CROSSLEY Motors Automobiles Manchester England UK 1906-1958 successor AEC + CROSLEY United States 1939-1952

CROSSLEY Automobiles

https://myntransportblog.com/2014/01/28/buses-crossley-england/

Crossley Motors

Crossley Motors
Fate Acquired and closed down
Successor AEC
Founded 1906
Defunct 1958
Headquarters Manchester, England
For the defunct American automotive company see: Crosley Motors

Crossley Motors was a British motor vehicle manufacturer based in Manchester, England. They produced approximately 19,000 high-quality cars from 1904 until 1938, 5,500 buses from 1926 until 1958 and 21,000 goods and military vehicles from 1914 to 1945.

Crossley Brothers, originally manufacturers of textile machinery and rubber processing plant, began the licensed manufacture of the Otto internal combustion engine before 1880. The firm started car production in 1903, building around 650 vehicles in their first year.

The company was originally created as a division of engine builders Crossley Brothers, but from 1910 became a stand-alone company. Although founded as a car maker, they were major suppliers of vehicles to British forces during the First World War, and in the 1920s moved into bus manufacture. With re-armament in the 1930s, car-making was run down, and stopped completely in 1936. During the Second World War output was again concentrated on military vehicles. Bus production resumed in 1945 but no more cars were made. The directors decided in the late 1940s that the company was too small to survive alone and agreed a take over by AEC. Production at the Crossley factories finally stopped in 1958.

History

1912 Crossley Model 15 from Shuttleworth Collection

 Crossley Model 15 (1912) from Shuttleworth Collection

Crossley Motors Ltd was first registered on 11 April 1906 (and re-registered with a different company number in 1910) as the vehicle manufacturing arm of Crossley Brothers. The first car was actually built in 1903 and exhibited at the Society of Motor Manufacturers’ Exhibition at Crystal Palace in February 1904, but the parent company saw a future for these new machines and decided a separate company was required.

In 1920 Crossley Motors bought 34,283 (68.5%) of the 50,000 issued shares of the nearby A V Roe and Company – better known as Avro. Crossley took over Avro’s car manufacturing business but Avro continued its aircraft manufacturing operations independently. Crossley had to sell their shares in Avro to Armstrong Siddeley in 1928 to pay for the losses incurred in Willys Overland Crossley.

After the Second World War the directors decided that the company was not large enough to prosper and looked for a partner. This resulted in a take over by Associated Equipment Company (AEC) in 1948. AEC’s parent company changed its name to Associated Commercial Vehicles Ltd and Crossley became a division of this. Production of the Crossley range of vehicles continued at the Stockport plant until 1952. After that date the production was of badge-engineered AEC designs and bus bodywork, until the factory was closed in 1958 and sold in 1959.

Although no longer trading, the company was never formally wound up. In 1969 AEC’s new owner, British Leyland, restarted the company with a new name – Leyland National – and production of single-decker buses recommenced.

Factories

Production was originally in the Crossley Brothers factory in Openshaw, Manchester but in 1907 they moved to a nearby site they owned in Napier Street, Gorton, Manchester. (Napier Street was later renamed Crossley Street).

With the steady increase in vehicle production, the limits of the Gorton site were in turn soon reached, and in 1914 a further 48 acre (194,000 m²) site was bought in Heaton Chapel, Stockport which became the Errwood Park Works. Construction of the new factory started in 1915, and although intended to relieve congestion on the old site, it was rapidly given over to war work. The western half of the site, built in 1917, but only managed by Crossley Motors, became National Aircraft Factory No. 2. In 1919, this factory was bought from the government and became the Willys Overland Crossley plant, but was eventually sold to Fairey Aviation in 1934. In 1938, the eastern side became another aircraft factory, this time managed by Fairey, and after the Second World War it became the final home of Crossley Motors. Re-armament work caused the search for more space and in 1938 a factory was opened in Greencroft Mill, Hyde, about 3 miles (4.8 km) east of Errwood Park.

Vehicles

1920 Crossley 9T 25-30 HP Phaeton

 Crossley 9T 25/30 HP Phaeton 1920

1914 Crossley 20-25 Tender from Shuttleworth Collection

 Crossley 20/25 Tender (1914) from Shuttleworth Collection

Armoured Car Crossley Mark I

 Mk.1 Armoured Car, Bovington Tank Museum

1949 Crossley DD42 ex Manchester City Transport

 1949 Crossley DD42 ex Manchester City Transport.

1948 Bussen Crossley 1948 Nederland

 Preserved Crossley SD42/1 bus with aluminium Schelde bodywork, built shortly after the Second World War 1948 for the Dutch public transport network.

Production of the first cars was on a small scale but from 1909 when a new range was introduced it rapidly built up. In that year the 20 hp was introduced (later called the 20/25) and this was taken up by the British War Office and from 1913 it was ordered for the new Royal Flying Corps (RFC). The outbreak of the First World War resulted in a rapid expansion of the RFC, and by 1918 they had over 6,000 of the vehicles with staff car, tender (light truck), and ambulance bodies.

Crossley 25/30 hp Tenders were utilised by the British Army in Ireland from 1919 until their withdrawal in 1922. The Irish Army continued to use them for troop transport throughout the Civil War period, but they were worked hard and appeared to have received little care: of 454 originally supplied, only 57 were in service by 1926 with a further 66 being overhauled or repaired. The 20/25 model was also the first vehicle to be supplied to London’s Metropolitan Police Flying Squad in 1920, some of which were fitted with radio equipment.

Car production resumed after the First World War and a new model, the 19.6, was launched in 1921 and joined in 1922 by the smaller 2.4 litre 14 hp model that would become the company’s best seller. The 19.6 was replaced by the 2.7 litre 18/50 in 1925 fitted with Crossley’s first six-cylinder engine and this was enlarged in 1927 to 3.2 litres in the 20.9. Crossley were the first British car company to offer a factory fitted car radio in 1933. Although the large cars would continue to be available, a range of small models fitted with Coventry Climax engines was announced in 1931 but sales of the cars slowly declined and the last ones were made in 1937.

By the late 1920s the market for hand-made cars began to disappear and the company moved into the bus market and launched its first model, the Eagle single decker in 1928. Although some double deck bodies were fitted to the Eagle, the Condor launched in 1930 was the first chassis to be designed for double decker bodies. The Condor could also be ordered with a diesel engine, made by Gardner at first, and became the first British double deck bus to be offered with diesel power. The big selling pre-war bus was the Mancunian with first deliveries in 1933. This was available as both a double and single decker.

In addition to cars and buses the company also made goods and military vehicles. At first these were conversions of the car models but starting with the BGT1 in 1923 specialised chassis designs were produced. Two Crossley trucks based on the 25/30 car chassis were from 1924 to 1926 the first vehicles to be driven from Cape Town to Cairo by the Court Treatt expedition. A range of heavy goods vehicles starting with the 1931 diesel-powered 12-ton payload Atlas was announced but only a few were made as the factory was by then gearing up to concentrate on buses and military orders. From 1936 military production was rapidly ramped up with British re-armament at first with “IGL” models but from 1940 with a four-wheel drive “FWD” chassis in both tractor unit and truck form. By 1945 over 10,000 FWDs had been made.

After the Second World War there was a boom in the bus industry as wartime losses needed to be replaced. Crossley won what was then the largest ever British export order for buses with a contract with the Dutch government. By the late 1940s bus orders were decreasing and it became clear that the company was too small to continue as an independent manufacturer and in 1948 they were sold to AEC. The last Crossley chassis was made in 1952, but body production continued at Erwood Park until 1958.

