ARMSTRONG SIDDELEY

1947-armstrong-siddeley-hurricane-2000cc

Armstrong Siddeley Motor Cars and Aircraft engines 1919-1960

Armstrong Siddeley
Industry Motor cars
Aircraft enginesLight engineering
Fate Merged with Hawker Aircraft(1935)
Merged with Bristol Aero Engines (1960)
became Bristol Siddeley Merged with Rolls-Royce(1966)
Successor Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd
Founded 1919
Defunct 1960
Headquarters Coventry, England
Key people
John Davenport Siddeley
Parent Armstrong Whitworth (1919–27)
Subsidiaries Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft(1927–35)

Armstrong Siddeley was a British engineering group that operated during the first half of the 20th century. It was formed in 1919 and is best known for the production of luxury vehicles and aircraft engines.

The company was created following the purchase by Armstrong Whitworth of Siddeley-Deasy, a manufacturer of fine motor cars, that were marketed to the top echelon of society. After the merge of companies this focus on quality continued throughout in the production of cars, aircraft engines, gearboxes for tanks and buses, rocket and torpedo motors, and the development of railcars. Company mergers and takeovers with Hawker Aviation and Bristol Aero Engines saw the continuation of the car production but the production of cars ceased in August 1960.

The company was absorbed into the Rolls-Royce conglomerate who were interested in the aircraft and aircraft engine business. Eventually the remaining spares and all motor car interests were sold to the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd, who now own the patents, designs, copyrights and trademarks, including the name Armstrong Siddeley.

History

Siddeley Autocars

Siddeley Autocars, of Coventry, was founded by John Davenport Siddeley (1866–1953) in 1902. Its products were heavily based on Peugeots, using many of their parts but fitted with English-built bodies. This company merged with Wolseley in 1905 and made stately Wolseley-Siddeley motorcars. They were used by Queen Alexandra and the Duke of York later King George V.

Siddeley-Deasy

1913-siddeley-deasy1913 Siddeley Deasy

Main article: Siddeley-Deasy

In 1909 J. D. Siddeley resigned from Wolseley and took over the Deasy Motor Company, and the company became known as Siddeley-Deasy. In 1912, the cars used the slogan “As silent as the Sphinx” and started to sport a Sphinx as a bonnet ornament, a symbol that became synonymous with descendent companies. During the Second World War the company produced trucks, ambulances, and staff cars. In 1915 airframes and aero-engines started to be produced as well.

1919-armstrong-siddeley1919 armstrong siddeley

Armstrong Siddeley

 

Armstrong Siddeley 30HP Landaulette advert 1921
Armstrong Siddeley 30HP Landaulette advert 1921 1921 5-litre 30hp Landaulette Advert

1950-armstrong-siddeley-station-coupe1952-armstrong-siddeley-coupe-utility-fair-dinkum-aussie-uteCoupé utility for the postwar export drive

In April 1919 Siddeley-Deasy was bought out by Armstrong Whitworth Development Company of Newcastle upon Tyne and in May 1919 became Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd, a subsidiary with J. D. Siddeley as managing director. In 1927, Armstrong Whitworth merged its heavy engineering interests with Vickers to form Vickers-Armstrongs. At this point, J. D. Siddeley bought Armstrong Siddeley and Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft into his control. In 1928, Armstrong Siddeley Holdings bought

avro

Avro from Crossley Motors. Also that year Siddeley partnered with Walter Gordon Wilson, inventor of the pre-selector gearbox, to create Improved Gears Ltd, which later became Self-Changing Gears – the gearbox that should be credited with enabling the marketing tagline “Cars for the daughters of gentlemen”.

Armstrong Siddeley manufactured luxury cars, aircraft engines, and later, aircraft. In 1935, J. D. Siddeley’s interests were purchased for £2 million by Tommy Sopwith owner of Hawker Aircraft to form – along with the Gloster Aircraft Company and Air Training Services – Hawker Siddeley, a famous name in British aircraft production. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft became a subsidiary of Hawker. The aviation pioneer Thomas Octave Murdoch Sopwith– Tommy, later Sir Thomas, Sopwith – became chairman of Armstrong Siddeley Motors, a Hawker Siddeley subsidiary.

Armstrong Siddeley was merged with the aircraft engine business of Bristol Aeroplane Company (Bristol Aero Engines) to form Bristol Siddeley as part of an ongoing rationalisation under government influence of the British aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturers. Armstrong Siddeley produced their last cars in 1960. Bristol Siddeley and Rolls-Royce merged in 1966, the latter subsuming the former which remained for a while as an aircraft engine division within Rolls-Royce.

In June 1972, Rolls-Royce (1972) Ltd sold all the stock of spares plus all patents, specifications, drawings, catalogues and the name of Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd to the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd. This meant that “Armstrong Siddeley” and “A-S Sphinx Logo” are trademarks and copyright of the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd.

The “Siddeley” name survived a while longer in aviation; in Hawker Siddeley Aviation and Hawker Siddeley Dynamics before they joined with others to become British Aerospace (BAe) which with further mergers is now BAE Systems.

Products

1954-armstrong-siddeley-sapphire

Motor cars

The first car produced from the union was a fairly massive machine, a 5-litre 30 hp. A smaller 18 hp appeared in 1922 and a 2-litre 14 hp was introduced in 1923. 1928 saw the company’s first 15 hp six; 1929 saw the introduction of a 12 hp vehicle. This was a pioneering year for the marque, during which it first offered the Wilson preselector gearbox as an optional extra; it became standard issue on all cars from 1933. In 1930 the company marketed four models, of 12, 15, 20, and 30 hp, the last costing £1450.

