Ford Motor Company Part IX – the Ford Cortina

Ford Cortina (Taunus)

Ford Cortina
1967 Ford Cortina Mk I KTO959E

Ford Cortina Super 2 door saloon (“Mark 1”)
Overview
Manufacturer Ford Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Company
Also called Ford Consul Cortina
Production 1962–1982
Body and chassis
Class Small family car
Layout FR layout
Related Ford Capri
Chronology
Predecessor Ford Consul Classic
Successor Ford Sierra
Ford Telstar
Hyundai Stellar

The Ford Cortina is a car built by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982, and was the United Kingdom‘s best-selling car of the 1970s.

The Cortina was produced in five generations (Mark I through to Mark V, although officially the last one was called the Cortina 80) from 1962 until 1982. From 1970 onward, it was almost identical to the German-market Ford Taunus (being built on the same platform) which was originally a different car model. This was part of a Ford attempt to unify its European operations. By 1976, when the revised Taunus was launched, the Cortina was identical. The new Taunus/Cortina used the doors and some panels from the 1970 Taunus. It was replaced in 1982 by the Ford Sierra. In Asia and Australasia, it was replaced by the Mazda 626-based Ford Telstar, though Ford New Zealand did import British-made CKD kits of the Ford Sierra estate for local assembly from 1984.

The name was inspired by the name of the Italian ski resort Cortina d’Ampezzo, site of the 1956 Winter Olympics. As a publicity stunt, several Cortinas were driven down the bobsled run at the resort which was called Cortina Auto-Bobbing.

Mark I (1962–1966) 

Cortina Mark I
1963 Ford Cortina Mark I pre first facelift

1963 Ford Consul Cortina Super 2 door saloon (“Mark 1”)
Overview
Production 1962–1966
933,143 units
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant(Dagenham, Essex, England)
Ford Lio Ho (Zhongli City, Taoyuan County (now Zhongli District,Taoyuan City), Taiwan)
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
5-door estate
Powertrain
Engine 1.2 L Kent I4
1.5 L Kent I4
1.6 L Twin-Cam I4
Transmission 4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 98 in (2,489 mm)
Length 168.25 in (4,274 mm) (saloon)
168.5 in (4,280 mm) (estate)
Width 62.5 in (1,588 mm)
Height 56.5 in (1,435 mm) (saloon)
57.75 in (1,467 mm) (estate)
Curb weight 1,736 lb (787 kg) (De Luxe)
2,072 lb (940 kg) (Estate)

Using the project name of “Archbishop”, management at Ford of Britain in Dagenham created a family-sized car which they could sell in large numbers. The chief designer was Roy Brown Jr., the designer of the Edsel, who had been banished to Dagenham following the failure of that car. The Cortina, aimed at buyers of the Morris Oxford Farina and Vauxhall Victor, was launched on 20 September 1962. The car was designed to be economical, cheap to run and easy and inexpensive to produce in Britain. The front-wheel drive configuration used by Ford of Germany for the new Ford Taunus P4, a similarly sized model, was rejected in favour of traditional rear-wheel drive layout. Originally to be called Ford Consul 225, the car was launched as the Consul Cortina until a modest facelift in 1964, after which it was sold simply as the Cortina.

The Cortina was available with 1200 and 1500 four-cylinder engines with all synchromesh gearbox, in two-door and four-door saloon, as well as in five-door estate (from March 1963) forms. Standard, Deluxe, Super, and GT trims were offered but not across all body styles. Early Standard models featured a simple body coloured front grille, earning it the nickname ‘Ironbar’. Since this version cost almost the same as the better equipped Deluxe it sold poorly and is very rare today. Options included heater and bench seat with column gearchange. Super versions of the estates offered the option of simulated wood side and tailgate trim. In an early example of product placement many examples of the brand new Cortina featured as “Glamcabs” in the comedy film Carry On Cabby.

There were two main variations of the Mark 1. The Mark 1a possessed elliptical front side-lights, whereas the Mark 1b had a re-designed front grille incorporating the more rectangular side-light and indicator units. A notable variant was the Ford Cortina Lotus.

The Cortina was launched a few weeks before the London Motor Show of October 1962 with a 1198 cc three-bearing engine, which was an enlarged version of the 997 cc engine then fitted in the Ford Anglia. A few months later, in January 1963, the Cortina Super was announced with a 5-bearing 1498 cc engine. Versions of the larger engine found their way into subsequent variations, including the Cortina GT which appeared in Spring 1963 with lowered suspension and engine tuned to give a claimed output of 78 bhp (58 kW; 79 PS) ahead of the 60 bhp (45 kW; 61 PS) claimed for the Cortina 1500 Super. The engines used across the Mark I range were of identical design, differing only in capacity and setup. The formula used was a four-cylinder pushrod (Over Head Valve) design that came to be known as the “pre-crossflow” version as both inlet and exhaust ports were located on the same side of the head. The most powerful version of this engine (used in the GT Cortina) was 1498 cc (1500) and produced 78 bhp (58 kW). This engine contained a different camshaft profile, a different cast of head featuring larger ports, tubular exhaust headers and a Weber double barrel carburettor.

Advertising of the revised version, which appeared at the London Motor Show in October 1964, made much of the newly introduced “Aeroflow” through-flow ventilation, evidenced by the extractor vents on the rear pillars. A subsequent test on a warm day involving the four different Cortina models manufactured between 1964 and 1979 determined that the air delivery from the simple eyeball outlets on the 1964 Mark I Cortina was actually greater than that on the Mark II, the Mark III or the Mark IV. The dashboard, instruments and controls were revised, for a the second time, having already been reworked in October 1963 when round instruments replaced the strip speedometer with which the car had been launched: twelve years later, however, the painted steel dashboard, its “knobs scattered all over the place and its heater controls stuck underneath as a very obvious afterthought” on the 1964 Mark I Cortina was felt to have aged much less well than the car’s ventilation system. It was also in 1964 that front disc brakes became standard across the range.

Ford Cortina Lotus was offered only as a two-door saloon all in white with a contrasting green side flash down each flank. It had a unique 1557 cc twin-cam engine by Lotus, but based on the Cortina’s Kent OHVengine. Aluminium was used for some body panels. For a certain time, it also had a unique A-frame rear suspension, but this proved fragile and the model soon reverted to the standard Cortina semi-elliptic rear end.

Mark II (1966–1970) 

Cortina Mark II
Ford Cortina MkII 1600E

Ford Cortina 1600E Mark II 4-door Saloon
Overview
Production 1966–1970
1,159,389 units (UK)
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant(Dagenham, Essex, England, United Kingdom)
Ford Lio Ho (Zhongli City, Taoyuan County (now Zhongli District,Taoyuan City), Taiwan)
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Designer Roy Haynes
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
5-door estate
Powertrain
Engine 1.2 L “KentI4
1.3 L “KentI4
1.3 L Crossflow
1.5 L Kent I4
1.6 L “CrossflowI4
1.6 L Twin-Cam I4
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 98 in (2,489 mm)
Length 168 in (4,267 mm) (saloon)
Width 64.9 in (1,648 mm)
Height 55.7 in (1,415 mm)
Curb weight 1,890 lb (857 kg) (De Luxe)
2,032 lb (922 kg) (1600E)

The second incarnation of the Cortina was designed by Roy Haynes, and launched on 18 October 1966, four years after the original Cortina. Although the launch was accompanied by the slogan “New Cortina is more Cortina”, the car, at 168 in (427 cm) long, was fractionally shorter than before. Its 2 12 inches (6.4 cm) of extra width and curved side panels provided more interior space. Other improvements included a smaller turning circle, softer suspension, self-adjusting brakes and clutch together with the availability on the smaller-engined models, for the UK and some other markets, of a new five bearing 1300 cc engine.

A stripped-out 1200 cc version running the engine of the Ford Anglia Super was also available for certain markets where the 1300 cc engine attracted a higher rate of tax. The 1500 cc engines were at first carried over, but were discontinued in July 1967 as a new engine was on its way. A month later, in August, the 1300 received a new crossflow cylinder head design, making it more efficient, while a crossflow 1600 replaced the 1500. The new models carried additional “1300” or “1600” designations at the rear. The Cortina Lotus continued with its own unique engine, although for this generation it was built in-house by Ford themselves.

The Cortina was Britain’s most popular new car in 1967, achieving the goal that Ford had been trying to achieve since it set out to create the original Cortina back in 1962. Period reviews were favourable concerning both the styling and performance.

Again, two-door and four-door saloons were offered with base, Deluxe, Super, GT and, later, 1600E trims available, but again, not across all body styles and engine options. A few months after the introduction of the saloon versions, a four-door estate was launched, released on the UK market on 15 February 1967: much was made at the time of its class topping load capacity.

The four-door Cortina 1600E, a higher trim version, was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in October 1967, a year after the arrival of the Cortina Mark II. It combined the lowered suspension of the Cortina Lotus with the high-tune GT 1600 Kent engine and luxury trim featuring a burr walnut woodgrain-trimmed dashboard and door cappings, bucket seating, leather-clad aluminium sports steering wheel, and full instrumentation inside, while a black grille, tail panel, front fog lights, and plated Rostyle wheels on radial tyres featured outside.

Ford New Zealand developed its own variant of this model called the GTE.

For 1969, the Mark II range was given subtle revisions, with separate “FORD” block letters mounted on the bonnet and boot lids, a blacked out grille and chrome strips on top and below the taillights running the full width of the tail panel marking them out.

A 3.0-litre Essex V6-engined variant was developed privately in South Africa by Basil Green Motors, and was sold through the Grosvenor Ford network of dealers as the Cortina Perana; a similar model appeared later in Britain and was known as the Cortina Savage. Savage was available with 1600E trim in all three body styles, while her South African stablemate was offered only as a four-door saloon initially with GT and later E trim.

TC Mark III (1970–1976)

Cortina TC Mark III
1972 Ford Cortina MkIII GXL ca 2000cc

1972 Ford Cortina Mk3 GXL four door.
Overview
Production 1970–1976
1,126,559 units
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant(Dagenham, Essex, England, United Kingdom)
Ford Lio Ho (Zhongli City, Taoyuan County (now Zhongli District,Taoyuan City), Taiwan)
Amsterdam, Netherlands 1962–1975
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
5-door estate
2-door coupé utility (P100)
Related Ford Taunus TC
Powertrain
Engine 1.3 L Crossflow I4
1.6 L Crossflow I4
1.6 L Pinto TL16 I4
2.0 L Pinto TL20 I4
2.0 L Essex V4
2.5 L Essex V6
3.0 L Essex V6
3.3 L Falcon 200 I6
4.1 L Falcon 250 I6
Transmission 3/4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 101 in (2,565 mm)
Length 167.75 in (4,261 mm) (saloon)
171.5 in (4,356 mm) (estate)
Width 67 in (1,702 mm)
Height 52 in (1,321 mm)

In the late 1960s, Ford set about developing the third-generation Cortina,the MK3, which would be produced in higher volumes than before, following the recent merger of Ford of Britain and Ford of Germany into the modern-day Ford of Europe. The car marked the convergence of the German Taunus and British Cortina platforms with only minor differences between the two, hence the car’s internal name TC1, standing forTaunus-Cortina. It was also the last European car engineered by Harley Copp as Vice President Engineering and head of Brentwood, before he returned to Detroit.

Ford UK originally wanted to call it something other than Cortina, but the name stuck. Although the Mark III looked significantly larger than the boxier Mark 2 Cortina,it was actually the same overall length, but 4 inches (100 mm) wider. Within the overall length, a wheelbase lengthened by more than 3 inches (76 mm) also contributed to the slightly more spacious interior.