Cars produced

1906 Crossley

22 hp 1904–1908

1906 Crossley 1 1906-10 Crossley 40 Hp a 1906-10 Crossley 40 Hp b 1906-10 Crossley 40 Hp40 hp 1905–1910

1909 Crossley 20-25 1909 Crossley 1909-19 Crossley 20 Hp ,20,25 a 1909-19 Crossley 20 Hp ,20,25 b 1909-19 Crossley 20 Hp ,20,25 c ambulance 15 hp 1909–1915

1912 crossley 15hp shelsley paintingShelsley sports 1909–1915

1914 Crossley 20-25 Tender from Shuttleworth Collection 1914 Crossley 20-25НР (RFC) 1915 Crossley Vital20/25 1909–1919

1920 Crossley 9T 25-30 HP Phaeton 1920 CROSSLEY 25-30HP Car Stamps (Leaders of the World Auto 100)25/30 1918–1925

1922 L8-61 Lambert, Motor Cars, 1922, #4 Crossley 1926 Crossley Auto19.6 hp 1921–1926

1916 Crossley Motors Automobile Let Your Next Car Be a Crossley ad

14 hp and 15/30 1922–1927

1931 Crossley Bugatti

Crossley-Bugatti 1923–1925

1919 Old Vintage Cann Coachwork Crossley Saloon Cabriolet Car Photo Print AD

20/70 sports 1922–1926

1926 Crossley Auto

18/50 1925–1927

1928 Crossley Six

20.9 hp 1927–1931

15.7 hp 1928–1931

Golden 1930–1935

1934 crossley silver tourer

Silver 1930–1934

Ten 1931–1934

Streamline 1933

Sports Saloon 1934–1937

1935 Crossley Regis ad a 1935 Crossley Regis ad 1935 Crossley Regis

Regis 1934–1937

Pictures:

$T2eC16N,!)kFIeCF5-fsBSIEsho03g--60_57 3b 4-1927 April - ROLLS ROYCE CROSSLEY VAUXHALL BRITISH MOTOR CAR - LONDON TIMES 1906 Crossley 1 1906 Crossley 1906-10 Crossley 40 Hp a 1906-10 Crossley 40 Hp b 1906-10 Crossley 40 Hp 1909 Crossley 20-25 1909 Crossley 1909-19 Crossley 20 Hp ,20,25 a 1909-19 Crossley 20 Hp ,20,25 b 1909-19 Crossley 20 Hp ,20,25 c ambulance 1909-1925 Crossley 20-25 British Car Photo Spec Sheet Info ATLAS CARD 1912 crossley 15hp shelsley painting 1912 Crossley Model 15 from Shuttleworth Collection 1912 Crossley 1914 Ad Crossley Motors Car Auto Of Gas Engine Fame 1914 Crossley 20-25 Tender from Shuttleworth Collection 1914 Crossley 20-25НР (RFC) 1915 Crossley Vital 1916 Crossley Motors Automobile Let Your Next Car Be a Crossley ad 1918 Crossley 1919 Old Vintage Cann Coachwork Crossley Saloon Cabriolet Car Photo Print AD 1919 Original Vintage CROSSLEY rfc R.F.C Automobile CAR S. G. Hearn Art Print AD 1920 Crossley 9T 25-30 HP Phaeton 1920 CROSSLEY 25-30HP Car Stamps (Leaders of the World Auto 100) 1920 crossley sam 1922 L8-61 Lambert, Motor Cars, 1922, #4 Crossley 1922 Willys Overland Crossley ad 1923 Willys Overland Crossley Truck a 1923 Willys Overland Crossley Truck 1926 Crossley Auto 1926 WIllys Overland Crossley 1 ton Flatbed Truck 1927 Crossley BGV 1927 Willys Overland Crossley a 1927 Willys Overland Crossley Drophead 1927 Willys Overland Crossley 1928 0827 Crossley eagle 1928 Crossley Eagle 1928 Crossley Six 1928 Crossley-Eagle-Motor-Coach-1928-Majestic-Coaches-Manchester 1928 March - CROSSLEY - BEAN - R.A.C. -SIMONS BRITISH MOTOR CAR LONDON TIMES 1928 March - CROSSLEY - BEAN - R.A.C. -SIMONS BRITISH MOTOR CAR LONDON TIMESa 1928 Willys Knight-Crossley 70A tourer 1928 Willys Overland Crossley OBJ1 1928 Willys Overland Crossley Whippet 1928 Willys-Overland-Crossley 1929 Crossley Alpha front 1929 Crossley doubledeck v148-p491b 1929 CROSSLEY 'Six' Limousine Auto AD - Vintage Art Deco Car ADVERT 1929 Vital-Crossley 1929 Willys-Knight Six 1930 0509ERBT-Crossley 1930 Crossley J Type ambulance 1930 Willys Overland Crossley plant, Heaton Chapel, Stockport, UK a 1930 Willys Overland Crossley plant, Heaton Chapel, Stockport, UK 1931 Crossley Bugatti 1932 crossley 10hp saloon 1932 Crossley 10hp torquay saloon 1932 CROSSLEY CONDOR c1932 1934 crossley silver tourer 1934 CROSSLEY 'Two-Litre' Auto Print AD - Vintage Car ADVERT 1934 Willys Overland Crossley Sedan 1935 Crossley 6 wheeled + hooper body 1935 Crossley Regis ad a 1935 Crossley Regis ad 1935 Crossley Regis 1935 Crossley Streamline (2) 1935 Crossley streamline 1936 Crossley 3litre golden saloon 1936 CROSSLEY RANGE FOR 1936 - Car Sales Brochure - 1936 1936 Crossley Regis Saloon A-Cross4 1936 Motor Cars #14 Crossley 10 Regis Saloon - EX 1938 Willys Overland Crossley 1939 Crosley. 1939 Crossley 1940 Crosley Foldout-01 1940 Crosley Foldout-02 1940 Crosley Foldout-07 1940 Crosley 1940 Crosley_Convertible_35ci_12HP_2Cylinder 1941 Crosley 01 1941 Crosley 02 1942 Crosley 1947 Crosley Cab 1947 Crosley convertible 1947 Crossley cc sedan 1947 Crossley sedan-convert 1947 Crossley station wagon 1948 0102CM-Crossley 1948 Crosley 01 1948 Crosley 02 1948 Crosley 04 1948 Crosley CC Wagon 1948 Crosley s 1948 Crossley belgia 1949 Crosley Farm-O-Road Original Prototype (GB) 1949 Crosley Foldout-03 1949 Crosley Hotshot a 1949 Crossley convirtible 01 1949 Crossley DD42 ex Manchester City Transport 1949 Crossley hot shot ad 1949 Crossley hot shot 1949 Crossley p-u 1949 Crossley station wagon 1949 Crossley sw01 1949 CrossleyDD42-1949 1950 Crosley Little Chief fire truck 1950 Crosley station wagon on display at the Central Texas Museum of Automotive History 1950 Crossley roadster 1950 mr213 MOTOR RACING 1950 Alta Crossley British GP motorsport car photo 1951 Crosley Super Sport 1951 Crossley sedan 1952 Crosley cover 1952 Crosley station wagon, Crosley “Scorpion” 1952 Crosley Super Roadster. 1952 Crosley Super Station Wagon. 1952 Crossley hot shot 1954 CMS-Crossley 1960 Manchester Corporation Transport services Alvis Saladin RAF Museum Cosford Armoured Car Crossley Mark I bluescript Crosley 15hp tourer Crosley CoBra Block and Valve Cover Crosley CoBra Engine Complete with Transmission Crosley Farm-O-Road Crosley racing engine with a supercharger Crossley 2ltr sportssaloon Crossley 14 saloon Crossley 14hp-green Crossley 15.7 tourer ref 32-48 Crossley 15hp 4 seat tourer Crossley 15hp Shelsley ref 45-30 Crossley 15hp with ambulance body Crossley 18-50 enclosed limousine Crossley 19.6 coupe ref 42-39 Crossley 19.6 coupe Crossley 20.9 col Crossley 20.9 Crossley 20-25 in use as a station taxi Crossley 20-25 Royal Flying Corps Staff car Crossley 20-70 Crossley 25-30 manchester Crossley 25-30bus Crossley armoured car Crossley B Crossley Bugatti in two-seater form Crossley D2E1 armoured car Crossley Eagle bus Crossley logo Crossley SD42 bus Crossley Single deck bus Crossley Staff Car RAF Crossley Tender at Vimy Ridge Crossley truck - BK3298 at Kirkby Steven 2014 - IMG 5576 IWM-KID-6259-Crossley-Armoured-Car Overland Crossley Manchester Removal Van s-l1600 Vickers Crossley armoured car Willys Model 91 Willys Overland Crossley a Willys Overland Knight Registry Willys-Overland, Crossley Limousine

Buses

1928 0827 Crossley eagle 1928 Crossley Eagle 1928 Crossley-Eagle-Motor-Coach-1928-Majestic-Coaches-ManchesterEagle 1928–1930