The company’s rather staid image was endorsed during the 1930s by the introduction of a range of six-cylinder cars with ohv engines, though a four-cylinder 12 hp was kept in production until 1936. In 1933, the 5-litre six-cylinder Siddeley Special was announced, featuring a Hiduminium aluminium alloy engine; this model cost £950. Car production continued at a reduced rate throughout 1940, and a few were assembled in 1941.

The week that World War II ended in Europe, Armstrong Siddeley introduced its first post-war models; these were the Lancaster four-door saloon and the Hurricane drophead coupe. The names of these models echoed the names of aircraft produced by the Hawker Siddeley Group (the name adopted by the company in 1935) during the war. These cars all used a 2-litre six-cylinder (16 hp) engines, increased to 2.3-litre (18 hp) engines in 1949. From 1949 to 1952 two commercial variants of the 18 hp cars were produced, primarily for export. The Utility Coupé was a conventional coupe utility style vehicle, while the Station Coupé was effectively a dual cab vehicle, although it still retained only two doors. However, it did have two rows of seating to accommodate up to four adults. From 1953 the company produced the Sapphire, with a 3.4-litre six-cylinder engine.

In 1956, the model range was expanded with the addition of the 234 (a 2.3-litre four-cylinder) and the 236 (with the older 2.3-litre six-cylinder engine). The Sapphire 346 sported a bonnet mascot in the shape of a Sphinx with namesakearmstrongsiddeleysapphireArmstrong Siddeley Sapphire jet engines attached. The 234 and 236 Sapphires might have looked to some of marque’s loyal customers like a radical departure from the traditional Armstrong Siddeley appearance. However, in truth, they were simply too conservative in a period of rapidly developing automotive design. If the “baby Sapphire” brought about the beginning of the end for Armstrong Siddeley, it was because Jaguar had launched the unitary-construction 2.4 saloon in 1955, which was quicker, significantly cheaper, and much better-looking than the lumpy and frumpy 234/236 design.

The last model produced by Armstrong Siddeley was 1958’s Star Sapphire, with a 4-litre engine, and automatic transmission. The Armstrong Siddeley was a casualty of the 1960 merger with Bristol; the last car left the Coventry factory in 1960.

Model list

Cars produced by Armstrong Siddeley had designations that came from the Tax horsepower rating of their engines.

1947-armstrong-siddeley-lancaster-16hp1947 Lancaster six-light saloon1949-armstrong-siddeley-whitley1949-armstrong-whitley1949 Whitley four-light sports saloon

SONY DSC
1950 Armstrong Siddeley Typhoon Typhoon fixed head coupé

1947-armstrong-siddeley-dvla-2300cc-manf-19471947 Armstrong Siddeley (DVLA) 2300cc

Hurricane drophead coupé

Model name Type Engine From To No. produced
Thirty Various 4960 cc 1919 1931 2770
Eighteen Various 2400 cc 1921 1925 2500 inc 18/50
18/50 or 18 Mk.II Various 2872 cc 1925 1926 2500 inc Eighteen
Four-Fourteen Various 1852 cc 1923 1929 13,365
Twenty Short and Long chassis 2872 cc 1926 1936 8847
Fifteen Tourer, saloon 1900 cc 1927 1929 7203 inc 15/6
Twelve Tourer, saloon, sports 1236 (1434 cc from 1931) 1929 1937 12500
15/6 Tourer, saloon, sports 1900 cc (2169 cc from 1933) 1928 1934 7206 inc Fifteen
Siddeley Special Tourer, saloon, limousine 4960 cc 1933 1937 253
Short 17 Coupe, saloon, sports saloon 2394 cc 1935 1938 4260 inc Long 17
Long 17 Saloon, tourer, Atalanta sports saloon, Limousine, landaulette 2394 cc 1935 1939 4260 inc Short 17
12 Plus & 14 Saloon, tourer 1666 cc 1936 1939 3750
20/25 Saloon, tourer, Atlanta sports saloonLimousine, landaulette 3670 cc 1936 1940 884
16 Saloon, Sports saloon 1991 cc 1938 1941 950
Lancaster 16 4-door saloon 1991 cc 1945 1952 3597 inc Lancaster 18.
Lancaster 18 4-door saloon 2309 cc 1945 1952 3597 inc. Lancaster 16.
Hurricane 16 Drophead coupé 1991 cc 1945 1953 2606 inc Hurricane 18.
Hurricane 18 Drophead coupé 2309 cc 1945 1953 2606 inc. Hurricane 16.
Typhoon 2-door fixed-head coupé 1991 cc 1946 1949 1701.
Tempest 4-door fixed-head coupé 1991 cc 1946 1949 6.
Whitley 18 Various 2309 cc 1949 1953 2624.
Sapphire 346 4-door saloon & Limousine 3435 cc 1952 1958 7697
Sapphire 234 4-door saloon 2290 cc 1955 1958 803
Sapphire 236 4-door saloon 2309 cc 1955 1957 603
Star Sapphire Saloon & Limousine 3990 cc 1958 1960 980
Star Sapphire Mk II Saloon & Limousine 3990 cc 1960 1960 1

A feature of many of their later cars was the option of an electrically controlled pre-selector gearbox.

Clubs

Like many British cars of the age, there are active owners’ clubs supporting their continued use in several countries, e.g. the UK, Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands and Germany. ASOC Ltd has members worldwide and many members of the ASCC in Australia are resident overseas. In the United Kingdom, the Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club Ltd publishes a monthly Members magazine “Sphinx”. In Australia, the Armstrong Siddeley Car Club publishes “Southern Sphinx” six times a year. In the Netherlands ASOC Dutch publishes also six times a year, and in New Zealand, Armstrong Siddeley Car Club in New Zealand Inc. publish “Sphinx-NZ” every month. Further details are available from the Membership Secretary, or via the ASOC Ltd and ASCC Australia websites.

