AMBULANCES + HEARSES part XVI on Alphabet beginning with S till T

AMBULANCES + HEARSES part XVI on Alphabet beginning with S till T

Modellauto Cadillac S&S Landau Hearse (1:18, Precision Miniatures)

 S&S Sayers & Scovill Ambulances & Hearses

SAAB Ambulances and Hearses



SEAT Ambulancias + Coches Funebres

EBRO Siata 12 Ambulancia

All sorts of SIATA’s

Siebert Ohio build Ambulances, Limousines and Hearses

Singapore Style Hearse


Škoda Ambulances and Hearses mostly build by carrosserie Sodomka

  Cadillac, Packard and Buick Ambulances gebouwd door carrosseriebedrijf Smit in Joure Friesland NL

SPYKER Ambulances since 1908 till 1920


Ssangyong Ambulances

1925 Stevens Hearse Vehicle

Steyr Ambulanze – Pinzgauer – Puch – FIAT – Daimler

Studebaker Ambulances and Hearses

some of them  with Coachwork by Bender Body Company of Cleveland

SUBARU Ambulances and Hearses

SUZUKI Ambulances

That was the Last S I Think, lets go to the T

WHITE Motor Company Cleveland Ohio USA 1900 – 1980 Buses and more

White Motor Company

White Motor Company
Industry Automotive
Fate Acquired
Successors AB Volvo
Founded 1900
Founders Thomas White
Defunct 1980
Headquarters Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Products Vehicles
Automotive parts

The White Motor Company was an American automobile and truck manufacturer from 1900 until 1980. The company also produced bicyclesroller skates, automatic lathes, and sewing machines. Before World War II, the company was based in Cleveland, Ohio.


Advertisement for the White Sewing Machine Company’s 1905 model

About 1898, Thomas H. White purchased a Locomobile steam car and found its boiler unreliable. His son, Rollin, set out to improve its design. Rollin White developed a form of water tube steam generator which consisted of a series of stacked coils with two novel features: the first was that the coils were all joined at the top of the unit, which allowed water to flow only when pumped, allowing control of the steam generation; the second was pulling steam from the lowest coil, closest to the fire, which allowed control of steam temperature. This second point was critical because the White steamer operated with superheated steam to take advantage of steam’s properties at higher temperatures. Rollin White patented his steam generator, US patent 659,837 of 1900.[1]

White steamer

1907 White Model G steam touring car

 A 1907 White Model G steam touring car at the Henry Ford Museum.

Rollin H. White patented his new design and offered it to, among others, Locomobile. Finally, he persuaded his father, founder of the White Sewing Machine Company, to allow the use of a corner in one of his buildings to build an automobile.

White’s brother Windsor, who was a management talent, joined the business venture, followed by their brother Walter, who became instrumental in the sales, promotion and distribution of the product. The first group of fifty cars were completed in October 1900, but none were offered to the public until April 1901 so the design could be thoroughly tested. Since the cars were being offered by the automobile department of the sewing machine company, White could not afford to diminish the reputation of the parent company by the introduction of an untested product.

It became necessary in 1905 to separate the automobile department from its parent company to accommodate the growth of the business and to physically separate them, as a fire in one could ruin both operations. On July 4, 1905, a racing steam car named “Whistling Billy” and driven by Webb Jay set a record of 73.75 mph (118.69 km/h) on the Morris Park Racecourse.

1909 The Presidents White 40 Hp TaftMotorCar1909

 Taft’s car
1909 White Touring Car

1909 White touring car at the Petersen Automotive Museum

A 1907 White steamer was one of the early vehicles in the White House when Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, allowed the Secret Service to use the car behind his horse-drawn carriage. In 1909, president William Howard Taft converted the White House stables into a garage and purchased four automobiles: two Pierce-Arrows, a Baker Electric, and a 1911 White. This $4,000 car was one of the last steam cars produced and proved a favorite of the President who used bursts of steam against “pesky” press photographers. The 40 hp (30 kW) White Model M 7-seat tourer generated favorable press for the newly formed White Motor Company.

