FIAT History V 1980-1989

FIAT

History V 1980-1989

1980-1989

Fiat Cinquecento SportingFiat Cinquecento Sporting

1980 Fiat Panda

FIAT Panda
1980 Fiat panda 1 v sst
Overview
Manufacturer FIAT
Production 1980–present
Body and chassis
Class City car
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 126 (first generation)
Fiat Seicento (second generation)

The FIAT Panda is a city car from the Italian automobile manufacturer FIAT, now in its third generation. The first generation Fiat Panda was introduced in 1980, and was produced until 1986, when it underwent several changes. From 1986 until 2003, it was produced with only a few changes. They are now sometimes referred to as the “old Panda”.

The second generation, launched in 2003, is sometimes referred to as the “New Panda” or “Nuova Panda” (in Italian), and was the European Car of the Year in 2004. The third generation debuted at Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2011 and will be assembled in Italy at Pomigliano d’Arco.

In over 31 years Fiat has sold over 10.5 million Pandas globally, with more than 4.5 million being the first series Panda.

First generation (1980–2003)

First generation (141)
Fiat Panda Umbria

The original Fiat Panda 45
Overview
Production 1980–2003 (4,500,000 units)
Assembly Mirafiori plant, Turin, Italy
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro at Italdesign
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door hatchback
3-door cabriolet
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive or four-wheel-drive
Platform Type Zero platform (Tipo Zero)
Related SEAT Panda
SEAT Marbella
SEAT Trans
Powertrain
Engine 652 cc I2 (petrol)
769 cc I4 (petrol)
903 cc I4 (petrol)
965 cc I4 (petrol)
999 cc I4 (petrol)
1,301 cc I4 (diesel)
19 bhp (14 kW) (electric)
23.8 bhp (18 kW) (electric)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,160 mm (85.0 in)
Length 3,380 mm (133.1 in)
Width 1,460 mm (57.5 in)
Height 1,445 mm (56.9 in)

Introduced in 1980, the Panda (Tipo 141) was designed as a cheap, easy to use and maintain, no-frills utility vehicle, positioned in Fiat’s range between the 126 and 127. It can be seen as a then-modern approach to the same niche which the Citroën 2CV and Renault 4 were designed to serve. The first Panda was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro of Italdesign. In an interview to Turinese newspaper La Stampa published in February 1980, Giugiaro likened the Panda to a pair of jeans, because of its practicality and simplicity:

«La Panda (…) è come un paio di jeans, che sono poi un vestire semplice, pratico, senza fronzoli. (…) Ho cercato di portare in questa auto lo spìrito delle costruzioni militari, in particolare degli elicotteri, ossia di mezzi leggeri, razionali, nati per assolvere nel modo migliore a certi scopi».

The Panda is like a pair of jeans, that simple, practical, no frills piece of clothing. I tried to bring into this car the spirit of military machinery, especially helicopters, that means light, rational, built-for-purpose vehicles.

Giorgetto Giugiaroin La Stampa, Year 114 – Number 26 – Saturday 2 February 1980

History

The car was introduced to the press in December 1979; it went on sale in Italy in late February, ahead of its European première at the March 1980 Geneva Motor Show.

1980 Fiat panda 1 rear

Rear of pre facelift Fiat Panda

Mechanically the first Pandas borrowed heavily from the Fiat parts bin. Engines and transmissions came from the Fiat 127 and, in certain territories, the air-cooled 652 cc two-cylinder powerplant from the Fiat 126. The plan for a mechanically simple car was also evident in the rear suspension, which used a dead axle suspended on leaf springs. Later versions of the car added various mechanical improvements but this spirit of robust simplicity was adhered to throughout the life of the model.

Many design features reflect the Panda’s utilitarian practicality. Examples include a seven-position adjustable rear seat which could be folded flat to make an improvised bed, or folded into a V shape to support awkward loads, or easily and quickly removed altogether to increase the overall load space. The first Pandas also featured removable, washable seat covers, door trims and dashboard cover, and all the glass panels were flat making them cheap to produce, easy to replace and interchangeable between left and right door. Much like its earlier French counterparts the Panda could be specified with a two piece roll forward canvas roof.

