WERKSPOOR Buses and more 1828 – 1989

Werkspoor

Werkspoor N.V.
Werkspoormotor.jpg
Oprichting 1828
Opheffing 1989
Oorzaak einde gebrek aan orders
Oprichter(s) Paul van Vlissingen, Abraham Dudok van Heel
Hoofdkantoor Amsterdam, Zuilen (Utrecht)
Producten machines, rollend materieel
Portaal  Portaalicoon Economie

Werkspoor-gebouwen op Oostenburg, Amsterdam.

Bestand:Overdracht van de eerste in Nederland gebouwde electrische locomotief Weeknummer 51-48 - Open Beelden - 78250.ogv
 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/5b/Overdracht_van_de_eerste_in_Nederland_gebouwde_electrische_locomotief_Weeknummer_51-48_-_Open_Beelden_-_78250.ogv/Overdracht_van_de_eerste_in_Nederland_gebouwde_electrische_locomotief_Weeknummer_51-48_-_Open_Beelden_-_78250.ogv.360p.webm
Bioscoopjournaal uit 1951. Bij Werkspoor te Utrecht worden in 1951 de eerste elektrische locomotieven gebouwd van de 1200-serie.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
 Paul van Vlissingen, olieverfschilderij vanJan Braet von Überfeldt.

Werkspoor N.V., de verkorte en later de officiële handelsnaam van de Koninklijke Nederlandsche Fabriek van Werktuigen en Spoorwegmaterieel, was een Nederlandse machinefabriek, bekend door onder meer (scheeps)stoommachines, motoren en rollend materieel. Het bedrijf is in 1828 opgericht door Paul van Vlissingen en Abraham Dudok van Heel met steun van koning Willem I.

Geschiedenis

Ontstaan en groei

Het bedrijf, oorspronkelijk gevestigd in Amsterdam (Oostenburg), was al opgericht in 1826 door Paul van Vlissingen als een reparatiewerkplaats voor stoommachines voor de Amsterdamse Stoombootmaatschappij, waarvan hij mede-oprichter was. In 1827 werd een voormalige rokerij van de Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie gehuurd om uit te breiden. Nadat Abraham Dudok van Heel in 1828 compagnon was geworden, kreeg het bedrijf de naam ‘Fabriek van Stoom- en Andere Werktuigen, onder de firma Van Vlissingen & Dudok van Heel.

Omstreeks 1850 was Werkspoor de grootste machinefabriek van Nederland. Het bedrijf telde toen circa 1.000 werknemers. Men vervaardigde er onder meer stoommachines, stoomketels en machinerieën voor de suikerindustrie, en van 1843 tot 1846 ook enkele stoomlocomotieven. In deze periode werd aan de fabriek het predicaat Koninklijk verleend. Het bedrijf was mede afhankelijk van regeringsorders. In 1871 werd de onderneming gereorganiseerd, omdat men in financiële problemen was geraakt bij de bouw van de Moerdijkbrug. Het nieuwe bedrijf, een naamloze vennootschap, kreeg de naam ‘Koninklijke Fabriek van Stoom- en andere Werktuigen’. Rond 1890 kwam ook dit bedrijf in moeilijkheden. Het werd vanaf 1891 voortgezet met financiële hulp van de machinefabriek Stork als ‘Nederlandsche Fabriek van Werktuigen en spoorwegmaterieel’.

Expansie

De vervaardiging van dit laatste product beperkte zich aanvankelijk tot spoorwagons en dergelijke, maar in 1897 kreeg het bedrijf een order van de Nederlandsch-Zuid-Afrikaansche Spoorwegmaatschappij voor 40 locomotieven naast 400 goederenwagons. Daartoe werden in 1897 op Oostenburg drie grote fabriekshallen gebouwd (zie foto), ontworpen door de architect A.L. van Gendt. Naast deze productie van rollend materieel bleef Werkspoor ook actief op het gebied van de scheepsmachinerieën en vervaardigde het bedrijf in 1910 de eerste dieselmotor voor een zeegaand schip, de Vulcanus, in opdracht van de Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij. Verder nam men begin 20e eeuw de productie van koelmachines ter hand, als licentiehouder van de firma Linde.

In 1916 verhuisde de fabricage van spoorrijtuigen en staalconstructies naar het industrieterrein Lage Weide in Nieuw Zuilen, tegenwoordig een subwijk in Utrecht. Een nieuw fabriekscomplex voor 1600 arbeidsplaatsen verrees daar en ter huisvesting is de De Lessepsbuurt ontstaan. In Utrecht zijn enkele beroemde bruggen gebouwd, zoals de Waalbrug bij Nijmegen, de Bommelse Brug bij Zaltbommel, en de Moerdijkbrug.

In 1929 werd het telegramadres Werkspoor de officiële naam van het bedrijf.

Na de Tweede Wereldoorlog

In de eerste jaren na de bevrijding had Werkspoor veel werk aan het herstel van beschadigd Nederlands spoor- en tramwegmaterieel. Ook werden ten behoeve van de Nederlandse Spoorwegen vele locomotieven, spoorwegrijtuigen en treinstellen gebouwd. Deze orders moesten in veel gevallen gedeeld worden met de andere Nederlandse spoorwegindustrieën Beijnes en Allan. Door de onafhankelijkheid van Indonesië was Nederlands-Indië als afzetgebied voor het rollend materieel van Werkspoor weggevallen, maar wel werd in 1951, mede dankzij de internationale contacten van prins Bernhard, een grote order verworven uit Argentinië ter waarde van 225 miljoen gulden. Met het uitvoeren hiervan was zeven jaar gemoeid, waartoe het fabriekspersoneel werd uitgebreid van 2000 naar 5000 man.

In 1954 fuseerde het bedrijf met Stork en bleef het bestaan als onderdeel van de Verenigde Machinefabrieken Stork-Werkspoor (VMF).

Rond 1968 had Werkspoor zoveel orders (onder meer voor de bouw van de NS-treinstellen Plan V en een grote serie Amsterdamse trams), dat werk werd uitbesteed aan de Duitse fabrikant Düwag. Desondanks had de afdeling rollend materieel (Rolma) weinig toekomstperspectief, omdat het bedrijf na het aflopen van de Argentijnse order alleen aan de Nederlandse markt leverde. De directie heeft de afdeling Rolma in 1972 gesloten. Treinstel 840 van de NS is het laatste gebouwde rollend materieel (afgeleverd in 1972).

In 1989 werd Stork-Werkspoor overgenomen door het Finse concern Wärtsilä.

Nevenactiviteiten

Vliegtuigbouw

Werkspoor heeft een bescheiden bijdrage geleverd aan de Nederlandse vliegtuigbouw. In 1925 was de fabriek betrokken bij de bouw van de eerste Nederlandse helikopter vanluchtvaartpionier Albert Gillis von Baumhauer, die verloren ging in 1930. In dat jaar kreeg Werkspoor van KLM-directeur Albert Plesman de opdracht een vrachtvliegtuig te bouwen, naar een ontwerp van Joop Carley. De ontwikkeling, in samenwerking met Pander, ging gepaard met problemen aan de motor (oververhitting). In 1931 maakte de Jumbo zijn eerste vlucht. Het enige exemplaar vloog twee jaar voor de KLM als vrachtvliegtuig en daarna nog zeven jaar als lesvliegtuig. Aan het begin van de Tweede Wereldoorlog werd het toestel vernietigd tijdens een bombardement.

Bussenbouw

Werkspoor was zowel voor als na de Tweede Wereldoorlog actief in de bouw van autobuscarrosserieën. In de late jaren veertig werden 195 Crossley-bussen gebouwd voor destreekvervoerbedrijven waarvan NS de aandelen in handen had. Daarna bouwde Werkspoor zeven jaar lang geen bussen, maar in de tweede helft van de jaren vijftig stapte de fabriek weer in deze markt op verzoek van NS, die wilde voorkomen dat de grote carrosseriebouwer Verheul een monopolie zou verwerven. Verheul was al in staat om bussen met een zelfdragende carrosserie te bouwen en Werkspoor moest dat volgens NS ook kunnen. In de jaren 1956-1962 werden aan de NS-dochterondernemingen 477 exemplaren van de Leyland-Werkspoor “bolramer-streekbus” geleverd. Er was octrooi verkregen op de speciale bolvormige antireflex-voorruit, een vinding van Werkspoors hoofdingenieur Hofstede. Ook de stadsvervoerbedrijvenvan Utrecht, Arnhem en Rotterdam kochten een aantal bussen bij Werkspoor. In 1962 droeg Werkspoor de autobusdivisie over aan Hainje te Heerenveen. De bolle Werkspoor-voorruit is daarna nog vele jaren toegepast op bussen van Zwitsers fabrikaat.

Radiotelescoop[bewerken]

In 1956 bouwde Werkspoor samen met Philips, het KNMI en een aantal Nederlandse universiteiten de Dwingeloo Radiotelescoop.

Hyperbare zuurstoftank

In 1959 bouwde Werkspoor de eerste voor medische doeleinden gebruikte hyperbare zuurstoftank voor het Wilhelmina Gasthuis te Amsterdam. De tank is na de fusie tot het AMCmeeverhuisd naar het pand aan de Meibergdreef en wordt daar nog altijd gebruikt.

Na Werkspoor

Het Werkspoormuseum in het voormalige Admiraliteitsgebouw aan de Oostenburgergracht.

 Het Werkspoormuseum in het voormaligeAdmiraliteitsgebouw aan deOostenburgergracht.

In Amsterdam bevond zich het Werkspoormuseum. Het was sinds 1950 gevestigd op Oostenburg in een voormalige lijnbaan van de Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie. Dit 500 meter lange gebouw dateert van 1660. De begane grond toont voorwerpen uit de tijd van de V.O.C., de eerste verdieping is gewijd aan het industriële verleden van Werkspoor. Het museum, tevens representatief als Stork Ontvangscentrum, was niet openbaar toegankelijk en is uiteindelijk in 2011 definitief gesloten. Voor onderbrengen van de collectie bij andere musea werd door eigenaar Stork in 2012 een oplossing gezocht.