The last steam car was built in January 1911 as the company made a transition to gasoline-powered vehicles. The company continued to show them in their catalogues as late as 1912. About 10,000 White steam-powered cars were built, more than the better known Stanley.

Gasoline models

White companies’ manufacturing facility expanded. The White steamer used unique technology, and it was vulnerable in a market that was accepting the internal combustion engine as the standard. White canvassed existing gas manufacturers and licensed the rights to the Delahaye design for the “gas car”, showing a chassis at an English auto show in December 1908.

White tractors

Rollin became more interested in agricultural tractors, and developed designs for tractors derived from standard White truck parts. When the White Company was not interested in producing tractors, Rollin set out to develop his own designs and, with brother Clarence, eventually founded Cleveland Motor Plow, which later became Cletrac tractor. In the early 1920s, Rollin briefly produced the Rollin car to diversify the tractor company, but found it could not compete in cost versus price against much larger manufacturers.

White was successful with their heavy machines, which saw service around the world during World War I. White remained in the truck industry for decades.

Truck manufacturing

1930-41 White fire Truck Old_CFD_Squad_10_truck2

White truck in the Chicago Fire Department from 1930 to 1941

White Motor Company ended car production after WWI and began producing trucks. The company soon sold 10 percent of all trucks made in the US. Although White produced all sizes of trucks from light delivery to semi, the decision was made after WWII to produce only large trucks. White acquired several truck companies during this time: Sterling, Autocar, Diamond T, and REO. White also agreed to sell Consolidated Freightways trucks through its own dealers. White produced trucks under the Autocar nameplate following its acquisition. Diamond T and REO Motor Car Company became the Diamond REO division, which was discontinued in the 1970s.

A White semi performed a role in the 1949 James Cagney film, “White Heat“. This era was probably the peak of White Motor market penetration, with the substantial gasoline engined tractors moving a large part of the tractor trailer fleet.

White designed and (with other companies) produced the M3 Scout Car, the standard United States Army reconnaissance vehicle at the start of World War II. White also built the later M2 and M3 half-tracks.

In 1967, White started the Western Star division to sell trucks on the west coast.

White buses

White Red Jammers Canada Alberta Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park Waterton Lakes National Park Waterton Prince of Wales Hotel

Two ‘red jammers’ at the Prince of Wales Hotel

In the 1930s, White produced 500 of their small Model 706 buses specifically designed to carry passengers through the major National Parks of the western US. The distinctive vehicles, with roll-back canvas convertible tops, were the product of noted industrial designer Alexis de Sakhnoffsky, and originally operated in seven National Parks. Today, Glacier National Park operates 33 of their original 35 buses, where they are referred to as “Red Jammers“, and 8 (of an original 98) have been restored for renewed service in Yellowstone National Park. Glacier National Park‘s 33 buses were refurbished by Ford Motor Company and TransGlobal in 2000-2002, while Yellowstone National Park‘s eight buses were refurbished by TransGlobal in 2007. Glacier has kept one bus in original condition. Yellowstone has five White buses in original condition, two model 706s and three older units as well. In addition, Gettysburg National Battlefield operates two of Yellowstone’s original buses.

Company culture

1910 White_touring_car

 1910 White touring car
1897 White railcar

White railcar in the collection of the Railtown 1897 State Historic Park

During the time brothers Walter and Windsor White ran the company, it offered a library branch, a store which sold necessities at low cost, sports teams, and concerts by orchestras and jazz bands, as well as musical performances by the workers, many of whom were immigrants from Slovenia and Poland. The company also had picnics at Euclid Beach Park.

After Walter White died from a traffic accident, management changed and so did the firm’s culture. Employees started one of the country’s first automobile unions. The Great Depression caused a drop in sales, forcing White to merge with Studebaker. However, White soon became independent again.

In 1935, Robert Fager Black became president, but workers were still unhappy, and they went on strike. Black tried talking to the workers who were striking, and he even got baseball equipment for them and let them play while on strike, so they would have something to do. Black learned people’s names, visited the plant frequently, and asked customers if they were happy with what they purchased. Anyone could visit his office.