At launch two models were available: the Panda 30, powered by a longitudinally-mounted air cooled 652 cc straight-two-cylinder engine derived from the 126, or the Panda 45, with a transversely-mounted water cooled 903 cc four-cylinder from the 127. As a consequence of the different drivetrain layout the 45 had the radiator grille to the right side, the 30 to the left. In September 1982 Fiat added another engine to the line-up: the Panda 34 used an 843 cc water-cooled unit, derived from that in the 850. It was originally reserved for export to France, Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands.

Fiat launched the Panda 45 Super at the Paris Motor Show later in 1982, with previous specification models continuing as the “Comfort” trim. The Super offered numerous improvements, most significant being the availability of a five-speed gearbox as well as improved trim. There were minor styling changes to the Super including the introduction of Fiat’s new black plastic “corporate” grille with five diagonal silver bars. The earlier grille design (metal with slots on the left for ventilation) continued on the Comfort models until the next major revision of the line-up. A 30 Super was added to the range in February 1983, offering the Super trim combined with the smaller engine.

The Panda 4×4 was launched in June 1983, it was powered by a 965 cc engine with 48 bhp (36 kW) derived from that in the Autobianchi A112. Known simply as the Panda 4×4, this model was the first small, transverse-engined production car to have a 4WD system. The system itself was manually selectable, with an ultra-low first gear. Under normal (on-road) conditions starting was from second, with the fifth gear having the same ratio as fourth in the normal Panda. Austrian company Steyr-Puch supplied the entire drivetrain (clutch, gearbox, power take-off, three-piece propshaft, rear axle including differential and brakes) to the plant at Termini Imerese where it was fitted to the reinforced bodyshell.

Minor revisions in November 1984 saw the range renamed “L”, “CL”, and “S”. Specifications and detailing were modified across the range including the adoption of the Fiat corporate grille across all versions. Mechanically, however, the cars remained largely unchanged.

First facelift

Fiat Panda post facelift

First facelift Panda

In January 1986, the Panda received a substantial overhaul and a series of significant mechanical improvements. Most of these changes resulted in the majority of parts being changed and redesigned, making many of the pre-facelift and post-facelift Panda parts incompatible between models. The 652 cc air-cooled 2-cyl engine was replaced by a 769 cc (34 bhp) water-cooled 4-cyl unit, and the 903/965cc by a 999cc (45 bhp, 50 bhp (37 kW) in the 4×4) unit. Both new engines were from Fiat’s new FIRE family of 4-cylinder water-cooled powerplants with a single overhead camshaft. The rear suspension was also upgraded, the rear leaf springs being replaced by a more modern independent suspension system using a rigid rear axle (known as the ‘Omega’ axle) with a central mounting and coil springs. The 4×4 retained the old leaf sprung set-up, presumably to avoid having to redesign the entire 4WD system. Improvements were also made to the interior and the structure. The body was strengthened and fully galvanised on later models, virtually eliminating the earlier car’s strong tendency to rust. The rear panel design was also revamped to include flared arches that mirrored those of the front wings, replacing the un-sculpted style seen on earlier models, and the doors received a slight redesign with the earlier car’s quarter light windows being removed and replaced by a full width roll-down window. The bottom seam of the facelifted model’s doors unfortunately retained much the earlier car’s susceptibility to rust. In ascending order of specification and cost, the revised range was as follows: 750L, 750CL, 750S, 1000CL, 1000S, 4×4.

Fiat Panda Van

Fiat Panda Van

April 1986 saw the introduction of a 1,301 cc diesel engine with 37 bhp (a detuned 127/Uno unit). Fitted as standard with a five-speed gearbox it was only available in the basic “L” trim. A van variant of the Panda was also introduced, with both petrol and diesel engines. The van was basically a standard Panda without rear seats. The rear windows were replaced with plastic blanking panels and a small (always black) steel extension with side hinged doors was fitted instead of the usual hatchback tailgate. Neither the van nor the diesel were available in right hand drive markets.

In 1987, a new entry-level model badged “Panda Young” was added to the range. This was essentially an L spec car with a 769 cc OHV engine based on the old 903 cc push-rod engine and producing the same 34 bhp (25 kW) as the more sophisticated 769 cc FIRE unit. The Panda 4×4 Sisley limited edition was also released; this was based on the standard 4×4, but came with metallic paint, inclinometer, white painted wheels, roof rack, headlamp washers, bonnet scoop, “Sisley” badging and trim. Although originally limited to the production of only 500, in 1989 the Sisley model became a permanent model due to its popularity.