De in 2002 geplaatste spoorbrug over het Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal, ten behoeve van spoorverdubbeling tussen Amsterdam en Utrecht, heeft de naam Werkspoorbrug gekregen omdat deze vlakbij het oude fabriekscomplex van Werkspoor ligt. De ernaast liggende brug uit 1966 heet Demkaspoorbrug, naar de Demka-staalfabriek in de omgeving.

Op 12 september 2009 werd aan de Amsterdamsestraatweg 569 in Utrecht het Museum van Zuilen geopend, met daarin een grote Werkspoor-collectie, speciaal van de fabriek te Utrecht (Zuilen). De komst van Werkspoor naar Zuilen heeft de ontwikkeling van deze (tot 1954 zelfstandige) gemeente bevorderd.

Op 10 december 2013 werd een door Werkspoor gebouwd stuk van de Bommelse brug aan de Amsterdamsestraatweg, op de hoek St.-Ludgerusstraat, dicht bij het Museum van Zuilen geplaatst. Een monumentaal eerbetoon aan de arbeiders die aan deze brug werkten. Zij woonden in de omgeving van het brugdeel.

Rollend materieel

Een overzicht van door Werkspoor na de Tweede Wereldoorlog gebouwd spoor- en trammaterieel.

Nederlandse Spoorwegen

Locomotieven

Treinstellen[bewerken]

Rijtuigen[bewerken]

GVB (Amsterdam)

HTM (Den Haag)

RET (Rotterdam)

  • Metro: 5000-serie.
  • Trams: 300- en 600/1600-serie.

Portretten van Werkspoor-producten

Stoommachine in een suikerfabriek in Suriname.

Stoomlocomotief NS 3301 (ex HSM 671).

Buses KRUPP Germany

Drei Ringe von KruppKRUPP

GERMANY

1924-25 2 t Stadtomnibus mit 40 PS von Krupp und Uerdinger Aufbau

1924-25 2 t Stadtomnibus mit 40 PS von Krupp und Uerdinger Aufbau

1927 Krupp O 5 N

1927 Krupp O 5 N

1928 Krupp Büssing Bus Berlin

1928 Krupp Büssing Bus Berlin

1928 Krupp O5 N62

1928 Krupp O5 N62

1928 Krupp RET

1928 Krupp RET

1928 Krupp-Werkspoor bus 1 bij de aflevering op 9-7-1928

1928 Krupp-Werkspoor bus 1 bij de aflevering op 9-7

1929 2e serie Krupp-Werkspoor autobus, nummer 16, lijn H, Bospolderplein, Koninginnedag, 30 augustus 1929.

1929 2e serie Krupp-Werkspoor autobus, nummer 16, lijn H, Bospolderplein, Koninginnedag, 30 augustus 1929.

Overschieseweg, Krupp nr. 7,

1929 7-2-krupp-allan toll punt Overschie

1929 Bus 22, Krupp, opbouw Allan

1929 Bus 22, Krupp, opbouw Allan

1929 Krupp bus 13, lijn B, Burgemeester Meineszplein

1929 Krupp bus 13, lijn B, Burgemeester Meineszplein

1929 Krupp bus 18, opbouw Werkspoor RET-ZW-002

1929 Krupp bus 18, opbouw Werkspoor RET-ZW-002

1929 Krupp ili Büssingbus 20 Berlin

1929 Krupp ili Büssingbus 20 Berlin

1930 2-4-krupp-werkspoor schiedam station NS

1930 2-4-krupp-werkspoor schiedam station NS

1930 ekrupp Baydekarte

1930 ekrupp Baydekarte

1930 Krupp 24 75 6 cylinder Omnibus (34 person)

1930 Krupp 24 75 6 cylinder Omnibus (34 person)

Bus 3, Krupp-Allan, kenteken H-65191, lijn D, Coolsingel 1930

1930 Krupp-Allan, kenteken H-65191, lijn D, Coolsinge,l Rotterdam

1931 ecf-3316b-gooilander-7_collectie_gerrit-van-eerten-krupp

1931 ecf-3316b-gooilander-7 collectie gerrit-van-eerten-krupp

1931 Krupp 6 wiel Omnibus ptawkrpp1931p0041931 Krupp 6 wiel Omnibus

1931 Krupp 08 N63

1931 Krupp 08 N63

Afdeling Weg en Werken met Krupp H-84888, remise Schiekade, 1931

1931 Krupp H-84888, remise Schiekade, RET Lasauto

1931 Krupp1931 Krupp

1931 Krupp-Allan Rondritbus

1931 Krupp-Allan Rondritbus

1931 Modell des Krupp-Flettner Großraumwagen – 1931

1931 Modell des Krupp-Flettner Großraumwagen

RET

1932 5-2-Krupp-Werkspoor bij Oude Haven en 1ste wolkenkrabber Westermeijer Rotterdam

1932 101-2-Krupp-Allan

1932 101-2-Krupp-Allan

$_82

1932 Krupp-Werkspoor uit de serie stadsbussen 1-3 bij de Prinsessentunnel

1932 Krupp-Werkspoor uit de serie stadsbussen 1-3 bij de Prinsessentunnel

1934 krupp 7 kl Werkspoor

1934 krupp 7 kl Werkspoor

1934 Krupp AD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 95 Bok M-43722

1934 Krupp AD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 95 Bok M-43722

1934 Krupp model 26-seater bus, 50hp Diesel, 21k b-w

1934 Krupp model 26-seater bus, 50hp Diesel, 21k b-w

1934 Krupp OD 2,5 H 42

1934 Krupp OD 2,5 H 42

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 96 M-43723

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 96 M-43723

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 97 Bison M-43724

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 97 Bison M-43724

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 101 Renpaard M-43728--PB-34-68

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 101 Renpaard M-43728–PB-34-68

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 102 Vos M-43729

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 102 Vos M-43729

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 103 Steur M-43730

1934 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 103 Steur M-43730

1934 Krupp, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 94 Snoek M-43721

1934 Krupp, Krupp, Verheul, GTM 94 Snoek M-43721

1935 Krupp O 2,5 N 42 Stromlinienomnibus mit Aufbau von FWR Recklinghausen

1935 Krupp O 2,5 N 42 Stromlinienomnibus mit Aufbau von FWR Recklinghausen

1936 Bus met chauffeur. Wagenparknummer 2. Merk Krupp. Carrosserie Quist Rotterdam. Bouwjaar 1936

1936 Bus met chauffeur. Wagenparknummer 2. Merk Krupp. Carrosserie Quist Rotterdam.

1936 Krupp 132 OD4N Geldersche Tramwegen 3cyl tweetakter

1936 Krupp 132 OD4N Geldersche Tramwegen 3cyl tweetakter

1936 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, carr. Verheul, GTM445, Ekster, M-49338

1936 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, carr. Verheul, GTM445, Ekster, M-49338

1936 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, carr. verheul, GTM502, Beer, M-49340 PB-34-67 BE-49-34