Black brought the company back to where it had once been by World War II, during which the company supplied the military with much of its equipment. White ranked 54th among US corporations in the value of WWII military production contracts. When husbands went to serve, wives took their jobs, and the work force totaled over 4000. Black provided the services the company had at one time, and helped employees get to work with carpools.

Black retired in 1956, still beloved by employees.


1962 White Truck Patchogue New York

1962 tractor

In 1953, White purchased the Autocar Company. From 1951 until 1977, White Motors also distributed Freightliner trucks. This took place under an agreement with Freightliner’s parent, Consolidated Freightways. White manufactured trucks under its own brands—White, Autocar, and Western Star—as well, leading to the company becoming known as the “Big Four” through to the mid-1970s. The Sterling nameplate, unused by White as long as the company owned it, went to Freightliner after the companies’ split; it is was used from 1997 to 2008, by Daimler Trucks.

Sales dropped during the 1960s, and White tried merging with White Consolidated Industries, the company that once made sewing machines; the federal government blocked this deal. The company opened plants in Virginia and Utah, since they did not have unions, but this did not help. Semon E. “Bunkie” Knudsen, former president of Ford Motor Company, made the company successful for a time, but the decline continued. Later, the federal government approved a merger with White Consolidated, which feared being hurt by White Motor’s troubles. Mergers with Daimler and Renault were also considered. Production was somewhat limited as White did not have a lighter range (13,330 units built in 1978), leading to several attempts at linking up with various European manufacturers.

By 1980, White was insolvent. Volvo AB acquired the US assets of the company in 1981, while two energy-related companies based in CalgaryAlberta, Bow Valley Resource Services, and NovaCorp, an Alberta corporation, purchased the Canadian assets, including the Kelowna, British Columbia, plant, and the Western Star nameplate and product range.

1948 White Road Tractor

1948 White road tractor model WC-22T

Volvo produced trucks as White and Autocar through the 1980s, while Western Star continued independently in Canada and the United States, although Volvo-White–produced high cab over engine models were purchased and rebadged Western Star for sale in the Canadian market through the early 1990s.

Volvo purchased GMC‘s heavy truck business in 1987 and merged it with White, creating the White-GMC brand. Western Star was sold to Australian entrepreneur Terry Peabody in 1990. Subsequently, Western Star was resold by Peabody to DaimlerChrysler AG and merged with its Freightliner subsidiary. Volvo dropped any reference to White, and is now Volvo Trucks North America. Autocar remained a part of Volvo until 2000, when the trademark was withdrawn from the market, and was subsequently sold to Grand Vehicle Works together with the Xpeditor low cab forward heavy duty product, which remains in production under the Autocar badge, the last vestige of what was once America’s leading commercial vehicle producer.

A former White subsidiary, White Farm Equipment, produced farm tractors until 2001. As of 2006, the only products made under the White name is a series of corn planters (made by AGCO) and garden tractors (made by MTD Products).

