formed. Schneider produced a range of high quality cars and commercial vehicles for several years.

Post war

Following World War I, the company offered 12, 18 and 30 hp cars. By 1923 the whole range was fitted with overhead valve engines of entirely new design and a variety of coachwork styles.

Rochet-Schneider took a stand at the 20th Paris Motor Show in October 1926, and exhibited their five model range. Prices quoted below are the manufacturers’ prices for cars in “bare chassis” form, leaving the customer to make his own arrangements in respect of a car body:

  • Rochet-Schneider 12CV 4-cylinder side-valve engine: wheelbase 3,030 mm (119 in) priced at 42,000 francs
  • Rochet-Schneider 14CV 4-cylinder side-valve engine: wheelbase 3,200 mm (130 in) priced at 55,000 francs
  • Rochet-Schneider 18CV 4-cylinder side-valve engine: wheelbase 3,400 mm (130 in) priced at 50,000 francs
  • Rochet-Schneider 20CV 6-cylinder side-valve engine: wheelbase 3,440 mm (135 in) priced at 79,000 francs
  • Rochet-Schneider 30CV 6-cylinder side-valve engine: wheelbase 3,570 mm (141 in) priced at 67,000 francs

From the mid-1920s onwards the company placed growing emphasis on commercial vehicles although passenger cars were still being sold and still being exhibited on the manufacturer’s stand at the 25th Paris Motor Show in October 1931, the manufacturer’s last new model being the formidable Rochet-Schneider 26CV with a large 6-cylinder engine of approximately 5-litres displacement along with dual ignition and servo brakes.

Rochet-Schneider was bought by Berliet, another Lyon based company, by that time known as a manufacturer of locomotives and commercial vehicles, following the World War II.

9_grd 1895 Emblem Rochet-Schneider 1898 Rochet-Schneider 1899 Rochet-Schneider 1900 Rochet-Schneider 4 places Avec Capote 1903 Rochet-Schneider 1904 labourdette - rochet schneider double tonneau - 1904 1906 Rochet-Schneider a 1906 Rochet-Schneider b 1907 Rochet-Schneider France 1908 rochet-schneider-(france)-retromobile--paris-2010-11781 1908 rochet-schneider-bus-parisien-(france)-0445-2604 1909 Rochet-Schneider 1910 image 1912 Rochet Schneider 12 HP 1912 ROCHET SCHNEIDER 11000 1912 Rochet Sneider Camion pinardier 1912 rochet-schneider-torpedo 1913 Rochet Schneider 10000 1913 Rochet Schneider 10000a 1913 Rochet-Schneider 3Т 1914 Rochet Schneider Brandweer. 1914 Rochet Schneider Phaeton 1914 ROCHET SCHNEIDER Torpédo 7 passager Série 15000 1914 Rochet-Schneider 1915 ROCHET SCHNEIDER 1915images 1918 Rochet Schneider 14 18 1918 Rochet Schneider 41 1918 Rochet Schneider 1918 Rochet-Schneider (2) 1918 Rochet-Schneider 12-15.9 Saloon F 1918 Rochet-Schneider 1921 Rochet Schneider 15.000 1923 Uusi-Honkolan-Auton Rochet-Schneider 1924 Rochet Sneider 16cv, type 16500, carrossée en double phaéton 1924 Rochet-Schneider, 20cv, type 20500, carrossée en torpedo 1925 Rochet & Sneider 1925 Rochet Schneider Fire Engine . 1925 ROCHET-SCHNEIDER à GAZO 1925 Rochet-Schneider Pori-Karvia linjalla vuonna 1925 1920c 1925 Rochet-Schneider-incendie-1 1928 rochet-schneider-bus-decouvert 1930 Paris Retromobile Rochet-Schneider 26-six Limousine 1930 ROCHER SCHNEIDER modéle Ajax 1930 ROCHET SCHNEIDER (1) 1930 Rochet-Schneider 26-six Limousine 1930 Rochet-Schneider Limousine 1930 1930 Rochet-Schneider-ad F 1930 Rochet-Schneider-ad 1931 Rochet Schneider Autobus 1931 Rochet-Schneider-32000B-de Cirque 1932 Rochet Schneider 1933 Rochet-Schneider Francès 1934 Rochet Schneider 420 VLE 266250-BUS AB 1934 rochet15 1934-35 Rochet Schneider Autocars 410 VL 1935 camion-fourgon-Rochet-Schneider1 1935 Rochet & Sneider 1935 rochet logo 1935 ROCHET SCHNEIDER AJAX 1935 Rochet Schneider Camions Utilitaires 1935 Rochet Schneider rs 1935 Rochet Schneider sapeur pompiers 1935 Rochet Schneider vintage-bus 1936 Rochet Schneider R 1936 rochet-schneider-25-05 1937 ROCHET SCHNEIDER en gazogène, sur Paris, Bourge 1937 Rochet-Schneider 420VLES 1937 Rochet-Schneider Charabanc 1937 Rochet-Schneider was bought by Berliet and in 1951 the name Rochet-Schneider disappeared. 1937 rochet-schneider 1938 Rochet Schneider Autobus Start Láutomobile Berliet (1938) 1938 Rochet Schneider 1938 Rochet-Schneider-vue-ext 1939 Rochet - Schneider 1T2 1939 Rochet Schneider 1T2 1939 ROCHET SCHNEIDER, tous les six roues (6x2)se nommaient CENTAURE 1947 berliet t.6.jpg1. 1947 Rochet Schneider CENTAURE RS 465 acheté par un Transporteur de L' Herault 1947 rochet-berliet-camion-T61 1948 ROCHET-SCHNEIDER 455 N 1948 ROCHET-SCHNEIDER et RENAULT 215D 1949 Berliet 12-autocar-sur-chÉssis-cabine-avancÇe-1940 1949 ROCHET SCHNEIDER BUS 1949 ROCHET-SCHNEIDER Centaure carrosserie Frappa 1950 ROCHET SCHNEIDER RS 485 Ajax tracteur des Trps JURA TRANSPORTS 1951 ROCHER SCHNEIDER RS 485 des Tps Baillon un des derniers produits ROCHET-SCHNEIDER 455 N Rochet-Schneider bw rochet-schneider-30-02 Rue Feuillat - Catalogue photo of Rochet et Schneider factories

