VOLVO Cars

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Volvo Cars

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This article is about the Volvo Car Corporation. For commercial vehicles otherwise known as the Volvo Group, see Volvo. For other uses of “Volvo”, see Volvo (disambiguation).
Volvo Personvagnar AB
Volvo Car Corporation
Subsidiary, AB
Industry Automotive
Founded 14 April 1927
Headquarters Gothenburg, Sweden
Key people
Li Shufu (Chairman)
Håkan Samuelsson(President and CEO),
Hans-Olov Olsson (Vice-Chairman)
Products Luxury vehicles
Revenue SEK 103.9 billion (2014)
SEK −3.38 billion (2014)
SEK −2.76 billion (2014)
Owner Geely Sweden AB
Number of employees
15,768 (2014)
Parent Zhejiang Geely Holding Group
Website VolvoCars.com

Volvo_PV_HK_Torslanda_Göteborg

 Volvo Car Corporation headquarters

Volvo Car Corporation, or Volvo Personvagnar AB, is a Swedish premium automobile manufacturer established in 1927 and headquartered in Gothenburg, Sweden, where it operates out of the VAK building. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Zhejiang Geely Holding Group of China.

Volvo Car Corporation was originally founded as a subsidiary of the ball bearing maker SKF. When Volvo AB was introduced on the Swedish stock exchange in 1935, SKF sold most of the shares in the company. Volvo Cars was owned by AB Volvo until 1999, when it was acquired by the Ford Motor Company as part of its Premier Automotive Group. Geely Holding Group then acquired Volvo Cars from Ford in 2010.

Volvo Cars manufactures and markets sport utility vehicles, station wagons, sedans, compact executive sedans, and coupes. With approximately 2,300 local dealers from around 100 national sales companies worldwide, Volvo Cars’ largest markets are the United States, Sweden, China and Belgium. In 2011, Volvo Cars sold 449,255 cars globally, an increase of 20.3% compared to 2010.

History

1927–99

800px-Gustav_Larson_and_Assar_Gabrielsson_in_museum_of_Volvo_in_GothenburghGustav Larson and Assar Gabrielsson

Volvo company was founded in 1927, in Gothenburg, Sweden, The company was created as a subsidiary company 100% owned by SKF. Assar Gabrielsson was appointed the managing director and Gustav Larson as the technical manager.

Cars are driven by people. The guiding principle behind everything we make at Volvo, therefore, is and must remain, safety

— Assar Gabrielsson and Gustav Larson 1927

Volvo logotype (PRV-registr.) 1927

The trademark Volvo (which is Latin for I roll) was first registered by SKF the 11 May 1915 with the intention to use it for a special series of ball bearing for the American market (however in the application for the trademark, it was also designated for the purpose of automobiles), but it was never used for this purpose. SKF trademark as it looks today was used instead for all the SKF-products. Some pre-series of Volvo-bearings stamped with the brand name ‘Volvo’ were manufactured but was never released to the market and it was not until 1927 that the trademark was used again, now as a trademark and company name for an automobile.

The first Volvo car left the assembly line on 14 April 1927, and was called Volvo ÖV 4. After this the young company produced closed top and cabriolet vehicles, which were designed to hold strong in the Swedish climate and terrain. In the registration application for Volvo logotype in 1927, they simply made a copy of the entire radiator for ÖV4, viewed from the front.

Presented in 1944, the Volvo PV444 passenger car only entered production in 1947. It was the smallest Volvo yet and was to take the lion’s share of Volvo production, a well as spearheading their move into the profitable American market. The first Volvos arrived in the United States in 1955, after hardware wholesaler Leo Hirsh began distributing cars in California. Later, Texas was added, and in 1956, Volvo themselves began importing cars to the US. North America has consistently provided Volvo with their main outlet since.

In 1964, Volvo opened its Torslanda plant in Sweden, which currently is one of its largest production sites (chiefly large cars and SUVs). Then in 1965, the Gent, Belgium plant was opened, which is the company’s second largest production site. In 1989, the Uddevalla plant in Sweden was opened, which was jointly operated by Volvo Car Corporation and Pininfarina Sverige AB from 2005 to 2013.

1927 Volvo OV4 TouringVolvo ÖV4 touring 1927

1927 Volvo PV4 SedanVolvo PV4 4-door saloon 1927

1972 Volvo 144dl SaloonVolvo 144 saloon 1972

1997 Volvo 850 AWD station Wagon or estate 1996-971997 Volvo 850 estate

2002 Volvo S80 2,9, Cosmos Blue2002 Volvo S80

A collection of Volvo’s most important historical vehicles are now housed in the Volvo Museum, which opened in a permanent location in Arendal at Hisingen on 30 May 1995. For several years, the collection had been housed at the Blue Hangar, at the then closed Torslanda Airport.

In the early 1970s, Volvo acquired the passenger car division of the Dutch company DAF, and marketed their small cars as Volvos before releasing the Dutch-built Volvo 340, which went on to be one of the biggest-selling cars in the UK market in the 1980s. Nineteen eighty-six marked a record year for Volvo in the US, with 113,267 cars sold. The appearance of Japanese luxury brands like Acura and Lexus in subsequent years meant the loss of a significant market share for Volvo, one which they have never regained.

In 1999, Volvo Group decided to sell its automobile manufacturing business and concentrate on commercial vehicles. Ford saw advantages in acquiring a profitable prestige mid-size European automobile manufacturer, well renowned for its safety aspects, as an addition to its Premier Automotive Group. The buyout of Volvo Cars was announced on 28 January 1999, and in the following year the acquisition was completed at a price ofUS$6.45 (equivalent to $9.16 in 2015) billion. As a result of the divestiture, the Volvo trademark is now utilized by two separate companies:

Ford era

Volvo Car Corporation was part of Ford Motor Company’s Premier Automotive Group (PAG), along with Jaguar, Aston Martin and Land Rover. While part of the PAG, the company grew in its range of vehicles significantly.