2007 Kenworth W900 semi in red

2007 Kenworth W900 semi in red


Martz 1912 White

1912 White bus

1915 White


1922 White Charabanc Tourer


1922 White on a California Body Company body Oakland CA

1922 White Touring Bus

1923 White Model 50 - 25 Passenger

1923 White Model 50 – 25 Passenger

1925 White - White A'dam

1925-white-white-adam nl

1927 white-opt


1928 White Bender Bus


1929 White EB01d059

1929 White EB01d059

1929 White Bender bus

1929 White Bender bus

1929 White Bender

White Bender Bus

1930 White Bender Bus

White Bender Buses

1930 White Bender


1930 White bus WHITEFRANKMARTZ 1930 White Model 65 with body by Moore


1930 White Motor Company


1931 White Bender


1931 White Benderbus


1931 White


1928 white coache mod

1933 white-coache-mod

1934 White  Open Bender Bus


1934 White 702 bus


1934 White Open Bender


1934 White yellowstone bus 04


1934 White yellowstone bus 14


1934 White-Bender 54-A Sunshine Bus Lines 182 1935 White model 54A, bus 810 SEGL


1936 White Dream Coach of 1950, Great Lakes Exposition

1936 White Dream Coach

1936 White Sightseeing Bus, Great Lakes Exposition

1936 WHITE

1937 White 706

1937 Yellowstone 427 White

1937 White open Bender bus


1937-48 White Model 798 V12


1938 White 7788 Tamiami Trail Tours Inc 913 1938 White Bender


1938 White Bendera


1946 Hermes White-lks te Doetinchem 090706 1946 Hermes White-rts te Doetinchem 090706


1946 White Scoutcar NZH017


1947 White Scout 8 met Austin 4 daar achter


1947 White Smit B-31746


1949 White carr. Medema appingedam B-31617


1952 White Fleet


1952 White Matser 16 NB-57-01 ECF


1972 White CCMC Calabromo 5136 1976 White MBA Edwards MO3619 White 2000 bus file005 sml White-company_1912-06_cleveland

STUDEBAKER – E-M-F – ERSKINE – ROCKNE South Bend Indiana USA 1852 – 1967


Studebaker Corporation
Industry Vehicle manufacture
Founded February 1852
Founders Studebaker brothers (pictured below)
Defunct May 1967
Headquarters South Bend, Indiana, USA
Products Automobiles
historic wagons, carriages, buses and harness
Parent Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company

1917 Studebaker logo

Studebaker “turning wheel” badge on cars produced 1912–1934

Studebaker (1852-1967, /ˈst(j)dəbkə/ stew-də-bay-kər) was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. Founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1868 under the name of the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, the company was originally a producer of wagons for farmers, miners, and the military.

1902 Studebaker advertisement 1902 Studebaker 1903 studebaker electric 1 1904 Studebaker Victoria Phaeton 1905StudebakerElectricAd1 1906 Studebaker 1908 STUDE Elec 4 8 p 413 truck XX 1909 studebaker elec model 22 1911 Studebaker electric car

Studebaker entered the automotive business in 1902 with electric vehicles and in 1904 with gasoline vehicles, all sold under the name “Studebaker Automobile Company”. Until 1911, its automotive division operated in partnership with the Garford Company of Elyria, Ohio and after 1909 with the E-M-F Company. The first gasoline automobiles to be fully manufactured by Studebaker were marketed in August 1912. Over the next 50 years, the company established an enviable reputation for quality and reliability. After years of financial problems, in 1954 the company merged with luxury carmaker Packard to form Studebaker-Packard Corporation. However, Studebaker’s financial problems were worse than the Packard executives thought. The Packard marque was phased out and the company returned to the Studebaker Corporation name in 1962. The South Bend plant ceased production on December 20, 1963 and the last Studebaker automobile rolled off the Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, assembly line on March 16, 1966.


1910 Studebaker


19th-century wagonmaker

1912 E-M-F Model 30 Roadster 1912

1912 E-M-F Model 30 Roadster 1912

German forebears

1913 Studebaker


According to the official Studebaker history written by Albert R. Erskine, History of the Studebaker Corporation, South Bend, Indiana, published in 1918, “The ancestors of the Studebaker family first arrived in America at the Port of Philadelphia on September 1, 1736, on the ship Harle, from Rotterdam, Holland, as shown by the original manuscripts now in the Pennsylvania State Library at Harrisburg, and included Peter Studebecker, age 38 years; Clement Studebecker, age 36 years; Henry Studebecker, age 28 years; Anna Margetha Studebecker, age 38 years; Anna Catherine Studebecker, age 28 years. The last part of the name, “becker,” was afterwards changed to “baker.” The tax list of what was then Huntington Township, York County, Pennsylvania, in 1798-9, showed among the taxable were Peter Studebaker, Sr., and Peter Studebaker, Jr., wagon-makers, which trade later became the foundation of the family fortune and the corporation which now bears the name.

1916 Studebaker SF Tourer a 1916 Studebaker SF Tourer

1916 Studebaker SF Tourer

In Albert Russel Erskine‘s official history, John Studebaker, father of the five brothers, born in Adams County, Pennsylvania, was the son of Peter Studebaker. Anyone with interest can view the pages of Erskin 1918 annual report on Bakers Lookout exhibit page for Albert R. Erskine.