TILLING – STEVENS Ltd. Maidstone, Kent, England UK 1897

1920 Tilling Stevens logo




since 1930

1907 46, Tilling Stevens TS3 AT 5306 1907 Tilling Stevens Bus K1536 1907 Tilling Stevens Charabanc - Britains Motoring History Card 1907 Tilling Stevens Open

1907 ?

W.A. Stevens was established in Maidstone, Kent in 1897 by William Arthur Stevens and had by 1906 built its first petrol-electric vehicle using designs patented by Percival (Percy) Frost-Smith. A petrol engine was connected to an electrical generator and the current produced passed to a traction motor which drove the rear wheels. According to the website of the Birmingham and Midland Motor Omnibus Trust the simpler to operate petrol-electric transmission was popular among bus drivers rather than the conventional crash gearbox (in the days before synchromesh) as few bus staff had previously driven motor vehicles.

1908 X2 with the very ornate Tilling 34 seat open top body with Quorn station as the backdrop

1908 X2 with the very ornate Tilling 34 seat open top body with Quorn station as the backdrop


Tilling-Stevens factory was situated in St Peter’s St, Maidstone. The factory buildings, built in the 1920s in the Daylight style, survive as of 2012. They were Listed as Grade II in July 2011. It is described as “one few buildings of this style not to have undergone significant alteration from the original”.

1909 Tilling lf9416 1909 Tilling Stevens  001



The petrol-electric transmission was fitted to chassis built by J.E. Hall and Co, of Dartford, (who used the trade name “Hallford”, so these were known as “Hallford-Stevens”) and Dennis Bros, of Guildford (as “Dennis-Stevens”), until an arrangement was agreed with a large bus operator, Thomas Tilling, who wanted to produce their own vehicles which were named Tilling-Stevens. The ease of driving and soundness of construction of these vehicles soon led to the company supplying chassis to many bus operators in the UK, and several abroad as well.

1910 Pa-MC5 Tilling 1910 vulcan old


Tilling-Stevens Motors Ltd consolidated its position with bus operators in World War I because the petrol-electric chassis were not considered suitable by the Army for use in France. However, many men were trained to drive in the War on vehicles with conventional gearboxes which led to a decline in popularity of Tilling-Stevens’ system. By the 1930s, chassis were being produced with conventional petrol/diesel engines, gearboxes and transmission.