Panda Elettra

1990 Panda Elettra in Santiago, 2010

Panda Elettra in Santiago, 2010

The two-seat Panda Elettra, introduced in 1990, added an all-electric power-train to the line. Batteries replaced the rear seats and occupied some of the engine bay where the 19 bhp (14 kW) DC motor was also fitted, driving through the normal clutch and gearbox. This increased the weight of the car significantly, to 1,150 kg (2,535 lb) (450 kg (992 lb) more than the standard model), necessitating stiffer suspension and uprated brakes. 1992 revisions to the Elettra saw the power increased to 23.8 bhp (17.7 kW) and the weight reduced, though the Elettra remained significantly heavier than the standard Panda. This, and the steep price (25.600.000 lire in Italy, three times the price of the Panda 750 Young) made it a commercial failure. The Elettra was discontinued in 1998.

Second facelift

1997 Fiat Panda sec facelift

Second facelift of the original Panda

Fiat Panda rear original second facelift

Second facelift of the original Panda

In 1991, a facelift was introduced. This entailed a new front grille with a smaller five-bar corporate badge, plus revisions to trim and specifications across the range. New arrivals included the ‘Selecta’, which had a continuously variable transmission with an electromagnetic clutch. This advanced transmission was available either with the normal 999 cc FIRE engine (revised with single-point fuel injection and a catalytic converter) or an all new 1108 cc FIRE unit, fitted with electronic fuel injection and a three-way catalytic converter and producing 51 bhp (38 kW).

The new CLX trim also featured a five-speed gearbox as standard. The range now comprised the 750 Young (769 cc ohv), 750 and 750 CLX (both 769 cc FIRE sohc), 900 Dance (903 cc ohv), 1000 Shopping, CLX, CL Selecta and S (all with 999 cc sohc, available with or without SPI and catalytic converter depending on the market), 1100 CL Selecta (1108 cc sohc with SPI and cat) and the 4×4 Trekking (999 cc, again available with and without a cat depending on the market). The Elettra concluded the range.

In 1992, the 1108 cc engine, complete with SPI and catalytic converter, replaced the 999 cc unit in the 4×4 (with 50 bhp) and also in 1992 an 899 cc (with injection and catalyst) became available, in the ‘Cafe’ special edition. This was a reduced capacity 903 cc unit, designed to meet tax requirements in some markets.

End of production

From 1996 onwards, the Panda was gradually phased out across Europe, due to tightening emissions and safety legislation. The car remained in production in Italy until May 2003. Its total production run of 23 years makes the Panda one of Europe’s longest-lived small cars.

During the period between 1999 and 2003, sales and popularity of the Panda diminished, mainly because it was “old fashioned”, according to a survey in 2000.

Most original models have long since succumbed to rust, but the second facelift variant remains a relatively common sight on the roads of continental Europe, and many are still in daily use in the UK where the model ceased being available new in 1996. While the original Panda never gained the kind of cult following that similar cars such as the 2CV and VW Beetle enjoy, it nonetheless engendered strong feelings of attachment among many owners for its robustness, affordability, simplicity and flexibility.

With the end of production, the 4×4 version of the Panda came to be seen as a valuable used car: it was cheap, sturdy and useful in rural areas, while most of the other 4×4 vehicles on the market were expensive SUVs. Also Fiat were not planning to build a 4×4 version of the replacement Nuova Panda.

The New Panda 4×4 Climbing version was introduced almost two years later, but didn’t command the same success, being considered less reliable and too low to be employed in off-road duty.

SEAT Panda / Marbella

SEAT Marbella 1ste ser.

SEAT Marbella

SEAT Transfront

SEAT Trans

Main article: SEAT Marbella

Spanish car maker SEAT also produced a version of the Panda between 1980 and 1986, based on the first Panda model. It was called SEAT Panda. SEAT also made a tiny, tall delivery version of the Panda called the SEAT Trans.

Up to 1983, SEAT made rebadged versions of Fiat cars through a licence agreement between the two firms. Thus, there existed a Spanish version of the Panda. When Pope John Paul II visited Spain in 1982, he rode in a specially built SEAT Panda.

After Fiat sold their share in SEAT and the licence agreement ended, the whole Fiat-based line of SEAT cars were quickly given minor facelifts. The SEAT Panda had its bonnet, bumpers and rear tailgate redesigned. From 1986, when it received a second facelift, it was known as the SEAT Marbella until the end of production in 1998. Emelba also produced a roofless version called the Pandita, which was popular as a rental car in resort areas. The SEAT Trans also received a major facelift and was renamed SEAT Terra.