Hawk 1929

1929 Crossley Alpha frontSix/Alpha 1930–1931

1932 CROSSLEY CONDOR c1932Condor 1930–1934

Mancunian 1933–1940

  • TDD4 (Trolleybus) 1935–1942
  • TDD6 (Trolleybus) 1935–1942
  • DD42 1942–1953
  • SD42 1946–1952
  • PT42 1946–1949
  • TDD42 Empire (Trolleybus) 1948–1951
  • TDD64 Dominion (Trolleybus) 1948–1951

Military vehicles

 Japanese Special Naval Landing Force Vickers Crossley armoured car in Shanghai.
  • 20/25 1912–1920
  • BGT 1923
  • IGL 4 wheel 1923–1926
  • IGL 6 wheel 1927–1931
  • BGV 1927–1929
  • IGA Armoured car 1928–1929
  • FWD 1940–1945

Commercial vehicles

  • 15cwt van 1913
  • 14 hp van 1925
  • 15cwt 1927
  • Atlas 1931
  • Beta 1933
  • Delta 1931–1937

See also

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Eyre, Heaps & Townsin 2002
  2. Jump up^ Foreman-Peck, Bowden & McKinlay 1995, p. 14
  3. Jump up^ Nick Georgano (ed.), Britain’s Motor Industry, The First Hundred Years, (Yeovil: G.T. Foulis and Company, 1995), p.73; Slater’s Royal National Commercial Directory of Manchester and Salford With Their Vicinities, (Manchester: Isaac Slater, 1874 edn.)
  4. Jump up^ Society of Motor Manufacturers’ Exhibition at the Crystal Palace, The Automotor Journal, 13 February 1904, p180
  5. Jump up^ K. Bhaskar, The Future of the UK Motor Industry, (London: Kogan Page, 1979), p. 240; S. W. Stevens-Stratten, Trucks in Camera: AEC, (London: Ian Allan, 1984), pp. 19, 43
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c Harding (ed) (1977). Guinness book of car facts and feats. London: Guinness Superlatives. ISBN 0-900424-54-0.
  7. Jump up^ “Capetown to Cairo by Motor”. The Brisbane Courier (National Library of Australia). 29 August 1924. p. 14. Retrieved 27 August 2012.

Other sources

  • Eyre, Michael; Heaps, Chris; Townsin, Alan (2002), Crossley, OPC, ISBN 0-86093-574-4
  • Foreman-Peck, James; Bowden, Sue; McKinlay, Alan (1995), The British Motor Industry, Manchester University Press
  • Holmes, Harry (2004), Avro – The history of an Aircraft Company, The Crowood Press, ISBN 1-86126-651-0
  • Fairney, Bill, The Knife & Fork Man, ISBN 978-0-9554455-0-7

External links

Crosley

This article is about an American brand of automobile. For the British vehicle manufacturer, see Crossley Motors. For the American brand of audio technology, see Crosley Radio Corporation.

1940 Crosley

 A 1940 Crosley

The Crosley was an automobile manufactured by the Crosley Corporation and later by Crosley Motors Incorporated in the United States intermittently from 1939 to 1952.

History

1948 Crosley CC Wagon

 1948 Crosley CC Wagon

1952 Crosley Super Roadster.

 1952 Crosley Super Roadster.

Industrialist Powel Crosley, Jr., of Cincinnati, Ohio, owner of Crosley Broadcasting Corporation and the Cincinnati Reds baseball team, had ambitious plans to build a subcompact car and with the able assistance of his younger, graduate engineer brother Lewis Crosley, developed assembly plants at Richmond, Indiana, and Marion, Indiana. In May 1939, the first car was shown at the Indianapolis Speedway. It was a two-door convertible that weighed under 1,000-pound (454 kg) and sold for US$250. It did not achieve sales success, but in 1941 more body styles were introduced.

The chassis had an 80-inch (2,032 mm) wheelbase using half-elliptic springs with beam axle in front and quarter-elliptic springs in the rear. The power came from a two-cylinder Waukesha air-cooled engine that had the fan as an integral part of the flywheel. The engine was connected with a three-speed transmission and then directly via a torque tube to the rear axle, thus eliminating the need for joints. However, this arrangement was judged unreliable, and conventional universal joints were fitted beginning in 1941.

In 1941, the body styles available were expanded to include two- and four-passenger convertibles, a convertible sedan, a station wagon, a panel truck, a pickup, and two models called “Parkway Delivery” (a mini-panel with no roof over the front seat) and “Covered Wagon” (a convertible pickup truck with a removable back seat). Crosley’s first metal-topped sedan (the Liberty Sedan) was introduced for 1942.

During World War II, the Crosley became attractive because of gasoline rationing and the good mileage it could achieve: 50 miles per US gallon (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp). Crosley was the last company to cease production of civilian vehicles in 1942, partly to aid Crosley sales to facilitate fuel conservation, and partly because the War Production Board needed time to determine a use for Crosley’s small factories.

Civilian car production resumed at the Marion facility in 1946 with the new, larger and aerodynamic CC model, designed by the firm of Sundberg & Ferar of Royal Oak, Michigan. (The Richmond facility had been sold during the war years.)

Crosley Farm-O-Road

 Crosley Farm-O-Road

Crosley introduced several “firsts” in the American automobile industry, including the first use of the term ‘Sport Utility‘ in 1948 (albeit on an open model based on the wagon, not a wagon on a truck chassis); first mass-market single overhead camshaft (SOHC) engine in 1946; first slab-sided postwar car, also in 1946; first all steel-bodied wagon in 1947; first American car to be fitted with 4-wheel caliper type disc brakes in the 1949 model year (Chrysler Imperial introduced four-wheel disc brakes as standard equipment on Crown Imperials at the beginning of the 1949 model year, but they were not of the caliper type); and the first American sports car, the Hotshot, in the 1949 model year. 1950 brought the Farm-O-Road model, a 63-inch (1,600 mm) wheelbase utility vehicle predictive of the John Deere Gator and other UTVs.

Pre-war production with Waukesha air-cooled I2 engine:

  • 1939: Series 1A including convertible Coupe and convertible Sedan
  • 1940: Series 2A including Sedan, Deluxe Sedan, Coupe, Covered Wagon, and Station Wagon
  • 1941: Series CB41 including Sedan, Deluxe Sedan, Coupe, Covered Wagon, and Station Wagon
  • 1942: Series CB42 including Convertible Sedan, Deluxe Sedan, Convertible Coupe, and Station Wagon (all 2-Doors)

1951 Crosley Super Sport

 1951 Crosley Super Sport

1952 Crosley Super Station Wagon.

 1952 Crosley Super Station Wagon.

Post-war production with CoBra water-cooled I4 engine

  • 1946: CC Four including Sedan and Coupe
  • 1947: CC Four including Sedan, Coupe, and Wagon 2-Door
  • 1948: CC Four including Sedan, Sport Utility Sedan, convertible Coupe, and Wagon

Post-war production with CIBA water-cooled I4 engine

  • 1949: CD Four including Deluxe Sedan, Coupe, Station Wagon, Pickup Truck and Panel Truck; VC Four including Hotshot Roadster and Super Sports Roadster
  • 1950: CD Four including Sedan, Super Sedan, Coupe, Super Coupe, Station Wagon, Super Station Wagon; VC Four including Hotshot Roadster and Super Sports Roadster; FR Four including Farm-O-Road (in various submodels)
  • 1951: CD Four including Business Coupe, Super Sedan, Station Wagon, Super Station Wagon, Super Coupe; VC Four including Hotshot Roadster and Super Sports Roadster; and FR Four including Farm-O-Road.
  • 1952: CD Four including Standard Business Coupe, Super Sedan, Station Wagon, Super Station Wagon, Super Coupe; VC Four including Hotshot Roadster and Super Sports Roadster; FR Four including Farm-O-Road. (Crosley, Encyclopedia of American Cars, 2003,)

With 24,871 cars sold, Crosley’s best year was 1948. Sales began to slip in 1949, and adding the Crosley Hotshot and a combination farm tractor-Jeep-like vehicle called the Farm-O-Road in 1950, could not stop the decline. In 1952, only 1522 Crosley vehicles were sold. Production ceased after the July 3rd shift that year, and the plant was sold to the General Tire and Rubber Company. A plan to sell the Crosley auto concern to Nash failed to materialize, when Nash merged with Hudson.(Nash, Club Newsletter 1986, Vol. 1)

1948 Specs.

Engine HP Transmission Wheelbase Length weight MPG
44 cu in (724 cc) 4-cylinder[3] 26.5 3-speed manual 80 in (2,032 mm) 145 in (3,683 mm) 1,155 lb (524 kg) 35 mpg-US (6.7 L/100 km; 42 mpg-imp)-50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp)

Regardless of its short life and small size, the Hotshot is well remembered as a phenomenal sports car within its class. A Hotshot won the 1950 Sam Collier Memorial Sebring Grand Prix of Endurance Six Hours, (averaging a blistering 52 mph) and a Siata 300 fitted with Crosley power won the SCCA’s 12 hour Vero Beach race. Throughout, the 1950s Crosley engines dominated 750 cc sports car racing, winning 10 out of 12 SCCA west-coast races alone.