After Ford sold Jaguar Land Rover to Tata Motors of India in 2008, the company initially decided to keep Volvo Cars despite mounting losses and gross economic downturns. Ford decided to restructure plans for Volvo Cars, pushing it further upmarket alongside the lower end of Mercedes and BMW sedans, wagons, and SUV crossovers. The outcome was the luxurious second generation Volvo S80 and the new small premium crossover Volvo XC60.

When the global economic crisis of 2008, threatened the US automakers, Swedish authorities became concerned about the fate of Volvo if Ford would file for bankruptcy. These concerns mounted after repeated mass-layoffs at Volvo. Ford announced in December 2008 that it was considering selling Volvo Cars. Initially, a sale price of US$6 billion was reported, Ford reported it was also looking into the possibility of spinning off Volvo as an independent company. The Swedish government was asked to look into a possible state ownership of Volvo, or a financial bailout for Volvo Cars and SAAB of GM. Former parent AB Volvo agreed to help Volvo cut costs through partnerships, and suggested taking part in a shared ownership of Volvo Cars amongst a larger consortium. Other rumored candidates to purchase Volvo Cars included BMW AG of Germany, Investor AB of Sweden, Chinese investors, or Russian investors.

Although it was rumoured that Volkswagen would buy Volvo Cars, and despite initial denials, Chinese company Geely Holding Group was ultimately selected to take over the Swedish automaker. Geely Group Holdings Co. allegedly bid about US$-1.5 billion to take over Volvo, with Goldman Sachs investing HK$2.59 billion (334 million USD) in the holding company.

Geely era

Ford Motor Company offered Volvo Cars for sale in December 2008, after suffering losses that year. On 28 October 2009, Ford confirmed that, after considering several offers, the preferred buyer of Volvo Cars was Zhejiang Geely Holding Group, the parent of Chinese motor manufacturer Geely Automobile. On 23 December 2009, Ford confirmed the terms of the sale to Geely had been settled. A definitive agreement was signed on 28 March 2010, for $1.8 billion. The European Commission and China’s Ministry of Commerce approved the deal on 6 and 29 July 2010, respectively. The deal closed on 2 August 2010 with Geely paying $1.3 billion cash and a $200 million note. Further payments are expected with a later price “true-up”. It is the largest overseas acquisition by a Chinese automaker.

Stefan Jacoby, formerly chief executive of Volkswagen of America, became Volvo Car Corporation’s president and chief executive on 16 August 2010, replacing Stephen Odell, who became chief executive of Ford Europe. Li Shufu became Volvo Cars’ chairman of the board. His board members include vice-chairman Hans-Olov Olsson, a former president and chief executive of Volvo Cars, and Håkan Samuelsson, formerly chief executive of MAN.

Safety

Volvo cars have long been marketed and stressed their historic reputation for solidity and reliability. Prior to strong government safety regulation Volvo had been at the forefront of safety engineering.

In 1944, laminated glass was introduced in the PV model. After Vattenfall engineers presented their pioneering work to Volvo in the 1950s, Volvo engineer Nils Bohlin invented and patented the modern three-point safety belt, which became standard on all Volvo cars in 1959, and then made this design patent open in the interest of safety and made it available to other car manufacturers for free. Additionally, Volvo developed the first rear-facing child seat in 1964 and introduced its own booster seat in 1978.

In 1991, the 960 introduced the first three-point seat belt for the middle of the rear seat and a child safety cushion integrated in the middle armrest. Also in 1991, it introduced the Side Impact Protection System (SIPS) on the700, 940/960 and 850 models, which channels the force of a side impact away from the doors and into the safety cage.

In 1994, to add to its SIPS, Volvo was the first to introduce side airbags and installed them as standard equipment in all models from 1995. At the start of the 1995 model year, side impact protection airbags were standard on high trim-level Volvo 850s, and optional on other 850s. By the middle of the production year, they were standard on all 850s. In model year 1995, SIPS airbags became standard on all Volvo models.

In 1995, the Volvo 745 was recalled as the front seatbelt mounts could break in a collision.

In 1998, Volvo installed a head-protecting airbag, which was made standard in all new models as well as some existing models. The IC head-protecting airbag was not available on the 1997 C70 since the initial design deployed the airbag from the roof, and the C70, being a convertible, could not accommodate such an airbag. A later version of the C70 featured a head-protecting airbag deploying upwards from the door, avoiding this problem. It has been stated by many testing authorities that side head protecting curtain airbags can reduce the risk of death in a side impact by up to 40% and brain injury by up to 55%, as well as protecting during a rollover. In 1998, Volvo introduced its Whiplash Protection System (WHIPS), a safety device to prevent injury to front seat users during collisions.

In 2004, Volvo introduced the Blind Spot Information System (BLIS), which detects vehicles entering the vehicle’s blind spot with a side-view-mirror-mounted camera, and alerts the driver with a light. That year also saw Volvos sold in all markets equipped with side-marker lights and daytime running lights. Also, since 2004 all Volvo models except for the coupes (C70 and C30) are available with an all-wheel drive system developed by Haldex Traction of Sweden.

In 2005, Volvo presented the second generation of Volvo C70, which came with extra stiff door-mounted inflatable side curtains (the first of its kind in a convertible) dubbed ‘DMIC’.

Even though Volvo Car Corporation was owned by Ford Motor Company, Volvo’s safety systems were still standard on all Volvo vehicles. Volvo has patented all its safety innovations, including SIPS, WHIPS, ROPS, DSTC, and body structures. Some of these systems were fitted to other Ford vehicles in forms similar to those of Volvo systems, but only because Volvo licensed the FOMOCO and other PAG members to utilize these features.

A 2005 Folksam report, put the 740/940 (from 1982 on) in the 15% better than average category, the second from the top category.