As Fiat and SEAT’s licensing agreement had expired in 1986 the Marbella never received the major mechanical upgrades of the facelifted Fiat Panda, instead continuing with the old pushrod Fiat-based engines, quarter light doors, un-galvanised frame and leaf-sprung suspension as for the original model. It was popular in Spain throughout its production life, but was less popular on export markets (where the Fiat version was firm favourite) and by 1996, exports had mostly finished.

Reception and awards

The first generation Panda met with great success across Europe, polling 2nd in the 1981 European Car of the Year awards in its first full year of production (pipped to first place by the Ford Escort Mark III) and remaining on sale in some regions until May 2003.

In 1981 Giugiaro received the Italian Compasso d’Oro ADI industrial design award for the Panda.A less positive reaction to the design came from German magazine Der Spiegel, which in 1980 contrasted Giugiaro defining the Panda as “the most enchanting work of his life”, and chief designer Felice Cornacchia describing himself as “proud overall of the car’s architecture” to Peter Glodschey, road tester of mass-market Bild newspaper, who likened the car to “a shoe box”. In several key markets the Panda’s styling would continue to attract mixed reactions as the Uno followed in 1983 and the aggressively boxy look became the house style for Fiats throughout the 1980s.

Second generation (2003–2012)

Second generation (169)
2007 Fiat Panda front
Overview
Production 2003–December 2012 (2,168,491 units)
Assembly Tychy, Poland (Fiat Poland)
Body and chassis
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive orfour-wheel-drive
Platform Fiat Mini platform
Related Fiat 500
Fiat Uno
Ford Ka
Powertrain
Engine 1.1 L Fire I4 (petrol)
1.2 L Fire I4 (petrol)
1.2 L Fire Natural Power I4 (CNG)
1.4 L Fire I4 (petrol)
1.4 L Fire Natural Power I4 (CNG)
1.3 L Multijet I4 (diesel)
Transmission 5-speed manual
6-speed manual
5-speed semi-automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,299 mm (90.5 in)
2,305 mm (90.7 in) (4×4)
Length 3,538 mm (139.3 in)
Width 1,578 mm (62.1 in)
Height 1,578 mm (62.1 in)
Curb weight 840–975 kg (1,852–2,150 lb)
Fiat Panda Cross 4x4

Fiat Panda Cross 4×4

The second generation, nicknamed New Panda and codenamed Model 169, first appeared in 2003. In its development phase, the new Panda was originally intended to be called “Gingo”. However, this name was considered to be too similar to the Renault Twingo, so Fiat decided to continue with the Panda name, although it has almost no direct engineering link to the original 1980 car.

Successor to the Fiat Seicento, the new model also effectively replaced the old Panda after 23 years of production, although the Seicento itself proved still popular and remained in production. Like the Seicento, the Panda is manufactured only in Tychy, Poland, by Fiat Auto Poland. A smaller, 3-door Fiat has been added to the range in 2007, the new 500.

The high-bodied Panda takes clear styling cues from mini MPVs and mini SUVs, especially the second generation Fiat Multipla. Its long high positioned vertical tail lights are in particular reminiscent of much larger cars (especially estate cars) from the likes of Volvo, although Fiat started using smaller versions of this style of lights on the 1994 Italdesign Giugiaro Fiat Punto. The Panda won the European Car of the Year award in 2004.

The Panda includes an option for split rear seats, which makes the Panda a four-seater. Since September 2005, all Pandas are equipped with ABS, EBD and at least two front airbags. The gear-lever is located high on the central dashboard, which is designed to make changing gears more comfortable than with a conventional floor-mounted gearstick.

The financially troubled Fiat needed the new Panda to be a success, and indeed it was, selling half a million units by October 2005. It sells particularly well in Italy (over half of the cars produced are sold in Italy), being seen as closer to a spiritual successor to the Fiat 500 than a replacement for either the Seicento or the old Panda.

  • The 500,000th new Panda was built on October 5, 2005, a light blue Panda Emotion with the 1.3-litre diesel engine.
  • The 1,000,000th new Panda was built on September 5, 2007, a red Panda 4×4 Climbing with 1.2-litre petrol engine.
  • The 1,500,000th new Panda was built on July 21, 2009, a blue Panda Emotion with 1.3-litre diesel engine.
  • The 2,000,000th new Panda rolled out of factory on July 4, 2011, a red Panda 4×4 Cross with 1.3-litre 75 bhp Multijet diesel engine.