Engines

Crosley CoBra Engine Complete with Transmission

 Crosley CoBra Engine Complete with Transmission

The original engine is the Waukesha Model 150 Cub Twin, a 580 cc air-cooled L-head opposed twin-cylinder engine built by Waukesha Engines of Waukesha, Wisconsin, and used from 1939 through 1942. It was replaced in 1946 with the CoBra (for “Copper Brazed”), a 724 cc overhead-cam four with a 2.5 in (63.5 mm) bore and 2.25 in (57.2 mm) stroke. That engine in turn was replaced in 1949 by the new and more reliable CIBA (Crosley Cast Iron Block Assembly) engine utilizing five main bearings.

Crosley CoBra (1946–1949)

Crosley CoBra Block and Valve Cover

 Crosley CoBra Block and Valve Cover

The CoBra (Copper Brazed, also known as “The Mighty Tin”) was originally developed by Lloyd Taylor, of Taylor Engines in California, for military use aboard PT boats and B-17 Flying Fortress bombers. The engine was made from sheet metal rather than cast iron like most other engines. This was done to get a thin, uniform wall thickness and thus avoid the creation of hot spots around the combustion chamber that could ignite the fuel, causing pre-ignition (knocks), which in turn limited the compression ratio. These engines were used mainly to power generators, refrigeration compressors, etc., and were widely praised for their successes in the war effort.

The engine was adopted for automobile use in 1946. It was a small, lightweight engine with single overhead camshaft driven by two sets of bevel gears and a vertical shaft at the front of the block. The unitary block and cylinder head weighed only 14.8 pounds (6.7 kg) dry; complete with all accessories (including the flywheel) weighing only 133 pounds (60 kg). The engine displaced 44 cu in (724 cc) and produced 26.5 hp (20 kW) at 5,400 rpm. Longevity was measured in hours and was strictly controlled by equipment maintenance schedules for the wartime duties, but corrosion became a problem for these engines in civilian service. This problem with these automotive powerplants had tarnished Crosley’s reputation by 1948.

CIBA (1949–1952; 1955)

Crosley racing engine with a supercharger

 Crosley racing engine with a supercharger

The CIBA (Crosley Cast Iron Block Assembly) was a more traditional and more reliable engine utilizing a cast-iron block. When Crosley Motors, Inc. was sold, the engine was renamed “AeroJet” and production continued. Production of the AeroJet ended in 1955 and the engine rights were sold to Fageol and later to a series of different companies ending in 1972 with the Fisher-Pierce Bearcat 55. Maritime modifications mostly included increasing displacement and converting the engine to operate with a vertical axis.

In Europe the Crosley CIBA would be used to great advantage in 750cc sports car class, eventually maturing to a double overhead camshaft (DOHC) design used in the Bandini 750 sport internazionale as well as Nardi 750LM and Siata Amica.

Notable Crosley owners

See also

Further reading

  • Rusty McClure (2006). Crosley – Two Brothers and a Business Empire That Transformed the Nation, published by Clerisy Press, ISBN 978-1-57860-322-0

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Genat, Robert and Newhardt, David. American Cars of the 1950s. Motorbooks. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-4508-0642-8.
  2. Jump up^ Githens, Perry, ed. (September 1949). “New Crosley Roadster Strips Down to Racer”. Popular Science. Vol. 155 no. 3. p. 120. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b Kimes, Beverly (1996). standard catalog of American Cars 1805-1942. Krause publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4.
  4. Jump up^ “Directory Index: Crosley/1948_Crosley/1948_Crosley_Foldout”. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  5. Jump up^ Sam Collier Memorial Sebring Grand Prix of Endurance Six Hours http://www.racingsportscars.com, Retrieved on 31 July 2012
  6. Jump up^ The auto editors of Consumer Guide. “1949-1952 Crosley Hotshot and Super Sports”. HowStuffWorks, Inc. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  7. Jump up^ Simanaitis, Dennis (January 1994). Bryant, Thos L., ed. “Tech Tidbits”. Road & Track (Newport Beach, CA US: Hachette Filipacchi Magazines) 45 (6): 121. ISSN 0035-7189.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b c Simanaitis 1994, p. 121.

External links

AEROCAR Taylor Aerocar, Aerocar 2000, Portsmouth Aerocar, Wagner Aerocar, Stinson Aerocar, etc.

Aerocar

Aerocar
Taylor-Aerocar-III
Taylor Aerocar III on museum display
Role
Manufacturer Aerocar International
Designer Moulton Taylor
First flight 1949
Number built 6

Aerocar International‘s Aerocar (often called the Taylor Aerocar) was an American roadable aircraft, designed and built by Moulton Taylor in Longview, Washington, in 1949. Although six examples were built, the Aerocar never entered production.

Design and development

Taylor’s design of a roadable aircraft dates back to 1946. During a trip to Delaware, he met inventor Robert E. Fulton, Jr., who had designed an earlier roadable airplane, the Airphibian. Taylor recognized that the detachable wings of Fulton’s design would be better replaced by folding wings. His prototype Aerocar utilized folding wings that allowed the road vehicle to be converted into flight mode in five minutes by one person. When the rear license plate was flipped up, the operator could connect the propeller shaft and attach a pusher propeller. The same engine drove the front wheels through a three-speed manual transmission. When operated as an aircraft, the road transmission was simply left in neutral (though backing up during taxiing was possible by the using the reverse gear.) On the road, the wings and tail unit were designed to be towed behind the vehicle. Aerocars could drive up to 60 miles per hour and have a top airspeed of 110 miles per hour.

Testing and certification

Civil certification was gained in 1956 under the auspices of the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA), and Taylor reached a deal with Ling-Temco-Vought for serial production on the proviso that he was able to attract 500 orders. When he was able to find only half that number of buyers, plans for production ended, and only six examples were built, with one still flying as of 2008 and another rebuilt by Taylor into the only Aerocar III. In 2013, the Disney film, Planes honored the design with a character based on the aerocar, Franz aka Fliegenhosen.

The six models

There are four Aerocar I(s), one Aerocar II, and one Aerocar I that was rebuilt as an Aerocar III.

N4994P

Aerocar at the EAA AirVenture Museum

 Aerocar at the EAA AirVenture Museum

N4994P (1949, originally N31214) is yellow with silver wings. It was the very first Aerocar and is on display at the EAA AirVenture Museum in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. It is maintained in flying condition but is not flown.

N101D

N101D (1954) is owned by Greg Herrick’s Yellowstone Aviation Inc. It is maintained in flying condition and is on display at the Golden Wings Flying Museum located on the south west side of the Anoka County-Blaine Airport in Minneapolis. This aircraft is featured flying overhead on the cover on the book “A Drive In the Clouds” by Jake Schultz. As of December, 2011, N101D is being offered for sale at an asking price of USD1.25 million.

N102D

N102D (1960) is yellow and green. The last Aerocar built and the only one still flying, it is owned by Ed Sweeney and is on display at the Kissimmee Air Museum located at the Kissimmee Gateway Airport in Kissimmee, Florida. N102D was the only Aerocar built with the larger O-360 Lycoming powerplant giving it much better performance. It is the only road legal and driven Aerocar left. It is currently flown by the owner’s son Sean Sweeney. It was previously owned by actor Bob Cummings, who used it in his TV sitcom The New Bob Cummings Show. It has also appeared in James May‘s “Big Idea” on BBC2, first aired Sunday September 28, 2008. Inspired by this vehicle, Ed Sweeney is currently developing the Aerocar 2000 via his Aerocar firm.