In 2005, when the American non-profit, non-governmental Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released its first annual “Top Safety Picks” vehicles list, none of Volvo’s offered vehicles in the US were included on the list. According to Russ Rader, a spokesman for IIHS, Volvo lagged behind its competitors. Dan Johnston, a Volvo spokesman, denied that the company’s vehicles were any less safe than the institute’s top-rated vehicles, adding that

It’s just a philosophy on safety that is different from building cars to pass these kinds of tests.

In 2006, Volvo’s Personal Car Communicator (PCC) remote control was launched as an optional feature with the all-new Volvo S80. Before a driver enters their car, they can review the security level and know whether they had set the alarm and if the car is locked. Additionally, a heartbeat sensor warns if someone is hiding inside the car. The S80 was also the first Volvo model to feature adaptive cruise control (ACC) with Collision Warning and Brake Support (CWBS).

In 2008, a French court found Volvo partially responsible for causing the death of two children and serious injuries of another in Wasselonne on 17 June 1999, when the brakes of a 1996 Volvo 850 failed. The court subjected Volvo to a €200,000 fine.

According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), Volvo’s S80 became one of the 2009 Top Safety Picks Award winners. The previous versions of the S40 and S60 models (2005–09 models with standard side airbags) failed to attain the highest rating in their side impact test. However, according to the IIHS, in recent years Volvo cars have still managed to maintain their high class safety ratings as seen in test results. The Volvo XC90, S80, C70, XC60, S60 and C30 are all rated Top Safety Picks in these crash tests. The 2014 models of the XC60, XC90, S60 and S80 have even received the Top Safety Pick+ rating.

Volvo has also scored high in EuroNCAP tests. Since 2009, all the Volvo models that EuroNCAP have tested have received five-star safety ratings: Volvo C30, V40, V60, V60 plug-in hybrid, XC60 and V70. The new Volvo V40 (model year 2013–) got the best test result of any car model ever tested in EuroNCAP.

Safety milestones

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe Amazon was noted for its safety features, with a padded dashboard, front and rear seat belts and a laminated windshield.

(This list is not necessarily Volvo innovations, but dates when Volvo incorporated the technology into its cars)

  • 1944 – safety cage
  • 1944 – laminated windscreen
  • 1957 – anchor points for two-point safety belts, front
  • 1958 – anchor points for two-point safety belts, rear
  • 1959 – three-point safety belt, standard in front seats
  • 1964 – rearward-facing child safety seat, first prototype tested
  • 1966 – crumple zones front and rear
  • 1966 – safety door-locks
  • 1969 – inertia-reel safety belts
  • 1971 – reminder safety belt
  • 1972 – three-point safety belt, outer rear seats
  • 1972 – rearward-facing child safety seat
  • 1974 – multistage impact absorbing steering column
  • 1974 – bulb integrity sensor
  • 1975 – braking system with stepped bore master cylinder
  • 1978 – child safety booster cushion
  • 1982 – “anti-submarining” protection
  • 1986 – three-point safety belt in centre rear seat (740/760)
  • 1990 – integrated child safety cushion in centre rear seat (940/960)
  • 1991 – Side Impact Protection System (850 and 940/960)
  • 1991 – automatic height adjusting safety belt
  • 1992 – reinforced rear seats, estate models
  • 1995 – front side airbags (seat-mounted) for torso (850), integrated child safety cushion, outer rear seats
  • 1997 – Roll Over Protection System (C70)
  • 1998 – Whiplash Protection System (S80)
  • 1998 – roof-mounted inflatable curtain side airbags (S80)
  • 2001 – SCC : Volvo Safety Concept Car
  • 2002 – Roll Stability Control (XC90)
  • 2003 – Volvo Intelligent Vehicle Architecture, new front structure (S40, V50)
  • 2003 – rear seat belt reminders (S40, V50)
  • 2003 – Intelligent Driver Information System, a system that selectively blocks information to the driver in complex traffic situations and lets the information through once the situation has calmed down (S40, V50)
  • 2003 – Volvo’s Traffic Accident Research Team, inaugurated in Bangkok
  • 2004 – Blind Spot Information System, informs the driver of vehicles in the blind spots, using a yellow LED in the A-pillars (S40, V50)
  • 2005 – door-mounted inflatable curtain airbags (C70)
  • 2006 – Personal Car Communicator (S80)
  • 2006 – Collision Warning Brake Support, a system that warns the driver and gives brake support when a collision with another vehicle in front of the car is imminent (S80)
  • 2006 – Electrical Parking Brake (S80)
  • 2007 – Driver Alert Control, a driver drowsiness detection system that alerts the driver when the system detects that they are becoming tired (S80, V70, XC70)
  • 2007 – Lane Departure Warning, a system that warns the driver for unintended lane departures (S80, V70, XC70)
  • 2007 – Collision Warning with Auto Brake, a system that automatically brakes the car when a collision with another vehicle in front of the car is imminent (S80, V70, XC70)
  • 2007 – Distance Alert, a system that helps the driver keeping a safe distance to the vehicle ahead, by continuously measuring the distance and lighting up the vehicle’s head up display if the time gap becomes shorter than what the driver has specified (S80, V70, XC70)
  • 2007 – Alcoguard, a hand-held device that the driver blows into before they can start the car, mainly aimed for the company-car sector, taxi operators, state authorities and municipalities (S80, V70, XC70)
  • 2008 – City Safety, a system that automatically brakes the car at speeds below 30 km/h (19 mph) if an obstruction is detected in front of the car (new XC60)
  • 2010 – Pedestrian Detection with Auto Brake, a system that warns the driver and automatically brakes the car when a collision with a pedestrian in front of the car is imminent (S60)
  • 2012 – pedestrian airbag, covering the A-pillars and the lower part of the windscreen in case of collision with a pedestrian (Volvo V40)
  • 2012 – knee airbag, for the driver (V40)
  • 2012 – Upgraded City Safety, now working up to 50 km/h (31 mph) (S80, V70, XC70, XC60, S60, V60, new V40)
  • 2012 – Lane Keeping Aid, a system that steers the car back into the lane again if it is about to unintentionally drift out of the lane (V40)
  • 2012 – Road Sign Information, a system that reads road signs and displays them in the information display, thereby helping the driver to remember speed limits, no-overtaking stretches, low-speed areas, etc. (S80, V70, XC70, XC60, S60, V60, V40)
  • 2012 – Enhanced Blind Spot Information System, now able to detect approaching vehicles up to 70 meters behind the car (V40)
  • 2012 – Cross Traffic Alert, alerting the driver of crossing traffic approaching from the sides (up to 30 meters away) when reversing out of a parking space (V40)
  • 2013 – Cyclist Detection with Auto Brake, a system that warns the driver and automatically brakes the car when a collision with a cyclist travelling in the same direction as the car in front of the car is imminent (S80, V70, XC70, XC60, XC90, S60, V60, V40)