1936 Krupp OD4-N132, Krupp, carr. verheul, GTM502, Beer, M-49340 PB-34-67 BE-49-34

1936 Krupp ODN4 - Verheul  GTW 119

1936 Krupp ODN4 – Verheul GTW 119

1936 Krupp, type OD4N 132 Verheul

1936 Krupp, type OD4N 132 Verheul

1936 Krupp-Allan bus 41 bij het station van Delft. Lijn D, 8-1936

1936 Krupp-Allan bus 41 bij het station van Delft. Lijn D

1936 Krupp-Verheul-bus uit 1936 VAD 008klein

1936 Krupp-Verheul-bus uit 1936 VAD

1937 krupp BaydekarteIAA

1937 krupp BaydekarteIAA

1938 Krupp nr. 25 op toerrit bij de Julianatoren te Apeldoorn

1938 Krupp nr. 25 op toerrit bij de Julianatoren te Apeldoorn

1938 Krupp TD 4 N 332

1938 Krupp TD 4 N 332

1938 Krupp TD4-N332 Carr Werkspoor GTW 145 Mariboe

1938 Krupp TD4-N332 Carr Werkspoor GTW 145 Mariboe

1938 Krupp Verheul gtw 153

1938 Krupp Verheul gtw 153

1938 Krupp verheul gtw 154

1938 Krupp verheul gtw 154

1938 Krupp verheul gtw 155

1938 Krupp verheul gtw 155

1938 Krupp Verheul gtw 156

1938 Krupp Verheul gtw 156

1938 Krupp Verheul gtw 157 ex trip

1938 Krupp Verheul gtw 157 ex trip

1938 Krupp Verheul GTW123 Zwaan M-53452

1938 Krupp Verheul GTW123 Zwaan M-53452

1938 Krupp Verheul GTW124 Buizerd M-53453

1938 Krupp Verheul GTW124 Buizerd M-53453

1938 KruppTD4-N332 Verheul GTW128 Strip M-53457 PB-08-49

1938 KruppTD4-N332 Verheul GTW128 Strip M-53457 PB-08-49

1938 KruppTD4-N332 Verheul GWSM 448 Kievit M-55057 PB-09-80

1938 KruppTD4-N332 Verheul GWSM 448 Kievit M-55057 PB-09-80

1939 101-2-krupp-allan

1939 101-2-krupp-allan

1939 Krupp TD4-N332 carr Verheul TMDG 950 M-57747

1939 Krupp TD4-N332 carr Verheul TMDG 950 M-57747

1939 kruppbusdrezina 2334 W railbus

1939 kruppbusdrezina 2334 W railbus

1939 Krupp-Verheul

1939 Krupp-Verheul

1940 Krupp TD4-N332 carr Verheul M-60197 PB-09-77 GTW162

1940 Krupp TD4-N332 carr Verheul M-60197 PB-09-77 GTW162

1941 kruppbusIT-133090 Baydeww2

1941 kruppbusIT-133090 Baydeww2

1948 L 45 KOM Südwerke

1946 Südwerke Krupp Postbus

1949 Krupp Rio de Janeiro 001

1949 Krupp Rio de Janeiro 001

1949 Südwerke TD 50 mit Aufbau von Kässbohrer Krupp

1949 Südwerke TD 50 mit Aufbau von Kässbohrer Krupp

1951 Eine Werbeanzeige aus dem Jahre 1951

1951 Südwerke Krupp Ad

1951 Krupp Ludewig Aufbou Münster

1951 Krupp Ludewig Aufbou Münster

1951 Krupp Ludwig

1951 Krupp Ludwig

1951 Krupp O8 E für die Stadtwerke Wuppertal

1951 Krupp O8 E für die Stadtwerke Wuppertal

1951 Krupp Südwerke FAUN Aero-04

1951 Krupp Südwerke FAUN Aero-04

1951 Krupp Südwerke O 8 FK-Ludewig Aero in Südeuropa

1951 Krupp Südwerke O 8 FK-Ludewig Aero in Sudeuropa

1951 Krupp Sudwerke SW060 Mustang

1951 Krupp Sudwerke SW060 Mustang

1951 Krupp Sudwerke SWO 80 Titan

1951 Krupp Sudwerke SWO 80 Titan

1951 Krupp Sudwerke SWO 480

1951 Krupp Sudwerke SWO 480

1951 Krupp Titan 538 001

1951 Krupp Titan 538 001

1951 Krupp Titan O80

1951 Krupp Titan O80

1951 kruppaeroanderthalb6gv

1951 kruppaeroanderthalb6gv

1951 Krupp-Ludewig-Anderthalbdecker

1951 Krupp-Ludewig-Anderthalbdecker

1951 Krupp-Südwerke O 8 FK mit Ludewig Aero-Aufbau in Paris

1951 Krupp-Südwerke O 8 FK mit Ludewig Aero-Aufbau in Paris

1952 Krupp .mini-anderhalfdekker 001

Krupp + Büssing Anderthalbdeckers

1952 Krupp Sudwerke SW080 Titan

1952 Krupp Sudwerke SW080 Titan

1953 Krupp 3328stadtzgrenzeoberhauhy5

1953 Krupp 3328stadtz grenze oberhauhy 5 © Michael Krafft

1953 Krupp EVAG-Wagen 3329 und 3345. 5360-15

1953 Krupp EVAG-Wagen 3329 und 3345. 5360-15

1953 Krupp O8E

1953 Krupp O8E

1953 Krupp O10FK

1953 Krupp O10FK

1953 Krupp Sudwerke SW0 480 k

1953 Krupp Sudwerke SW0 480 k

1953 KRUPP-OMNIBUSSE

1953 KRUPP-OMNIBUSSE

1953 Krupp-SW O480FK mit Ludewig-Aufbau sowie drei Büssing Ludewig 6000T

1953 Krupp-SW O480FK mit Ludewig-Aufbau sowie drei Büssing Ludewig 6000T

1953 SWO8O Titan Krupp Südwerke - Deutsche Bundesbahn

1953 SWO8O Titan Krupp Südwerke – Deutsche Bundesbahn

1955 Krupp O8FK 1955 Krupp O8FK 1955 Krupp-NWF O 100 SF 4

1955 Krupp-NWF O 100 SF 4

1959 Krupp-NWF O 1241959 Krupp-NWF O 124

3932442ENDE

Bis hier und nicht weiter

Buses CROSSLEY England

Buses CROSSLEY England

 11

CROSSLEY MOTORS LTD

01

Crossley Motors, based in Manchester, England, produced approximately 19,000 high quality cars from 1904 until 1938, 5,500 buses from 1926 until 1958 and 21,000 goods and military vehicles from 1914 to 1945. Today I only show buses.

02

1921 Crossley 25-30

03

Overland-Crossley

04

1926 Crossley Eagle

05

1928 Crossley Eagle front

06

1929 32 seat Arrow (probably 90203) with Crossley bodywork back

07

1929 32 seat Arrow (probably 90203) with Crossley bodywork

08

1929 Crossley Six or Alpha in an official Crossley Motors publicity photo

01

09

1930 Condor bus (90401) delivered in 1930 with Crossley body.

10

1930 Crossley Condor Leeds 

12

1932  3 axle Crossley Condor built for the 1932 Scottish Bus Show. The bus was sold to Manchester Corporation

13

1932 Crossley Condor Manchester

14

1933 Crossley Mancunian

15

1936 Crossley Mancunian Singledeck

16

1936 Crossley Mancunian using a  Metro-Cammell type metal framed body.

This is chassis number 92221 from 1936 for Warrington Corporation.

11

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1936 Crossley Mancunian Streamliner

18

1936 Crossley TrolleyDoubleDecker6x2

19

1937 Manchester Corporation Crossley bodied Trolley Double Decker4x2

20

1938 Bussen Crossley Mancunian Streamliner 1938

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

1947 Bussen Crossley 

01

22

Crossley-Condor-recovery-vehicle

23

Bahawalpur Crossly 6 Wheeler

24

1947 Bussen Crossley carr. Verheul NL

25

1947 Bussen Crossley Motors of Stockport, bus advert

26

1947 Bussen Crossley SD42-1 carrosserie De Schelde NS NL

27

1947 Bussen Crossley Werkspoor NS 1444 NZH Haarlem NS NL

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28

1947 Bussen Crossley Werkspoor NL

29

1947 Bussen Crossley, SD42-1 de Schelde NL

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1947 Bussen Crossley carr.Beijnes NL

31

1947 Bussen Crossley carr. de-Schelde WSM 1078 NL

32

1947 Crosley SD42 1 carr. De Schelde NL

33

1947 Crossley DD42 5 luton England

34

1947 Crossley HK1997 GTM 1 NL

35

1947 Crossley SD 42-1 uit 1947 welke bij levering voorzien was van een Schelde carrosserie,

 op deze foto dus met een nieuwe carr. van Den Oudsten, waarmee de bus nog een hele tijd mee ging.

36

1947 Crossley SD42 1 Werkspoor NL

37

1947 Crossley SD42 3 coach with Scottish Commercial body, England

38

1947 Crossley SD42-1 met Verheul body NB-62-44 KLM-busstation

39

1947 De Schelde Crossley (NB-66-12) op Circuit Zandvoort in 1962 NL

40

1948 Bussen Crossley 031 Scania Vabis B15 Fokker 1948 NS 2396 NZH Sassenheim NL

41

1948 Bussen Crossley Verheul NL

42

1948 Bussen Crossley-bus NL

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1948 Bussen Crossley-bus NL

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1948 Crossley SD42 1 Coach Verheul KLM NL

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1948 Crossley SD42 2 Jongerius NL

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1948 Crossley SD42 2 Crossley body NL

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1948 NB-11-11 Crossley SD42-2 Verheul-Aviolanda NL

01

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1949 Bussen Crossley DD42 dubbeldeksbus England

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1949 Bussen Crossley DD42-5 EBK28 Lezen H52R  England

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1949 Bussen Crossley SD42-2 carr. Aviolanda Verheul NL

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1949 Bussen Crossley SD42-2 carr. Aviolanda Verheul NL

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1949 Bussen Crossley

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1949 Bussen Crossley Werkspoor 19 NS 1342 NZH Lisse NL

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1949 Crossley 3695

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 Crossley DAF logo

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Crossley NBM-2131

59

Salland bus, renovated Crossley bus. Body Den-Oudsten

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Crossley Drawing

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Bussen Crossley-Verheul nr.17 in zijn originele toestand NL

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Crossley Opleggerbus

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Crossley Opleggerbussen TCR-22 NL

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Bussen Crossley-trekkers en DAF-opleggers. 1946-mei 1 947 verkocht in 1950, 1951 en 1952. In Oost-Duitsland rijdende kerk VAD 021

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1948 Crossley NL

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1947 Crossley-Verheul-Aviolanda B-33734 NL

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1949 Crossley SD42 single deck bus England

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1949 Crossley NACO Alkmaar 1013 Stationsplein Alkmaar NL

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1949 Crossley NACO  Purmerend NL

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1950 Bussen Crossley 029 Bus Den Haag Haarlem Cleynduin Katwijk NL

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1950 Bussen Crossley Beijnes Maarse en Kroon. MK. Bus at Haarlem station, route to Amstelveen NL

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1950 Crossley Dominion Trolley Buses England

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1950 Crossley NACO Alkmaar 1742, Doetinchem NL

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1950 Crossley PT42-1 and trailer in use by the WSM bus company NL

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1950 Crossleys NZH Haarlem 1405, Stationsplein Haarlem NL © Vergunst

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1950 NB-66-37 Crossley NL

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1951 Crossley Moonliner KLM Schiphol 1613, Schiphol-Oost  NL

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1951 Crossley SD42 single deck bus Uruguay bus

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1951 Crossley-bus van de Nederlandsche Buurtspoorweg Maatschappij NL

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1952 Bussen Crossley NB-04-37 NL

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1952 Bussen Crossley [1952] NB-99-55 carr. Allan

01

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1952 Bussen Crossley carr. Domburg NB-50-72 NL

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1952 Bussen Crossley carr. Verheul-Aviolanda NS NB-25-04 NL

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1952 Bussen Vios-Crosleys-te-Wateringen NL

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1952 Crossley EBAD NB-21-79 NL

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1952 Crossley Manchester Corporation TDD64 Dominion England

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1952 NB-67-18 Crossley carr. Aviolanda NL

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  1952 Crossley NACO Alkmaar 1038, Adelaarsweg NL

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1953 Bussen Crossley nr.17, na een moderniseringsverbouwing bij Domburg NL

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1954 Bussen Crossley Vagu 28 1954 Gouda NL

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1954 Crossley NACO Hoorn NL

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1955 Crossley NACO 2049, Lijn W, Pont Velsen NL

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1955 Crossley ZuidOoster bus 1995 Tilburg NS NL

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1956 Bussen Crossley 018 179 Haarlem NS 1763 NL

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1956 Bussen Crossley-Werkspoor 19 NS1324 & Scania Vabis 19 NS 2468 NZH NL

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1958 Bussen Crossley 022 1327 wordt gesleept door de 1118 Voorburg NL

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1958 Bussen Crossley 023 1327 wordt gesleept door de 1118 Voorburg NL