N103D

N103D (1956) has been repainted to red/black with red wings. It has been owned by Carl Felling and Marilyn Stine of Grand Junction, Colorado since 1981. It once flew Fidel Castro‘s brother, Raúl Castro in Cuba. It hit a horse on the runway and damaged the aircraft.

Raul Castro-a

Raúl Castro

From 1961-1963 the Aerocar was operated under contract between Star Stations (Don Burden) and Wik’s Air Service, Inc. It was used as a traffic-watch (AIRWATCH) aircraft for KISN (910AM) radio station in Portland, Oregon where it was flown by “Scotty Wright” (Scotty Wright was the alias used by the acting pilot of the Aerocar during traffic-watch transmissions). Several pilots provided the AIRWATCH service beginning with World War II veteran pilot Guilford Wikander, President of Wik’s Air Service, Inc. Guilford was followed in order by his sister Ruth Wikander, W. John Jacob III, Wayne Nutsch and Alan Maris. Scotty Wright reports Nutsch having 350 flying hours in N103D performing AIRWATCH duty. Traffic reporting was from 7:00 AM–8:30 AM and 4:30 PM–6:00 PM. During the Aerocar’s AIRWATCH missions, it was painted white with red hearts and had the letters KISN on the top and bottom of the wings.

The aircraft was equipped with an emergency police/fire receiver for use in reporting emergency events on KISN radio stations broadcast. When flown for KISN it was based at Wik’s Air Service, Hillsboro Airport (HIO), Hillsboro Oregon. On one of its more eventful flights for KISN it survived the Columbus Day Storm of 1962 without damage after its evening traffic reporting flight. Ruth Wikander was piloting the aircraft at that particular time and is credited with the successful landing during extreme wind conditions (perhaps more than 100 mph). Ruth Wikander was an active member of the 99’s, the International Organization of Women Pilots. In 1962 Ruth Wikander drove the Aerocar as an automobile while trailering the wings in the annual Portland Rose Festival parade. The Aerocar was an integral part of KISN Radio and can be seen at stumptownblogger.com along with photos of famous rock musicians and KISN DJ’s of the times.

Last flown in 1977, the aircraft is no longer airworthy and has been in storage ever since. It is currently listed for sale for the price of US$2.2 million.

N107D (Aerocar II)

N107D (1966) is an Aerocar Aero-Plane, or Aerocar II. It is not a roadable aircraft but is based on the original Aerocar design. It uses the wing and tail section from the Aerocar. It seats four and is powered by a 150 hp IO-320 Lycoming engine. Only a single example was built. It is presently located in Colorado Springs, Colorado owned by Ed Sweeney owner of N102D.

N4345F (Aerocar III)

The sixth Aerocar (N4345F) is painted red with silver wings. It was the final flying car effort by Moulton Taylor. The vehicle began life as one of the original Aerocars, but Taylor bought it back from a customer after it had been damaged in an accident on the ground in the 1960s. From there, he considerably re-built it as the Aerocar III, replacing the original cabin with a sleeker, more streamlined front wheel drive one (although it still fell far short of the sporty lines that Taylor had originally wanted to give it). The automotive unit weighed 1,100 lbs and was powered by a 140 hp Lycoming O-320. The trailer wheels for the wings in towed configuration were deployable from a compartment on the outside of each wing leading edge. The propeller driveshaft contains fine ball bearings that swing outward with centrifugal force, creating stiffness and dampening. Taylor was able to attract some interest from Ford, but ultimately, no production resulted. The single prototype is now displayed at Seattle’s Museum of Flight, where it is displayed wearing registration N100D.

Specifications (Aerocar I)

Data from Jane’s All The World’s Aircraft 1961–62

General characteristics

  • Crew: one
  • Capacity: 1 passenger
  • Length: 21 ft 6 in (6.55 m)
  • Wingspan: 34 ft 0 in (10.36 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 6 in (2.29 m)
  • Wing area: 190 sq ft (18 m2)
  • Empty weight: 1,500 lb (680 kg)
  • Gross weight: 2,100 lb (953 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-320 air-cooled flat-four, 143 hp (107 kW)
  • Propellers: 2-bladed Hartzell HA12 UF, 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) diameter

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 117 mph (188 km/h; 102 kn)
  • Cruise speed: 97 mph (84 kn; 156 km/h)
  • Stall speed: 50 mph (43 kn; 80 km/h)
  • Range: 300 mi (261 nmi; 483 km)
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 ft (3,658 m)
  • Rate of climb: 610 ft/min (3.1 m/s)

Aerocar (1905 automobile)

Aerocar
Industry Automobile
Fate factory sold
Successor Hudson Motor Car Company
Founded 1905
Defunct 1908
Headquarters Detroit, Michigan, USA
Key people
Alexander Malcomson
Henry Ford
Products automobiles

The Aerocar was an American automobile built from 1905 to 1908 in Detroit, Michigan. Backed by Henry Ford‘s former partner, coal merchant Alexander Malcomson, the short-lived company offered an air-cooled 24 hp(18 kW) four-cylinder luxury car which sold for $2800.

The factory was sold to Hudson Motor Car Company.

History

In 1906, the Model A was powered by a Reeves 24-horsepower, four-cylinder, air-cooled engine. It came with a “Standard Extension Black Top” and two gas headlights as well as “Full Oil Lamp Equipment.” The automobile had a Prest-o-Lite tank, Hartford shock absorbers, Gabriel horn and a speedometer. It also came with an extra tire and inner tube in a waterproof case with attaching irons, robe-rail and a footrest in Tonneau. A toolbox with full equipment was attached to the exterior running board. The machine cost $2,800.[1] The air-cooled engine was later replaced by a Reeves water-cooled model.

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1906 The Aerocar Company - Detroit, Michigan

 The Aerocar Company – Detroit, Michigan – 1906

1907 403416

1921 AEROCAR -

1907 Aerocar-touring 1907-Aerocar-Model-F Aerocar-detroit_1906_logo

1907 Postcard AEROCAR Model C Runabout

Aerocar-detroit_1906_logo1

Aero Car (1919 automobile)

1919-1920 Aerocar

Connected to:

CyclecarSturmey-ArcherGearbox

The Aero Car was a British 5/7 hp (533 W) flat twin-engine cyclecar manufactured from 1919 to 1920 by the Aerocar Engineering Company in Clapton, London. The engine was an air-cooled flat-twin built by Blackburne and the gearbox was a Sturmey-Archer. The body had a bullnose radiator and pointed tail.

Aero Car (1921 automobile)

1921 Aero-Car

The Aero Car was a planned Americanautomobile. It was to have used a two-cycle engine to drive a propeller. The car, whose wheelbase was only 60 inches (1,524 mm), was to have sold for $160. One prototype was made, in 1921, before the project was shelved.

1921 Reese Aero-Car

Wagner Aerocar

Wagner Aerocar
1965 Wagner Rotocar Aerocar

1965 Wagner Aerocar (1965) 1965 Wagner Aerocar Helicopter 1965 1965 Wagner Rotocar Aerocar a 1977 le Bourget YC-15a D-HAGU-Hannover-02-0305703L

Role
National origin Germany
Manufacturer Wagner
Designer Alfred Vogt
Introduction 1965
Developed from HTM Skytrac
Variants HTM Skytrac

The Wagner FJ-V3 Aerocar was a prototype 4-place flying automobile. The vehicle used counter-rotating rotor helicopter technology for flight.

Design

The Aerocar was developed in the era of space-age futurism, and looked the part. It looked slightly like the Jetsons flying car, with a large bubble cockpit, tailfins, and disproportionately small wheels for a car. It was developed from the Rotocar III design which was based on the Sky-trac 3 helicopter. The helicopter used counter-rotating rotors. On ground propulsion to the wheels was through a hydraulic linkage to the engine.

Operational history

A prototype with the registration D-HAGU was completed and flown in 1965. The Franklin 6AS-335-B engine was replaced with a 134lb, 420shp Turbomeca Oredon turbine engine with a front mounted gearbox. The design was sold to Helikopter Technik Munchen (HTM). HTM suspended development of the Aerocar in 1971.

Variants

1966 The prototype single-seat Wagner Skytrac 1 at the 1966 Hannover Air Show

HTM Skytrac

1973 HTM Skyrider D-HHTM exhibited at the 1973 Paris Air Show

Specifications Wagner Aerocar

General characteristics

  • Capacity: 4
  • Powerplant: 1 × Franklin , 190 kW (260 hp)

Performance

Notes

  1. Jump up^ http://www.unrealaircraft.com/roadable/wagner.php
  2. Jump up^ Air pictorial journal of the Air League, Volume 30.