Car models

1987 Volvo 740 estate1987 Volvo 740, one of the few European passenger cars that can harbour a Europallet in its luggage compartment.

Early years

1928 Volvo ÖV 4 TouringVolvo ÖV 4, a.k.a. Jakob1929 Volvo PV651 Sedan1929 Volvo PV651 Sedan1933 Volvo PV654 4-Door Sedan1933 Volvo PV654 4-Door Sedan1933 Volvo PV654 4-Door Sedan with flag1933 Volvo PV654 4-Door Sedan with flag1933 Volvo PV655 Cabriolet1933 Volvo PV655 Cabriolet1934 Volvo PV655 Ambulance1934 Volvo PV655 Ambulance1935 Volvo PV659 Sedan1935 Volvo PV659 Sedan Volvo PV650 Series1937 Volvo TR704 4-door Sedan1937 Volvo TR704 4-door Sedan Volvo TR670 SeriesVolvo PV36 CariocaVolvo PV36 Carioca Volvo PV 36 Carioca1938 Volvo PV52 4-Door Sedan1938 Volvo PV52 4-Door Sedan1937 Volvo PV51 Sedan1937 Volvo PV51 Sedan1937 Volvo PV51 Cabriolet1937 Volvo PV51 Cabriolet1938 Volvo PV51 TV Pickup1938 Volvo PV51 TV Pickup1939 Volvo PV56 4-Door Sedan1939 Volvo PV56 4-Door Sedan Volvo PV51 1936-19451950 Volvo PV832 4-Door Sedan1950 Volvo PV832 4-Door Sedan1938 Volvo TR802 Taxi1938 Volvo TR802 Taxi1954 Volvo PV831 4-Door Sedan1954 Volvo PV831 4-Door SedanVolvo TP21 all-terrain military style vehicleVolvo TP21 all-terrain military style vehicle1952 Volvo PV 833 Pickup1952 Volvo PV 833 Pickup1951 Volvo PV834 Ambulance1951 Volvo PV834 AmbulanceVolvo TP21 MilitaryVolvo TP21 Military1954 Volvo TP21 M90 Camouflage1954 Volvo TP21 M90 Camouflage Volvo PV800 Series (civilian (PV801, PV802, PV810, PV821, PV822 and PV831) and military (TP21/P2104, P2104))1946 Volvo PV60 Sedan Taxi1946 Volvo PV60 Sedan Taxi Volvo PV 60 1946-50

1947 Volvo PV444 w1951 Volvo PV 4441953 Volvo 444 E katterug cabriolet1953 Volvo PV444 fr1957 Volvo PV 444 O1957 Volvo PV444

Volvo 544 B18

Volvo PV 444 – Retro Nostalgia PostcardVOLVO PV 444 pro memoryVolvo PV444 2volvo pv444 70 years of VolvoVolvo PV444 adVolvo PV444 poststampVolvo PV444 turns 70Volvo PV444volvo pv-444volvo pv-444-california-12

1957 Volvo PV4441957 Volvo PV4441954 Volvo PV 444 HS, showing the new full-sized rear windshield1954 Volvo PV 444 HS, showing the new full-sized rear windshieldDCF 1.0Volvo PV 5441960 Volvo pv5441960 Volvo pv544 Volvo PV444/544 1953-19691952 Volvo PV445 Cabriolet Valbo1953 Volvo PV445 Cabriolet Ringborg1957 Volvo PV445 (1957), assembled in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by Carbrasa.1957 Volvo PV445, assembled in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by Carbrasa1960 Volvo P 21134 A Duett 21960 Volvo P 21134 A Duett1960 Volvo P 44506 M 41962 Volvo Duett Ystad.1965 Volvo P210 (Duett), model code 21134 E1966 Volvo 21134 FVolvo 211 DuettVolvo duett ambulanceVolvo PV 445 Duett Station WagonVolvo PV 445 DuettVolvo PV445 CabrioletVolvo PV445Volvo Duett 1953-69 (Volvo PV445, P210) 1953-19691954 Volvo P1900 Sport Prototype1956 Volvo P1900 Sport Cabriolet 19561956 Volvo P1900 Sport Cabriolet bl1956 Volvo P1900 Sport Cabriolet1956 Volvo P1900 Sport1956 Volvo Sport Cabriolet1956 volvo sport1956 volvo sport-beach1957 Volvo PV1900 SportVolvo P1900 1956-1957 concept 19541956 Volvo 1211956 volvo amazon (2)1956 Volvo Amazon