The MK3 Cortina was inspired by the contemporary “coke bottle” design language which had emanated from Detroit – the car sported similar fluted bonnet and beltline design elements to the North American Mercury Montego and Ford LTD of the same era. It replaced both the MK2 Cortina and the larger, more expensive Ford Corsair offering more trim levels and the option of larger engines than the MK2 Cortina. The MK3’s sister car – the Taunus TC – sold in continental Europe was subtly different in appearance, longer front indicators different door skins and rear wing pressings that toned down the drooping beltline in order to lose the “coke-bottle” appearance of the Cortina.

The MacPherson strut front suspension was replaced with more conventional double A-arm suspension (Also known as double wishbone suspension) which gave the MK3 a much softer ride on the road’ but did give the larger engines distinct understeer.

Trim levels for the MK3 Cortina were Base, L (for Luxury), XL (Xtra Luxury), GT (Grand Touring) and GXL (Grand Xtra Luxury).

The early MK3 Cortinas came with the same 1300 and the 1600cc engines as the MK2 Cortinas,(except for the 1600CC GXL)these engines are known as the Kent, crossflow engine or over head valve (OHV) engine. There was also the introduction of the 2000cc engine, the single overhead cam engine, now known as the pinto engine. SOHC. The OHV Kent unit was fitted with a single choke carburetor and was used for the early models up to GT trim, the SOHC twin choke carburetor Pinto unit was used for the GT and GXL models. The GXL was also offered in 1600 in the later Cortina MK3s.

In left-hand drive markets, the 1600cc OHC was replaced by a twin-carb OHV (Kent) unit not offered in the home market, in order to distinguish it from the competing Taunus which only came with the OHC Pinto engine. 2.0 L variants used a larger version of the 1600cc Pinto unit and were available in all trim levels except base. Base, L and XL versions were available as a five-door estate.

Although no longer than its predecessor, the MK3 was a heavier car, reflecting a trend towards improving secondary safety by making car bodies more substantial. Weight was also increased by the stout cross-member incorporated into the new simplified front suspension set-up, and by the inclusion of far more sound deadening material which insulated the cabin from engine and exhaust noise, making the car usefully quieter than its predecessor, though on many cars the benefit was diminished by high levels of wind noise apparently resulting from poor door fit around the windows.[17] Four-speed manual transmissions were by now almost universally offered in the UK for this class of car, and contemporary road tests commented on the rather large gap between second and third gear, and the resulting temptation to slip the clutch when accelerating through the gears in the smaller-engined cars: it was presumably in tacit acknowledgment of the car’s marginal power-to-weight ratio that Ford no longer offered the automatic transmission option with the smallest 1298 cc-engined Cortina.

Four headlights and Rostyle wheels marked out the GT and GXL versions, while the GXL also had bodyside rub strips, a vinyl roof and a brushed aluminum and black boot lid panel on the GXLs, while the GTs had a black painted section of the boot with a chrome trim at either site of it. All pre-facelift models featured a downward sloping dashboard with deeply recessed dials and all coil suspension all round. In general styling and technical make up, many observed that the Mk3 Cortina aped the Vauxhall Victor FD of 1967.

The Cortina went on sale on 23 October 1970, but sales got off to a particularly slow start because of production difficulties that culminated with a ten-week strike at Ford’s plant between April and June 1971, which was at the time reported to have cost production of 100,000 vehicles, equivalent to almost a quarter of the output for a full year.

1972 Ford Cortina (North America)

 1972 Ford Cortina MkIII (North America)

During 1971 the spring rates and damper settings were altered along with the front suspension bushes which reduced the bounciness of the ride and low speed ride harshness which had generated press criticism at the time of the Cortina III’s launch.

Volumes recovered, and with the ageing Austin/Morris 1100/1300 now losing out to various newer models, the Cortina was Britain’s top selling car in 1972, closely followed by the Escort. It remained the UK’s top selling car until 1976 when it overtaken by the Mk2 Escort.

In late 1973 the Cortina MK3 was given a facelift, and was redesignated TD. The main difference was the dashboard and clocks, no longer did it slope away from the driver’s line of sight. But shared the same dash and clocks as the later MK4 and MK5 Cortinas, upgraded trim levels and revised grilles, rectangular headlights for the XL, GT and the new 2000E (the “E” standing for executive), which replaced the GXL. The 1.3 L Kent engine was carried over but now, 1.6 L models all used the more modern 1.6 L SOHC engine. Whilst the TD Cortina still had double A-arm suspension with coils at the front and a four-link system at the rear, handling was improved. The 2000E reverted to the classy treatment offered by the 1600E and later mk4/5 Ghia models instead of the faux wood-grain trim offered by the GXL. The 2000E was also available as an estate version.

1973 Ford Cortina III 2000E in England

 Ford Cortina Mark III 2000E (i.e. executive version), with a pre-facelift Cortina Mark I de luxe alongside.

Like many other Cortinas, Mk.3s were prone to rust and as a result only about 1000 now survive. Because of their rarity and the fact that they are now seen as an iconic car of the mid-70s, prices for MK.3s are rising steadily, with the best examples fetching several thousand pounds. The Mark III was never sold in the US, although it was available in Canada until 1973.

In addition to four-cylinder models, the Mark III was available in South Africa as the ‘Big Six’ L and GL with the Essex V6 2.5 L engine and Perana, GT and XLE with the Essex V6 3.0 L engine. There was also a pick-up truck version available. Ford Australia built its own versions using both the UK four-cylinder engines (1.6 and 2.0) and locally made inline six-cylinder engines from its Falcon line.

For Japan, the cars were literally narrowed by a few millimeters on arrival in the country in order that they fit into a lower tax bracket determined by exterior dimensions – this was done by bending the wheel arches inwards. The Cortina was joined by the Ford Capri in Japan and was imported by Kintetsu Motors, an exclusive retailer of Ford products.

Mark IV (1976–1979)

Cortina Mark IV

IF
IF
Overview
Production 1976–1979
1,131,850 units (including Mk V)
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant(Dagenham, Essex, England, United Kingdom)
Ford Lio Ho (Zhongli City, Taoyuan County (now Zhongli District,Taoyuan City), Taiwan)
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Designer Uwe Bahnsen
Body and chassis
Body style
Related Ford Taunus TC2
Powertrain
Engine 1.3 L Crossflow I4
1.6 L Crossflow I4
1.6 L Pinto TL16 I4
2.0 L Pinto TL20 I4
2.0 L Cologne V6
2.3 L Cologne V6
3.0 L Essex V6
3.3 L Falcon 200 I6
4.1 L Falcon 250 I6
Transmission 3/4-speed manual
3-speed automatic

The fourth-generation Cortina was a more conventional design than its predecessor, but this was largely appreciated by fleet buyers. Generally a rebody of the Mark III, as an integration of Ford’s model range, this car was really a rebadged Ford Taunus. However, although the updated Taunus was introduced to Continental Europe in January 1976, Ford were able to continue selling the Cortina Mark III in undiminished numbers in the UK until they were ready to launch its successor as the Dagenham built Cortina Mark IV, which went on sale on 29 September 1976.

Many parts were carried over, most notably the running gear. The raised driving position and the new instrument panel had, along with some of the suspension upgrades, already been introduced to the Cortina Mark III in 1975, so that from the driving position the new car looked much more familiar to owners of recent existing Cortinas than from the outside. Cinema audiences received an early glimpse of the new Cortina (or Taunus) through its appearance in the James Bond The Spy Who Loved Me 1977 film.

The most obvious change was the new body, which achieved the marketing department objective of larger windows giving a better view out and a brighter feel to the cabin, but at the expense of body weight which was increased, albeit only marginally, by approximately 30 lb (14 kg). Ford claimed an overall increase in window area of some 15%, with “40% better visibility” through the wider deeper back window. Regardless of how these figures were computed, there must have been substantial weight-saving gains through reduced steel usage in the design, given the unavoidable extra weight of glass.

This series spawned the first Ghia top-of-the-range model, which replaced the 2000E. The 2.3-litre Ford Cologne V6 engine was introduced in 1977 as an engine above the 2.0 L Pinto engine, already a staple of the Capri and Granada ranges. However, 2.3-litre Cortinas never sold particularly well in the UK. The Cologne V6 was certainly a much smoother and more refined power unit than the Pinto, but the V6 models were more expensive to fuel and insure and were only slightly faster, being about 0.5 seconds faster from 0–60 and having a top speed of about 109 mph compared to the 104 mph of the 2.0-litre models. The 2.0 Ford Cologne V6 engine continued to be offered on Taunus badged cars in parallel with the Pinto unit, and offers here an interesting comparison with the similarly sized in-line four-cylinder Pinto engine. The V6 with a lower compression ratio offered less power and less performance, needing over an extra second to reach 50 mph (80 km/h). It did, however, consume 12½% less fuel and was considered by motor journalists to be a far quieter and smoother unit. The 2.3 L was available to the GL, S and Ghia variants. A 1.6 Ghia option was also introduced at the same time as the 2.3 V6 models in response to private and fleet buyers who wanted Ghia refinements with the improved fuel economy of the smaller 1.6 Pinto engine. Few cars were sold with the 1.6 engine though, the 2.0 Pinto was always by far the most common engine option for Ghia models.

Two-door and four-door saloons and a five-door estate were offered with all other engines being carried over. However, at launch only 1.3-engined cars could be ordered in the UK with the two-door body, and then only with “standard” or “L” equipment packages. In practice, relatively few two-door Mark IV Cortinas were sold. There was a choice of base, L, GL, S (for Sport) and Ghia trims, again not universal to all engines and body styles. Rostyle wheels were fitted as standard to all Mk.4 GL, S and Ghia models, with alloy wheels available as an extra cost option. The dashboard was carried over intact from the last of the Mark III Cortinas while the estate used the rear body pressings of the previous 1970 release Taunus.

1977 Ford Cortina MkIV ZA

 South African-built 1977 Ford Cortina Mark IV

Despite its status as Britain’s bestselling car throughout its production run the Mk.4 is now the rarest Cortina, with poor rustproofing and the model’s popularity with banger racers cited as being the main reasons for its demise. Particularly scarce are the 2.0 and 2.3S models which were discontinued when the Mk.5 was introduced in August 1979.

Ford Australia built its own versions with the 2.0-litre 4-cylinder Pinto unit and the Ford Falcon’s 3.3 and 4.1 L 6-cylinder unit. Interior door hardware and steering columns were shared with the Falcons and the Australian versions also had their own instrument clusters, optional air conditioning, and much larger bumpers. It also had side indicators. A considerable number were exported to New Zealand under a free trade agreement where they were sold alongside locally assembled models similar to those available in the UK. In South Africa, the Mark IV was built with the Kent 1.6 and the three-litre “Essex” V6.

Mark V (1979–1982)

Cortina Mark V
1982 Ford Cortina 80 Mk5 2.0GL

Ford Cortina GL Mark V Saloon
Overview
Production 1979–1982
production – see Mark IV
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant(Dagenham, England, United Kingdom)
Ford Lio Ho (Zhongli City, Taoyuan County (now Zhongli District,Taoyuan City), Taiwan)
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Body and chassis
Body style
Related Ford Taunus TC3
Powertrain
Engine 1.3 L Crossflow I4
1.6 L Crossflow I4
1.6 L Pinto TL16 I4
2.0 L Pinto TL20 I4
Transmission

The Mark V was announced on 24 August 1979. Officially the programme was code named Teresa, although externally it was marketed as “Cortina 80”, but the Mark V tag was given to it immediately on release by the press, insiders and the general public.