References

Aerocar 2000

Aerocar 2000
2002 Aerocar 2000 next to Lotus
A Lotus Elise displayed next to an Aerocar to promote the Aerocar 2000 concept
Role Flying automobile
National origin United States
Manufacturer Aerocar
Designer Ed Sweeney
Status Halted
Number built 2 (Non flying)

The  was a proposed flying car under development in the early 2000s in the United States. The Aerocar 2000 was designed by Ed Sweeney, who was inspired by Moulton Taylor‘s Aerocar of the 1950s (and is the owner of the only still-flying example of this vehicle). The Aerocar 2000 consisted of a removable wings, tail, and powerplant “flight module” added to a modified Lotus Elise roadster.

Comparison to original Aerocar


Specifications (Aerocar 2000, as designed)
In conception, this was far closer to the AVE Mizar of the early 1970s than to Taylor’s designs, the vehicle portions of which were purpose-designed and built. Another difference with the original Aerocar (and similarity to the Mizar) is that the flight module is not designed to be taken away from the airfield. Finally, while the Aerocar used the one engine to drive both the road wheels and the propeller, the Aerocar 2000 (again like the Mizar) uses two separate engines. In the Aerocar 2000’s case, the flight engine is a twin-turbocharged V-8 motor from a Lotus Esprit. A far lighter three-cylinder engine and gearbox from a Chevrolet Sprint is to be installed in the road module to power the vehicle on the ground.

Data from The Aerocar Home Page

General characteristics

  • Crew: One (pilot)
  • Capacity: one passenger
  • Length: 27 ft (8.2 m)
  • Wingspan: 36 ft (11 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 6 in (3.20 m)
  • Empty weight: 2,850 lb (1,293 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 3,450 lb (1,565 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Lotus 2.5L V8 piston engine, 350 hp (260 kW)
  • Propellers: 3-bladed MT-Propeller constant-speed

Performance

  • Cruise speed: 268 mph (233 kn; 431 km/h)
  • Range: 300 mi (261 nmi; 483 km)

References

  1. Jump up^ Grossman, John (October 1996). “It’s a car! It’s a plane!”. Boys’ Life (Irving, TX: Boy Scouts of America): 40.
  2. Jump up^ Green, George W. (2010). Flying Cars, Amphibious Vehicles and Other Dual Mode Transports: An Illustrated Worldwide History. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 60. ISBN 978-0786445561.
  3. Jump up^ Smith, Martin J.; Patrick J. Kiger (2006). Oops: 20 Life Lessons from the Fiascoes That Shaped America. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 219–220. ISBN 978-0060780838.
  4. Jump up^ Grzybala, Kim (October 1, 2009). “Have Our Flying Car Dreams Come True?”. Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  5. Jump up^ Ed Sweeney (May 29, 2002), The Aerocar Home Page, Aerocar LLC, retrieved 2013-04-25

Portsmouth Aerocar

Aerocar
Role
National origin UK
Manufacturer Portsmouth Aviation
Designer Major F. L. Luxmoore (concept)
First flight 18 June 1947
Number built 1

The Porstmouth Aerocar was a British light utility aircraft design of the late 1940s. It was intended to be an aircraft that could be used for a variety of tasks including transport “mobile office” but only one prototype was built being scrapped in 1950.

Design and development

The Aerocar was a high-wing monoplane with gondola fuselage and twin-boom tailplane and tricycle undercarriage. The cabin could hold five passengers in addition to the pilot. Four doors were fitted to the cabin. The manufacturer claimed that as well as taking off in 160 yards on (dry) grass, it could climb on one engine at full load at 230 ft/min.

It was of composite construction; fabric-covered wooden wings, tail booms and tail fitted to a metal fuselage but the production model would have been all-metal. Clamshell doors at the rear of the fuselage were advertised.

Construction of both a Major and Minor variants was started but the company decided that the Minor would not have enough power and construction was abandoned. The Major prototype was completed and started taxying trials at Portsmouth on 18 June 1947, Frank Luxmoore was pleased with the trials so he undertook the maiden flight the same day.

It was exhibited at the SBAC but funding for the development of the Aerocar was dependent on an agreement for licence manufacture in India. With the uncertainty arising from the partition of India in 1947, this became unlikely and Portsmouth Aviation was unable to continue with development. With Lionel Balfour, the driving force behind the Aerocar, no longer part of the company the Aerocar was stored until scrapped.

To support planned production in India the uncompleted Minor was sent to act as a pattern aircraft, the Indian financial backers failed to support the project and the idea of production in India was abandoned.

1946 Portsmouth Aerocar Major a 1946 Portsmouth Aerocar Major b 1946 Portsmouth Aerocar Major c 1946 Portsmouth Aerocar Major 1946 Portsmouth Aviation Aerocar Major 1946 PortsmouthAviation-Aerocar Ambulance-1946-1 1946 PortsmouthAviation-Aerocar GAGNJ-1946-1 1946 portsmouthaviation-aerocar-air-university-1946-1 1946 Portsmouth's Aerocar Portsmouth's Aerocar PortsmouthAviation-Aerocar Freight-1946-1 PortsmouthAviation-Aerocar-12

Variants

Aerocar Major
Powered by two 155hp Cirrus Major engines and a retractable landing gear, one prototype built and flown.
Aerocar Minor
Planned variant powered by two 101hp Cirrus Minor II engines and a retractable landing gear, construction of a prototype abandoned and moved to India to act as a pattern aircraft for local production.
Aerocar Senior
Proposed variant of the Major with a fixed landing gear and lower level of equipment fit.
Aerocar Junior
Proposed variant of the Minor with a fixed landing gear and a lower level of equipment fit.

Specifications (Aerocar Major)

Data from Flight Sept 1947 p280

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1 pilot
  • Capacity: 5 passengers
  • Payload: 1000 lb ()
  • Length: 26 ft 3 in ()
  • Wingspan: 42 ft ()
  • Height: 10 ft 7 in ()
  • Loaded weight: 3,950 lb ()
  • Powerplant: 2 × Blackburn Cirrus Major piston engine, 155 hp () each
  • Propellers: Rotol two-bladed “variable pitch airscrews” propeller

Performance

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Flight
  2. Jump up^ Flight 1947
  3. Jump up^ http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1946/1946%20-%201018.html Flight
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Partington, David (2013). “Head-on View No. 49 – The Portsmouth Aerocar”. Archive (Air-Britain) 2013 (4): 151–154. ISSN 0262-4923.
  5. Jump up^ http://www.portav.co.uk/Downloads/PAAerocar.pdf

References

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
1955 Miles M.57 Aerovan
1955 Miles M.57 Aerovan
Miles Aerovan

18n8tjvqtyffajpg 1012p aerocar terrafugiafly 1906 Aerocar-detroit logo 1906 Aerocar-detroit logo1 1906 The Aerocar Company - Detroit, Michigan 1907 403416 1907 Aerocar-touring 1907 Postcard AEROCAR Model C Runabout 1907-Aerocar-Model-F 1919-1920 Aerocar 1921 AEROCAR - 1921 Aero-Car 1921 Cole Automobile 1921 Flying Motor Car 1921 Reese Aero-Car

The Curtiss Autoplane – 1917

Nearly 100 years ago, aeronautics pioneer Glenn Curtiss showed up at the New York Pan-American Aeronautical Exposition with his Model 11 Autoplane, widely considered to be the first serious attempt at a car equally comfortable on the wing and the runway. What it lacked in aesthetic appeal it made up for in ingenuity, and the boxy aluminum vehicle made headlines. Powered by a four-bladed propeller that sat behind the cab, the Autoplane was 27 feet long and had a wingspan that stretched more than 40 feet. Curtiss made a short flight in his winged car, but the first patent for a flying automobile went to competing inventor Felix Longobardi in 1918.

1929 Aerocar 003 1929 aerocar chrysler 1930s waterman aerobile article

AVE Mizar – 1971

Advanced Vehicle Engineers rolled out its flying car prototype, the AVE Mizar, between 1971 and 1973. Perhaps taking a hint from the Convaircar, the Mizar wedded the flying power of a Cessna Skymaster with the body of a Ford Pinto. Designed by Henry Smolinksi, the idea was to work with cars that were already being commercially produced and attach wings and a tail. The Mizar came to a quick end, however, when Smolinski and other Mizar designers were killed in a crash in September 1973.