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1958 Bussen Crossley 1408 NBM NL

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1958 Bussen Crossley bus. Nijmegen 1494 ZuidOoster NL

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1958 Crossley NACO 2438, Lijn AG, Castricum aan Zee NL

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1958 Crossley st Pancras NL

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1959 Bussen Crossleys 1820 rechts nr. onbekend NBM NL

01

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1960 NBM Crossley 1721 Stationspl H’sum NL

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 1972 Crossley Rode Kruis bus NL

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CROSSLEY DD42 – SUNDERLAND CORPORATION England © John Bennet

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Crossley SD42-1 – De Schelde NS 1108 Autobus Crossley erfg NL

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Crossley DD42

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Crossley Dutch bus Jongerius NL

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Crossley 19 NS 1843 NZH Haarlem Bloemendaalseweg NL

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Crossley A 7220 NL

112

Crossley bus registration no. FUN 319 lovingly restored

113

Bussen Crossley Maarse Kroon bus 71 Aalsmeer GZ-1401 NL

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Crossley SD42 Silcox rebodied by Harpers in 1959

11

END

 

Filed Under: ALLANAviolandaBeijnesCROSSLEYDAFDE SCHELDEDEN OUDSTEN,DOMBURGEnglandFOKKERJongeriusMetro-CammellOLD BUSESTrolleybuses,VERHEULWERKSPOOR

Buses DE DION-BOUTON Puteaux France

Buses DE DION-BOUTON Puteaux France

00i

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Dion-Bouton_(Puteaux)

00 de_dion_bouton_dm_roadster_1912

De Dion-Bouton (Puteaux)

La_Marquise_1884_De_Dion_Bouton_Tr__pardoux

La Marquise 1884 De Dion Bouton Tr pardoux

De Dion Bouton 1884

De Dion Bouton 1884

02 De_Dion_stoomdriewieler

Graaf Albert de Dion op de stoomdriewieler (een tricar) (Puteaux, 1890)

de-dion-bouton-steam-bus

de-dion-bouton-steam-bus

03 De_Dion_Bouton_Vis-a-Vis

Vis à vis model van De Dion-Bouton

04

Dit eencilindermodel Tonneau uit 1904 rijdt nog steeds

05 De_Dion-Bouton_1899

De Dion-Bouton uit 1899

De Dion-Bouton is een bekend historisch Frans merk van auto‘s, inbouwmotorentricycles en motorfietsen. Het werd in 1883 te Parijs opgericht door graaf Albert de DionGeorge Bouton en diens zwager Trépardoux als De Dion, Bouton et Trépardoux. Later was het in Puteaux gevestigd. Aanvankelijk werden stoommachines gebruikt om hun driewielige voertuigen aan te drijven. Trépardoux, die aan stoom wilde vasthouden, vertrok in 1893.

Albert de Dion, die zijn tricycles al als vierwieler (quadricycle) had verkocht en later ook automobielen ging maken, wordt als de vader van de Franse auto-industrie beschouwd.

CM_104_-_PARIS_-_Carrefour_des_Bds_Montmartre_et_des_Italiens_-_La_station_des_omnibus

@

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1909 De Dion Bouton

download

De Dion Bouton

07

1912 De Dion-Bouton modelo DA

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1913 De Dion Bouton omnibus

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1913 De Dion Bouton Rechts

00e

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1915 De Dion Bouton Conklin b

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1915 De Dion Bouton Conklin

Dion Bouton

Omnibus à pétrole de dion bouton

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1920′s DE Dion Bouton 61 de Panter GTW

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1924 De Dion Bouton 51 De Dion Bouton Bij ‘t Vuur Geld.Stoom.Tramw.Maats.

00g

#

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1924 De Dion Bouton De Dion Bouton M-16854 Geld.Stoom.Tramw.Maats.

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1924 De Dion Bouton Tet 064

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1924 De Dion Bouton, idem M-7811-M-20037 G.T.M. 54 met originele Pennock carr

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1925 DE DION BOUTON (1925) Werkspoor

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1925 de dion bouton ad

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1925 De Dion Bouton Utrecht

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1925 De Dion Bouton, idem, Allan carr. R’dam  GSTM nr 55 NL

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1925 De Dion Bouton, idem, Allan carr. GSTM nr 56

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1925 De Dion Bouton Carr. Allan.

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1925 De Dion Bouton Werkspoor

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1926 De Dion Bouton KM, idem, Allan carr. M-24382 GTM

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1927 DE DION BOUTON

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@

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1927 De Dion Bouton JV te Doetinchem op 28 juni 1938(ex bus)

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1929 de dion bouton Sanatorium Zonnegloren 7

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1929 De Dion Bouton Werkspoor TET

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1930 De Dion Bouton garage Capelseweg

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1930 De Dion Bouton LO, idem, Carr. Verheul, GTM 73

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1930 De Dion Bouton LO, idem, Carr. Verheul, M-31093,GTM 78

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1930 De Dion Bouton LO, idem, Carr. Verheul, M-31095,GTM 80 Velperplein Arnhem

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1930 De Dion Bouton LO, idem, Carr. Verheul, M-31096, GTM 81

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1930 De Dion Bouton Wim Dona

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1931 De Dion Bouton LO, idem, Carr. Verheul, M-34036,
GTM 86

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1934 De Dion Bouton Hainje

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1934 De Dion Bouton Tet 065

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1934 De Dion Boutons 23

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1937 De Dion Bouton-Verheul te Doetinchem op 12 april 1937

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De Dion Bouton 61 de Panter GTW

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De Dion Bouton AD c

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De Dion Bouton Ad

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DE DION BOUTON bussen RAI

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1910 de dion bouton catalogue italien

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De Dion Bouton DD Paris

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De Dion Bouton Gelders Archief

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De Dion Bouton Schiedam- Rotterdam

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De Dion Bouton O-bus strassenbahn-kopenhagen

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$

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de dion bouton omni bus

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De Dion Bouton Puteaux Bus 0184

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De Dion Bouton uit de serie 13 tm 16 met carrosserie van Verheul. Vermoedelijk is het nr. 16.

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De Dion Bouton-Busse Parijs

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De Dion Bouton-moll-001 © Conam

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De Dion Bouton-moll-003 © Conam

00c

#

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De Dion Bouton-moll-007 © Conam

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De Dion Bouton-moll-008 © Conam

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de dion-bouton autobus arras

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De Dion-Bouton Bus London

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De Dion-Bouton bus Versailles

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De-Dion-Bouton-bus-Frederiksberg Sporveie

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de-dion-bouton-limousine

de-dion-bouton-limousine-03

de-dion-bouton-limousine

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de-dion-bouton-steam-bus

05281-de-dion-bouton-1911-omnibus-de-paris-autobus-hprints-com

de-dion-bouton-1911-omnibus-de-paris-autobus

00h

autorail_de_dion_bouton

autorail de dion bouton

de dion bouton Quadricycle-1968

de dion bouton Quadricycle-1968

De_Dion_Bouton_8_CV_1905_IMG0730_1

1905 De Dion Bouton 8 CV

his1261 De dion Bouton

his1261 De dion Bouton Fire & Rescue

Paris Place de l'Opéra

1930 Paris Place de l’Opéra

De-Dion-Bouton-75-mm-Anti-Aircraft-Gun-Carrier-1911

1911 De-Dion-Bouton-75-mm-Anti-Aircraft-Gun-Carrier

DESSUS-De-dion-bouton-copy

DESSUS-De-dion-bouton-copy

wu1pp0

boek De Dion Bouton DAF

00f

Emblem De Dion-Bouton Puteaux

Filed Under: ALLANBUSESDe Dion-BoutonFRANCEHainjePennock + CoVERHEUL,WERKSPOOR

 

Buses FORD USA + all over the world part I

Buses FORD USA & all over the world part I

Ford Motor Company I

001

1914 Ford Model T, Four cylinders, 2900cc, 20 Horsepower

002

“Ford” redirects here. For other uses, see Ford.

Ford Mot002or Company

Type

Public company

Traded as

NYSEF
(S&P 500 Component)

Industry

Automotive

Founded

June 16, 1903 (110 years ago)

Founder(s)

Henry Ford

Headquarters

Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.
(GPS: 42°18′55.00″N83°12′37.00″W)

Area served

Worldwide

Key people

William C. Ford, Jr.
(Executive Chairman)
Alan R. Mulally
(President & CEO)

Products

Automobiles
Automotive parts

Services

Automotive finance
Vehicle leasing
Vehicle service

Revenue

 US$136.26 billion (2011)

Operating income

 US$8.681 billion (2011)

Net income

 US$20.21 billion (2011)

Total assets

 US$178.35 billion (2011)

Total equity

 US$15.07 billion (2011)

Employees

164,000 (2011)

Divisions

Ford
Lincoln
Motorcraft

Subsidiaries

List[show]

Website

Ford.com

BF2-2004

1914 Ford T R Spanje ©David Tejedor

Ford Motor Company (also known as simply Ford) is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. In the past it has also produced heavy trucks, tractors and automotive components. Ford owns small stakes in Mazda of Japan and Aston Martin of the United Kingdom. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership.

004

1916 Ford Model T oldtimer bus L

Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914 these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford’s former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States since 1938.

005

1916 ford T Depot Hack

Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2010 vehicle sales. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe. Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide.

1917 Ford Autobus Model TT

1917 Ford Autobus Model TT

006

1918 T Ford Bus

History

007

Henry Ford (ca. 1919)

008

A 1910 Model T, photographed in Salt Lake City

Main article: History of Ford Motor Company

20th century

009

1920 Ford bus – DD 475

1921 Harmonicabus op basis van Ford T

1921 Harmonicabus op basis van Ford T © Conam

Henry Ford’s first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge (who would later found their own car company). During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue in DetroitMichigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept; and Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era.

010

1922 Ford

Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world’s largest and most profitable companies, as well as being one to survive the Great Depression. As one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world, the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 100 years.

011

1922 FORD T-OMNIBUS

After the first modern automobile was already created in the year 1886 by German inventor Carl Benz (Benz Patent-Motorwagen), more efficient production methods were needed to make the automobile affordable for the middle-class; which Ford contributed to, for instance by introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913.