Largely an update to the Mark IV, it was really a step between a facelift and a rebody. The Mark V differentiated itself from the Mark IV by having revised headlights with larger turn indicators incorporated (which were now visible on the side too), a wider slatted grille said to be more aerodynamically efficient, a flattened roof, larger glass area, slimmer C-pillars with revised vent covers, larger slatted tail lights (on saloon models) and upgraded trim.

Prices started at £3,475 for a basic 1.3-litre-engined model.

Improvements were also made to the engine range, with slight improvements to both fuel economy and power output compared to the Mk.IV. The 2.3 V6 engine was given electronic ignition and a slight boost in power output to 116 bhp (87 kW; 118 PS), compared to the 108 bhp (81 kW; 109 PS) of the Mk.IV. Ford also claimed improved corrosion protection on Mk.V models; as a result, more Mk.V’s have survived; however, corrosion was still quite a problem.

The estate models combined the Mk IV’s bodyshell (which was initially from the 1970 Ford Taunus) with Mk V front body pressings. A pick-up (“bakkie”) version was also built in South Africa. These later received a longer bed and were then marketed as the P100.

Ford Cortina V Estate Queens Road Cambridge

 Ford Cortina Mark V Estate
1981 Ford Cortina Mark V pick-up

 1981 Cortina Mark V pick-up

Variants included the Base, L, GL, and Ghia (all available in saloon and estate forms), together with Base and L spec 2-door sedan versions (this bodystyle was available up to Ghia V6 level on overseas markets). The replacement for the previous Mk.4 S models was an S pack of optional extras which was available as an upgrade on most Mk.5 models from L trim level upwards. For the final model year of 1982 this consisted of front and rear bumper overriders, sports driving lamps, an S badge on the boot, tachometer, 4 spoke steering wheel, revised suspension settings, front gas shock absorbers,’Sports’ gear lever knob, sports road wheels, 185/70 SR x 13 tyres and Fishnet Recaro sports seats (optional). Various “special editions” were announced, including the Calypso and Carousel. The final production model was the Crusader special edition which was available as a 1.3, 1.6, and 2.0 saloons or 1.6 and 2.0 estates. The Crusader was a final run-out model in 1982, along with the newly introduced Sierra. It was the best-specified Cortina produced to date and 30,000 were sold, which also made it Ford’s best-selling special edition model. Another special edition model was the Cortina Huntsman, of which 150 were produced. By this time, the Cortina was starting to feel the competition from a rejuvenated (and Opel influenced) Vauxhall, which with the 1981 release Cavalier J-Car, was starting to make inroads on the Cortina’s traditional fleet market, largely helped by the front wheel drive benefits of weight.

Up to and including 1981, the Cortina was the best selling car in Britain. Even during its final production year, 1982, the Cortina was Britain’s second best selling car and most popular large family car. On the continent, the Taunus version was competing with more modern and practical designs like the Talbot Alpine, Volkswagen Passat, and Opel Ascona.

The very last Cortina – a silver Crusader – rolled off the Dagenham production line on 22 July 1982 on the launch of the Sierra, though there were still a few leaving the forecourt as late as 1987, with one final unregistered Cortina GL leaving a Derbyshire dealership in 2005. The last Cortina built remains in the Ford Heritage Centre in Dagenham, Essex, not far from the factory where it was assembled.

1982 was also the year in which the Cortina lost its title as Britain’s best selling car, having held that position every year since 1972. It was still selling well though, and the number one position had been taken by another Ford product: the Escort.

Sales success

In 1967, the Ford Cortina interrupted the Austin/Morris 1100/1300s reign as Britain’s best selling car. It was Britain’s best selling car for nine out of ten years between 1972 and 1981, narrowly being outsold by the Ford Escort in 1976.

The final incarnation of the Cortina was Britain’s best selling car in 1980 and 1981, also topping the sales charts for 1979 when the range was making the transition from the fourth generation model to the fifth – in that year it achieved a British record of more than 193,000 sales. Even in 1982, when during its final year of production it was second only to the Ford Escort.

The Cortina was also a very popular selling car in New Zealand throughout its production and continued to be sold new until 1984.

Although the last Cortina rolled off the production line in the summer of 1982, thousands of them remained unsold. More than 11,000 were sold in 1983, and the final six examples didn’t find homes until 1987. Its demise left Ford without a traditional four-door saloon of this size, as the Sierra was initially available only as a hatchback or estate. Ford later addressed this by launching a saloon version of the Sierra (the Sierra Sapphire) at the time of a major facelift in early 1987. It also added an Escort-based four-door saloon, the Orion, to the range in 1983.

A total of nearly 2,600,000 Cortinas were sold in Britain, and in March 2009 it was revealed that the Cortina was still the third most popular car ever sold there, despite having been out of production for nearly three decades.

The BBC Two documentary series Arena had a segment about the car and its enthusiasts.

Racing and rallying

The Cortina also raced in rallies and Lotus did some sportier editions of the Cortina Mark I and Mark II which were marketed as the Ford Cortina Lotus.

Powered by a Lotus engine, the Ford Cortina was a notable competitor in the American-based Trans Am Series. In the inaugural series in 1966, Canadian born Australian driver Allan Moffat shocked the outright cars when he drove a Cortina Lotus to outright victory in Round 3, a 250 mi (400 km) race at the Bryar Motorsports Park in Loudon, New Hampshire.

This car is, today, used for racing, because of its powerful cast iron engine. The car can have imported cylinder heads, with hydraulic valves, which give an enormous power boost.

The Cortina was also a popular car in UK Banger racing in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s proving to be a competitive car and also lasting it out in Demolition Derbys.

Other cars using Cortina engines

The Kent engines used in the Cortina (popularly known as the “Crossflow”), being lightweight, reliable and inexpensive, were popular with several low-volume sports car manufacturers, including Morgan who used them in the 1962–81 4/4 (and continue to use Ford engines in most of their current models). The engines are also found in a number of British kit cars, and until recently was the basis of Formula Ford racing, until replaced by the “Zetec” engine.

The Kent engines were also used in several smaller Fords, most notably the Escort, lower end Capris and Fiesta.

The Pinto overhead cam units used in the Mk.III onwards, as well as being fitted to contemporary Capris, Granadas and Transits, were carried over to the Sierra for its first few years of production, before gradually being phased out by the newer CVH and DOHC units. Like the Kent Crossflow, it was also extensively used in kit cars – as a result many Cortinas were scrapped solely for their engines – the 2.0L Pintos being the most popular.

In recent years, the opposite phenomenon has become popular among enthusiasts, where classic Cortinas have been retrofitted with modern Ford engines – the most popular unit being the Zetec unit from the Mondeo and Focus. The Zetec, although originally intended only for front wheel drive installation can be adapted fairly easily owing to the engine’s use as a replacement for Kent units in Formula Ford.

Non-United Kingdom sales and manufacture

The Cortina was also sold in other right hand drive markets such as the Republic of Ireland where it was assembled locally, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand (local production 1961-76 as a joint venture with Anglo-Thai Motor Company, Ford’s import distributor), Malta and South Africa. Mark III Cortina estates were adopted as police cars in Hong Kong. The Cortina was also assembled in left hand drive (carrying Taunus badging) in the Philippines, in South Korea (by Hyundai), Turkey (by Ford-Otosan in Kocaeli), and in Taiwan (by Ford Lio Ho) until the early 1980s.

The first two generations of the car were also sold through American Ford dealers in the 1960s. The Cortina competed fairly successfully there against most of the other small imports of its day, including GM‘s Opel Kadett, the Renault Dauphine, and the just-appearing Toyotas and Datsuns, although none of them approached the phenomenal success of the Volkswagen Beetle. The Cortina was withdrawn from the US market when Ford decided to produce a domestic small car in 1971, the Ford Pinto, though it continued in Canada until the end of the 1973 model year.

The third generation Cortina was also sold in some continental European markets, such as Scandinavia, alongside the Taunus. A small number were exported to Japan, with the rear of the bodyshell compressed to make it narrower – this was because cars in Japan were taxed on exterior dimensions, and having a narrower body enabled the Cortina to avoid being heavily taxed. The engines offered to Japanese customers were the 1.6 litre and the 2.0 litre with the higher trim package, however, Japanese customers were liable for more annual road tax for the 2.0 litre unit, which affected sales.

The Ford Cortina was also assembled in the Amsterdam Ford Factory from the launch in 1962 until 1975. Production was for the Dutch market, but also for export to non EU countries and even for export to the UK if the demand there was higher than the UK production capacity.

New Zealand

The New Zealand Cortina range generally followed that of Britain. Overall CKD assembly ran from 1962 to 1984, at Ford’s Lower Hutt (Seaview) plant.

The Mark IV Cortina range, introduced into local assembly early in 1977, was very similar to that offered in the UK – a main specification difference, however, was the use of metric instrumentation, and that a 2-door sedan was not offered. Engine sizes of 1.6 and 2.0 litres were available. The 2.0 L was a very popular fleet vehicle and the transport of thousands of sales reps in New Zealand over the years.

Additionally there were limited imports of Australian Mark IV Cortinas, equipped with both 2.0 four-cylinder engines which featured more emissions control equipment than the UK-sourced cars, and the Falcon’s 4.1 L six-cylinder engines.

The Mark V range was introduced early in 1980, a range that featured 1.6 base, 2.0 L, 2.0 GL, 2.0 Ghia, 2.3 V6 Ghia, and wagon variants for the 1.6 base and 2.0 L. In 1982 the 2.0 GL model was discontinued and replaced with a 2.0 S (Sport) model, and unlike in the UK, it was a model in its own right. A 2.0 “van” was also introduced – essentially a Cortina estate without rear seats, aimed towards fleet buyers.

All 2.0-litre models had the option of automatic transmission, and with the 2.3 V6, it was the only transmission offered.

A unique option, offered under guarantee by a dealership, South Auckland Ford, was a turbocharger.

The Ghia models were similarly equipped to UK models, but only the 2.3 V6 models featured imported Ford alloy wheels. Ford ‘Rostyle’ steel rims were fitted to all 2.0 GL, Ghia and S models, optionally on the other models. New Zealand Ghia models, however, did not feature a steel sliding sunroof (fitted as standard on UK Ghia models), although some models did feature an aftermarket sunroof.

Unlike Australia, the Cortina had been a popular car in New Zealand, and was missed by many when it ceased production in mid-1983, notably after Ford New Zealand had scoured the globe for surplus assembly kits, a number of which came from Cork in the Republic of Ireland. Station wagons (estate models) remained available until 1984. The Cortina range was finally replaced by the 1983 Ford Telstar range and the 1984 Ford Sierra station wagon. Sales had been dropping in the early 1980s, however, with the average age of buyers in 1981 being between 45 and 54. Quality and fitment were also issues of concern, with the local assembler welcoming the Cortina’s Mazda-built replacement.[34]

Compared with Britain and many other countries where the Cortina was originally exported, in New Zealand it has a far superior survival rate due to the climate being far drier and more favourable to the preservation of rust-free classic cars. It is not uncommon to see examples in everyday use especially New Zealand’s rural areas, and obtaining spare parts to keep them on the roads is yet to become a significant problem.

Portugal

P100 pick-up

From 1971, the Cortina formed the basis of the Ford P100 pick-up truck, which was produced in South Africa purely for that market. The vehicle had a six-foot load bed with a locally sourced rear body.

In the mid-1970s grey imports of this model to the UK spurred Ford to examine the market for official import. The study culminated in the P100 which was a heavily revised version of the South African product with a seven-foot loadbed and T88 “Pinto” engine. The vehicle was for RHD markets only and was developed under the codename “Atlas” to reflect its market leading one tonne payload capability.

Other markets within Ford’s European operation also wanted the vehicle, so when time came for a follow on product it was decided to source it from a European plant. At the time, Ford had divested from South Africa and sold its stake in Samcor, although it continued to assemble Ford models under licence. All production of the European engineered and Sierra-bodied P100, codename PE45, was produced for Europe in the Azambuja plant in Portugal. This vehicle was available in both RHD and LHD forms.