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1956-70 Volvo 122S Classic Hill climb in the Alps1956-70 Volvo 123GT 21956-70 Volvo 123GT 31956-70 Volvo 123GT1956-70 Volvo 220 21956-70 Volvo 220 31956-70 Volvo 131341956-70 Volvo Amazon (Modell 122)1956-70 Volvo Amazon 11956-70 Volvo Amazon 21956-70 Volvo Amazon 31956-70 Volvo Amazon 41956-70 Volvo Amazon P221-34 (P220), Amsterdam1956-70 Volvo Amazon Sedan P130 & Estate (Kombi) P2201956-70 Volvo special 41956-70 Volvo stationwagon, P220 P221-341957 volvo 4441958 Volvo Amazon P1200 5641958 volvo amazon1959 volvo amazon1959 Volvo P 121-04 4-Door Sedan1960 Volvo 1221960 Volvo 123 GT1960 Volvo P121-06 Amazon 4-door Sedan

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1966 Volvo 122S1966 Volvo Amazon station wagon1967 Volvo 120 B18 Amazone in the Alps1967 Volvo 133-351 M Amazon Sedan1968 Volvo Amazon1968 Volvo Amazone Funeral car1969 Volvo 221-341 S Amazon Station Wagon Police1970 Volvo 131 341 T Amazon Sedan1970 Volvo 131-341 T Amazon Sedan1970 Volvo Amazon Sedan PoliceVolvo Amazon/Volvo 122 1956-19701957 Volvo P1800 Plaster models1957 Volvo Prototype P958-X1 concept by Frua Italy1961 Volvo P958-X1 Pelle Petterson near the P958-X1 during the 50th Anniversary in France

Volvo P1800

1961 volvo p18001961-73 Volvo 1800 ES1961-73 Volvo 1800 reclame1961-73 Volvo 1800 The Saint1961-73 Volvo 1800ES 2

Ein paar Fenster für die Ewigkeit: Volvos Schneewittchensarg P1800 ES

1961-73 Volvo 1800ES 41961-73 Volvo P 18001961-73 VOLVO P280 ESTATE CRESSINGTON STATION SOUTH LIVERPOOL1961-73 Volvo P1800 ES1961-73 volvo p1800-the-saint1962 Volvo P1800 ad1962 Volvo P1800 wh1962 Volvo P1800S red1965 Volvo P1800 mfd 1780cc Essex1965 Volvo P1800S1966 Volvo P 1800 S Cabriolet PS-53-DG1966 Volvo P 1800 Sport1968 Volvo P1800 with highest mileage car approaching the 3,000,000 mile mark as of 20111972 Volvo 1800, The ES Prototype The Rocket a1972 Volvo 1800, The ES Prototype The Rocket

1968 Volvo P 1800 ES Rocket

1968 Volvo P 1800 ES Rocket

1972 Volvo 18001972 Volvo P1800E Sport Coupe1972 Volvo P1800ES USA-Version1972 Volvo P1800ES1972 Volvo P1800ESa1972 Volvo P1800ESb1973 Volvo P280 sportwagon rearVolvo P1800 1957 concept 1961-19731975 Volvo 66 DL 11975 Volvo 66 DL1975 volvo 661975 volvo 66-st1975-80 Daf Volvo 661975-80 Volvo 66 11975-80 Volvo 66 21975-80 Volvo 66 31975-80 Volvo 66 41975-80 volvo 66 cones1975-80 Volvo 66 DL 11975-80 Volvo 66 DL 21975-80 Volvo 66 Estate1975-80 volvo-66-combi-031976 Volvo 66 Brochure

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1977 Volvo 66 Cabriolet. Only 6 have ever been made1978 Volvo 66-1300Volvo 66 1975-1980Volvo L3314-5 in Pritschenausführung mit Planenverdeck later Volvo C202Volvo L3314NVolvo L3314-5 in Pritschenausführung mit Planenverdeck later Volvo C2021968 Volvo C202 Laplander 4x4

1980 Volvo C202 2OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA1981 Volvo C202 Volvo-Valp-front 1981 Volvo C202 rear

Volvo C202 1Volvo C202 an den Einsiedelhöfen Grimstaðirvolvo c202-4x4-09

1983 Volvo C202 Islandversionen an der Hallgrimskirkja Reykjavík1983 Volvo Lappländer C202 - Rettungsfahrzeug der DRK Bergwacht Großer Feldberg (Taunus)Volvo C202 1961-74

1974-80 Volvo C303 Lapplander

1974-80 Volvo C303 LapplanderVolvo C 303 XAZ479 1Volvo C303 6x6 2.9 TD 93kWVolvo C303 28 in actionVolvo C-303 aktievolvo c303 carseats soft topVolvo C303 które trafiło od nas w ręce ZibiegoVolvo C303 Light Utility VehicleVolvo c303 na zlocie w Borne Sulinowo 2010Volvo C303 PoliceVolvo C303 SelgesVolvo C303 Swedish UnimogVolvo C303 TBG1111volvo c303 usavolvo c303-6x6-ambulance-08volvo c303-6x6-ambulance-10volvo c303-aUELVolvo c303-schlammvolvo c303-the-original-cross-country_5e17eVolvo C304-TGB 13 Expedition CamperVolvo C306 FiretruckVolvo Lapplander 8х8 – L 4230Volvo Tgb 11 - C303VOLVO TGB 1111 C303Volvo XC90 C303 Laplander 6x6 7PersoonsVolvofrontVolvo C3-series (C303, C304 and C306) 1974-84

Tri-digit nomenclature

Starting with the 140 series in 1966, Volvo used a tri-digit system for their cars. The first number was the series, the second number the number of cylinders and the third number the number of doors; so a 164 was a 1-series with a six-cylinder engine and four doors. However, there were exceptions to this rule – the 780 for example, came with turbocharged I4 and naturally aspirated V6 petrol engines and I6 diesel engines, but never an eight-cylinder, as the “eight” would suggest. Similarly, the 760 often was equipped with a turbocharged I4 engine, and the Volvo 360 only had four cylinders. Some 240GLT had a V6 engine. The company dropped the meaning of the final digit for later cars like the 740, but the digit continued to identify cars underhood on the identification plate.