1916 Studebaker 16 pass. winnipeg-WEC101-104buses-crmw

1916 Studebaker 16 pass. winnipeg Buses1916 Studebaker Speedster 1916 Studebaker Touring

In any event, John Studebaker (1799–1877) moved to Ohio in 1835 with his wife Rebecca (née Mohler) (1802–1887)—and taught his five sons to make wagons. They all went into that business as it grew to gigantic proportions with the country.

The five brothers

The five Studebaker brothers—founders of the Studebaker Corporation. Left to right, (standing) Peter and Jacob; (seated) Clem, Henry, and John M.

1916 Studebaker Speedster


The five sons were, in order of birth: Henry (1826–1895), Clement (1831–1901), John Mohler (1833–1917), Peter Everst (1836–1897) and Jacob Franklin (1844–1887). The boys had five sisters. Photographs of the brothers and their parents are reproduced in the 1918 company history, which was written by Erskine after he became president, in memory of John M., whose portrait appears on the front cover.

South Bend operation

1916 Studebaker Touring


Clement and Henry Studebaker, Jr., became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana, in February 1852. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of complete wagons. At this time, John M. was making wheelbarrows in Placerville,California. The site of his business is California Historic Landmark #142.

1916 Studebaker


The first major expansion in Henry and Clem’s South Bend business came from their being in the right place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush that began in 1849.

1918 Studebaker Ambulance by Armstrong & Hotson emergency

1918 Studebaker Ambulance by Armstrong & Hotson emergency

1918 Studebaker RHTCbus


From his wheelbarrow enterprise at Placerville, John M. had amassed $8,000. In April 1858, he quit and moved out to apply this to financing the vehicle manufacturing of H & C Studebaker, which was already booming because of a big order to build wagons for the US Army. In 1857, they had also built their first carriage—”Fancy, hand-worked iron trim, the kind of courting buggy any boy and girl would be proud to be seen in”.

1919 Studebaker


1919 Studebaker WECo 16 seats Winnipeg

1919 Studebaker WECo 16 seats Winnipeg

That was when John M. bought out Henry’s share of the business. Henry was deeply religious and had qualms about building military equipment. The Studebakers were Dunkard Brethren, conservative German Baptists, a religion that viewed war as evil. Longstreet’s official company history simply says “Henry was tired of the business. He wanted to farm. The risks of expanding were not for him”. Expansion continued from manufacture of wagons for westward migration as well as for farming and general transportation. During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons used were Studebakers. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings for other builders in Missouri for another quarter-century.

1920 Studebaker a 1920 Studebaker


The fourth brother, Peter E, was running a successful general store at Goshen which was expanded in 1860 to include a wagon distribution outlet. A major leap forward came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the Civil War (1861–65). By 1868, annual sales had reached $350,000. That year, the three older brothers formed the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company—Clem (president), Peter (secretary), and John M. (treasurer). By this time the factory had a spur line to the Lake Shore railroad and, with the Union Pacific Railroad finished, most wagons were now dispatched by rail and steamship.

1921 Studebaker 2 1921 Studebaker Nwk

1920 NL

World’s largest vehicle house

Studebaker wagon hauled by eight Budweiser Clydesdales in Wisconsin, 2009

In 1875, the youngest brother, 30-year-old Jacob, was brought into the company to take charge of the carriage factory, making sulkies and five-glass landaus. Following a great fire in 1874 which destroyed two-thirds of the entire works, they had rebuilt in solid brick, covering 20 acres (81,000 m2) and were now “The largest vehicle house in the world”.[8]:p.43 Customers could choose from Studebaker sulkies, broughams, clarences,phaetons, runabouts, victorias, and tandems. For $20,000 there was a four-in-hand for up to a dozen passengers, with red wheels, gold-plated lamps and yellow trim.