Ironically, the MK5 Cortina-based P100 was launched in 1982, the year that the standard Cortina was being replaced by the Sierra. However, it remained a popular choice with pick-up truck buyers until the Sierra-based P100 was launched in 1988; this version lasted until the end of Sierra production in early 1993.

South Africa

In South Africa, the Cortina range included V6 “Essex”-engined variants, in both 2.5L and 3.0L forms.

From July 1971, a locally designed pick-up truck version (known in Afrikaans as a “bakkie”) was also offered, and this remained in production after the Cortina was replaced by the Sierra. The Cortina pick-up was exported to the UK, in a lengthened wheelbase form, as the Ford P100 until 1988, when Ford divested from South Africa, and a European built pick-up truck version of the Sierra was introduced in its place.

The Mk V model range, introduced in 1980 for the South African market included: 1.3L (1980–1982), 1.6L GL (1980–1983), 2.0 GL, Ghia, (1980–1984), 3.0 XR6 (1980–1983), 1.6L Estate (1980–1983), 2.0 GL Estate (1980–1983), 3.0 GLS (1980–1984), 1.6 One-Tonner (1980–1985), 3.0 One-Tonner (1980–1985).

The XR6 was a sports version which used the Essex v6 and featured body aerofoils and sport seats.

In 1981 a version called the XR6 Intercepter was released as a homologation special made to compete in production car racing. They featured triple Weber DCNF carburetors, aggressive camshaft, tubular exhaust manifold, suspension revisions and wider Ronal 13 inch wheels. They produced 118 kW and were only available in red. 200 were produced.

Later on a special edition XR6 TF was released to celebrate ‘Team Fords’ racing success with the XR6. They were essentially XR6s in exterior and interior Team Ford colours, which were blue and white.

In 1983 a special version was created by Simpson Ford to appease the demand for an Intercepter-like Cortina and was sold through Ford dealerships countrywide. It was called the XR6 X-ocet and featured a Holley carbureter, aggressive camshaft and tuned exhaust. They came in red with a white lower quarter and did 0–100 km/h (62 mph) in 8.5 seconds with a top speed of 195 km/h (121 mph).

South African Mk V models differed slightly from UK models with different wheels, bumpers and interior trim.

The last brand new Cortina was sold in South Africa by mid-1984. It was often the country’s top selling car, being far more popular than the Sierra, Telstar and Mondeo models that followed it.

Ford Motor Company Part VIII – the Ford Corsair

Ford Corsair

The name Ford Corsair was used both for a car produced by Ford of Britain between 1963 and 1970 and for an unrelated Nissan based automobile marketed by Ford Australia between 1989 and 1992.

Ford Consul Corsair (1963-1965), Ford Corsair V4 (1965-1970) – Britain

Ford Consul Corsair
1965 Ford Consul Corsair
Overview
Manufacturer Ford of Britain
Production 1964–1970
310,000 made
Assembly Halewood, England (1964-1969)
Dagenham, England (1969-1970)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door saloon
2-door saloon
2-door convertible
5-door estate car
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 101.0 in (2,565 mm)
Length 176.75 in (4,489 mm)
Width 63.5 in (1,613 mm)
Height 55.5 in (1,410 mm)
Kerb weight 2,194 lb (995 kg)
Chronology
Successor Ford Cortina mark 3

The Ford Consul Corsair, manufactured by Ford Motor Company in the United Kingdom, was a midsize car introduced at the London Motor Show in October 1963 and available as either a saloon or estate from 1964 until 1970. There was also a convertible version built by Crayford, which is now very rare and highly sought after as a classic. Two-door Corsair saloons are also rare, being built only to order in the UK, although volume two-door production continued for some export markets. Only one example of the fleet model, the Consul Corsair Standard, is known to exist.

1966 Ford Corsair V4 Abbott estate

Ford Corsair V4 estate 1966. The stylish Corsair estate conversion was produced by Abbott. It was more expensive than most permutations of the Cortina estate but offered no more load carrying capability. It was never a big seller.

The Corsair replaced the Consul Classic range and was essentially a long wheelbase re-skinned Cortina (the windscreen and much of the internal panelling was the same). The Corsair had unusual and quite bold styling for its day, with a sharp horizontal V-shaped crease at the very front of the car into which round headlights were inset. This gave the car an apparently aerodynamic shape. The jet-like styling extended to the rear where sharply pointed vertical light clusters hinted at fins. The overall styling was clearly inspired by the early 1960s Ford Thunderbird, though in transferring the look to a British family car, the overall effect is something of an acquired taste. This American styling cue had also been adapted by Ford, in Germany, for the (at the time controversially styled) 1960 Ford Taunus 17M.

1967 Ford Corsair V4 2-door convertible

Ford Corsair V4 2-door convertible 1967. The Corsair convertible was a product of Crayford Auto Developmentswhich was first exhibited at the London Motor Show in October 1966

1969 Ford Corsair 2000E 1996cc

With the vinyl roofed Corsair 2000E Ford attempted to compete on price half a class up in the category dominated (in the UK) by the Rover 2000 andTriumph 2000.

The car was initially offered with the larger 60 bhp (45 kW), single carburettor, 1.5 L Kent engine that was also used in the smaller Cortina, in standard and GT form. In 1964 twins Tony and Michael Brookes’ team in a Kent engined (straight four) Corsair GT set 13 World Speed records at Monza in Italy averaging over 100 mph (160 km/h) for 15,000 miles (24,000 km) in the under 1500 cc class. The range was revised in September 1965, adopting new Ford Essex V4 engines that many say spoiled rather than enhanced the car, as it had an out of balance couple, making it rough at idle and coarse on the road. This engine was available in 1663 cc form at first, but later in 1966, a larger 2.0 litre L version was offered alongside. One marketing tag line for the V4 models was “The Car That Is Seen But Not Heard”, which was a real stretch of the ad man’s puff, given the inherent characteristics of the engine. The other tag was “I’ve got a V in my bonnet”. A 3.0 litre conversion using the Ford Essex V6 engine was available in Britain in conjunction with Jeff Uren‘s Race company and was known as the “Corsair Savage.”

An estate car by Abbott was added to the range on the eve of the Geneva Motor Show in March 1966 and in 1967, the Corsair also underwent the Executive treatment like its smaller Cortina sibling, giving the 2000E model with dechromed flanks, which necessitated non styled-in door handles, special wheel trims, reversing lights, a vinyl roof and upgraded cabin fittings. The 2000E, priced at £1,008 in 1967, was positioned as a cut price alternative to the Rover 2000, the introduction of which had effectively defined a new market segment for four cylinder executive sedans in the UK three years earlier: the Corsair 2000E comfortably undercut the £1,357 Rover 2000 and, indeed, the less ambitiously priced Humber Sceptre then retailing at an advertised £1,047.

The Corsair’s performance was good for a car of its type and period, with a top speed in its 2.0 L V4 version of 110 miles per hour (180 km/h) as measured by the speedometer,[6] and exceptional acceleration at full throttle resulting from the progressive 28/36mm twin-choke Weber downdraught carburettor (“progressive” in the sense that second carburettor would start to open only once the first was fully open). A popular story circulated that if the car were driven at speeds over 80 miles per hour (130 km/h), its wedge-shaped nose would generate sufficient lift to make the vehicle dangerously unstable. However, this story was shown to be an urban myth when Corsair set World records at Monza (see above), running at 110 miles per hour (180 km/h) for hour upon hour without the slightest apparent effect.

The Corsair was replaced by the Mk 3 Cortina in 1970, at which time the enlarged Cortina became Ford’s midsized car, and a new smaller model, the Escort, had already filled in the size below. The new Ford Capri took on the performance and sporty aspirations of the company.

Over its six-year production, 310,000 Corsairs were built.

Ford Corsair UA – Australia

Ford Corsair UA
1989–1992 Ford Corsair (UA) GL sedan, photographed in Sutherland, New South Wales, Australia.

Ford Corsair (UA) GL sedan
Overview
Manufacturer Nissan Australia
Production 1989–1992
Assembly Clayton, Australia
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door hatchback
Layout FF layout
Related Nissan Pintara
Powertrain
Engine 1,974 cc CA20E I4
2,389 cc KA24E I4
Chronology
Predecessor Ford Telstar
Successor Ford Telstar

Between 1989 and 1992, the Ford Corsair name was used by Ford Australia for a badge engineered version of the Nissan Pintara (a version of the Bluebird). Known during development as ‘Project Matilda‘, the Corsair was produced under a model-sharing scheme known as the Button Plan. It was offered as a four-door sedan and as a five-door hatchback, in GL and Ghia trim levels with 2.0 L (CA20E) and 2.4 L (KA24E) four cylinder engines. The Corsair was intended to replace the Mazda 626-based Ford Telstar, which was imported from Japan. The two were sold side-by-side in the Australian Ford range, with the Telstar only available as the high-performance TX5 hatchback. When Nissan closed its Australian plant in 1992, the Corsair was discontinued and the imported Telstar once again became Ford’s main offering in the medium size segment, until being replaced by the Mondeo in 1995.

Ford Motor Company Part VII – The Ford Corcel

Ford Corcel (Stallion)

Ford Corcel
1974 Ford Corcel GT

1974 Ford Corcel GT
Overview
Manufacturer Ford do Brasil
Also called Ford Belina
Production 1968–1986
Assembly São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Valencia, Venezuela
Body and chassis
Related Ford Del Rey
Ford Pampa
Renault 12

The Ford Corcel (“stallion” in Portuguese) is a car which was sold by the Ford Motor Company in Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, and Venezuela. It was also assembled in Venezuela (along with the Del Rey). The French-influenced styling of the Corcel was unique to Brazil until late 1977. From this year, the redesigned Corcel II (as it was originally sold) bore a strong resemblance to the European Ford Escort and Granada of same era, but its Renault underpinnings remained the same. The Corcel was eventually replaced by the Del Rey, which was originally introduced as the sedan/coupe version of the Corcel.

Origins

1969 Ford Corcel Coupe y Sedan

 Original Corcel, 1969

The Corcel’s origins lay in the Renault 12. Willys-Overland‘s Brazilian operations included manufacturing the Renault Dauphine as the Willys Dauphine/Gordini/1093/Teimoso. Plans were underway to replace this outmoded range with a new car based on the upcoming Renault 12, internally referred to as “Project M”. When Willys do Brasil was bought by Ford do Brasil in 1967, Ford inherited the project. The Corcel was actually presented nearly two years before the Renault 12.

Corcel I

Ford Corcel (first generation)
1973 Ford Corcel Luxo - first year of front facelift, a bit more squared and muscular in appearance

1973 Ford Corcel Luxo
Overview
Manufacturer Ford do Brasil
Production 1968–1977
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupé
4-door sedan
3-door wagon
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
Related Renault 12
Powertrain
Engine 1,289 cc Renault 810 OHV I4
1,372 cc 1300-B OHV I4
1,372 cc XP OHV I4 (GT)
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,440 mm (96 in)
Length 4,390–4,410 mm (173–174 in)
Width 1,610 mm (63 in)
Height 1,370–1,430 mm (54–56 in)
Curb weight 920–1,005 kg (2,028–2,216 lb)
1973 Ford Corcel Luxo - rear

 Ford Corcel Luxo 1973, rear view

The first year of production of the Brazilian Ford Corcel was 1968, when it debuted as a four-door sedan at São Paulo. It was originally equipped with the 1.3 L (1,289 cc) 68 hp (51 kW) water-cooled overhead-valve “Cléon” engine picked directly from the Renault 12, albeit with a slightly lower compression ratio of 8:1 to allow it to run on 70 octane gasoline. A coupé was added in 1969 to target the second-car market, quickly becoming the fastest-selling version, followed by a three-door station wagon version called “Belina” in March 1970.