1932 GrahamBlueStreakCoupewithCurtisAerocarLandYacht a 1932 GrahamBlueStreakCoupewithCurtisAerocarLandYacht 1935 Aerocar nov02 1938 Aerocar (1)

http://www.coachbuilt.com/bui/c/curtiss/curtiss.htm

1938 Curtis Aerocar 1938 Curtiss Aerocar 1938 images (1) 1938 images (2) 1938 International tractor-1936 Aerocar trailer 1938-REO-Tractor-Curtiss-Aerocar-Fifth-Wheeler 1939 hulu39.6641 1944 1. Stinson 1349 1946 ColliAerautoPL2C01 1946 Portsmouth Aerocar Major a 1946 Portsmouth Aerocar Major b 1946 Portsmouth Aerocar Major c 1946 Portsmouth Aerocar Major 1946 Portsmouth Aviation Aerocar Major 1946 Portsmouth Aviation-Aerocar-12 1946 PortsmouthAviation-Aerocar Ambulance-1946-1 1946 PortsmouthAviation-Aerocar Freight 1946 PortsmouthAviation-Aerocar GAGNJ-1946-1

1946 portsmouthaviation-aerocar-air-university-1946-1 1946 Portsmouth's Aerocar Portsmouth's Aerocar 1947 Stinson 2350 1947 Stinson B7

Stinson

Convaircar – 1947

This one is pretty much a car with an airplane plopped on top of it. While many early attempts at flying cars were criticized for the motley ways they mixed elements of automobile design with spare plane parts, Henry Dreyfuss seems to have decided to rig up a vehicle that was unambiguously half of each. While the possibility of, say, parallel parking the car seems to have been outright ignored, the contraption had a certain utilitarian charm. Dreyfuss was something of a well-known inventor, but that did little to help him salvage the Convaircar’s reputation after one went down in a test flight.

1947 Stinson reiting 5 convair 118 1948 Aerocar 1948-49 b 1948 Aerocar 1948 Morin Aerocar 1948 Oct The Air Traveler-g 1949- tay-aerocar3 1949- Taylor Aerocar III 1949- Taylor Aerocar N102D 1949- Taylor Aerocar1 1949- taylor2 1949 477L 1949 AERO Car a 1949 AERO Car b

Taylor Aerocar – 1959

The Aerocar was one of a few other flying cars approved by the government. Inspired by a chance meeting between inventor Moulton Taylor and Airphibian designer Robert Fulton, the Aerocar sported detachable wings and tail. Five Aerocars were produced, and while four of them wound up in museums, one was in semi-active use through at least 2002, when Ed Sweeney of Florida would snap on the wings for flights with his wife between Daytona Beach and Orlando, Florida. “They would report me as traffic to other aircraft,” Sweeney said of air traffic controllers. “You have an automobile in your 9 o’clock position.”

1949 AERO Car c 1949 AERO Car d 1949 Aero Car-2 1949 AERO Flying car--taylor aerocar restored.img assist custom 1949 Aerocar at the EAA AirVenture Museum 1949 Aerocar challenger1 hi 1949 Aerocar-Taylor 1949 images 1949 N103D flying-a 1949 p 001 1949 Prototype Aerocar I N31214 1949 si-88- 1949 Taylor Aerocar a 1949 Taylor Aerocar c 1949 Taylor Aerocar III N4345F 1949 Taylor Aerocar Model I 1949 taylor Aerocar sunthrow 1949 Taylor Aerocar3 1949 Taylor-Aerocar-III 1949 Taylor-Aerocar-III-1 P2B 1949 taylor-aerocar-illustration 1949 vintage flying car 1949-55

 1951 Aero Car p1 1951 May 1951 Air Trails-g 1953 Aerocar a 1953 Aerocar b 1953 Aerocar c 1955 Miles M.57 Aerovan 1956 Aerocar Brochure 1956 1956 Aerocar Flying Car 1956 Flying Aerocar 1957 Mar 1957 Air Facts-g 1959 May 1959 The AOPA Pilot-g 1960 Aerocar Metamorphosis 1961 Aerocar Brochure 1961 1965 Curtis Aerocar 1965 Curtiss Autocar b 1965 wagner aerocar (2) 1965 Wagner Aerocar Helicopter 1965 Wagner Aerocar 1965 Wagner Rotocar Aerocar a 1965 Wagner Rotocar Aerocar 1965 Wagner-Aerocar 1965 wagner-aerocar-12 1966 Kurunkov Autoaeromobil 02 1966 The prototype single-seat Wagner Skytrac 1 at the 1966 Hannover Air Show 1968 Taylor Aerocar Model III 1973 HTM Skyrider D-HHTM exhibited at the 1973 Paris Air Show 1977 le Bourget YC-15a D-HAGU-Hannover 1990 - Aerocar - Towing-a 1996 Jan Air & Space-g 2002 Aerocar 2000 next to Lotus 2006 - A Drive in the Clouds-g A-18 Actor Bob Cummings's N102D - 2a

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Aerocar Bubble Gum Card - Topps 67A-g aerocar bulgaria Aerocar Gladen Enterprises K 666 25th aerocar logo aerocar powered by a 65 hp rear-mounted Continental aircraft engine ARG-aerocar aerocar.2

aerocar aeromobil-unveils-flying-car-prototype Aircraft on display at the Museum of FlightAircraft banner Convair 103 9796L Curtiss Aeroplane flying-cars-01-0312-de EAA Aerocar Video-g Flying Car dream-g Gladden Aerocar Model sales literature-g Gladen Bob Cummings Aerocar Helica Aero car picture high-road-aerocar-another-flying-car-in-the-making-05 maxresdefault MoltTaylorAerocar Pobeda Raul Castro-a Scalecraft Aerocar tfx transitionunfoldplaneslwm-wm-970x647-c

That’s my picture collection about Aerocar’s

http://www.thedailybeast.com/galleries/2012/04/08/17-flying-cars-a-mostly-factual-history-of-airborne-autos.html#slide_11

HUPMOBILE Automobiles, Hupp Motor Car Company, Detroit, Michigan, United States 1909-1941

1909 HUPMOBILE model 20 Runabout

1909 HUPMOBILE model 20 Runabout

Hupmobile

 hupmobile_logo2Hupmobile-car-logo-2

Hupp Motor Car Company
Automobile Manufacturing
Industry Automotive
Founded 1909
Defunct 1940
Headquarters Detroit, Michigan, United States
Products vehicles
Automotive parts
Hupp grille badge, on a 1941 Skylark
Hupp grille badge, on a 1941 Skylark

Hupmobile was an automobile built from 1909 through 1940 by the Hupp Motor Car Company, which was located at 345 Bellevue Avenue in DetroitMichigan. Its first car, the Model 20, was introduced to the public at the Detroit Auto Show in February 1909. The company initially produced 500 vehicles.

History

hupmobile_logo2

Founding

Robert Craig Hupp (June 2, 1877 in Grand Rapids, Michigan – 1931), a former employee of Oldsmobile and Ford, founded the company with his brother Louis Gorham Hupp (November 13, 1872 in Michigan – December 10, 1961 in Michigan) in 1908. Production began in 1909. In 1910, production increased by more than 5000. Following disagreements with his financial backers Robert Hupp sold his stock in the Hupp Motor Car Company and established the short-lived RCH Automobile Company, later the Hupp-Yeats Electric Car Company. In 1912, Hupp would be one of two automakers pioneering the use of all-steel bodies, joining BSA in the UK. Hupp’s panels were produced by Hale & Kilburn, which was run by Edward BuddCarl Wickman, a car dealer in Hibbing, Minnesota, used an unsold 7-passenger model as the first vehicle for what became Greyhound. In 1913 Frank E. Watts was hired as a designer.

9dd37cdd8fb4956a19e0d1c766eaac04

Expansion

Hupp Motor Car Company continued to grow after its founder left. A new plant was purchased in 1924 as Hupp competed strongly against Ford and Chevrolet. DuBois Young became company president in 1924 moving up from vice-president of manufacturing. By 1928 sales had reached over 65,000 units. To increase production and handle the growth in sales, Hupp purchased the ChandlerChandler-Cleveland Motors Corporation (Chandler Motor Car) for its manufacturing facilities.