Aircraft engines

1958-armstrong-siddeley-lynx-7-cylinder-radial-from-the-avro-618-ten-aircraft-southern-cloudArmstrong Siddeley Lynx 7 cylinder radial from theavro-618-tenAvro 618 Ten aircraft, Southern Cloud

Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Armstrong Siddeley produced a range of low- and mid-power aircraft radial engines, all named after big cats. They also produced a tiny 2-cylinder engine called the Ounce, another name for the snow leopard, for ultralight aircraft.

The company started work on their first gas turbine engine in 1939, following the design pioneered at the Royal Aircraft Establishment by Alan Arnold Griffith. Known as the “ASX” for “Armstrong Siddeley eXperimental”, the original pure-turbojet design was later adapted to drive a propeller, resulting in the “ASP”. From then on, AS turbine engines were named after snakes. Thearmstrong-siddeley-mamba-asm3Armstrong Siddeley Mamba ASM3 Mamba andarmstrong-siddeley-double-mamba-aircraft-engineArmstrong Siddeley Double Mamba aircraft engine Double Mamba were turboprop engines, the latter being a complex piece of engineering with two side-by-side Mambas driving through a common gearbox, and could be found on thea-royal-navy-fairey-gannet-as-4A Royal Navy Fairey Gannet AS.4 Fairey Gannet. Thearmstrong-siddeley-python-during-naca-wind-tunnel-testing-in-1949Armstrong Siddeley Python during NACA wind tunnel testing in 1949 Python turboprop powered thewestland-wyvern-s-mk-4Westland Wyvern S Mk.4 Westland Wyvern strike aircraft. Further development of the Mamba removed the reduction gearbox to give the Adder turbojet.

Another pioneer in the production of the RAE engine design was Metrovick, who started with a design known as the Metrovick F.2. This engine never entered production, and Metrovick turned to a larger design, the Beryl, and then to an even larger design, the Sapphire. Armstrong Siddeley later took over the Sapphire design, and it went on to be one of the most successful 2nd generation jet engines, competing with the better-known Rolls-Royce Avon.

The company went on to develop an engine – originally for unmanned Jindivik target drones – called the Viper. This product was further developed by Bristol Siddeley and, later, Rolls-Royce and was sold in great numbers over many years. A range of rocket motors were also produced, including the Snarler and Stentor. The rocket development complemented that of Bristol, and Bristol Siddeley would become the leading British manufacturer of rocket engines for missiles.

Aero and rocket engines
year type
Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah 1935 7-cyl radial
Armstrong Siddeley Civet 1928 7-cylinder radial
Armstrong Siddeley Cougar 1945 9-cylinder radial not-produced
Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound 1935 21-cylinder 3-row in-line radial engine. Not produced
Armstrong Siddeley Genet 1926 5-cylinder radial
Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major 1928 radial
Armstrong Siddeley Hyena 1933 experimental 15-cylinder 3-row inline radial
Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar 1923 14-cylinder 2-row radial
Armstrong Siddeley Leopard 1927 14-cylinder, 2-row radial
Armstrong Siddeley Lynx 1920 radial
Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose 1926 5-cyl radial
Armstrong Siddeley Ounce 1920 2-cylinder opposed
Armstrong Siddeley Panther 1929 14-cylinder 2-row radial
Armstrong Siddeley Serval 1928 10-cylinder 2-row radial
Armstrong Siddeley Tiger 1932 14-cylinder 2-row radial supercharged
Armstrong Siddeley ASX 1945 axial flow turbojet
Armstrong Siddeley Python 1945 turboprop, also known as ASP
Armstrong Siddeley Double Mamba 1949 Two Mamba linked by gearbox
Armstrong Siddeley Mamba 1946 turboprop
Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire 1948 turbojet
Armstrong Siddeley Adder 1948 turbojet
Armstrong Siddeley Viper 1951 turbojet
Armstrong Siddeley Snarler 1950 rocket

Diesel engines

In 1946 Armstrong Siddeley produced their first diesel engines. They were medium-speed engines for industrial and agricultural use. Initially there was a single-cylinder engine producing 5 bhp (3.7 kW) at 900 rpm and a twin-cylinder version. Each cylinder had a capacity of 988 cm3 (60.2 cubic inches). The power output and speed was progressively increased. By the end of 1954 the single-cylinder engine was rated at 11 bhp (8.2 kW) at 1800 rpm and the twin-cylinder engine 22 bhp (16.4 kW) at the same speed. In 1955 the range was extended with the introduction of a 3-cylinder engine rated at 33 bhp (24.6 kW).

The engines were built at Armstrong Siddeley’s factory at Walnut Street, Leicester until that factory closed in August 1957. Production was transferred to the factory of Armstrong Siddeley (Brockworth) Ltd in Gloucestershire and in 1958 to the factory of Petters Limited at Staines, Middlesex. The engines built by Petters were designated AS1, AS2 and AS3 to distinguish them from that company’s other products. Production ended in 1962 when Petters introduced a replacement range of lightweight small high-speed air-cooled diesel engines.

In April 1958 the company obtained a licence to build the Maybach MD series high-speed diesel engines. Several hundred were built by Bristol Siddeley Engines Ltd after that company took over Armstrong Siddeley’s manufacturing activities in 1959.