1975 Mark 1½ Ford Belina wagon, facelift version

 “Mark 1½” Ford Belina wagon, 1975 facelift version

The early Corcels had severe quality issues and sales suffered accordingly, but after Ford do Brasil received a new head (Joseph W. O’Neill) in 1970 the decision was made to ameliorate the situation. In Brazil’s first automotive recall, 65,000 owners were contacted and free repairs were made available; the Corcel once again became Ford’s biggest selling model in 1971. In 1971 two new models appeared, with the L (for “Luxo“) and the more powerful GT version added. The GT benefitted from a twin-barrel carburettor (“1300-C”) and offered 80 hp (60 kW) and could reach 141 km/h (88 mph) rather than the 135 km/h (84 mph) of the regular versions. Each passing year running styling changes were made, borrowing several details from the Ford Maverick, and becoming more and more like a pony car in appearance. The GT was updated in the form of new decals every year, and eventually also got a larger, more powerful engine.

The facelifted Corcel I (sometimes called the “Mark 1½”) arrived in 1973 and had a more aggressive look compared to the more conservative 1968 version. Some of the L and all GT versions were also equipped with a new, bored out 1.4-litre (1,372 cc) version of the existing engine. Claimed power for the regular Corcel was 75 hp (56 kW) (SAE gross), with 85 hp (63 kW) on tap at 5,400 rpm from the “XP” engine used in the GT, with its double-barrel carburettor. For SAE net, these figures became 72 hp (54 kW) and 77 hp (57 kW).

In 1975 a minor facelift occurred, in which the grille and headlight surrounds were subtly changed and the Ford logo moved from the grille onto the leading edge of the bonnet, along with the existing “F O R D” script. The taillights were now single-piece units. Also new for 1975 was the luxurious “LDO” version, available as a coupé or estate. Meanwhile, the locally developed 1.4 gradually replaced the old 1.3 throughout the lineup. This was very easy to modify for greater power and some dealers had the option to install an unofficial small tuning kit that would improve the engine’s horsepower to 95 (SAE Gross). Note that all of these power outputs were achieved using the low quality, low octane petrol available in South America at the time.

The Corcel GT was moderately successful in Brazilian Tarumã, Interlagos and beach rally street car championships during the 1970s, thanks to its front-wheel-drive stability and low weight (920 kg), which allowed a high power-to-weight ratio. It would not be faster than the V-8 Maverick and Chevrolet Opala, but it would beat everything else, including four- and six-cylinder Mavericks and some Dodge Chargers that partook of the events. These competitions uncovered that the front drive universal joint was prone to break under heavy stress, so in 1976 the Corcel line switched to constant-velocity joints.

Corcel II

Ford Corcel II
Ford Corcel II Itanhaém
Overview
Manufacturer Ford do Brasil
Also called Ford Belina
Production 1977–1986
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door fastback sedan
3-door wagon
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
Front-engine, four-wheel-drive layout
Related Ford Del Rey
Ford Pampa
Renault 12
Powertrain
Engine 1372 cc 1300-B OHV I4
1555 cc CHT OHV I4
1781 cc VW AP-1800 I4
Transmission 4/5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,440 mm (96 in)
Length 4,470–4,520 mm (176–178 in)
Width 1,660 mm (65 in)
Height 1,350–1,360 mm (53–54 in)
Curb weight 862–917 kg (1,900–2,022 lb)
Chronology
Successor Ford Del Rey

In 1977, for the 1978 model year, Ford launched the Corcel II. The second generation had a completely remade design and straight lines as opposed to the pony car style of the original Corcel. These changes were also applied to the Belina, while the four-door version was dropped in response to lack of consumer interest. The resulting two-door sedan was of a fastback style, with long and heavy doors. Originally equipped with the same 1.4-litre four as the first Corcel, the engine was now rated at 54 PS (40 kW) DIN for the base, Luxo, and LDO versions. The somewhat sporting GT received 57 PS (42 kW), courtesy of a twin-barrel Solexcarburettor. The Corcel II was also used for an FIA Group 1 one-marque championship in Brazil, in the years of 1979 to 1983.

The Ford Del Rey was introduced in 1981, with a more upright roofline and available four-door bodywork. The Del Rey also had a reworked, more square front design. A station wagon version of the Del Rey (called the Ford Scala until 1986) differed from the Belina only in trim and in the front design. The traditional Ford name Victoria was to be used on this version but was dropped at the last minute. The Ford Corcel II also provided the basis for a pick-up version called the Ford Pampa in 1982, although this used the shorter front doors of the four-door Ford Del Rey since there was no need to access the back seat. The Pampa would eventually also be available with four-wheel drive.

Ford Belina, a station wagon based on the Corcel II

 Ford Belina (wagon)

As of 1982, the engine was a CHT, an improved version of the Ventoux engine used in the first Corcel of 1968. It had already been bored and stroked to 1,555 cc years earlier, but with a redesigned cylinder head, a rotating valve design and many other peripheral improvements it received a new name and a new lease on life.

Facelift

All had a slight face lift for the 1985 model year. The Corcel II became known again simply as the Corcel. The interior was now the same for all four models. Externally, the Corcel and the Del Rey differed at the rear; the Corcel received fastback-style bodywork while the Del Rey was of a more traditional sedan design. The Belina and the Scala, however, had by now lost nearly all of their interior/exterior differences and became near identical: only a few details, such as the taillamps, differentiated these two models. Between 1985 and 1987 the Belina was made available with the same four-wheel-drive system used in the Pampa. This system seemed to have questionable reliability; Quatro Rodas magazine did a long-term test of a Belina 4×4 (50,000 km) in which breakdowns were very frequent – the resulting bad reputation led to Belina 4×4 production ending after only a few model years, while the Pampa 4×4 continued to be available.

Ford Corcel II in Montevideo, Uruguay.

 rear view of Ford Corcel II, showing fastback rear styling

1986 was the last year for the Corcel. The Belina was also discontinued in 1986, but its name was from then on applied to what had been the Scala (a name that had never really caught on) as the “Del Rey Belina”. In 1989, as a result of the Autolatina joint-venture, the higher output Volkswagen AP-1800 engine replaced the 1.6 litre unit in all models of the Del Rey and Belina, and was made available in all models of the Pampa except for the ones with four-wheel drive.

The Del Rey and the “new” Belina were discontinued in 1991, being replaced by the Ford Versailles and Ford Royale respectively (Passat B2 version fascia). The Pampa continued to be sold on until 1997, with Ford introducing the smaller, Fiesta-based Ford Courier a year later.

Notes

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b World Cars 1984. Pelham, NY: L’Editrice dell’Automobile LEA/Herald Books. 1984. p. 404. ISBN 0-910714-16-9.
  2. Jump up^ Castaings, Francis. “Páginas da História: R12 francês, um sucesso mundial” [Historic Pages: France’s R12, a Global Success] (in Portuguese). Best Cars Web Site. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
  3. Jump up^ Braunschweig, Robert et al., eds. (March 14, 1974). “Automobil Revue ’74” (in German and French) 69. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag. p. 311. ISSN 0005-1314.
  4. Jump up^ World Cars 1972. Bronxville, NY: L’Editrice dell’Automobile LEA/Herald Books. 1972. pp. 266–67. ISBN 0-910714-04-5.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b Castaings, Francis. “Carros do passado: O cavalo Brasileiro (2)” [Nostalgic Cars: The Brazilian Horse (2)] (in Portuguese). Best Cars. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
  6. Jump up^ Castaings, Francis. “Carros do Passado: O cavalo brasileiro” [Nostalgic Cars: The Brazilian Horse (1)] (in Portuguese). Best Cars Web Site. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
  7. Jump up^ World Cars 1972, p. 268
  8. Jump up^ Automobil Revue ’74, p. 312
  9. Jump up^ World Cars 1976. Bronxville, NY: L’Editrice dell’Automobile LEA/Herald Books. 1976. pp. 252–253. ISBN 0-910714-08-8.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Castaings, Francis. “Carros do Passado: O cavalo brasileiro” [Nostalgic Cars: The Brazilian Horse (3)] (in Portuguese). Best Cars Web Site. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
  11. Jump up^ World Cars 1977. Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books. 1977. p. 254. ISBN 0-910714-09-6.
  12. Jump up^ Lösch, Annamaria, ed. (1978). World Cars 1978. Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books. p. 318. ISBN 0-910714-10-X.

Ford Motor Company Part VI – The Ford Consul Classic

Ford Consul Classic

Ford Consul Classic
1962 Ford Classic four door registered May 1498cc

Ford Consul Classic 4 door saloon
Overview
Manufacturer Ford of Britain
Also called Ford Consul 315 (export markets)
Production 1961–1963
111,225 made.
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
Related Ford Consul Capri (335)
Powertrain
Engine 1.3 or 1.5 L Straight-4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 99 in (2,515 mm)
Length 170.75 in (4,337 mm)
Width 65 in (1,651 mm)
Height 56 in (1,422 mm)
Curb weight 2070 pounds (940 kg)
Chronology
Predecessor Ford Consul
Successor Ford Corsair
1963 Ford Classic two door 1498cc

 Ford Consul Classic 2-door
1962 Ford Consul Classic

 Ford Consul Classic

The Ford Consul Classic is a mid-sized car which was built by Ford in the United Kingdom from 1961 to 1963. It was available in two or four door saloon form, in Standard or De Luxe versions, and with floor or column gearshift. The name Ford Consul 315 was used for export markets. The Ford Consul Capri was a 2-door coupé version of the Classic, and was available from 1961 until 1964.

It is sometimes referred to as the Ford 109E, though that was only one of four such codes utilized for the Consul Classic, as explained below. Obvious competitor models at the time included the Hillman Minx and Singer Gazelle from Rootes Group.

Ford Classic model codes

The Classic (and related Consul Capri) had the Right Hand Drive and home market Ford code of 109E (but 110E if L.H.D.) for 1961–1962 models with 1340cc engines, or 116E (but 117E for L.H.D.) for 1962–1963 manufacture with 1500cc engines. Those codes also distinguish the gearboxes and steering components which are not greasable on later cars, so cutting first-user servicing costs. Despite all these codes the cars all looked the same throughout production 1961–1963, the visual distinctions being the number of doors, the trim & equipment level between Standard and De Luxe and their exciting choice of colours.

Concept and development

The Classic was made by Ford to be “suitable for the golf club car park”, and was originally intended for introduction earlier and deletion later than actually occurred. The styling exercises were mainly undertaken in 1956 under Colin Neale. The main styling cues came straight from Dearborn, as they so often did, defining the car as a scaled down Galaxie 500, from the waist down, topped with a Lincoln Continental roofline. Other aspects of R&D followed, and it is likely that a recognisably similar car could have been introduced in 1959 subject to different senior management decisions. In practice the run-away early success of the Anglia (1959 on) used up most of the car manufacturing capacity at Dagenham, vindicating the decision to compete against the BMC Mini (the Halewood plant did not open until 1963). Ford therefore entered the 1960s with the small Anglia, Popular and Prefect, the big “three graces” launched back in 1956, and not the mid-size market Classic.