1966-74 Volvo 144 de Luxe rear1966-74 Volvo 144 de Luxe1967 Volvo 1401967 Volvo 144 61968 (pre-facelift) Volvo 144 4-door sedan1968 Volvo 1421968 Volvo 144 41968 Volvo 145 Express, pre-facelift.1969 Volvo 144 51969 Volvo 145 Express1969 Volvo 1451970 Volvo 1401970 Volvo 142 21970 Volvo 142 DL Automatic.1970 Volvo 142 MP 25-70-NV1970 Volvo 145 31971 (including first facelift) Volvo 142 2-door sedan.1971 Volvo 142 31971 Volvo 1421971 volvo 142-bw1971 volvo 144-bw1971 Volvo 144S1972 Volvo 142 Race1972 Volvo 144 Taxi1972 Volvo 1441972 Volvo 144dl Saloon1972 Volvo 145 51972 Volvo 145 6

1972 Volvo 145 station wagon.

1973 (facelifted) Volvo 145 station wagon.1973 Volvo 144 31973 Volvo 145 Express.Volvo 140 (Volvo 142, Volvo 144, Volvo 145) 1966-731968 The first 164 to roll off the production line in 19681968 volvo 164-bw1968-75 Volvo 1641969 Volvo 164 E1969 Volvo 164 P691969-75 Volvo 164 21969-75 Volvo 164 (2)1969-75 Volvo 164 11969-75 Volvo 164 3

1968-75 Volvo 164 41968-75 Volvo 164 a1968-75 Volvo 1641968-75 volvo 164p1969 Volvo 164 E1971 Volvo 164 (2)1971 Volvo 1641971 Volvo 164F with Australian-market accessory exterior sunvisor.1972 Volvo 164E1974 Volvo 165 11974 Volvo 165 2Volvo 162 Coupé 1st prototype1973 Volvo 162 Coupé Prototype

Volvo 164 1968-751993 Volvo 240 Classic Wagon (US)1982 Volvo 245 GL 1981-841979 Volvo 242 GT (Australia)1992 Volvo 240 sedan 21988-91 Volvo 240 GL station wagon 21980-82 Volvo 240DL Sedan1975 Volvo 245 DL1975-78 Volvo 245 DL station wagon1988-91 Volvo 240 GL station wagonVolvo 245T extra long1985 Volvo 240 Turbo, Anders Olafsson 1985

1990 Volvo 240DL Wagon Full Driver Side Front Wheel Well View

volvo 240-ambulans-111988 Volvo 245 Estate

1990 Volvo 240DL Wagon Full Driver Side Front Wheel Well View

1983 Volvo 2451977 volvo 245volvo 244-cutaway1974 volvo 2441975 Volvo 244 DLVolvo 245 4Volvo 245 3Volvo 245 2Volvo 242 5Volvo 242 4Volvo 242 3Volvo 242 2Volvo 242 1Volvo 240 5Volvo 240 3Volvo 240 2Volvo 240 1Volvo 240 estate, Polar edition1978 Volvo 244DL front1978 Volvo 245T Transfer1984 Volvo 244GLT1992 Volvo 2451991 Volvo 244Volvo 240 (Volvo 242, 244, 245) 1974-931977 Volvo 264 GL

Frankfurt/Oder, Edward Gierek, Erich Honecker

1978 Volvo 264 TE Limousine zwart1978 Volvo 264GLE1980 volvo 260-series1980 Volvo 264te1981 Volvo 264 Nilsson Landaulette DDR zwart1981 Volvo 2641981 Volvo HD-18-GP1982 Volvo 264 Te1985 volvo 264Volvo 264 1Volvo 264 2Volvo 264 3Volvo 264 5VOLVO 264 AMBULANCEVolvo 264 Hearse White adVolvo 264 Kurt Christensenvolvo 264 tevolvo 264-ambulans-01

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

volvo 264-limousineVolvo 265 1Volvo 265 2Volvo 265 3Volvo logo silverVolvo Polar 2Volvo PolarVolvo 260  1974-83 (, 264, 265)1977-81 Volvo 262 11977-81 Volvo 262 21977-81 Volvo 262 31977-81 Volvo 262 51977-81 Volvo 262 C1978 Volvo 262 c bertone coupe1978 Volvo 262 Coupé Bertone Norge1978 Volvo 262C Bertone (with North American quad headlights)1978 Volvo 262C1979 Volvo 262 Cabriolet1979 Volvo 262C1980 Volvo 262C Bertone Coupé1981 Volvo 262 convertible gold1981 Volvo 262C, last model year without the vinyl roof (Europe)1981 Volvo 262C1982 Volvo 262 bertone cabriolet1985 Volvo 262 Coupe NLVolvo 262C 1977-811976-91 Volvo 340 GLE Millionaire1980 Volvo 343DL1976-91 Volvo 340 21990 Volvo 340 GL redVolvo 3401976 Volvo 343 DL Politievoertuig1976 Volvo 343DL1980 Volvo 343DL1976 volvo 343-variomatic1976 volvo 343-cutaway1976 volvo 343-rv1976 volvo 343-fvVolvo 3431976-91 Volvo 345 11976-91 Volvo 345 2                                     Volvo 345 1976–911985 Volvo 3601976-91 Volvo 360 21976-91 Volvo 360 31976-91 Volvo 360 41976-91 Volvo 360 11976-91 Volvo 360 labelledVolvo 360 1976–911985-97 Volvo 440 31994 Volvo 440 facelift1985-97 Volvo 440 41985-97 Volvo 440 21985-97 Volvo 440 11987 Volvo 440 red1996 Volvo 440          Volvo 440Volvo 460Volvo 440/460 1987–971986-95 Volvo 480 Turbo rear1990 Volvo 480 Turbo, Gebaut im Oktober 1989 im Originalzustand1986-95 Volvo 480 Turbo, met op de achtergrond zijn opvolger de C301988 Volvo 480es1988 Volvo 480ES 1.7, with headlamps lowered1986-95 Volvo 480 21986-95 Volvo 480 Cabriolet1986-95 Volvo 480 1