See also

References

Citations

  1. Jump up^ Kay & Springate (2014), p. 18.
  2. Jump up^ Smith (2006), p. 494.
  3. Jump up^ RAC Rating
  4. Jump up^ Armstrong Siddeley Air-Cooled Diesel Engines by Sid Beck inStationary Engine April 1992 reprinted in Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust Sphinx newsletter 49, December 2001
  5. Jump up^ Armstrong Siddeley Motors, Minutes of Board Meeting, 1 October 1957
  6. Jump up^ Armstrong Siddeley Air Cooled Diesel Engines by Tom Smith in Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust Sphinx newsletter 54, 2004
  7. Jump up^ Armstrong Siddeley Motors, Minutes of Board Meetings, 2 April 1958 and 28 April 1958

Bibliography

  • Kay, David; Springate, Lynda (2014). Automotive Mascots: A Collector’s Guide to British Marque, Corporate & Accessory Mascots (eBook). Veloce Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84584-785-2.
  • Smith, Bill (2006). Armstrong Siddeley Motors, The cars, the company and the people in definitive detail. Veloce Publishing. p. 494. ISBN 978-1-904788-36-2.

Further reading

  • Robert Penn Bradly: Armstrong Siddeley, the Post War Cars; Motor Racing Publications, Croydon, 1989.
  • Robert Penn Bradly: The 346 Sapphire explored to great depth; Pimula PTY Pvt., Bardwell Park, NSW, 2008.
  • Bruce Lindsay: Armstrong Siddeley, the Sphinx with the heart of a lion; Lindsay family trust, Thailand, 2010.

External links

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Armstrong Siddeley 30HP Landaulette advert 1921
Armstrong Siddeley 30HP Landaulette advert 1921

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taken at Wisley Bus Rally 2010
taken at Wisley Bus Rally 2010

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OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

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SONY DSC
SONY DSC

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taken at Wisley Bus Rally 2010
taken at Wisley Bus Rally 2010

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armstrong_siddeley 1947-armstrong-siddeley-hurricane-2000cc

FNM Fábrica Nacional de Motores Brasil 1942-1988

FNM

Fábrica Nacional de Motores

1942-1988 Brasil

FNM logo, largely inspired by the Alfa Romeo logo.

Fábrica Nacional de Motores (FNM) was a Brazilian manufacturer of engines and motor vehicles based in the Xerém district of Duque de Caxias near Rio de Janeiro that operated between 1942 and 1988.

Origins

The company was created 1942 by the Brazilian state as part of the Estado Novo agenda of President Getúlio Dornelles Vargas. It was one of several business launched by the state during this period (including also Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional launched in 1941 and CHESF in the later 1940s) to kick start an industrial sector in Brazil. Initially the company produced American Curtiss-Wright aircraft engines under license along with ammunition, bicycles, spindles and refrigerators.

1961 FNM D 11000 Brasil Fábrica Nacional de MotoresFNM D-11.000 with Brasinca cabin, 1961

After the Second World War it was decided to diversify production. The government was keen to launch a vehicle manufacturing industry. In 1949 an agreement was reached with the Italian manufacturer, Isotta Fraschini, whereby FNM would produce the Milanese company’s heavy trucks under license. Isotta Fraschini commercial vehicles enjoyed an excellent reputation at this time, but the Italian company was already economically troubled, although its formal bankruptcy would be put off till the end of 1951.

The Alfa Romeo connection

1964 FNM D-11.000 truckFNM D-11.000 truck, 1964

The disappearance of Isotta Fraschini as a vehicle manufacturer left FNM looking for a new technology partner. In 1952 an agreement was signed with Alfa Romeo, another Milanese vehicle manufacturer. Unusually in Europe, Alfa Romeo was (like FNM) a state owned business, following bankruptcy and a government rescue in the 1930s. Under the agreement with Alfa Romeo, FNM would manufacture Alfa Romeo’s commercial vehicle range under license. Though little known north of the Alps, Alfa Romeo commercial vehicles were well established in Italy, and other south European markets. Between 1956 and 1960 FNM built more than 15,000 heavy trucks of Alfa Romeo design: it also manufactured the chassis for buses and coaches. In the Brazilian heavy truck sector which FNM dominated till the early 1970s, FNM was initially the only manufacturer. Trucks produced by FNM were generally nicknamed “Fenemê”.

1968 FNM JK 2000 Alfa Romeo1968 FNM JK 2000

In the mid-fifties a company called Fabral S.A. (Fábrica Brasileira de Automóveis Alfa, “the Brazilian Alfa automobile factory”), a collaboration between Alfa Romeo and Brazilian investor Matarazzo, was set up to build the Alfa Romeo 2000 (tipo 102/B, “B” for Brazil). The car was to be built in Jacareí, in the state of São Paulo. The Matarazzo Group backed out in 1958, following troubled discussions about the suitability of building luxurious cars in poor Brazil. After pressure from then-President Juscelino Kubitschek FNM, in which Alfa Romeo already held a minority interest, took over the project. In 1960 FNM’s first passenger car was launched, the FNM 2000, a Brazilian version of the series 102 Alfa Romeo 2000 four-door sedan (berlina). The factory ended up being built in the Xerém neighborhood, of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro instead. The engine was the same 1,975 cc twin camshaft unit found in the Italian product, but detuned to produce only 95 PS (70 kW) and the car received the FNM logo. This series of cars was named “J.K.” in honor of President Kubitschek who had helped make the deal take place. This was by far the most luxurious, and most expensive, car built in Brazil in the period.