1922 Studebaker a 1922 Studebaker b 1922 Studebaker c 1922 Studebaker d 1922 Studebaker e 1922 Studebaker


1922 Studebaker Big Six Child's Hearse 1922 Studebaker Child's Hearse

In the 1880s, roads started to be surfaced with tar, gravel, and wooden blocks. In 1884, when times were hard, Jacob opened a carriage sales and service operation in a fine new Studebaker Building on Michigan Avenue, Chicago. The two granite columns at the main entrance, 3 feet 8 inches (1.12 m) in diameter and 12 feet 10 inches (3.91 m) high, were said to be the largest polished monolithic shafts in the country. Three years later in 1887, Jacob died—the first death among the brothers.

1923 Studebaker

1923 Studebaker van Maessen

1923 Studebaker van Maessen NL

In 1889, incoming President Harrison ordered a full set of Studebaker carriages and harnesses for the White House. The only issue was that the harness fell apart during a ride and all of the horses escaped. As the twentieth century approached, the South Bend plant “covered nearly 100 acres (0.40 km2) with 20 big boilers, 16 dynamos, 16 large stationary engines, 1000 pulleys, 600 wood- and iron-working machines, 7 miles (11 km) of belting, dozens of steam pumps, and 500 arc and incandescent lamps making white light over all”.

1924 studebaker amb 3 1924 studebaker ambulance 2

1924 Studebaker Ambulance-Hearse-Policecar

1924 Studebaker bus in Wassenaar Voor de oorlog 42

1924 Studebaker Buses in Wassenaar Holland

1924 Studebaker Gotfredson bus4

1924 Studebaker bus Gotfredson

The worldwide economic depression of 1893 caused a dramatic pause in sales and the plant closed down for five weeks, but industrial relations were good and the organized workforce declared faith in their employer.

1925 Studebaker Bender Bus


1925 Studebaker body5 9litre6cyl 1925 Studebaker Bus a


1925 Studebaker Bus Catalog-01 1925 Studebaker Bus Catalog-08


1925 Studebaker Bus


1925 Studebaker van Kerckhoffs, die is ingebracht in de VAD-Central1925-studebaker-van-kerckhoffs-die-is-ingebracht-in-de-vad-central 1 NL

1925 Studebaker Police Paddy Wagon.

1925 Studebaker Police Paddy Wagon.

The impressive wagons pulled by the Budweiser Clydesdales are Studebaker wagons modified to carry beer, originally manufactured circa 1900.

Family association continues

The five brothers died between 1887 and 1917 (John Mohler was the last to die). Their sons and sons-in-law remained active in the management, most notably lawyer Fred Fish after his marriage to John M’s daughter Grace in 1891. Col. George M Studebaker, Clement Studebaker Jr, J M Studebaker Jr, and [Fred Sr’s son] Frederick Studebaker Fish served apprenticeships in different departments and rose to important official positions, with membership on the board. Erskine adds sons-in-law Nelson J Riley, Charles A Carlisle, H D Johnson, and William R Innis.

1926 studebaker hearse

1926 Studebaker Hearse

1926 Studebaker Six Duplex Phaeton


1926 Studebaker Bus (middle) in Manitoba


1926 studebaker camperbus ad mbldg forum

1926-studebaker-camperbus-ad-mbldg-forum © Richard Zuinn

1926 STUDEBAKER Pennock

1926 Studebaker Carr. Pennock The Hague The Netherlands

1926 Studebaker Six Duplex Phaeton


1926 Studebaker Taxi lede 1926 Studebaker taxi 1926 StudeTaxi

Studebaker automobiles 1897–1911

In the beginning

In 1895, John M. Studebaker’s son-in-law Fred Fish urged for development of ‘a practical horseless carriage’. When, on Peter Studebaker’s death, Fish became chairman of the executive committee in 1897, the firm had an engineer working on a motor vehicle. At first, Studebaker opted for electric (battery-powered) over gasoline propulsion. While manufacturing its own Studebaker Electric vehicles from 1902 to 1911, the company entered into body-manufacturing and distribution agreements with two makers of gasoline-powered vehicles, Garford of Elyria, Ohio, and the Everitt-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit and Walkerville, Ontario). Studebaker began making gasoline-engined cars in partnership with Garford in 1904.