Description

The Ford Classic was similar in appearance to the more popular Ford Anglia, featuring the same distinctive reverse-rake rear window. This feature was imported from the 1958 Lincoln Continental where it was necessitated by the design requirement for an opening (breezway) rear window. With quad headlamps and different frontal treatment it was longer, wider and so heavier than the Anglia. In fact, from the windows down the body design was a scaled down version of Ford’s huge, US Ford Galaxie. Inside, the separate front seats and rear bench had a standard covering of PVC but leather was available as an option. There was a choice of floor-mounted or column-mounted gear change. Single or two-tone paint schemes were offered. Several of the car’s features, unusual at the time, have subsequently become mainstream such as the headlight flasher (“found on many Continental cars”) and the variable speed windscreen wipers.[4] The boot or trunk capacity was exceptionally large, with a side-stowed spare-wheel well, and more important, the huge high-lift sprung lid allowed a great variety of loads to be both contemplated and packed. At 21 cubic feet, this was 15% larger than Zodiac mk2 and had obvious advantages for business use.

The Consul Classic was also mechanically similar to the Anglia, and used slightly larger 1340 cc and from 1962 1498 cc variants of the Ford Kent Engine. The car had front 9.5 in (241 mm) disc brakes and was fitted with a four-speed gearbox: early cars provided synchromesh on the top three ratios, while the arrival of the 1498 cc version coincided with the provision of synchromesh on all forward gears. Suspension was independent at the front using MacPherson struts, and at the rear the live axle used semi elliptic leaf springs. A contemporary road tester was impressed, noting that “probably the most impressive thing about the Classic is its road holding”.

Performance

A car tested by The Motor magazine in 1961 had a top speed of 78.4 mph (126.2 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 22.5 seconds. A fuel consumption of 35.8 miles per imperial gallon (7.9 L/100 km; 29.8 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car was a 4-door deluxe version costing £801 including taxes, but the sticker price on a two-door standard Classic with the same engine was just £745 including taxes.

Replacement

The Consul Classic was complex and expensive to produce and was replaced in 1963 by the Ford Corsair which was largely based on Ford Cortina components. Only 111,225 Classics and 18,716 Capris were produced (Including 2002 ‘GT’ Versions). These are small numbers by Ford standards, and probably indicative of the public not taking to the controversial styling along with the availability of the cheaper, similar sized Cortina.

Consul Capri

Ford Consul Capri
1963 Ford Consul Capri

1962 Ford Consul Capri
Overview
Manufacturer Ford of Britain
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupé
Related Ford Consul Classic
Powertrain
Engine 1340 cc I4 (OHV)
1498 cc I4 (OHV)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 99 in (2,515 mm)
Length 170.75 in (4,337 mm)
Width 65.3 in (1,659 mm)
Height 54 in (1,372 mm)
Kerb weight 2,100 lb (953 kg) approx

The Consul Capri was a two-door coupé version of the Classic saloon made by Ford of Britain.

The Capri Project was code named “Sunbird” and took design elements from the Ford Thunderbird and the Ford Galaxie Starliner. It was instigated by Sir Horace Denne, Ford’s Sales Director. He wanted a “co-respondent’s” car to add glamour to the product line. It was designed by Charles Thompson who worked under Neale and had sweeping lines, a large boot space and a pillarless coupé roof.

On its September announcement the Consul Capri was for export only but went on sale to the domestic British market in January 1962. The bodies were sub-assembled by Pressed Steel Company, with only final assembly of the drivetrain taking place at Dagenham and from February 1963 at Halewood. It was intended as part of the Ford Classic range of cars but the body was complex and expensive to produce. With new production methods, time demands from Dearborn and a need to match opposition manufacturers in price, the Ford Classic and Consul Capri were almost doomed from the start. The Ford Classic was made from 1961 to 1963, and replaced by the Cortina-derived Ford Corsair.

The Consul Capri included Ford Classic De-Luxe features, including four headlights, variable speed wipers, 9.5 in (241 mm) front disc brakes, dimming dashboard lights, and a cigar lighter. The four-speed transmission was available with either a column or floor change. It was proclaimed as “The First Personal car from Ford of Great Britain” (Ford of Great Britain, sales literature, December 1961)

Initially fitted with a 1340 cc 3 main bearing engine (model 109E), the early cars were considered underpowered and suffered from premature crankshaft failure. Engine capacity was increased in August 1962 to 1498 cc (model 116E) and this engine with its new 5 bearing crankshaft was a vast improvement. The first 200 Capris were left-hand-drive cars for export including Europe and North America. In Germany at the 1961 Frankfurt Auto Show, Ford sold 88 Capris.

In February 1963 a GT version (also 116E) was announced. The new GT engine, developed by Cosworth, featured a raised compression ratio to 9:1, a modified head with larger exhaust valves, an aluminium inlet manifold, a four branch exhaust manifold and, most noticeably, a twin-choke Weber carburettor – this being the first use of this make on a British production car. The same engine was announced for use in the Ford Cortina in April 1963.

Overall the car was very expensive to produce and in the latter part of its production was running alongside the very popular Ford Cortina. Sales were disappointing and the Consul Capri was removed from sale after two and a half years with 19,421 sold, of which 2002 were GT models. 1007 cars were sold in 1964, the last year of production, 412 of them being GTs. The Consul Capri was discontinued in July 1964. The Consul Capri (335) is one of the rarest cars from Ford of Great Britain.

A Capri was tested by the British The Motor magazine in 1962 and had a top speed of 79.0 mph (127.1 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 22.6 seconds. A fuel consumption of 36.7 miles per imperial gallon (7.7 L/100 km; 30.6 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £915 including taxes of £288.

1962 Ford Consul Capri (335)

 Ford Consul Capri (335)

Ford Motor Company Part V – The Ford Consul

Ford Consul

Ford Consul
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Ford Consul II convertible
Overview
Manufacturer Ford of Britain
Production 1951–1962; 1972–1975
Chronology
Predecessor Ford Pilot
Successor Ford Cortina

The Ford Consul is a car which was manufactured by Ford in Britain from 1951 to 1962. The name was later revived for a model produced by Ford in both Britain and Germany from 1972 to 1975.

Between 1951 and 1962 the Consul was the four-cylinder base model of the three-model Ford Zephyr range, comprising Consul, Zephyr and Zephyr Zodiac. In 1962 the line was restyled, and the Consul was replaced by the Zephyr 4, the mid-range Zephyr model becoming the Zephyr 6 and the top of the range Zephyr Zodiac just being called the Zodiac. At this point Consul became a range of smaller cars in its own right, initially the Consul Classic and Consul Capri, shortly joined by the even smaller Consul Cortina. The Consul Classic and Consul Capri were only made for two years, before being replaced by the Consul Corsair.

The Classic, the Capri (made until 1963) and the Corsair (made from 1963 until 1970) were relatively short-lived, but the Ford Cortina, after losing (along with the Corsair) the “Consul” tag in 1964, went on to become a best-seller. The Consul name reappeared from 1972 to 1975 on a replacement for the Zephyr range, now sharing a body with the more luxurious Ford Granada Mk I. The Capri name by now had also been reintroduced, in 1969.

Ford Consul Mk1 (1951–1956)

Ford Consul
Ford Consul MkI (EOTA). Carbodies of Coventry converted Ford Consul and Zephyr bodies.
Overview
Production 1951–1956
227,732 produced.
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door saloon, estate car, convertible.
Powertrain
Engine 1.5 L Straight-4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 100 in (2,540 mm)
Length 164 in (4,166 mm)
Width 64 in (1,626 mm)
Height 61 in (1,500 mm)(convertible)

The Consul was first shown at the 1950 London Motor Show and was the start of Ford of Britain’s successful attack on the family saloon car market and replaced the larger-engined V-8 Pilot which had only been made in small numbers. It was given the Ford code of EOTA. Most cars were 4-door saloons with body design by George Walker of the parent United States Ford company, but a few estate cars were made by the coachbuilder Abbott. From 1953 a convertible conversion by Carbodies became available. The body was reinforced by welding in a large X-frame to the floor pan. Unlike the more expensive Zephyr, the hood (convertible top) had to be put up and down manually.

It was also the first car they built with up-to-date technology. The new 1508 cc 47 bhp (35 kW)  engine had overhead valves, and hydraulic clutch operation was used, which in 1950 was an unusual feature. However, a three-speed gearbox, with synchromesh only on second and top, was retained. The Consul was also the first British production car to use the now-common MacPherson strut independent front suspension, and was the first British Ford with modern unibody construction.

There was a bench front seat trimmed in PVC, and the handbrake was operated by an umbrella-style pull lever under the facia (dash). The windscreen wipers used the antiquated vacuum system: however, they were now operated from a vacuum pump linked to the camshaft-driven fuel pump rather than to the induction manifold as on Ford’s earlier applications of this arrangement. Clearly keen to keep things positive, a 1950 road test by the British Autocar Magazine, reported that the wipers were “free from the disadvantage of early suction driven wipers that dried up at wide throttle opening … and spare[d] the battery”. The instruments, consisting of speedometer, ammeter and fuel gauge, were positioned in a housing above the steering column, and there was a full-width parcel shelf on which an optional radio could be placed.

A car tested by The Motor magazine in 1953 had a top speed of 72 mph (116 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 28 seconds. A fuel consumption of 26 miles per imperial gallon (11 L/100 km; 22 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £732 including taxes.

Ford Consul MkII (1956–1962)

Ford Consul II
1962 Ford Consul

Ford Consul Mark II Saloon (circa 1962)
Overview
Production 1956–1962
371,585 fixed roof and 9398 convertibles produced
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door saloon
4-door estate
2-door coupé utility (Australia only)
2-door convertible.
Powertrain
Engine 1.7 L Straight-4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 104 in (2,642 mm)
Length 172 in (4,369 mm)
Width 69 in (1,753 mm)
Height 60 in (1,524 mm)
Curb weight 2,700 lb (1,225 kg)

In 1956 a new Consul appeared with the Ford code of 204E. The car was still the four-cylinder sub-model of the Zephyr range, with which it shared the same basic body shell. Compared with the original it had a longer wheelbase, larger 1703 cc, 59 bhp (44 kW) engine and a complete restyle, borrowing cues from the 1956 models of America’s Thunderbird and Fairlane. One thing not updated was the windscreen wipers, which were still vacuum-operated. The roof profile was lowered in 1959 on the Mk2 version, which also had redesigned rear lights and much of the external bright work in stainless steel. Front disc brakes with vacuum servo appeared as an option in 1960 and were made standard in 1961 (4-wheel drum brakes only, in Australia). The name became the Consul 375 in mid-1961.

The convertible version made by Carbodies continued. A De Luxe version with contrasting roof colour and higher equipment specification was added in 1957. The Australian market had factory-built versions of the coupé utility (pick up) and estate car (station wagon), as well as a locally engineered version of the saloon. They were also imported by Ford of Canada as a companion to the Falcon.

A Consul MkII tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1956 had a top speed of 79.3 mph (127.6 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 23.2 seconds. A fuel consumption of 22.1 miles per imperial gallon (12.8 L/100 km; 18.4 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £781 including taxes. It was a 1960 Ford Consul MkII that was the taxi that American singer Eddie Cochran died in, and not, as many have stated, a London Hackney Cab.

Ford Consul (Granada MkI based) (1972–1975)

Ford Consul (Granada MkI based)
1970s Ford Consul (10362664283)

Ford Consul 4-door Saloon (1972-75)
Overview
Production 1972–1975
Assembly Cologne, Germany
Dagenham United Kingdom
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
2-door coupé
5-door estate
Related Ford Granada MkI
Powertrain
Engine 1.7 L Taunus V4
1.7 L Essex V4
2.0 L Essex V4
2.0 L Pinto L4
2.3 L Cologne V6
2.5 L Essex V6
3.0 L Essex V6
Transmission 4-speed manual
automatic optional
Dimensions
Wheelbase 107 in (2,718 mm)
Length 180 in (4,572 mm)
Width 70 in (1,778 mm)
Height 54 in (1,372 mm)
Main article: Ford Granada (Europe)

The Ford Consul name was revived in April 1972 for the lower priced, lower specification variants of the newly introduced Ford Granada. Developed jointly by Ford Britain and Ford of Germany, the cars were built in Cologne in West Germany and in Dagenham in the United Kingdom. Consul models can be identified by a two panel cross-mesh grille as opposed to the horizontal chrome bar grille of the Granadas.