1966 Brazilian made FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni in 1966, over an Alfa Romeo platformBrazilian made FNM Onça, made by Genaro “Rino” Malzoni in 1966, over an Alfa Romeo platform

A coupé version was offered from 1966. Known as the FNM Onça (“Jaguar”), the coupé did not follow the line of any Alfa Romeo design, but featured an elegant locally designed body unmistakably reminiscent of the original Ford Mustang. The regular FNM 2000, meanwhile, was followed by more powerful versions, culminating with the 130 PS (96 kW) TIMB (“Turismo Internazional Modelo Brasileiro”), now boasting usefully more power than was claimed for its Alfa Romeo cousins of the time. The TIMB also featured a flat bonnet with a lower-mounted grille, as suggested by Lincoln Tendler aiming a better aerodynamic penetration, and a divided front bumper to accommodate the lower centerpiece. This same front design was also used for the succeeding FNM 2150, with some detail differences.

Alfa Romeo control

1971 FNM Fúria GT1971 Brazilian made FNM Furia GT, made by Toni Bianco in 1971, over an Alfa Romeo platform

In 1968 Alfa Romeo acquired a controlling share in the hitherto state-owned FNM business. The next year the FNM 2000 was replaced by a restyled version, the FNM 2150, the most obvious visual differences affecting the front of the car. For this application the twin camshaft four cylinder engine saw its capacity increased to 2132 cc, and performance was further enhanced through the installation of a better set of carburetors. The five-speed gearbox was the same one used in all cars made up to that moment. The FNM 2150 would continue in production from 1969 till 1974.

In 1971, another coupé called the Furia GT 2150 was presented to the public. Based on chassis and mechanics of the FNM/JK 2150 cc model, the car was designed by Brazilian designer Toni Bianco. Only a few hand built examples were produced, but the stylish coupé may have helped the public image of the by now aging design of the mainstream FNM 2150. Bianco later made some sporting creations carrying his own name.

Alfa Romeo had disposed of its commercial vehicle operations in Italy in the 1960s, and in 1973 the FNM commercial vehicle business was sold to Fiat‘s industrial vehicle division, while Alfa Romeo retained responsibility for the FNM automobile business – subsequently FNM’s commercial vehicle business ended up being absorbed into Fiat’s Brazilian Iveco business.

1954 FNM 210 clearly shows its Alfa Romeo origins in design.[10]The 1954 FNM 210 clearly shows its Alfa Romeo origins in design.

Closing chapter

1974 saw the FNM 2150 replaced with the Alfa Romeo 2300. This was the end for the FNM badged cars: the FNM badge itself, obviously inspired by the Alfa Romeo badge, was also replaced on this car with an actual Alfa Romeo badge. The general look of the new car was very similar to that of the Italian built Alfetta sedan, designed by Giuseppe Scarnati and first offered in Europe in 1972, although the Brazilian car was actually 41 centimetres (16 in) longer and 7 centimetres (2.8 in) wider than the Alfetta. Under the skin, the 2300 was based technically on the older Alfa Romeo 1900. The gear box of the 2300 was conventionally located adjacent to the engine and not (as with the Alfetta) across the rear axle. Like its Brazilian predecessor the 2300 featured a four-cylinder twin-camshaft engine, now of 2310 cc with a claimed output of 140 hp (100 kW). A maximum speed of 170 km/h (106 mph) was claimed. For the 1985 model year the 2300 was renamed as “Alfa Romeo 85”. This model was manufactured until November 1986.

Marketing opportunities were identified in Europe where Alfa Romeo’s locally designed attempt to move upmarket had made little impact on the competition from Bavaria: the Brazilian Alfa Romeo was offered briefly in 1981 under the designation Alfa Rio and distributed by Alfa Romeo Germany. Additionally, around 600 of the cars were shipped to The Netherlands.

The end

Alfa Romeo faced difficulties in Europe during the late 1970s and early 1980s, coming under increasing commercial pressure from the three largest German up-market auto producers even in Italy. Objective financial data concerning nationalized businesses are seldom published, but Alfa Romeo is believed to have operated at a substantial loss for much of its time under state control: in 1986 Romano Prodi who was at the time chairman of the IRI (the government body responsible for nationalised industries in Italy), wishing to reduce the losses of the IRI, transferred Alfa Romeo to the private sector, which in Italy’s mass market automobile business meant at this time Fiat. Since 1976 Fiat had been developing its own Brazilian operation, based in Betim. The Brazilian-based car business that had formerly comprised FNM was accordingly integrated into Fiat’s own Brazilian operation, and in 1988 the FNM badged commercial vehicles – already produced by a Fiat owned business since Alfa Romeo sold the business in 1973 – were rebadged as Iveco products.

Automobile production volumes

Production volumes of the FNM 2000/2150, to the extent these can be determined:

  • 1966: 474
  • 1967: 714
  • 1968:
  • 1969: 555
  • 1970: 1,209
  • 1971: ~800
  • 1972: 525
  • 1978: 4,017
  • 1979: 2,350