In 1908 Ford introduced the first engine with a removable cylinder head, in the Model T. In 1930, Ford introduced the Model A, the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low priced V8 engine powered car in 1932.

012

1922 Henry Ford I ©HenryFord.ORG TheOldMotor

Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, and, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, and an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and in the same year offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. The Ford Mustang was introduced in 1964. In 1965 Ford introduced the seat belt reminder light.

With the 1980s, Ford introduced several highly successful vehicles around the world. During the 1980s, Ford began using the advertising slogan, “Have you driven a Ford, lately?” to introduce new customers to their brand and make their vehicles appear more modern. In 1990 and 1994 respectively, Ford also acquired Jaguar Cars and Aston Martin. During the mid- to late 1990s, Ford continued to sell large numbers of vehicles, in a booming American economy with a soaring stock market and low fuel prices.

 013

1922 Henry Fordson II ©HenryFord.ORG TheOldMotor

With the dawn of the new century, legacy healthcare costs, higher fuel prices, and a faltering economy led to falling market shares, declining sales, and diminished profit margins. Most of the corporate profits came from financing consumer automobile loans through Ford Motor Credit Company.

21st century

014

William Clay Ford, Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford, serves as the executive chairman at the board of Ford Motor Company.

By 2005, both Ford and GM‘s corporate bonds had been downgraded to junk status, as a result of high U.S. health care costs for an aging workforce, soaring gasoline prices, eroding market share, and an over dependence on declining SUV sales. Profit margins decreased on large vehicles due to increased “incentives” (in the form of rebates or low interest financing) to offset declining demand. In the latter half of 2005, Chairman Bill Ford asked newly appointed Ford Americas Division President Mark Fields to develop a plan to return the company to profitability. Fields previewed the Plan, named The Way Forward, at the December 7, 2005 board meeting of the company and it was unveiled to the public on January 23, 2006. “The Way Forward” included resizing the company to match market realities, dropping some unprofitable and inefficient models, consolidating production lines, closing 14 factories and cutting 30,000 jobs.

015

1923 Ford A R Spanje ©Lluis Cuesta

Ford moved to introduce a range of new vehicles, including “Crossover SUVs” built on unibody car platforms, rather than more body-on-frame chassis. In developing the hybrid electric powertrain technologies for the Ford Escape Hybrid SUV, Ford licensed similar Toyota hybrid technologies to avoid patent infringements. Ford announced that it will team up with electricity supply company Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid. Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility’s electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated “in typical customer settings”, according to Ford.

016

1923 Ford Amaac Uruquay

William Clay Ford Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford (and better known by his nickname “Bill”), was appointed Executive Chairman in 1998, and also became Chief Executive Officer of the company in 2001, with the departure of Jacques Nasser, becoming the first member of the Ford family to head the company since the retirement of his uncle, Henry Ford II, in 1982. Upon the retirement of President and Chief Operation Officer Jim Padilla in April 2006, Bill Ford assumed his roles as well. Five months later, in September, Ford named Alan Mulally as President and CEO, with Ford continuing as Executive Chairman. In December 2006, the company raised its borrowing capacity to about $25 billion, placing substantially all corporate assets as collateral. Chairman Bill Ford has stated that “bankruptcy is not an option”. Ford and theUnited Auto Workers, representing approximately 46,000 hourly workers in North America, agreed to a historic contract settlement in November 2007 giving the company a substantial break in terms of its ongoing retiree health care costs and other economic issues. The agreement included the establishment of a company-funded, independently run Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA) trust to shift the burden of retiree health care from the company’s books, thereby improving its balance sheet. This arrangement took effect on January 1, 2010. As a sign of its currently strong cash position, Ford contributed its entire current liability (estimated at approximately US$5.5 billion as of December 31, 2009) to the VEBA in cash, and also pre-paid US$500 million of its future liabilities to the fund. The agreement also gives hourly workers the job security they were seeking by having the company commit to substantial investments in most of its factories.

017

1923 Ford T 12-13 zitpl B-6185 NL

The automaker reported the largest annual loss in company history in 2006 of $12.7 billion, and estimated that it would not return to profitability until 2009. However, Ford surprised Wall Street in the second quarter of 2007 by posting a $750 million profit. Despite the gains, the company finished the year with a $2.7 billion loss, largely attributed to finance restructuring at Volvo.

018

1923 Ford T B-6185 Ameland NL

On June 2, 2008, Ford sold its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors for $2.3 billion.

During November 2008, Ford, together with Chrysler and General Motors, sought government bridge loans at Congressional hearings in Washington, D.C. in the face of conditions caused by the 2008 financial crisis. The three companies presented action plans for the sustainability of the industry. Ford opted not to seek government loans. GM and Chrysler received government loans and financing through T.A.R.P. legislation funding provisions. On December 19, the cost of credit default swaps to insure the debt of Ford was 68 percent the sum insured for five years in addition to annual payments of 5 percent. That meant $6.8 million paid upfront to insure $10 million in debt, in addition to payments of $500,000 per year. In January 2009, Ford reported a $14.6 billion loss in the preceding year, a record for the company. The company retained sufficient liquidity to fund its operations. Through April 2009, Ford’s strategy of debt for equity exchanges erased $9.9 billion in liabilities (28% of its total) in order to leverage its cash position. These actions yielded Ford a $2.7 billion profit in fiscal year 2009, the company’s first full-year profit in four years.

019

1923 Ford T Ford 20pk carr Verheul GTM1 NL

In 2012, Ford’s corporate bonds were upgraded from junk to investment grade again, citing sustainable, lasting improvements.

On October 29, 2012, Ford announced the sale of its climate control components business, its last remaining automotive components operation, to Detroit Thermal Systems LLC for an undisclosed price.

020

1923 Ford T NL

On November 1, 2012, Ford announced that CEO Alan Mulally will stay with the company until 2014. Ford also named Mark Fields, the president of operations in Americas, as its new chief operating officer

Corporate affairs

021

Ford World Headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, USA, known as the Glass House.

Executive management

Members of the Ford board as of 2012 are: Richard A. Gephardt, Stephen Butler, Ellen Marram, Kimberly CasianoAlan Mulally (President and CEO), Edsel Ford II, Homer Neal, William Clay Ford Jr. (Executive Chairman), Jorma Ollila, Irvine Hockaday Jr., John L. Thornton, and William Clay Ford, Sr. (Director Emeritus).

022

1923 FORDSON BUS

The main corporate officers are: Lewis Booth (Executive Vice President, Chairman (PAG) and Ford of Europe), Mark Fields (Executive Vice President, President of The Americas), Donat Leclair (Executive Vice President and CFO), Mark A. Schulz (Executive Vice President, President of International Operations), and Michael E. Bannister (Group Vice President; Chairman & CEO Ford Motor Credit). Paul Mascarenas (Vice President of Engineering, The Americas Product Development)

023

1923 Ford-T WSM

Financial results

In 2010, Ford earned a net profit of $6.6 billion and reduced its debt from $33.6 billion to $14.5 billion lowering interest payments by $1 billion following its 2009 net profit of $2.7 billion. In the U.S., the F-Series was the best-selling vehicle for 2010. Ford sold 528,349 F-Series trucks during the year, a 27.7% increase over 2009, out of a total sales of 1.9 million vehicles, or every one out of four vehicles Ford sold. Trucks sales accounts for a big slice of Ford’s profits, according to USA Today. Ford’s realignment also included the sale of its wholly owned subsidiary, Hertz Rent-a-Car to a private equity group for $15 billion in cash and debt acquisition. The sale was completed on December 22, 2005. A 50–50 joint venture with Mahindra & Mahindra of India, called Mahindra Ford India, Limited (MIFL), ended with Ford buying out Mahindra’s remaining stake in the company in 2005. Ford had previously upped its stake to 72% in 1998.

1924 tet ford-bussen

1924 tet ford-bussen

024

1925 Ford T Carr. v d Bos & Br NL

Operations

Ford has manufacturing operations worldwide, including in the United States, Canada, Mexico, China, the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Australia and South Africa. Ford also has a cooperative agreement with Russian automaker GAZ.

025

1925 Ford T carr. Hainje Heerenveen B-5225 NL

North America

026

Ford dealer in Garden City, New York, ca. 1930-1945

In the first five months of 2010, auto sales in the U.S. rose to 4.6 million cars and light trucks, an increase of 17% from a year earlier. The rise was mainly caused by the return of commercial customers that had all but stopped buying in 2009 during the recession. Sales to individual customers at dealerships have increased 13%, while fleet sales have jumped 32%. Ford reported that 37% of its sales in May came from fleet sales when it announced its sales for the month increased 23%. In the first seven months of 2010, vehicle sales of Ford increased 24%, including retail and fleet sales. Fleet sales of Ford for the same period rose 35% to 386,000 units while retail sales increase 19%. Fleet sales account for 39 percent of Chrysler’s sales and 31 percent for GM’s.

027

1927-ford-blue-bird-school-bus

Europe

028

1927-ford-blue-bird-school-bus

Main article: Ford of Europe

029

Ford’s Dunton Technical Centre inLaindonUnited Kingdom, the largest automotive research and development facility in the country

030 Ford Duitsland

The Ford Research Center in AachenGermany

At first, Ford in Germany and Ford in Britain built different models from one another until the late 1960s, with the Ford Escort and then the Ford Capri being common to both companies. Later on, the Ford Taunus and Ford Cortina became identical, produced in left hand drive and right hand drive respectively. Rationalisation of model ranges meant that production of many models in the UK switched to elsewhere in Europe, including Belgium and Spain as well as Germany. The Ford Sierra replaced the Taunus and Cortina in 1982, drawing criticism for its radical aerodynamic styling, which was soon given nicknames such as “Jellymould” and “The Salesman’s Spaceship.”