1908 Studebaker-Garford B limousine

1908 Studebaker-Garford B limousine

1912 Studebaker Bus

1912 Studebaker bus

Under the agreement with Studebaker, Garford would receive completed chassis and drivetrains from Ohio and then mate them with Studebaker-built bodies, which were sold under the Studebaker-Garford brand name at premium prices. Eventually, vehicles with Garford-built engines began to carry the Studebaker name. Garford also built cars under its own name and, by 1907, attempted to increase production at the expense of Studebaker. Once the Studebakers discovered this, John Mohler Studebaker enforced a primacy clause, forcing Garford back on to the scheduled production quotas. The decision to drop the Garford was made and the final product rolled off the assembly line by 1911, leaving Garford alone until it was acquired by John North Willys in 1913.



Studebaker’s agreement with the E-M-F Company, made in September 1908 was a different relationship, one John Studebaker had hoped would give Studebaker a quality product without the entanglements found in the Garford relationship, but this was not to be. Under the terms of the agreement, E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and Studebaker would distribute them exclusively through its wagon dealers.

1909 auto show emfs 1909 EMF 30 DV 05 HH 01 1909 EMF

E-M-F 1909

The E-M-F gasoline-powered cars proved disastrously unreliable, causing wags to say that E-M-F stood for Every Morning Fix-it, Easy Mark’s Favorite, and the like. Compounding the problems was the infighting between E-M-F’s principal partners, Everitt, Flanders, and Metzger. Eventually in mid-1909, Everitt and Metzger left to start a new enterprise. Flanders also quit and joined them in 1912 but the Metzger Motor Car Co could not be saved from failure by renaming it the Flanders Motor Company.

1910 EMF Model 30 1910 EMF Model 30a 1910 EMF 1910 road race emf

E-M-F 1910

1911 EMF Demi Tonneau 1911 EMF factory team race car 1911 EMF Model 30 1911 EMF 1911emf-tr

E-M-F 1911

Studebaker’s president, Fred Fish, had purchased one-third of the E-M-F stock in 1908 and followed up by acquiring all the remainder from J. P. Morgan in 1910 and buying E-M-F’s manufacturing plants at Walkerville, Ontario, Canada, and across the river in Detroit.

1912 EMF Model 30 Roadster 1912 EMF Model 30a 1912 Studebaker Flanders Roadster 1912emf2 EMF 30 Fore-door E-M-F 's la-car-concours-mercer-and-emf

E-M-F 1912

emf_logo EMF_teideman_winners emf-cartour16-copy EMFPackardWeb-Large emfs drake well free transheader

Studebaker marque established in 1911

Studebaker Dealer Neon

In 1910, it was decided to refinance and incorporate as the Studebaker Corporation, which was concluded on 14 February 1911 under New Jersey laws. The company discontinued making electric vehicles that same year. The financing was handled by Lehman Brothers and Goldman Sachs who provided board representatives including Henry Goldman whose contribution was especially esteemed.


1927 Studebaker Bus 1927 Studebaker Hearse 1927 Studebaker 1927 Studebaker-bus-no29-1927

After taking over E-M-F’s facilities, Studebaker sought to remedy the customer dissatisfaction by paying mechanics to visit each disgruntled owner and replace defective parts in their vehicles, at a total cost of US$1 million. The worst problem was rear-axle failure. Hendry comments that the frenzied testing resulted in Studebaker’s aim to design ‘for life’—and the consequent emergence of “a series of really rugged cars… the famous Big and Special Sixes”. From that time, Studebaker’s own marque was put on all new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities as an assurance that the vehicles were well built.

Engineering advances from WWI

The corporation benefited from enormous orders cabled by the British government at the outbreak of World War I. They included 3,000 transport wagons, 20,000 sets of artillery harness, 60,000 artillery saddles, and ambulances, as well as hundreds of cars purchased through the London office. Similar orders were received from the governments of France and Russia.


1928 Studebaker ah 1928 Studebaker Bus at the Battle Creek Sanitarium a