Consul, Consul L and Consul GT models were offered  and were available in 2-door saloon, 4-door saloon, 2-door coupé and 5-door estate bodystyles. Unlike the previous Zephyr Estate, the Consul Estate was produced by Ford rather than by an outside contractor.

The 1663 cc Essex V4 and 1996 cc Essex V4 with 77 and 92 Hp respectively and a 2495 cc Essex V6 with 118 hp (88 kW) were the power units offered in the UK. In addition, the Consul GT was powered by the 2994 cc Essex V6 engine providing 138 hp (103 kW). Because it was less well equipped than the similarly powered Granada, it was approximately 1 long cwt (110 lb; 51 kg) lighter and correspondingly quicker. This version has gained cult status due to its regular appearance in the original series of television show The Sweeney. In late 1974 the Essex V4 was replaced by the 2.0 litre Pinto engine.

In Germany the Consul was offered with a choice of German built Ford engines, starting with the 1680 cc Ford Taunus V4 engine familiar to drivers of the Ford Taunus 17M. The 2.0 litre Straight-4 and a 2.3 litreV6 were also available.

The Consul name was discontinued in late 1975 after the UK Court of Appeal ruled that Granada Group could not prevent Ford registering the name Granada as a trademark. The Granada name was then applied to all models.

See also

Ford Motor Company Part IV – The Ford Comète

Ford Comète

Ford Comète1951-54 Ford Comète
Overview
Manufacturer Ford SAF
Production 1951–1954
Body and chassis
Class 4-seater sports car
Body style 2-door coupé
2-door cabriolet
(only 2 produced)
Layout FR layout
Related Ford Vedette
Powertrain
Engine 2,158 cc Aquillon V8
till 1952
2,355 cc Aquillon V8
1952-
3,923 cc Mistral V8
1953-1954
Transmission 3-speed manual
Dimensions
Length 4,620 mm (182 in)
Width 1,740 mm (69 in)
Height 1,420 mm (56 in)
Curb weight 1,290 kg (2,840 lb)

The Ford Comète (also the Simca Comète) was a car built between 1951 and 1954 in France by the Ford Motor Company‘s French subsidiary, Ford SAF. Intended as the luxury model in the range, the Comète’s bodywork was built by FACEL, who later produced the better-known Facel Vega luxury cars under their own name. The original engine was a 2.2 L V8 produced by Ford SAF of French design, also used in the Ford Vedette, with a Pont-à-Mousson 4-speed manual transmission fitted.

The original model had a single horizontal bar across the grille with a chromed shield or bullet in the centre, somewhat similar to contemporary Studebaker products, among others, with steel wheels and chromed hubcaps.

More power for 1953

In October 1952, for the Paris Motor Show, the Comète appeared with an engine enlarged from 2,158 cc to 2,355 cc. Claimed horse-power was raised from 68 hp to 80 hp indicating that there was more to the engine upgrade than simply an increase in the cylinder bore from 66.0 mm to 67.9 mm. (The stroke remained unchanged at 81.3 mm.) The most obvious of several other engine enhancements at this stage was the increase in the compression ratio from 6.8 : 1 to 7.4 : 1, reflecting the appearance of slightly higher octane fuels. Torque and engine flexibility were also improved and the claimed top speed increased from 130 km/h (81 mph) to 145 km/h (90 mph).

Much more power available for 1954

Available from the start of 1954, a new “Monte-Carlo” model appeared with the 3,923 cc V8 engine normally fitted to Ford trucks; this engine, befitting its truck heritage, delivered 78 kW (105 hp) with plenty of torque. Performance was much improved, but the new engine did not endear itself to buyers of the car having a “truck engine”, The engine’s large displacement meant that its taxed horsepower rating imposed by the French government was 22CV, giving a high road tax in a country where government taxation policy, especially after 1948, was high for cars with engine sizes above 2 litres. This new model was fitted with wire wheels, a fake hood scoop, and a typical for the time Ford egg-crate grille, consisting of vertical and horizontal equally spaced bars. The French called this grille a “coupe-frites”: a “french-fry cutter”.

Commercial

The Comète combined the elegant style of a body by Facel with the mechanical underpinnings of the Ford Vedette combined with a shortened wheelbase. The rear seat was stylishly designed, especially on the upmarket “Monte-Carlo” version with its two-colour leather seat covers, but nevertheless offered insufficient leg space for adults, other than on the shortest and most unavoidable of journeys. The economy was beginning to grow robustly by the mid-1950s, but the market capacity for cars of this size remained small and Comète sales were correspondingly modest. Above all, it was handicapped by a list price that was (in October 1953) 65% higher than that for the mechanically similar Vedette. Customers interested in the larger engined 3,923 cc versions were faced with a price for the “Monte-Carlo” (once it became available at the start of 1954) that was 51% higher than that of the spacious four door Vendôme.

Change of manufacturer

During 1954, Ford SAF was sold, and the Comète’s final year of production took place under Simca. The Simca Comète Monte-Carlo continued to be offered till July 1955.

See also

Ford Motor Company Part III – The Ford Anglia

FORD Motor Company Dearborn Michigan USA 1903 – still going strong Part III

Ford Anglia

Ford Anglia
1965 Ford Anglia photographed in Montreal, Quebec, Canada at Gibeau Orange Julep.

1965 Ford Anglia 105E deluxe
Overview
Manufacturer Ford of Britain
Production 1939–67
Assembly Dagenham, England
Halewood, England from 1963
Australia
Body and chassis
Class Subcompact
Layout FR layout
Chronology
Predecessor Ford 7Y
Successor Ford Escort

The Ford Anglia is a British car which was designed and manufactured by Ford in the United Kingdom. It is related to the Ford Prefect and the later Ford Popular. The Anglia name was applied to various models between 1939 and 1967.

A total of 1,594,486 Anglias were produced. It was replaced by the Ford Escort.

Anglia E04A (1939–48)

Ford Anglia E04A
1949 Ford Anglia E04A in Autumnal morning sunshine at Oldtimerfest in Castle Hedingham.

1946 Ford Anglia E04A 2-door saloon
Overview
Production 1939–48
55,807 units
Assembly United Kingdom
Australia
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
2-door tourer (Australia)
2-door roadster (Australia)
Related Ford Prefect
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 90 in (2,286 mm)
Length 152 inches (3,861 mm)
Width 57 in (1,448 mm)
Height 63 in (1,600 mm)

The patriotically named first Ford Anglia, launched soon after Britain declared war on Germany in early September 1939, and given the internal Ford model code of E04A, was a facelifted version of the Ford 7Y, a simple vehicle aimed at the cheap end of the market, with few features. Most were painted Ford black. Styling was typically late-1930s, with an upright radiator. There were standard and deluxe models, the latter having better instrumentation and, on pre-war models, running boards. Both front and rear suspensions used transverse leaf springs, and the brakes were mechanical.

A bulge at the back enabled a spare wheel to be removed from its vertical outside stowage on the back of the car and stowed flat on the boot floor, which usefully increased luggage space. Some back seat leg room was sacrificed to the luggage space, being reduced from 43¾ inches in the Ford 7Y to 38½ inches in the Anglia.

The domestic market engine was the 933 cc (56.9 cu in) straight-four side-valve engine familiar to drivers of predecessor models since 1933. The 1172 cc straight-four engine from the Ford Ten was fitted for some export markets, including North America, where imports began for model year 1948; these cars used the slightly more aerodynamic “three-hole” grille from the 1937-8 Ford Ten 7W, prefacing the 1949 E494A facelift. They also had sealed beam headlights and small, separate parking lights mounted underneath, as well as dual tail lights, into which flashing turn signals could be added without adding additional lights. A minor styling changed was made in December 1947, with the name “Anglia” now incorporated in the top of the grille surround.

The car retained a vacuum-powered wiper with its tendency to slow down or stop above about 40 mph (64 km/h), the point at which the suction effect from the induction manifold disappeared; however, the Anglia’s wipers were supported by a vacuum reservoir, which partially addressed the propensity to stop entirely when the car was accelerated.

A contemporary road test commended the Anglia’s ability to pull away from 5 or 6 mph (8 or 10 km/h) in top gear. Compulsory driving tests had only recently been introduced in the UK. Most potential buyers would approach the vehicle without the benefit of formal driving tuition. The cars did have synchromesh between second and top gears, but not between first and second, so many would have sought, wherever possible, to avoid en route changes down to first.

The 2-door Anglia is similar to the 4-door E93A Ford Prefect.

Production, hindered by the closure of Ford’s factory during the Second World War, ceased in 1948 after a total of 55,807 had been built. Initial sales in Britain actually began in early 1940. Production was suspended in early 1942, and resumed in mid-1945.

The E04A was also built in Australia from 1940 to 1945 and was produced in tourer and roadster body styles. The former had a rear seat and the latter was a two-seater convertible.

Anglia A54A (Australia: 1946–48)

Ford Anglia A54A
1948 Ford Anglia A54A 4-Door Sedan

1948 Ford Anglia A54A 4-Door Sedan
Overview
Production 1946–48
Assembly Australia
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
2-door tourer
2-door coupe utility
2-door panel van
Powertrain
Engine 933 cc (56.9 cu in) I4

The Australian-built Anglia A54A used the chassis and front panels of the English E04A and was offered in 4-door sedan, tourer, coupe utility and panel van body styles. The 8HP 933cc engine was used and all models featured running boards.

Three different types of radiator grille were fitted to A54A models. Both the original and the revised E04A grilles were used and a third style, unique to the A54A, was introduced in 1948. This featured a centrally placed vertical chrome strip.

Anglia E494A (1949–53)

Ford Anglia E494A
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1953 Ford Anglia E494A
Overview
Production 1949–53
108,878 units
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
2-door panel van
Powertrain
Engine 933 cc (56.9 cu in) I4
Transmission 3 speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 90 in (2,286 mm)
Length 154 in (3,912 mm)
Width 57 in (1,448 mm)
Height 63 in (1,600 mm)

The 1949 model, code E494A, was a makeover of the previous model with a rather more 1940s style front-end, including the sloped, twin-lobed radiator grille. Again it was a very spartan vehicle and in 1948 was Britain’s lowest-priced four-wheel car.

An Anglia tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1948 had a top speed of 57 mph (92 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-50 mph (80 km/h) in 38.3 seconds. A fuel consumption of 36.2 miles per imperial gallon (7.8 L/100 km; 30.1 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £309 including taxes.

Including all production, 108,878 were built. When production as an Anglia ceased in 1953, it continued as the extremely basic Ford Popular until 1959.

1946 Ford Anglia Van KLE950

Delivery vans based on the Anglia supported British commerce for several decades. These “commercial” versions often retained the mechanical components and front sections of superseded Anglia saloons.

Anglia A494A (Australia: 1949–53)

Ford Anglia A494A
1951 Ford Anglia A494A Tourer

1951 Ford Anglia A494A Tourer
Overview
Production 1949–53
Assembly Australia
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door saloon
2-door tourer
2-door coupe utility
2-door roadster utility
Powertrain
Engine 933 cc (56.9 cu in)
1,172 cc (71.5 cu in) Straight-4

The Australian built A494A Anglias of the 1949 to 1953 period shared the frontal styling and 90 inch wheelbase chassis of their English E494A counterparts but differed in many other ways, notably in the range of body styles offered. A494As where produced in 4-door saloon, 2-door tourer, 2-door coupe utility and 2-door roadster utility models. All body styles had running boards, and the boot of the Australian saloon was less prominent than that of the English saloon. The 933cc 8 HP unit was initially the only engine offered, but the 1172 cc 10 HP engine was available from 1950.