1928-Poelgeest-bussen

1928-Poelgeest-bussen ©Amstelveenweb.com

031

1928 Ford V8 Hainje Heerenveen B-9274 NL

Increasingly, the Ford Motor Company has looked to Ford of Europe for its “world cars”, such as the Mondeo, Focus, and Fiesta, although sales of European-sourced Fords in the U.S. have been disappointing. The Focus has been one exception to this, which has become America’s best selling compact car since its launch in 2000

In February 2002, Ford ended car production in the UK. It was the first time in 90 years that Ford cars had not been made in Britain, although production of the Transit van continues at the company’s Southampton facility, engines at Bridgend and Dagenham, and transmissions at Halewood. Development of European Ford is broadly split between Dunton in Essex (powertrain, Fiesta/Ka, and commercial vehicles) and Cologne (body, chassis, electrical, Focus, Mondeo) in Germany. Ford also produced the Thames range of commercial vehicles, although the use of this brand name was discontinued circa 1965. Elsewhere in continental Europe, Ford assembles the Mondeo range in Genk (Belgium), Fiesta in Valencia (Spain) and Cologne (Germany), Ka in Valencia, and Focus in Valencia, Saarlouis (Germany) and Vsevolozhsk (Russia). Transit production is in Kocaeli (Turkey), Southampton (UK), and Transit Connect in Kocaeli.

032

1928 Ford NL

Ford also owns a joint-venture production plant in Turkey. Ford-Otosan, established in the 1970s, manufactures the Transit Connect compact panel van as well as the “Jumbo” and long-wheelbase versions of the full-size Transit. This new production facility was set up near Kocaeli in 2002, and its opening marked the end of Transit assembly in Genk.

033

1929 Ford

Another joint venture plant near Setúbal in Portugal, set up in collaboration with Volkswagen, formerly assembled the Galaxy people-carrier as well as its sister ships, the VW Sharan and SEAT Alhambra. With the introduction of the third generation of the Galaxy, Ford has moved the production of the people-carrier to the Genk plant, with Volkswagen taking over sole ownership of the Setúbal facility.

034

1931 Ford V8 Cupido uitvoering 5 B-27189 NL

In 2008, Ford acquired a majority stake in Automobile Craiova, Romania. Starting 2009, the Ford Transit Connect was Ford’s first model produced in Craiova, followed, in 2012, by low-capacity car engines and a new small class car, the B-Max.

Ford Europe has broken new ground with a number of relatively futuristic car launches over the last 50 years.

035

1931 Ford AA Bus

Its 1959 Anglia two-door saloon was one of the most quirky-looking small family cars in Europe at the time of its launch, but buyers soon became accustomed to its looks and it was hugely popular with British buyers in particular. It was still selling well when replaced by the more practical Escort in 1967.

The third incarnation of the Ford Escort was launched in 1980 and marked the company’s move from rear-wheel drive saloons to front-wheel drive hatchbacks in the small family car sector.

036

1931 Ford-Hainje Cupido 8 NL

The fourth generation Escort was produced from 1990 until 2000, although its successor – the Focus – had been on sale since 1998. On its launch, the Focus was arguably the most dramatic-looking and fine-handling small family cars on sale, and sold in huge volumes right up to the launch of the next generation Focus at the end of 2004.

037

1932 Ford – Den Oudsten, Woerden – Domburg A’dam NL

The 1982 Ford Sierra – replacement for the long-running and massively popular Cortina and Taunus models – was a style-setter at the time of its launch. Its ultramodern aerodynamic design was a world away from a boxy, sharp-edged Cortina, and it was massively popular just about everywhere it was sold. A series of updates kept it looking relatively fresh until it was replaced by the front-wheel drive Mondeo at the start of 1993.

038

1932 Ford A Visser  B-13634a NL

The rise in popularity of small cars during the 1970s saw Ford enter the mini-car market in 1976 with its Fiesta hatchback. Most of its production was concentrated at Valencia in Spain, and the Fiesta sold in huge figures from the very start. An update in 1983 and the launch of an all-new model in 1989 strengthened its position in the small car market.

On October 24, 2012, Ford announced that it would be closing its Genk assembly plant in eastern Belgium by the end of 2014.

039

1932 Ford A Visser  B-13634b NL

Asia Pacific

040

1932 Ford A Visser B-13634 NL

Ford formed its first passenger-vehicle joint venture in China in 2001, six years behind GM and more than a decade after VW. It has spent as of 2013 $4.9 billion to expand its lineup and double production capacity in China to 600,000 vehicles This includes Ford’s largest-ever factory complex in the southwestern city of Chongqing. Ford had 2.5 percent of the Chinese market in 2013, while VW controlled 14.5 percent and GM had 15.6 percent, according to consultant LMC Automotive. GM outsells Ford in China by more than six-to-one.

041 Ford_stamping_plant_Geelong

The Ford stamping plant in Geelong, Australia

The Ford India plant in ChennaiTamil Nadu

In Australia and New Zealand, the popular Ford Falcon has long been considered the average family car and is considerably larger than the Mondeo, Ford’s largest car sold in Europe. Between 1960 and 1972, the Falcon was based on a U.S. model of the same name, but since then has been entirely designed and manufactured in Australia, occasionlly being manufactured in New Zealand. Like its General Motors rival, the Holden Commodore, the Falcon uses a rear wheel drive layout. High performance variants of the Falcon running locally built engines produce up to 362 hp (270 kW). A ute (short for “utility”, known in the US as pickup truck) version is also available with the same range of drivetrains. In addition, Ford Australia sells highly tuned limited-production Falcon sedans and utes through its performance car division, Ford Performance Vehicles.

043

1932-35 Ford. Bouwjaren NL

In Australia, the Commodore and Falcon have traditionally outsold all other cars and comprise over 20% of the new car market. In New Zealand, Ford was second in market share in the first eight months of 2006 with 14.4 per cent. More recently Ford has axed its Falcon-based LWB variant of its lineup – the Fairlane and LTD ranges, and announced that their Geelong engine manufacturing plant may be shut down from 2013. They have also announced local manufacturing of the Focus small car starting from 2011.

044

1932-ford-model-b-school-bus ©Old Bus

However, with the acquisition of a stake in Japanese manufacturer Mazda in 1979, Ford began selling Mazda’s Familia and Capella (also known as the 323 and 626) as the Ford Laser and Telstar, replacing the European-sourced Escort and Cortina.

In Australia, the Laser was one of Ford Australia‘s most successful models, and was manufactured in Ford’s Homebush plant from 1981 until the plant’s closure in September 1994. It outsold the Mazda 323, despite being almost identical to it, due to the fact the Laser was manufactured in Australia and Ford was perceived as a local brand.

045

1933 Ford carr. Postma Rottevalle

In New Zealand, the Ford Laser and Telstar were assembled alongside the Mazda 323 and 626 until 1997, at the Vehicle Assemblers of New Zealand (VANZ) plant in WiriAuckland. The Sierra wagon was also assembled in New Zealand, owing to the popularity of station wagons in that market.

Through its relationship with Mazda, Ford also acquired a stake in South Korean manufacturer Kia, which built the (Mazda-based) Ford Festiva from 1988–1993, and the Ford Aspire from 1994–1997 for export to the United States, but later sold their interest to Hyundai (which also manufactured the Ford Cortina until the 1980s). Kia continued to market the Aspire as the Kia Avella, later replaced by the Rio and once again sold in the US.

046

1933 Ford V8 Carr. Brouwers Holwerd NL

Ford’s presence in Asia has traditionally been much smaller, confined to Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Taiwan, where Ford has had a joint venture with Lio Ho since the 1970s. Ford began assembly of cars in Thailand in 1960, but withdrew from the country in 1976, and did not return until 1995, when it formed a joint venture with Mazda called Auto Alliance. Now in Bo-win Sub District, Sriracha District of the Chonburi it is located The Ford Motor Company (Thailand) Limited, making passenger automobiles.

Ford India began production in 1998 at ChennaiTamil Nadu, with its Ford Escort model, which was later replaced by locally produced Ford Ikon in 2001. It has since added Fusion, Fiesta, Mondeo and Endeavour to its product line.

047

1934 Ford Carr. Postma Rottervalle NL

On March 9, 2010, Ford Motor Co. launched its first made-for-India compact car. Starting at 349,900 ($7,690), the Figo is Ford’s first car designed and priced for the mass Indian market. On July 28, 2011, Ford India signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the State of Gujarat for the construction of an assembly and engine plant in Sanand, and planned to invest approximately US$1 billion on a 460-acre site.

048

1934 Ford Lawrie CL-BB Winnipeg ©Foote

The scheduled closure of Ford’s Australian manufacturing base in 2016 was confirmed in late May 2013. Headquartered in the Victorian suburb of Broadmeadows, the company had registered losses worth AU$600 million over the five years prior to the announcement. It was noted that the corporate fleet and government sales that account for two-thirds of large, local car sales in Australia are insufficient to keep Ford’s products profitable and viable in Australia. The decision will affect 1200 Ford workers—over 600 employees in Geelong and more than 500 in Broadmeadows—who will lose their jobs by October 2016.

049

1934 Ford V8 – Kusters & Lemmens  BBA 63 Autobus SVA 63 erfg NL

Ford of Japan

Ford established a manufacturing facility in the port city of Yokohama in February 1925, where Model T vehicles were assembled using imported knock-down kits. The factory subsequently produced 10,000 Model A’s up to 1936. Production ceased in 1940 as a result of political tensions between Japan and the United States.

050

1934 Ford V8 Kusters & Lemmens- BBA 63 NL

After World War II, Ford did not have a presence in Japan, as the Ford facility was appropriated by the Japanese Government until 1958, when property was returned as a possession of the Ford Motor Company and became a research and development location for Ford partner Mazda. In 1979, Ford acquired a 24.5% ownership stake in Mazda, and in 1982 Ford and Mazda jointly established a sales channel to sell Ford products in Japan, including vehicles manufactured in North America, at a dealership called Autorama (Japanese). The Autorama sales channel was renamed Ford Sales of Japan in 1997.