1910-22 Hupmobile

Decline

Sales and production began to fall even before the onset of the depression in 1930. A strategy to make the Hupmobile a larger, more expensive car began with the 1925 introduction of an 8-cylinder model, followed by the discontinuance of the traditional 4-cylinder Hupmobile. While aiming for a seemingly more lucrative market segment, Hupp essentially turned its back on its established clientele. The company made the same mistake that many other medium-priced carmakers were making at the same time. In an attempt to capture every possible sale, they offered many different models. With Hupmobile’s relatively low production volume, the result was that no model could be produced in sufficient quantity to keep manufacturing costs low enough to provide an operating profit.

1915 Hupmobile Service Double sided Porcelain Sign

New models

Hupp abandoned its more conservatively styled product line and turned to industrial designer Raymond Loewy to design its 1932 Hupp cyclefender, a flashy roadster that did well at the track, but sales continued to decline. 1934 saw the introduction of a striking restyle called the “Aerodynamic” by Loewy, as well as the lower-priced series 417-W using Murray-built slightly-modified Ford bodies.

Despite technical innovations, squabbles among stockholders and an attempted hostile takeover in 1935 took their toll on the company. By 1936 the company was forced to sell some of its plants and assets and in 1937 Hupmobile suspended manufacturing. A new line of six- and eight-cylinder cars was fielded for 1938, but by this time Hupp had very few dealers, and sales were disappointingly low.

Desperate for a return to market strength, on February 8, 1938, Hupmobile acquired the production dies of the Gordon Buehrig designed Cord 810/812 from the defunct Cord Automobile Company. Hupp paid US$900,000 for the tooling. Hupmobile hoped that using the striking Cord design in a lower-priced conventional car, called the Skylark, would return the company to financial health. Enthusiastic orders came in by the thousands, but production delays soured customer support.

1920's Hupmobile 6 Automobile Radiator Grille

Joint venture

Lacking adequate production facilities, Hupmobile worked out a deal with the ailing Graham-Paige Motor Co. to share the Cord dies. Hupmobile and Graham would both sell similar models, which would all be built at Graham-Paige’s facilities. While each marque’s product used its own power train, the Graham edition, called the Hollywood, otherwise differed from the Skylark in only a few minor details.

1932 hupmobile_32_emblem_14

Closure

In 1939 the Hupmobile Skylark finally began delivery. Unfortunately, it had taken too many years to produce and most of the orders had been canceled. Production lasted only a couple of months, and only 319 Skylarks were produced. Hupmobile ceased production in late summer. Graham-Paige suspended production shortly after the last Hupmobile rolled off the line.

images

Technical innovations

In a constant effort to remain competitive, Hupp introduced a number of new features. They were one of the very first automakers to equip their cars with “free wheeling,” a device that enjoyed immense, but brief, popularity in automobiles in the 1930s. Hupmobile also pioneered fresh-air car heaters with the Evanair-Conditioner.

Hupmobile-car-logo-3

Legacy

In 1914, Eric Wickman tried to establish a Hupmobile dealership but couldn’t sell them so he started transporting miners in one of the vehicles and founded Greyhound Lines. The National Football League was created at Ralph Hay’s Hupmobile dealership in Canton, Ohio in 1920.

The Skylark’s grille later inspired the grilles used on Lincoln Continental models in the 1940s. Their heater technology became widely adopted in the industry. The Hupmobile dealership in Omaha, Nebraska is a prominent historic landmark. The dealership building in Washington, D.C. is now the H Street Playhouse.

Hupmobile Spaceship

Models Gallery

1909 Hupmobile 20HP 4Cyl DV-06 ARM 07 1909 HUPMOBILE model 20 Runabout 1909 Hupmobile Runabout, USA 1909 1909 Hupmobile Runabout, USA 1909 Hupmobile-Model-20-runabout

1909 HUPMOBILE model 20 Runabout

hupmobile_logo2

1910 Hupmobile 12, USA 1910 1910 Hupmobile 12, USA d 1910 Hupmobile 12, USA c 1910 Hupmobile 12, USA b 1910 Hupmobile 12, USA a

1910 Hupmobile 12, USA e

1910 Hupmobile 12, USA

1910-22 Hupmobile

1910 Hupmobile Model 20 Roadster

1910 Hupmobile Model 20 Roadster

1910 Hupmobile Racing

1910-hupmobile-racing

1910 hupmobile_1910

1910 Hupmobile Model 20 runabout

1910-hupmobile-model-20-runabout

1911 Hupmobile Model 20 1911 Hupmobile model D 1911 Hupmobile Runabout ad 1911 hupmobileB

1911

 1912 - HUPMOBILE ad in spain 1912 Hupmobile 0511 1912 Hupmobile Model 20 17 1912 Hupmobile Model 20 Torpedo Roadster 1912 HUPMOBILE Model 20, 4-cyl., 20 hp, 86 1912 hupmobile-1912Hupmobile 1912

1913 Hupmobile Model 32 Two-Seater

1913-hupmobile-model-32-two-seater

1913 Hupmobile Torpedo 12-16 hp decapotable - Publicite Automobile de 1913

1913-hupmobile

 1914 Hupmobile 32 COUPÉ

1914-hupmobile-32-coupé

1914 Hupmobile ad 1914 Hupmobile HAK 32 (1914)

1914-hupmobile-hak-32

1914 Hupmobile Model H 15-18hp with Coachwork by Oakley Ltd.

1914 Hupmobile Model H 15-18hp with Coachwork by Oakley Ltd.

1914 hupmobile-touring--04 (1)1914 Hupmobile

1914 Hupmobile HAK 32 (1914) 1915 Hupmobile Service Double sided Porcelain Sign 1915 Hupmobile 1915 hupmobile-1915-dirk-mark

Hupmobile 1915

1916 Hupmobile

1916 Hupmobile

1917 hupmobile dirk-van-der-mark

1917 hupmobile dirk-van-der-mark NL

1918 Hupmobile-Ad-8-24-1918_revised

1918 Hupmobile-Ad

1919 Hupmobile 17 HP, USA a 1919 Hupmobile 17 HP, USA b 1919 Hupmobile 17 HP, USA c

1919 Hupmobile 17 HP, USA

1920 Hupmobile 1920's Hupmobile 6 Automobile Radiator Grille

1920 Hupmobile

1921 Hupmobile 2 1921 Hupmobile a 1921 Hupmobile model R

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

1921 Hupmobile Touring Car Convertible 1921 HUPMOBILE TOURING-vi 1921 Hupmobile 1921 hupmobile-series-r4-2 1921 hupmobile-series-r4-4

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

1921 studebaker light 6s

1921 Hupmobile

1922 Hupmobile Model R 1922 hupmobile R10-112touring4cyl3speedOLO

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1922 Hupmobile Touring Sedan 1922 Hupmobile touring 1922 Hupmobile 1922 hupmobile-series-r7-3 1922 hupmobile-touring--11 1922-hupmobile-boyce-motometer-hood-ornament-mike-martin 1922-hupmobile-brake-light-mike-martin 1922-hupmobile-mike-martin

1922 Hupmobile

1923 hupmobile antique 1923 Hupmobile Coupe 1923 Hupmobile Model R (6191529886) FOT1138703 1923 Hupmobile R Series Roadster 1923 Hupmobile Tourer 1923 Hupmobile 1923 hupmobile-1923-09-dirk-mark

1923 Hupmobile

1924 Hupmobile RRS Special Roadster

1924 Hupmobile RRS Special Roadster

1924 Hupmobile Touring

1924 Hupmobile Touring

1925 Hupmobile Ad-02 1925 Hupmobile Model E 1925 Hupmobile Model E-1 (E-8) 1925 Hupmobile Series E Tow Truck 2 1925 Hupmobile Tourer

Hupmobile 1925

1926 Hupmobile Four Door Sedan

1926-hupmobile-four-door-sedan

1927 Hupmobile Ad-03 1927 Hupmobile Ad-04 1927 Hupmobile Eight Coupé, (8 Zyl., 4402 cm3, 67 PS) 1927 Hupmobile Opera 1927 Hupmobile-Eight-Ad-Art-by-Larry-Stults-1927-08

Hupmobile 1927

1928 hupmobile ad id2704 1928 Hupmobile Ad-01