Models manufactured

Trucks

FNM D-7300 Truck FNM D-7300a

Alfa FNM D7300

Isotta Fraschini D80 NM Isotta Fraschini D80FNM D-7300

1957 FNM truck 1957 fnm57d9500-lourivaldasilveiralula 1957 ivomacedogenesiofnmd95001957carregadocomotrukdearrasto 1958 fnm d-9500ano58-laurindozatorski Alfa FNM D-9500 Cabine Metro espanta bebe Caio Coach FNM D-9500 FNM Alfa Romeo D-9500 FNM Brasinca D9500 FNM D 9500 DE MIRINHO POSSEBOM FNM D 9500 FNM D-9500 (BR 800.inca) FNM D-9500 a FNM D-9500 b FNM D-9500 Brasinca 4x2 FNM D-9500 c FNM D-9500 em Ponta Grossa FNM D-9500 Paper Model fnm-d-9500-03 Série D-9.500 (Alfa Romeo) ALFA - FNM Somente Alfa Romeo, Fnm 180, d9500 e D11000FNM D-95001960 FNM D11000 1960's FNM Alfa Romeo Truck - for transport of PASSENGERS in RIO DE JANEIRO in the early (1960s) 1961 FNM D 11000 Brasil Fábrica Nacional de Motores 1964 FNM D-11.000 truck 1964 FNM D-11000 – ano 1964 com reboque para transporte de madeira. FNM D-11000 – ano 1964 com basculante Trivellato de 4 m3 e o FNM (de cor cinza) com cabine 1964 FNM D-11000 Standard 1964 (b) FNM 11000 009 FNM Alfa Romeo D11000 - Brasil FNM Alfa Romeo D11000 Brazilia FNM Alfa Romeo of Brazil FNM D11.000 FNM d110000 bus FNM D-110000 truck_ad_2 FNM Isotta-Fraschini truck FNM Trekker before bus FNM Truck fnm-d-11000-05 fnm-d-11000-08 O trio de FNM D-11.000, na BR-116, a caminho de SalvadorFNM D-11000fnm 180-07 1976 fnm 180 brasil truck photo Fnm 180, d9500 e D11000 FNM 180-2 FNM 180-20 fnm 180-03 Fnm 180-3 1975 FNM 180 2572 fnm 180-2 (2) fnm 180-01 FNM 180 8 FNM 180 do Zé do Burro a Lenda By Sonicleiton Rodrigues fnm 180-1 Fnm 180-6 1979 FNM FIAT 180 1979-fr-ld-esq 1972-79 FNM 180 E 210 1979 FNM 180 j FNM 180 10 fnm-180-catalogo-de-pecas-para-reposico- Fnm 180 Alfa Romeu 1965 fnm 180 752FNM 1801975 FNM 210, 4X2, CABINE LEITO 1972-79 FNM 180 E 210 fnm 210 novageracao FIAT FNM 210 FIAT FNM 210 adv FNM 210 T+O fnm 210 cavalo+com+mecanica+fiat+190+santos+sp+brasil__6AF76F_1 FNM fiat 210 scania MLB-F-434 Fnm 210 Gts Fnm 210 aFNM 210

Passenger cars

1962 FNM JK 2000 Brasil 1963 FNM JK 2000 1964 FNM 2000 (R4 cyl, 1975 cc, 95 bhp) 1966 FNM 2000 TiMB 1967 FNM 2000 1968 a FNM 1968 FNM 2000 Ad 1968 FNM 2000 1968 FNM anuncio 1968 FNM JK 2000 Alfa Romeo fnm 13-texto FNM Fabrica1960 FNM 2000 J.K.1966 FNM ONCA a 1966 FNM Onca b 1966 FNM Onca small 1966 FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni over an Alfa Romeo platform red 1966 FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni, over an Alfa Romeo platform

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1967 fnm onca 671966 FNM 2000 Onça1958 FNM 2000 1966 FNM 2000 timb a 1966 FNM 2000 TiMB 1968 FNM 2000 TIMB ( FNM Alfa Romeo)

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1968 manual-f-n-m-2000-timb-alfa-romeo-1968-frete-gratis-14497-MLB4141444863 042013-F 1969 fnm 2000 timb 1970 FNM 2000 Timb FNM 2000 TIMB 4 FNM 2000 TIMB, com bancos reclináveis em couro e alavanca de mudanças no assoalho fnm 2000-timb 04 FNM 2000timB -DF-03 fnm 2000-timb011966 FNM 2000 TiMB1969 FNM Alfa Romeo 2150a 1969 FNM limousines Alfa Romeo do Brasil 1971 FNM 2150 sw 1971 1971 FNM 2150 1971 Quelle mille Alfa brasiliane 2150 sw 1972 FNM 2150 ( FNM Alfa Romeo)a 1972 FNM 2150 duas cabeças - ARCMG Emblema FNM fnm 13-texto fnm 2150-061969-1972 FNM 21501968 FNM 2000 Spider 021968 FNM 2000 Spider 1971 FNM Fúria GT fnm furia-01 fnm furia-02 fnm furia-06 fnm furia-09 fnm furia-111971 FNM Fúria GT

images

alfa 2300 brasil Alfa Romeo 2300 Brasil1974 Alfa Romeo 2300alfa 2300 B 01 Brasil1977 Alfa Romeo 2300 B Alfa-romeo-2300-TI-19771978 Alfa Romeo 2300 ti