051

1934 Ford, type V8-40 Kusters en lemmens UB-93-63 NL

Vehicles sold at Autorama locations were the North American assembled Ford Explorer, Probe (1989–1998), Mustang, Taurus (1989–1997), Thunderbird (1990–1993), Lincoln Continental, and Lincoln LS. Ford products manufactured in Europe that were sold in Japan were the Ford MondeoKaFocusFocus C-MAXFiesta, and the Galaxy. Mazda manufactured Ford vehicles in Japan and sold them as Fords at the Autorama locations. They were the Ford Telstar (Mazda Capella), LaserFestivaFestiva Mini WagonIxion (Mazda Premacy), Freda (Mazda Bondo Friendee), Spectron (Mazda Bongo), and commercial trucks J80 and the J100 (Mazda Bongo truck).

052

1934 Ford, type V8-40 Kusters en lemmens NL

Ford increased its shareholding in Mazda to 33.4% in 1996. Ford currently sells a small range of vehicles in Japan; as of October 2010, the Ford Mustang, Escape, Explorer (and Explorer truck), Ford KugaLincoln Navigator and Lincoln MKX were available in Japan. Ford maintains a regional office in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

South America

053

1934 Ford © Hank Suderman

During much of the 20th century, Ford faced protectionist government measures in South America, with the result that it built different models in different countries, without particular regard to rationalization or economy of scale inherent to producing and sharing similar vehicles between the nations. In many cases, new vehicles in a country were based on those of the other manufacturers it had entered into production agreements with, or whose factories it had acquired. For example, the Corcel and Del Rey in Brazil were originally based on Renault vehicles.

054

1935 Ford B-38868 NL

In 1987, Ford of Brasil and Ford of Argentina merged their operations with the Brazilian and Argentinan operations of Volkswagen Group, forming a new joint-venture company called Autolatina with a shared model range. Sales figures and profitability were disappointing, and Autolatina was dissolved in 1995. With the advent of Mercosur, the regional common market, Ford was finally able to rationalize its product line-ups in those countries. Consequently, the Ford Fiesta and Ford EcoSport are only built in Brazil, and the Ford Focus only built in Argentina, with each plant exporting in large volumes to the neighboring countries. Models like the Ford Mondeo from Europe could now be imported completely built up. Ford of Brazil produces a pick-up truck version of the Fiesta, the Courier, which is also produced in South Africa as the Ford Bantam in right hand drive versions.

055

1935 Ford V8 Den Oudsten en Domburg B-21037 NL

Africa and Middle East

In Africa, Ford’s market presence has traditionally been strongest in South Africa and neighbouring countries, with only trucks being sold elsewhere on the continent. Ford in South Africa began by importing kits from Canada to be assembled at its Port Elizabeth facility. Later Ford sourced its models from the UK and Australia, with local versions of the Ford Cortina including the XR6, with a 3.0 V6 engine, and aCortina-based ‘bakkie’ or pick-up, which was exported to the UK. In the mid-1980s Ford merged with a rival company, owned by Anglo American, to form the South African Motor Corporation (Samcor).

056

1935 Ford V8 Hainje B-20623 Rally Monte Carlo NL

Following international condemnation of apartheid, Ford divested from South Africa in 1988, and sold its stake in Samcor, although it licensed the use of its brand name to the company. Samcor began to assemble Mazdas as well, which affected its product line-up, and saw the European Fords like the Escort and Sierra replaced by the Mazda-based Laser and Telstar. Ford bought a 45 per cent stake in Samcor following the demise of apartheid in 1994, and this later became, once again, a wholly owned subsidiary, the Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa. Ford now sells a local sedan version of the Fiesta (also built in India and Mexico), and the Focus. The Falcon model from Australia was also sold in South Africa, but was dropped in 2003, while the Mondeo, after briefly being assembled locally, was dropped in 2005.

057

1935 Ford V-8 Intercity Bus

Ford’s market presence in the Middle East has traditionally been even smaller, partly due to previous Arab boycotts of companies dealing with Israel. Ford and Lincoln vehicles are currently marketed in ten countries in the region. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the UAE are the biggest markets. Ford also established itself in Egypt in 1926, but faced an uphill battle during the 1950s due to the hostile nationalist business environment. Ford’s distributor in Saudi Arabia announced in February 2003 that it had sold 100,000 Ford and Lincoln vehicles since commencing sales in November 1986. Half of the Ford/Lincoln vehicles sold in that country were Ford Crown Victorias. In 2004, Ford sold 30,000 units in the region, falling far short of General Motors‘ 88,852 units and Nissan Motors‘ 75,000 units.

Products and services

Automobiles

See also: List of Ford vehicles and List of Mercury vehicles

058 2013_Lincoln_MKS_--_2012_DC

The 2013 model year Lincoln MKS

As of 2012 Ford Motor Company sells a broad range of automobiles under the Ford marque worldwide, and an additional range of luxury automobiles under theLincoln marque in the United States. The company has sold vehicles under a number of other marques during its history. The Mercury brand was introduced by Ford in 1939, continuing in production until 2011 when poor sales led to its discontinuation. In 1958, Ford introduced the Edsel brand, but poor sales led to its discontinuation in 1960. In 1985, the Merkur brand was introduced in the United States to market products produced by Ford of Europe; it was discontinued in 1989.

059

1935 ford-busse-oldtimer

Ford acquired the British sports car maker Aston Martin in 1989, later selling it on March 12, 2007, although retaining a 15% stake, and bought Volvo Cars of Sweden in 1999, selling it to Zhejiang Geely Holding Group in 2010. In November 2008, it reduced its 33.4% controlling interest in Mazda of Japan to a 13.4% non-controlling interest. On November 18, 2010, Ford reduced their stake further to just 3%, citing the reduction of ownership would allow greater flexibility to pursue growth in emerging markets. Ford and Mazda remain strategic partners through exchanges of technological information and joint ventures, including an American joint venture plant in Flat Rock, Michigan called Auto Alliance. Ford sold the United Kingdom-based Jaguar and Land Rover companies and brands to Tata Motors of India in March 2008.

060

1935 LINDBERGH op Ford R-Series NL             ^ Fotograaf

In 2011, J.D. Power ranked Ford 23rd in initial quality, a drop from fifth in 2010. Consumer Reports magazine likewise decided not to recommend several new Ford SUVs, blaming the Sync entertainment and phone system used.

Marque

Country of origin

Years used/owned

Markets

Ford United States 1903 to present Global
Lincoln United States 1922 to present North America, Middle East
Mercury United States 1939 to 2011 North America
Edsel United States 1958 to 1960 North America
Merkur United States 1985 to 1989 North America
Jaguar United Kingdom 1989 to 2008 Global
Aston Martin United Kingdom 1989 to 2007 Global
Volvo Sweden 1999 to 2010 Global

Land Rover

United Kingdom

2000 to 2008

Global

Trucks

061 Ford_1939

An advert for the 1939 Ford V-8 pick-up truck

062 Ford_1961

An advert for the 1961 Ford H-Series truck

Ford has produced trucks since 1908. Countries where Ford commercial vehicles are or were made include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada (badged Mercury too), France, Germany, India, Netherlands, Philippines, Spain (badged Ebro too), Turkey, UK (badged also Fordson and Thames) and USA.

063

1936 Ford V8 Hainje NL

From the 1940s to late 1970s Ford’s Ford F-Series were used as the base for light trucks for the North American market.

Most of these ventures are now extinct. The European one that lasted longest was the lorries arm of Ford of Britain, which was eventually sold to Iveco group in 1986, and whose last significant models were the Transcontinental and the Cargo.

In the United States, Ford’s heavy trucks division (Classes 7 and 8) was sold in 1997 to Freightliner Trucks, which rebranded the lineup as Sterling. Freightliner is in the process of discontinuing this line.

064

1936 Ford V8 New Zealand

Line of heavy trucks made by Ford for the North American market:

065

1936 Ford V-8 Transit Bus

Ford continues to manufacture medium duty trucks under the F-650 and F-750 badges. In 2001, the company entered into a joint venture with Navistar International to produce medium duty commercial trucks. The first new model from the new corporation, known as Blue Diamond Truck Company LLC, was the 2006 model year LCF, the first Ford branded cab-over-engine design in the United States since Freightliner’s acquisition of the Cargo in the mid-1990s. The LCF was discontinued in 2009 and Ford’s 2011 medium-duty commercial offerings are limited to the two F-Series.

In 1999 the end of the F800 meant Ford was not producing in any F-series heavy truck chassis.

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit jumbo van which is classed as a Large Goods Vehicle and has a payload of up to 2,265 kg, there are options of a panel van, pickup or chassis cab. The Ford Transit is also available as a light van called the Ford Transit Connect and the Ford Ranger pickup is available.

Buses

065 1980sThomasFordSheffield

A Ford B700 bus chassis, with a body byThomas Built

Ford manufactured complete buses in the company’s early history, but today the role of the company has changed to that of a second stage manufacturer. In North America, the E-Series is still used as a chassis for small school buses and the F-650 is used in commercial bus markets. In the 1980s and 1990s, the medium-duty B700 was a popular chassis used by school bus body manufacturers including Thomas BuiltWard and Blue Bird, but Ford lost its market share due to industry contraction and agreements between body manufacturers. Older bus models included:

Prior to 1939, Ford buses were based on truck bodies:

  • Model B – 1930s
  • Model T – 1920s
  • F-105 school bus

066

1936 Ford V8T carr. Hainje Heerenveen B-7387 NL

During World War II Ford manufactured Ford Transit bus, a series of small transit buses with bodies built by second party:

  • 09-B/19-B City transit bus – 1939–1941
  • 19-B/29-B City transit bus – 1941–1942
  • 49-B/79-B City transit bus – 1944–1947
  • 69-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 29-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 72-T transit bus – 1944–1945

After 1946 the Transit City bus was sold as Universal Bus with the roof changed from fabric/wood to all metal:

  • 79-B Universal transit bus – 1946–1947

Succeeding the Ford Transit bus was the Ford 8M buses:

  • 8MB transit bus – with Wayne Works 1948–?

Following World War II and from 1950s onwards Ford lost out to General Motors. This led to the end of transit buses for Ford in North America.