Minolta DSC


Tilling-Stevens split from Thomas Tilling in 1930 and renamed itself T S Motors Ltd (TSM) in 1932, but were again renamed Tilling-Stevens before World War II had broken out.

1912 Transport Postcard - Bus - Tilling-Stevens TTA1 No.K1631 - December 1912 2873


Tilling-Stevens was still manufacturing buses after World War II, with a large order built in 1947/1948 for export to Hong Kong (China Motor Bus (108) & Kowloon Motor Bus (50)).

Goods vehicles

Tilling-Stevens also produced goods chassis available with either petrol-electric or conventional gearbox transmissions and built many trucks during World War I. Their cast aluminium radiators were distinctive, with “Tilling-Stevens” cast into the top and either “Petrol-Electric” or “Maidstone” into the bottom tanks.

Vulcan lorryPost-war Vulcan truck fitted with Perkins diesel engine. On show at Bromyard, England in 2008

After the war, they failed to invest in updating their products and acquired Vulcan Trucks of Southport, Lancashire in 1930 to extend their range (and use Vulcan petrol engines). Production stayed at Maidstone.

Tilling-Stevens petrol-electric searchlight lorry

petrol-electric searchlight lorry

The unusual electric transmission became less of an advantage as other makers developed their simpler mechanical transmissions to be reliable and easier to drive. Tilling-Stevens specialised in some unusual markets where the transmission could offer a particular advantage, by also using it as a generator. Some early turntable ladder fire engines were produced where arc lamps for lighting and the electric motors to raise the ladder could be powered by it.

1913 Autocar-ThosTilling 1913 Chassis Tilling-Stevens TTA2 Engine Tilling-Stevens petrol Transmission Electric Traction Motor Body Thomas Tilling 34 seatsvo9926 1913 Vulcan truck, from The Automobile, May 15


In the 1930s the lorries also lost the large cast radiators in favour of first a thinner cast aluminium shell and then a cheaper steel pressed bonnet and a small diamond-shaped “TSM” badge.

1914 Craftsmen at work on an StevensTillingL bus, Chiswick Works 1914 POSTCARD RP LIVERPOOL CORPORATION TILLING STEVENS BUS TTA1 NO K 1593 1914 POSTCARD TILLING STEVENS 46 SEAT DOUBLE DECKER BUS ISLE OF MAN 1914 Tilling Stevens Petrol Electric Bus 1914 Tilling Stevens TS3 Petrol Electric with 1908 Bus Body 1914 Tilling--Stevens petrol electric omnibus London 1914 tilling-stevens petrol-electric 1914 Tilling-Stevens TS3 1914 Tilling-Stevens 1914 Transport Postcard - Liverpool Corporation - Tilling-Stevens TTA1 1914 U778 1914 Vulcan Demonstration Van 1914 Vulcan Driggs-Seabury


Leading up to World War II they specialised in the searchlight trucks for which they are probably still best known today.

1914 Bus Postcard - B.C.T. 1914 Tilling Stevens - Petrol-Electric Bus U130

1914 Bus Postcard – B.C.T. 1914 Tilling Stevens – Petrol-Electric Bus U130

Rootes Group

In 1950, the company was sold to Rootes Group, and complete vehicle production ceased soon afterwards. The plant continued to produce light commercial engines (particularly the iconic Commer TS3 2 stroke diesel) and vehicle bodies, before finally closing in the 1970s, some years after the group had been acquired by Chrysler.

1918 (DA 1551) Tilling-Stevens TS3 Fleming B30R in service 1918-1929 Wolverhampton 1918 Tilling Stevens 1918 Vulcan Clarinda



The Tilling-Stevens petrol-electric bus is interesting as an early example of a hybrid vehicle, although without any direct engine propulsion or battery storage. As the petrol engine ran continuously, it was almost certainly less fuel efficient than a competing petrol engine, which may have contributed to its demise. However hybrid petrol-electric cars, such as the Toyota Prius, are now seen as being a partial solution towards cutting carbon dioxide emissions and reducing the risks of damaging global warming.

1919 Tilling Stevens bus in Amberley

1919 Tilling Stevens bus in Amberley