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERASAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERA

1988 Volvo 480Turbo Cabriolet Prototyp1986-95 Volvo 480 3Volvo 480 1986–95

Volvo 700 series 1982–921989 Volvo 740 GL break1991 Volvo 740 Turbo saloon post facelift (US)1989 Volvo 740 GLT Kombi1986 Volvo 740 GL Estate1982-92 Volvo 740GL Wagon1982-92 Volvo 740 Turbo sedan1982-92 Volvo 740GLT estate1985-89 Volvo 740 GL sedan 19871989 Volvo 740 GLT US-Version1987 Volvo 740 estate1982-92 Volvo 740 1         Volvo 740   1984–92

1983 Volvo 760 GLE Cabriolet Mellberg1989 Volvo 760 Estate Wagon Turbo Intercooler, US market version1984-85 Volvo 760 Turbo sedan1983 Volvo 760, first generation (sedanmodell)1987-89 Volvo 760 GLE sedan1989 Volvo 760 Turbo Intercooler Estate (VS)1982 Volvo 760 sedan (met eerste neus)1989 Volvo 760 GLE op Concours d' Elegance Het Loo1982-92 Volvo 2 B1982-92 Volvo 760 21982-92 Volvo 760 11987 Volvo 760GLE Limousine Bertone1982-92 Volvo 760 3Volvo 760 1982–90

1985 Volvo 780 Bertone.1988 Volvo 780-Bertone-21988 Volvo 7801982-92 Volvo 780 coupe1982-92 Volvo 780 41982-92 Volvo 780 31982-92 Volvo 780 21982-92 Volvo 780 11988 Volvo 780 Coupé          Volvo 780 1986–901997 Volvo 850 T5-R wagon1997 Volvo 850 AWD station Wagon or estate 1996-971994 Volvo 850 kombi1994 Volvo 850 41996 Volvo 850 31995 Volvo 850 1Volvo 850 1992–971990-98 volvo 940-hearse1990-98 Volvo 940 21992 Volvo 940

 

Volvo 940 1990-981995 Volvo 960 31998 Volvo 9601996 Volvo 960 41997 Volvo 960 21996 Volvo 960 11990-98 Volvo 960 11987 Volvo 960GLE1995 Volvo 9601997 Volvo 960 Executive

Volvo 960 1990–98

Post tri-digit models

Released in 1995

2005 Volvo s40 2nd gen 2Volvo S40 6Volvo S40 4Volvo S40 3Volvo S40 2Volvo S40 1Volvo S40 1995–12
X40: 1996–04 (1st generation)
P1: 2004–12 (2nd generation)2012 Volvo V40 Cross Country2012 Volvo V402012 Volvo V40 D2 Summum rear2012 Volvo V40 D2 SummumVolvo V40 1996–04

Released in 1996Volvo S70 4

File written by Adobe Photoshop? 4.0Volvo S70 2Volvo S70 11997 Volvo S70          Volvo S70 replaced the 850 saloon 1997–002011 Volvo V70 D5 (III)2002 Volvo V70 R AWD pre-facelift (SWE)2010 Volvo V702005-07 Volvo V701997 Volvo V70 rear pre-facelift (US)2001 Volvo V70 (MY01) 2.4 20V SE station wagon1997-00 Volvo V70R AWD1998-00 Volvo V70 XC1999 Volvo V70 (MY00) 2.4 20V CD station wagon.2003 Volvo V70 front2015 Volvo V70 D3 Linje Svart (DE)2006 Volvo V70R1997 Volvo V70Volvo V70 D5 (III) – Frontansicht2004 Volvo V70 Hearse2008-11 Volvo V70 3rdVolvo V70 4Volvo V70 3Volvo V70 2Volvo V70 12004 1st Volvo V70 XC1997-2000 Volvo V70 1stVolvo V70 replaced the 850 estate  1997–00Volvo S90 1Volvo S90 sedan

Volvo S90 3Volvo S90 replaced the 960 saloon 1990–98

2016 Volvo V90 (3)2016 Volvo V90-2016-012016 volvo v90

2000 Volvo V90 Ambulance Engine 2922cc 24v AutomaticVolvo V90 replaced the 960 estate 1990–98

Released in 1997

2015 Volvo C70Volvo C70 Cabrio FaceliftVolvo C70 4Volvo C70 3Volvo C70 2Volvo C70 12010 Volvo c70-convertibleVolvo C70 Cabrio

Volvo C70 coupé 1997–04 (approx. 70,000 units)
1996-02 C70 coupé
1998-04 C70 convertible

2004 1st Volvo V70 XC1998-00 Volvo V70 XCVolvoV70 XC

1996–00 (373,689 units)1995 Volvo V70

1995 Volvo V70

1996–00 V70 (319,832 units)

1999 Volvo V70 2.4 XC AWD

1999 Volvo V70 2.4 XC AWD

1997–00 V70 XC (53,857 units)

Released in 19981997 volvo-c70-convertible-collection-edition-001Volvo C70 convertible 1997–04 (approx. 70,000 units)1996 Volvo C70 Coupe
1996-02 C70 coupé2002-05 Volvo C70
1998-04 C70 convertible2004 Volvo S80Volvo S80 replaced the Volvo S90 1998–06

Released in 20002001-04 Volvo S60Volvo S60 replaced the Volvo S70 2001–09Volvo V70 IIVolvo V70 II2000 Volvo V70 2.4 170pk Europa Exclusive                                        2000–2007 V702002 Volvo V70 XC Polis Gen.2

2002 Volvo V70 XC Polis Gen.2 2000–2003 V70 XC2005 Volvo V70 R2003–2007 V70 R

2005 VOLVO XC70         2003–2007 XC70Volvo V70 XC front (US)Volvo V70 XC II

Released in 20022002 VOLVO XC90-723Volvo XC902007 Volvo XC90 (P28 MY07) D5 wagon2002–2014 (XC90)2016 Volvo-XC90-front-three-quarters