1980 Alfa Romeo 2300 slAlfa Romeo 2300 ti41980-1986 Alfa Romeo 2300 ti4

Automobile technical data

Technical data FNM 2000/Onça/2150/2300
FNM: 2000 2000 TIMB Onca 2150 2300 (1975) 2300 ti (1975) 2300 ti4 (1985)
Engine: Straight-4 (four stroke)
Displacement: 1,975 cc (120.5 cu in) 2,131 cc (130.0 cu in) 2,310 cc (141 cu in)
Bore x Stroke: 84,5 x 88 mm 84,5 x 95 mm 88 x 95 mm
Power /rpm: 70 kW (95 PS)
at 5400
77 kW (105 PS) at 5700 85 kW (115 PS) at 5900 81 kW (110 PS)
at 5700
103 kW (140 hp SAE) at 5700 110 kW (149 SAE-PS)
at 5700
95 kW (130 PS)
at 5500
Max. Torque /rpm: 153 N·m (113 ft·lbf) at 3600 167 N·m (123 ft·lbf) at 3900 214 N·m (158 ft·lbf) at 3500 235 N·m (173 ft·lbf) at 3500 235 N·m (173 ft·lbf) at 3500
Fuel system: 1 downdraft double carburetor
Solex 35 APAIG
2 carburetors
Solex 44 PHH
1 downdraft double carburetor
Solex 35 APAIG
1 double carburetor 2 double carburetors 1 double carburetor
Valve gear: DOHC, chain
Cooling: Water cooling
Transmission: 5-speed gearbox 5-speed gearbox
Front wheel suspension: Unequal-length wishbones, coil springs
Rear wheel suspension: semi-trailing arm, coil springs
Brakes: Four-wheel drum brakes Disc brakes in front, drums in the back Disc brakes all around
Steering: Worm and Roller
Body: steel, self-supporting
Track front/rear: 1,400 mm (55.1 in)/1,370 mm (53.9 in) 1,397 mm (55.0 in)/1,400 mm (55.1 in)
Wheelbase: 2,720 mm (107.1 in)
Onca: 2,500 mm (98.4 in)
2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Dimensions: 4,715 mm (185.6 in) x 1,700 mm (66.9 in) x 1,450 mm (57.1 in) mm
Onca: 4,425 mm (174.2 in) x 1,670 mm (65.7 in) x 1,290 mm (50.8 in)
4,690 mm (184.6 in)/4,719 mm (185.8 in) x 1,692 mm (66.6 in) x 1,362 mm (53.6 in)
Unloaded weight: 1,360 kg (3,000 lb)
Onca: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb)
1,412 kg (3,113 lb)
Top speed: 155 km/h (96 mph) 165 km/h (103 mph) 175 km/h (109 mph) 165 km/h (103 mph) 170 km/h (110 mph) 175 km/h (109 mph) 170 km/h (110 mph)
0–100 km/h: not indicated 12,0 s
Consumption (Liter/100 Kilometer): 10.5 L/100 km (27 mpg-imp; 22 mpg-US) not indicated

1950 fnm 2 1952 FNM D-9500 cermava2 1952 FNM Restauracao-de-caminhoes-7 1954 FNM 210 Alfa Romeo 1954-72 FNM 800br1 1956  FNM 3-0 1956 FNM D-11000 1957 FNM d-9500 c 1957 fnm d-9500 o 1957 FNM truck 1958 FNM - BOSCA Diário do Paraná, Curitiba PR 1958 FNM 2000 1958 FNM Buildingtruck 1958 FNM D-11.000, com cabine Brasinca, possivelmente em 1958. 1958 fnm d-9500 l 1958 FNM Grand 1958 FNM Oleo Vegetal 1958 FNM's 1960 anexo05propagandalancamentofnm 1960 FNM Breda. В 80-е 1960 FNM Bus from CMTC in Sao Paulo, Brazil 1960 FNM Bus Truck 1960 FNM cermava14a 1960 FNM D-9.500 1957 1960 FNM D-11.000 1960 FNM 'Fabrica Nachional de Motores - from Brasil harbour 1960 FNM Isotta-Fraschini bus e 1960 FNM Isotta-Fraschini truck 1960 FNM Trekker before bus 1960's FNM Alfa Romeo Truck - for transport of PASSENGERS in RIO DE JANEIRO 1961 fnm 69 nilsonmachadodasilveira2donoa12anos1 1961 FNM D 11000 Brasil Fábrica Nacional de Motores 1962 FNM JK 2000 Brasil 1963 FNM JK 2000 1964 FNM 2000 (R4 cyl, 1975 cc, 95 bhp) 1964 FNM D-11.000 truck 1964 FNM D-11000 – FNM D-11000 – com cabine 1964 FNM D-11000 truck Standard(b) 1964 FNM D11000 1965 fnm 180 752 1966 FNM 2000 timb a 1966 FNM 2000 TiMB 1966 FNM ONCA a 1966 FNM Onca b 1966 FNM Onca small 1966 FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni over an Alfa Romeo platform red 1966 FNM Onça, made by Genaro Rino Malzoni, over an Alfa Romeo platform

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1967 FNM 2000 1967 FNM JK 2000 1967 1967 fnm onca 67 1968 a FNM 1968 anuncio de novos o^nibus FNM OESP_18.02.1968 - WILLIAM GUARUBUS 1968 FNM 2000 Ad 1968 FNM 2000 manual-f-n-m-2000-timb-alfa-romeo-1968-frete-gratis-14497-MLB4141444863 042013-F 1968 FNM 2000 Spider 02 1968 FNM 2000 TIMB ( FNM Alfa Romeo)

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1968 FNM 2000 1968 FNM 2000-timbManual-alfa-romeo-frete-gratis-14497-MLB4141444863 042013-F 1968 FNM anuncio 1968 FNM Fabrica National de Motores 1968 FNM JK 2000 Alfa Romeo 1968 FNM V12 - adv (1968) 1968 manual-f-n-m-2000 1969 fnm 2000 timb 1969 FNM Alfa Romeo 2150a 1969 FNM limousines Alfa Romeo do Brasil 1969 FNMs vistos em algum lugar da construção da Variante Pinhalzinho - Uvaranas, obra do Tronco Principal Sul, em Janeiro de 1969 1969, a FNM lançou o 2150 1970 FNM 2000 Timb 1970 FNM Alfa Romeo 2150 Pick-up - from Brasil