  • B500 or B-series – 1950-1990s based on Ford F-series truck chassis used by school bus body manufacturers

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit Minibus which is classed in Europe as a Passenger Carrying Vehicle and there are options of 12, 15 or 17 seaters. In the past European models included:

  • EM
  • N-138
  • D series buses (Australia)

067

1936 Ford Verheul NL

Tractors

068 Ford-Tractor

A Ford N series tractor

The “Henry Ford and Son Company” began making Fordson tractors in Henry’s hometown of Springwells (later part of Dearborn), Michigan from 1907 to 1928, from 1919 to 1932, at Cork, Ireland, and 1933–1964 at Dagenham, England, later transferred to Basildon. They were also produced in Leningrad beginning in 1924.

069

1936 Ford-Hainje, gefotografeerd door ©Jan Voerman op 4-8-1940 in Den Bosch NL

In 1986, Ford expanded its tractor business when it purchased the Sperry-New Holland skid-steer loader and hay baler, hay tools and implement company fromSperry Corporation and formed Ford-New Holland which bought out Versatile tractors in 1988. This company was bought by Fiat in 1993 and the name changed from Ford New Holland to New Holland. New Holland is now part of CNH Global.

070

1937 Ford carr. Veth ZEGO194 NL

Financial services

071

1937 Ford Greyhound Bus

072

1937 Ford Greyhound Bus

074

1937 Ford Super Coaches Australia

Ford offers automotive finance through Ford Motor Credit Company.

Automotive components

075 isobloc

1937 Ford Isobloc met V8 motor F

Ford’s FoMoCo parts division sells aftermarket parts under the Motorcraft brand name. It has spun off its parts division under the name Visteon.

Motorsport

076

1937 Ford van Koopmans Jubbega met carroserie van Hainje NL

Main article: Ford Racing

077

1938 Ford A Hainje Heerenveen NL

Along with Shelby and Chevrolet, Ford is one of only three American constructors to win titles on the international scene at the FIA World Championships. As a constructor, Ford won the World Sportscar Championship three times in 19661967 and 1968, and the World Rally Championship three times in 19792006 and 2007.

078

1938 Ford Hainje B-21375 NL

Stock car racing

079 Todd_Kluever

NASCAR Ford Fusion race car

Ford is one of four manufacturers in NASCAR‘s three major series: Sprint Cup SeriesNationwide Series, and Camping World Truck Series. Major teams includeRoush Fenway Racing and Yates Racing and Richard Petty Motorsports. Ford is represented by the mid-size Fusion in the Sprint Cup, the Mustang in the Nationwide Series, and by the F-150 in the Camping World Truck Series. Some of the most successful NASCAR Fords were the aerodynamic fastback Ford Torino,Ford Torino TalladegaMercury Cyclone Spoiler II, and Mercury Montegos, and the aero-era Ford Thunderbirds. The Ford nameplate has won eight manufacturer’s championships in Sprint Cup, while Mercury has won one. In the Sprint Cup Series, Ford earned its 1,000th victory in the 2013 Quicken Loans 400. The Ford Fusion is also used in the ARCA Remax Series.

080

1938 Ford Kusters & Lemmens VADAH-bus 8 lijn Sittard- Echt-Roermond NL

Formula One

Ford was heavily involved in Formula One for many years, and supplied engines to a large number of teams from 1967 until 2004. These engines were designed and manufactured by Cosworth, the racing division that was owned by Ford from 1998 to 2004. Ford-badged engines won 176 Grands Prix between 1967 and 2003 for teams such as Team Lotus and McLaren. Ford entered Formula One as a constructor in 2000 under the Jaguar Racing name, after buying the Stewart Grand Prixteam which had been its primary ‘works’ team in the series since 1997. Jaguar achieved little success in Formula One, and after a turbulent five seasons, Ford withdrew from the category after the 2004 season, selling both Jaguar Racing (which became Red Bull Racing) and Cosworth (to Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven).

081

1938 Ford V8 COE B-15822 Hainje NL

Rally

082 Rally

Jari-Matti Latvala driving the Ford Focus RS WRC 09 in 2010.

Main article: Ford World Rally Team

083

1938 Ford V8, 798W, Hainje NL

Ford has a long history in rallying and has been active in the World Rally Championship since the beginning of the world championship, the 1973 season. Ford took the 1979 manufacturers’ title with Hannu MikkolaBjörn Waldegård and Ari Vatanen driving the Ford Escort RS1800. In the Group B era, Ford achieved success withFord RS200. Since the 1999 season, Ford has used various versions of the Ford Focus WRC to much success. In the 2006 seasonBP-Ford World Rally Teamsecured Ford its second manufacturers’ title, with the Focus RS WRC 06 built by M-Sport and driven by “Flying Finns“ Marcus Grönholm and Mikko Hirvonen.Continuing with Grönholm and Hirvonen, Ford successfully defended the manufacturers’ world championship in the 2007 season. Ford is the only manufacturer to score in the points for 92 consecutive races; since the 2002 season opener Monte Carlo Rally.

084

1938 FordBus

Sports cars

Main article: Ford GT#Racing

085

1939 Ford AA NL

Ford sports cars have been visible in the world of sports car racing since 1964. Most notably the GT40 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans four times in the 1960s and is the only American car to ever win overall at this prestigious event. Ford also won the 1968 International Championship for Makes with the GT40, which still stands today as one of the all-time greatest racing cars. Swiss team Matech GT Racing, in collaboration with Ford Racing, opened a new chapter with the Ford GT, winning the Teams title in the 2008 FIA GT3 European Championship.

086 Ford Mustang Barbers02

Ford Mustang GT (racing GT car)

Main article: Ford Mustang#Racing

087

1939 Ford op afsluitdijk B-21037a NL

The Ford Mustang has arguably been Ford’s most successful sports car. Jerry Titus won the 1965 SCCA Pro B National Championship with a Mustang and the model went on to earn Ford the SCCA Trans-Am Championship title in both 1966 and 1967. Ford won the Trans-Am Championship again in 1970 with Parnelli Jonesand George Folmer driving Boss 302 Mustangs for Bud Moore Engineering. Ford took the 1985 and 1986 IMSA GTO Championship with Mustangs driven by John Jones and Scott Pruett before returning to Trans-Am glory with a championship in 1989 with Dorsey Schroeder. Ford dominated Trans-Am in the 1990s with Tommy Kendal winning championships in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Paul Gentilozi adding yet another title in 1999. In 2005 the Ford Mustang FR500C took the championship in the Rolex Koni Challenge Series in its first year on the circuit. In 2007 Ford added a victory in the GT4 European Championship. 2008 was the first year of the Mustang Challenge for the Miller Cup, a series which pits a full field of identical factory built Ford Mustang race cars against each other. Also in 2008, Ford won the manufacturers championship in the Koni Challenge Series and HyperSport drivers Joe Foster and Steve Maxwell won the drivers title in a Mustang GT.

088

1939 Ford-Verheul  2 foto via Frank vd Boogert KLM NL

Touring cars

089 Winterbottom2008

Ford Performance Racing Ford Falcon V8 Supercar at Eastern Creek in Australia in 2008.

Ford has campaigned touring cars such as the FocusFalcon, and Contour/Mondeo and the Sierra Cosworth in many different series throughout the years. Notably, Mondeo drivers finished 1,2,3 in the 2000 British Touring Car Championship and Falcon drivers placed 1,2,3 in the 2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series.

090

1940 Ford met carrosserie van Hainje NL

Other

In the Indianapolis 500, Ford powered IndyCars won 17 times between 1965 and 1996[citation needed]. Ford has also branched out into drifting with the introduction of the new model Mustang. Most noticeable is the Turquoise and Blue Falken Tires Mustang driven by Vaughn Gittin Jr, A.K.A. “JR”. with 750 RWHP (Rear Wheel Horsepower). In drag racingJohn Force Racing drivers John ForceTony Pedregon, and Robert Hight have piloted Ford Mustang Funny Cars to several NHRA titles in recent seasons. Teammates Tim Wilkerson and Bob Tasca III also drive Mustangs in Funny Car. Formula Ford, a formula for single-seater cars without wings and originally on road tires were conceived in 1966 in the UK as an entry-level formula for racing drivers. Many of today’s racing drivers started their car racing careers in this category.

091

1940 Ford O98W158 carr v Eerten GTW197 M-15291 NL

Environmental initiatives

092 Ford_leaf_road_logo

All Ford’s alternative fuel and hybridmodels are identified by Ford’s leaf road logo badge.

093

1940 Ford O98W158 carr v Eerten GTW198 M-15292 M-15068 NL

Compressed natural gas

The alternative fossil fuel vehicles, such as some versions of the Crown Victoria especially in fleet and taxi service, operate on compressed natural gas—or CNG. Some CNG vehicles have dual fuel tanks – one for gasoline, the other for CNG – the same engine can operate on either fuel via a selector switch.

094

1940 Ford V8 Werkspoor met verduisterde koplampen. ATO-13 NL

Flexible fuel vehicles

095 Ford_Focus_Flexifuel_in_Madrid_with_flexifuel_badging

The Ford Focus Flexifuel was the first E85 flexible fuel vehicle commercially available in the European market.

Flexible fuel vehicles are designed to operate smoothly using a wide range of available ethanol fuel mixtures—from pure gasoline, to bioethanol-gasoline blends such as E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) or E100 (neat hydrous ethanol) in Brazil. Part of the challenge of successful marketing alternative and flexible fuel vehicles in the U.S., is the general lack of establishment of sufficient fueling stations, which would be essential for these vehicles to be attractive to a wide range of consumers. Significant efforts to ramp up production and distribution of E85 fuels are underway and expanding. Current Ford E100 Flex sold in the Brazilian market are the CourierFord EcoSportFord FiestaFord Focus and Ford Ka.

096

1940 Frederiks Ford bus de TET 28 NL

Electric vehicles

Ford expects electric vehicles will represent a “major portion” of its lineup a decade from now as the automaker breaks away from a recent reliance on pickup trucks and SUVs. The stakes are high because Ford’s stepped-up investment is coming at a time when the U.S. government is demanding steep increases in fuel economy and has put money forward to help automakers adopt new fuel-saving technologies.