At the time of its introduction, the A494A Tourer was the cheapest new car on the Australian market.

Anglia 100E (1953–59)

Ford Anglia 100E
1955 Ford Anglia 100E 1172 cc

1955 Ford Anglia 100E
Overview
Production 1953–59
345,841 units
Assembly United Kingdom
Australia
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
Related Ford Popular 100E
Ford Prefect 100E
Ford Escort 100E (estate)
Ford Squire 100E (estate)
Thames 300E (van)
Powertrain
Engine 1172 cc sidevalve Straight-4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 87 in (2,210 mm)
Length 151.75 in (3,854 mm)
Width 60.5 in (1,537 mm)
Height 57.25 in (1,454 mm)
Curb weight 1,624 lb (737 kg)

In 1953, Ford released the 100E, designed by Lacuesta Automotive. It was a completely new car, its style following the example of the larger Ford Consul introduced two years earlier and of its German cousin by featuring a modern three-box design. The 100E was available as a two-door Anglia and a four-door Prefect. During this period, the old Anglia was available as the 103E Popular, touted as the cheapest car in the world.

Internally there were individual front seats trimmed in PVC, hinged to allow access to the rear. The instruments (speedometer, fuel gauge and ammeter) were placed in a cluster around the steering column and the gear change was floor mounted. A heater and radio were optional extras. The dashboard was revised twice; the binnacle surrounding the steering column was replaced by a central panel with twin dials towards the driver’s side in 1956; the last from 1959 had twin dials in a binnacle in front of the driver and ‘magic ribbon’ AC speedo similar to the 1957 E-series Vauxhall Velox/Cresta and ’58/’59 PA models, and included a glovebox.

Under the bonnet the 100E still housed an antiquated, but actually new, 36 bhp (27 kW; 36 PS) side-valve engine sharing the bore and stroke of the old unit but now with larger bearings and inlet valves and pump-assisted cooling. The three-speed gearbox was retained. Some models were fitted with a semi-automatic “Manumatic” gearbox. A second wind-screen wiper was now included at no extra cost, although the wipers’ vacuum-powered operation was also retained: by now this was seen as seriously old-fashioned and the wipers were notorious for slowing down when driving up steep hills, or coming to a complete rest when trying to overtake. The separate chassis construction of the previous models was replaced by unitary construction and the front suspension used “hydraulic telescopic dampers and coil springs” – now called MacPherson struts, a term that had not yet entered the public lexicon – with anti-roll bar and semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear. The car’s 87-inch (2,200 mm) wheelbase was the shortest of any Anglia, but the front and rear track were increased to 48 inches (1,200 mm), and cornering on dry roads involved a degree of understeer: the steering took just two turns between locks, making the car responsive and easy to place on the road, although on wet roads it was too easy to make the tail slide out. A rare option for 1957 and 1958 was Newtondrive clutchless gearchange. The electrical system became 12 volt.

A facelift of the Anglia 100E was announced in October 1957. This included a new mesh radiator grille, new front lamp surrounds, a larger rear window, larger tail lights and chrome bumpers.

The 100E sold well; by the time production ceased in 1959, 345,841 had rolled off the production line. There were from 1955 two estate car versions, similar to the 300E vans but fitted with side windows, folding rear seats and a horizontally split tailgate. This necessitated relocating the fuel tank. These were the basic Escort and better appointed Squire, which sported wood trim down the sides. This feature has become a common feature of some Ford estates/station wagons ever since. The basic van variant was badged as a Thames product, as were all Ford commercials following the dropping of the Fordson badge.

An Anglia saloon tested by the British Motor magazine in 1954 had a top speed of 70.2 mph (113.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 29.4 seconds. A fuel consumption of 30.3 miles per imperial gallon (9.3 L/100 km; 25.2 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £511 including taxes.

Anglia 105E (1959–68)

Ford Anglia 105E
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
1967 Ford Anglia 105E
Overview
Production 1959–67
1,004,737 units
Assembly United Kingdom
Broadmeadows, Australia
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
3-door estate car
2-door panel van
Powertrain
Engine 997 cc (60.8 cu in) I4 overhead valve
Dimensions
Wheelbase 91 in (2,311 mm)
Length 154 in (3,912 mm)
Width 56 in (1,422 mm)
Height 56 in (1,422 mm)
Curb weight 1,624 lb (737 kg) (saloon)

The fourth Anglia model, the 105E, was introduced in 1959. Its American-influenced styling included a sweeping nose line, and on deluxe versions, a full-width slanted chrome grille in between prominent “eye” headlamps. (Basic Anglias featured a narrower, painted grille.) Its smoothly sloped line there looked more like a 1950s Studebaker (or even early Ford Thunderbird) than the more aggressive-looking late-’50s American Fords, possibly because its British designers used wind-tunnel testing and streamlining. Like late-’50s Lincolns and Mercurys and the Citroën Ami of France, the car sported a backward-slanted rear window (so that it would remain clear in rain, according to contemporary marketing claims). In fact, this look was imported from the 1958 Lincoln Continental, where it had been the accidental result of a design specification for an electrically opening (breezeway) rear window. As well as being used, by Ford, on the Consul Classic, this look was also copied by Bond, Reliant and Invacar, for their three wheelers. The resulting flat roofline gave it excellent rear headroom. It had muted tailfins, much toned-down from its American counterparts. An estate car joined the saloon in the line-up in September 1961. The instrument panel had a red light for the generator and a green one for the oil pressure.

The new styling was matched by a new engine, something that the smaller Fords had been needing for some time—a 997 cc overhead valve (OHV), straight-4 with an oversquare cylinder bore, that became known by its “Kent” code name. Acceleration from rest was still sluggish (by the standards of today), but it was much improved from earlier cars. Also new for British Fords was a four-speed (manual) gearbox with synchromesh on the top three forward ratios: this was replaced by an all-synchromesh box in September 1962 (on 1198 powered cars). The notoriously feeble vacuum-powered windscreen wiper set-up of earlier Anglias was replaced with (by now) more conventional windscreen wipers powered by their own electric motor. The Macpherson strut independent front suspension used on the 100E was retained.

In October 1962, twenty-four-year-old Tony Brookes (see also Ford Corsair GT) and a group of friends took a private Anglia 105E fitted with the £13 Ford Performance Kit to Montlhèry Autodrome near Paris and captured six International Class G World Records averaging 83.47 mph (134.33 km/h). These were 4,5,6 and 7 days and nights and 15,000, and 20,000 kilometres. The Anglia’s strength and durability meant that no repairs were required whatsoever other than tyre changes.

The car’s commercial success has subsequently been overshadowed by the even greater sales achieved by the Cortina: in 1960, when 191,752 Anglias left Ford’s Dagenham plant in the 105E’s first full production year, it set a new production-volume record for the Ford Motor Company. From October 1963, production continued at Ford’s new Halewood plant at Merseyside alongside the newly introduced Corsair models. The Anglia Super introduced in September 1962 for the 1963 model year shared the longer stroke 1198 cc version of the Ford Kent 997 cc engine of the newly introduced Ford Cortina. The Anglia Super was distinguished by its painted contrasting-coloured side stripe.

A new Anglia saloon tested by the British Motor magazine in 1959 had a top speed of 73.8 mph (118.8 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 26.9 seconds. A fuel consumption of 41.2 miles per imperial gallon (6.86 L/100 km; 34.3 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £610 including taxes of £180.

The old 100E Anglia became the new 100E Popular and the four-door Prefect bodyshell remained available as the new Ford Prefect (107E) which had all 105E running gear, including engine and brakes, while the 100E Escort and Squire remained available, unchanged. In 1961 the Escort and Squire were replaced by the 105E Anglia estate. Both cars are popular with hot rodders to this day, helped by the interchangeability of parts and the car’s tuning potential. The 100E delivery van also gave way to a new vehicle based on the 105E. Identical to the Anglia 105E back to the B post, the rest of the vehicle was entirely new.

Anglia Torino 105E (1965–67)

Ford Anglia Torino 105E
1964-67 Ford Anglia Torino 1964-1967

Ford Anglia Torino 105E
Overview
Production 1965–67
Assembly Italy
Belgium
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
Powertrain
Engine 997 cc I4

The Anglia Torino 105E was developed by the Italian subsidiary of Ford, using the chassis and mechanical components of the 105E Saloon, with new body panels. The Torino was styled by Giovanni Michelotti and built by Officine Stampaggi Industriali. 10,007 examples were sold in Italy and the model was also marketed in Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg.

1964-67 Ford Anglia Torino

 Ford Anglia Torino 105E

Anglia Super 123E (1962–67)

Ford Anglia Super 123E
1966 Ford Anglia 123E Super

1966 Ford Anglia Super 123E Sedan
Overview
Production 1962–67
79,223 units
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
3-door estate car
2-door panel van
Powertrain
Engine 1198 cc I4

From 1962, the 123E Anglia Super was available alongside the 105E, replacing the last of the line of Prefects, with a larger 1198 cc engine and other refinements.

The same car was also sold in Europe. One Europe-only variant was the Anglia Sportsman, which carried its spare tyre on the back, somewhat similar to the continental kit often seen in the United States. Chromebumper overriders, broad whitewall tyres, and optionally a side stripe kicking up at the end into the tail-lights/fin were also fitted.

Towards the end of the run Ford experimented with two colours of metallic paint on the Anglia, “Blue Mink” and “Venetian Gold”. 250 were made in the Blue and 500 were made in the Gold.

Anglia saloons were provided with various levels of trim. The base model was the Standard, and this sported no chromework, painted rear light surrounds, steel slatted grille and limited interior trim. The deluxe had a chrome side strip, chrome rear lights, glovebox lid, sun visor and full width chrome radiator grille. The top of the range was the Super, which had twin chrome side strips, contrasting coloured roof and side flash, plusher interior trim, together with the 1198 cc engine and a gearbox with synchromesh on first gear.

Optional extras were the mechanical upgrade of a Deluxe to a Super, retaining the Deluxe trim, or the upgrade of a Deluxe to a Super trim, but retaining the 997 cc engine, an option rarely taken up.

In popular culture

  • On BBC television the popular Z-Cars serial mimicked the real life police forces’ adoption of small patrol cars, known as Panda Cars due to their duck egg blue paintwork with a broad vertical white stripe running right over the doors and roof. Ford supplied 105E Anglias to appear alongside the Zephyrs.
  • On the ITV programme Heartbeat, Ford Anglias were popularly used as police cars.
  • On his 1980s TV-am series Rat on the Road and later shows, puppet character Roland Rat and his friends’ “RatMobile” was a 1950s Ford Anglia painted bright pink.
  • A turquoise 105E car prominently featured in J. K. Rowling‘s Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, as Arthur Weasley‘s car, which he charmed to give it the capabilities of flight, invisibility and extra loading capacity. Ron later crashes the Anglia into the Whomping Willow attempting, along with Harry, to reach Hogwarts on time after missing the Hogwarts Express. Angry at its mistreatment the car runs into the Forbidden Forest where it lives wild until later when it rescues Harry and Ron from giant spiders. The car is later referenced in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire when Harry recalls that it is running wild in the Forbidden Forest.
  • The character of Vyvyan in the BBC comedy The Young Ones owned a yellow Ford Anglia with flames painted along the sides.
  • Jaret, lead singer of Bowling for Soup, drives one in the video for The Bitch Song. It also makes a brief appearance in the follow-up, Girl All the Bad Guys Want.