1971 Brazilian made FNM Furia GT, made by Toni Bianco over an Alfa Romeo platform 1971 FNM 2150 sw 1971 1971 FNM 2150 1971 FNM Fúria GT 1971 Placa de Telemaco Borba-PR Arquivo de Miklos Stammer e digitalizaçao de Werner Keifer 1971 Quelle mille Alfa brasiliane 2150 sw 1972 FNM 2150 ( FNM Alfa Romeo)a 1972 FNM 2150 duas cabeças - ARCMG 1972 FNM D11.000 v12  do Sr. Geraldo de Guarapuava 1972 FNM-4Rodas-Dezembro 1972-79 FNM 180 E 210 1973 fnm 180 cv 1973 FNM 210-1 adv 1975 FNM 180 2572 1975 FNM 180 de propriedade de Geraldo Beleski a 1975 FNM 180 de propriedade de Geraldo Beleski b 1975 FNM 210, 4X2, CABINE LEITO 1976 Alfa Romeo 2300 1976 Caminhão FNM Antigo 1976 fnm 18 caminho-catalogo-truck-fiat-prospecto-14550-MLB78146592_4474-O 1976 fnm 180 brasil truck photo 1976 FNM 180 1976 FNM FIAT 180 1976 em Piracicaba-SP 1976 fnm180 prop-alceuviero 1979 FNM 180 j 1979 FNM FIAT 180 1979-fr-ld-esq 1983 Alfa-Romeo 2300 Ti4 - Brasil alfa 2300 B 01 Brasil alfa 2300 brasil Alfa Romeo 85 Um Carro Com Historia Alfa Romeo 2300 75 propaganda Alfa Romeo 2300 Brasil Alfa Romeo 2300 ti4 alfa romeo 2300 Alfa-romeo-2300-TI-1977 Alfa-Romeo-2300-TL Alfa-Romeo-2300-VI Emblema FNM F.N.M. Brasilia motorkap FIAT FNM 210 adv FIAT FNM 210 FIAT-FNM FNM - adv FNM - Baixo Guandu-ES. FNM - BRASIL A-JE-8099 FNM - BRASIL Bus FNM - BRASIL remover FNM - BRASIL under water FNM  Brazilian Alfa Romeo Truck - adv FNM - Cabine CAIO (1)Caio Papa-Fila FNM - Modelo 210 - Nova Geração FNM (2) FNM 1 fnm 3 texto fnm 13-texto fnm 18-texto fnm 31-texto-x1 fnm 33-texto1 FNM 69 Nilson Machado da Silveira FNM 180 - BRASIL FNM 180 8 FNM 180 10 Fnm 180 Alfa Romeu FNM 180 do Zé do Burro a Lenda By Sonicleiton Rodrigues FNM 180 trabalhando Fnm 180, d9500 e D11000 FNM 180, o caminhão amarelo está a 3 anos. fnm 180-01 fnm 180-1 fnm 180-2 (2) FNM 180-2 fnm 180-03 Fnm 180-3 fnm 180-05 Fnm 180-6 fnm 180-07 FNM 180-20 fnm 180-catalogo-de-pecas-para-reposico- FNM 190-210 Fnm 210 a fnm 210 cavalo+com+mecanica+fiat+190+santos+sp+brasil__6AF76F_1

FNM 210 clearly shows its Alfa Romeo origins in design Fnm 210 FIAT 2737 Fnm 210 Gts FNM 210 interior fnm 210 novageracao FNM 210 T+O FNM 2000 TIMB 4 FNM 2000 TIMB, com bancos reclináveis em couro e alavanca de mudanças no assoalho Fnm 2000-4 fnm 2000-09 fnm 2000-timb 04 FNM 2000timB -DF-03 fnm 2000-timb01 FNM 2908 512c25 FNM 11000 009 FNM ad 1 FNM adv FNM Alfa Brazil FNM Alfa Romeo - from Brasil P FNM Alfa Romeo 1000 Caminhoes FNM Alfa Romeo adv FNM Alfa Romeo cabine Brasinca FNM Alfa Romeo Caminhao - Truck FNM Brasil Shield B+W FNM Bus Brasil inspecäo FNM Bus Brasil super FNM Bus Brasil FNM Bus Vitoria Brasil FNM Cabine nao identificada! FNM CAMINHÕES E ÔNIBUS - BRASIL FNM COBRACO Brasil Adv FNM D 11.000 8x8 z-w FNM D 9500 DE MIRINHO POSSEBOM FNM D 9500 FNM D 11000 Pecas genuies FNM D-9.500 (Alfa Romeo)  ALFA - FNM FNM D-11.000 8x8 Yellow FNM D-11.000 8x8 FNM D-11.000 A10-3728 FNM D-11.000 ainda na atividade FNM D-11.000 Bi Truck FNM D-11.000 Bl Brazil FNM D-11.000 Blauw other side FNM D-11.000 Blauw side FNM D-11.000 Blauw FNM D-11.000 Cabine Brasinca - BRASIL Drawing FNM D-11.000 kap FNM D-11.000, na BR-116, a caminho de Salvador FNM D-11.000. Davi Boçon Local Paranaguá FNM D11.000 FNM D7300 Eliziário Micro-Ônibus Alfa FNM D-7300 Truck FNM D-7300 FNM D-7300a FNM D-9500 (BR 800.inca) FNM D-9500 a FNM D-9500 Alfa Romeo a ad FNM D-9500 Alfa Romeo ad FNM D-9500 Alfa Romeo FNM D-9500 b FNM D-9500 Brasinca 4x2 FNM D-9500 Brasinca FNM D-9500 c FNM D-9500 Cabine Metro espanta bebe