2016 Volvo XC90-front-three-quarters 2014–present (XC Classic)

Released in 20042004 Volvo S40-IIVolvo S40 II replaced the Volvo S402005 Volvo V50Volvo V50 replaced the Volvo V40

Released in 20062007 Volvo C30 frontVolvo C30 2006–132007 Volvo C70 IIVolvo C70 II 2006–13Volvo S80 D5 Momentum (II, Facelift) – FrontansichtVolvo S80 II 2006–16

Released in 20072009 Volvo V70 III

2009 Volvo V70 III Volvo V70 III

1996–16

Volvo XC70 p2-p80-p3

Volvo XC70 p2-p80-p3Volvo XC70 p80  P80: 1996–00 (1st generation)2004 Volvo XC70 II

2004 Volvo XC70 II P2: 2000–07 (2nd generation)Volvo XC70 IIIP3: 2007–16 (3rd generation) Volvo XC70 II

Released in 20082008 Volvo XC60-DCVolvo XC60 2008–present

Released in 2010VOLVO S60-IIVolvo S60 II 2000–present2001-04 Volvo S60P2: 2000–09 (1st generation)2012 Volvo S60 IIP3: 2010–present (2nd generation)Volvo V60 D5 Summum (Facelift)Volvo V60 2010–present

Released in 2012volvo v40 II cross country lVolvo V40 II replaced both the Volvo S40 II and Volvo V50 2012–present

Released in 20142015 Volvo XC90 Inscription fl

2015 Volvo XC90 Inscription fl

Volvo XC90 II replaced the Volvo XC90 2014–present

Released in 20162016 Volvo S90Volvo S90 II replaced the S80 II 2016–present

Current models

Today, the company uses a system of letters denoting body style followed by the series number. “S” stands for “sedan“, “C” stands for “coupé” or “convertible” (including three-door hatchback AKA “shooting brake“) and “V” stands for “versatile” (station wagon). “XC” stands for “cross country” originally added to a more rugged V70 model as the V70XC and indicates all wheel drive paired with a raised suspension to give it an SUV look. Volvo would later change the name to the “XC70” in keeping with its car naming consistent with the XC90. So a V50 is an estate (“V”) that is smaller than the V70.

Originally, Volvo was planning a different naming scheme. S and C were to be the same, but “F”, standing for “flexibility”, was to be used on station wagons. When Volvo introduced the first generation S40 and V40 in 1995, they were announced as the S4 and F4. However, Audi complained that it had inherent rights to the S4 name, since it names its sporty vehicles “S”, and the yet to be introduced sport version of the Audi A4 would have the S4 name. Volvo agreed to add a second digit, so the vehicles became the S40 and F40. However, that led to a complaint from Ferrari, who used the Ferrari F40 name on their legendary sports car. This led to Volvo switching the “F” to “V”, for versatile.

Volvo_V40_2012_ID42221_280212

Volvo V40

2012_Volvo_S60_--_NHTSA_2

Volvo S60

Volvo V60 D5 Summum (Facelift)

Volvo V60

Volvo S80 D5 Momentum (II, Facelift) – Frontansicht, 26. Oktober 2012, Düsseldorf

Volvo S80

2016 Volvo S90

Volvo S90

Volvo V70 D5 (III) – Frontansicht, 28. Mai 2011, Hilden

Volvo V70

Volvo V70 D3 Linje Svart

Volvo XC70

Volvo XC60 2.4D DRIVe

Volvo XC60

Volvo XC90 T8 plug-in hybrid.

Volvo XC90

Concept cars

1933 Volvo Venus Bilo illustratie1933 Volvo-Venus-Bilo-Concept-13783Volvo Venus Bilo (1933)1952 Volvo Philip Concept High Resolution Image1952 Volvo Philip Wikipedia1952 Volvo Philip Concept V8 Car1952 Volvo Philip 3b

Volvo Philip (1952)1953 Volvo 179 Margarete RoseVolvo Margarete Rose (1953)1953 Vignale Volvo Elisabeth-I-02 Michelotti1953 Vignale Volvo Elisabeth-I-02 Giovanni Michelotti1953 Vignale Volvo Elisabeth I 011953 Volvo pv445 elisabeth I

Volvo Elisabeth I (1953)1955 Vignale Volvo Elisabeth II-01

1955 Vignale Volvo Elisabeth II-011972 Volvo VESC, konceptbil från Volvo

1972 Volvo VESC - Концепты

1972 Volvo vesc

1972 Volvo VESC z 19721972 volvo-concept-car-vesc-005Volvo VESC (1972)

1971 coggiola volvo esc coupe 31971 Volvo 1800 ESC .1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola b1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola c1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola d1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola e1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola f1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola g1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola h1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola i1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola j1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola k1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Prototype by Coggiola l1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Viking Coggiola1971 Volvo 1800 ESC Viking Concept 21971 Volvo 1800 ESC Viking Concept by Coggiola1971 Volvo Coggiola 1800 ESC a1971 Volvo Coggiola 1800 ESC1971-Volvo-ESC-051971-Volvo-ESC-06

Volvo 1800 ESC (1971)

Volvo EC 380E ST VVolvo EC (1977)

1977 Volvo New York Taxi Concept

Volvo City Taxi concept (1977)

1980 Bertone Sibilo Bertone Tundra Bertone Volvo 264 TE1979 Volvo Tundra concept car designd by Bertone 1979Volvo Tundra Concept 21979 Bertone Volvo Tundra 02Volvo Tundra (1979) concept

Volvo VCC – Volvo Concept Car (1980)1983 Volvo LCP 2000 Driving-6681983 Volvo LCP2000 31983 Volvo Lcp2000 41983 Volvo lcp-2000Volvo LCP2000 (1983)1992 Volvo ECC concept rear