Top Gear Motoring Survey in 2006 ranked the Panda 8th out of 152 cars surveyed for reliability, craftsmanship, ownership costs, driving experience and service received. (One of the show’s hosts, James May, went on to purchase one). Traditionally, Fiat have ranked at the lower end of this table, showing that the Nuova Panda is reversing the trend and suggesting a rise in quality standards for Fiat.

Official usage

The Panda is produced for police departments (the Polish police have bought some blue and white Panda Actual models), military agencies (the Italian Army uses several dark green Panda Climbing models), forest services (the Italian forest service has dark green Panda Climbing models), and mail delivery services (the yellow Swiss Post model even comes in a popular toy car format readily available in grocery stores).

Safety (2004)

Tested model: 2004 Fiat Panda 1.2.

Euro NCAP test results
Fiat Panda 1.2 (2004)
Test Score Rating
Adult occupant: 20 3 /5 stars
Child occupant: 21 2 /5 stars
Pedestrian: 6 1 /4 stars

2005 revisions

In September 2005 several changes were made to the Panda, including standard fitment of ABS and a front passenger’s airbag.

2007 revisions

The Panda range received minor updates in March 2007, including a new, darker dashboard. The Active model also received new darker seat fabrics of better quality and the addition of a CD player as standard. The new dark red Fiat badge was also added to the Panda in Summer 2007.

2009 revisions

The Panda range was mildly rearranged again in 2009, with the addition of Active Eco and Dynamic Eco models. These models feature revised 1.1 and 1.2 petrol engines respectively, with better fuel economy and CO2emissions. Both models also qualify for £30 annual road fund license in the UK, and replace the original standard engines. Dynamic Aircon and SkyDome models were also dropped in favour of simplifying the Panda range.

On July 4, 2011, Fiat announced that the 2,000,000th Panda had rolled off of their Tychy, Poland assembly line. The milestone car was a Panda Cross finished in Rosso Sfrontato and equipped with the 75 hp 1.3 L Multijet four-cylinder diesel. Fiat did not say which country it was headed to.

Panda Classic

The Panda Classic was a second series Fiat Panda renamed and with a reduced list price to distinguish it from the new generation introduced in late 2011. The engine range comprised the 1.2 Fire petrol, 1.2 Fire EasyPower (petrol and LPG), 1.4 Fire Natural Power (petrol and CNG) and 1.3 Multijet diesel. The 4×4 was offered with 1.2 petrol and 1.3 Multijet diesel. The Panda Cross was no longer manufactured. The Panda Classic was produced through 2012.

Models

  • The Natural Power is a dual-fuel version, it can burn either gasoline or CNG (Compressed Natural Gas a.k.a. methane). Methane results in low emissions and increased fuel economy. The chassis is the same of the 4×4, the space of the rear wheels differential is occupied by two methane tanks allowing over 240 km of autonomy on gas only.
  • The basic Actual has black bumpers, lacks electric windows and a full-size spare wheel. The Actual was introduced in January 2004.
  • The Active, introduced in May 2003, features black self-coloured bumpers and front electric windows, central door locking, radio/cassette player, driver’s airbag, power steering. Manual climate control is available as an option. Since September 2005, ABS and the front passenger’s airbag have been made standard. This model has the 1100 cc “FIRE” engine and a five-speed gearbox.
  • The Active Plus edition is an up-equipped Active, with a cassette/CD player as standard. Production of the Active Plus stopped in December 2003.
  • The Dynamic edition features ABS, dual airbags, roof bars, power steering and a cassette player as standard. A CD & MP3 player, CD changer, alloy wheels, manual or automated climate control, glass sunroof and a semi-automatic transmission are available as options. Since September 2005, four airbags have been standard in some countries, with an option for two additional side curtain airbags.
  • The Emotion (Eleganza) edition is the highest trim level. This particular trim level features significant enhancements over the Dynamic, with a standard CD player, alloy wheels with low profile tires and automated climate control. In some countries such as the UK, the Emotion is sold as the “Eleganza”.
Fiat Panda 100HP

Fiat Panda 100 HP

  • The 100 HP edition is the sportiest Panda model. It has the 1.4-litre 16-valve FIRE petrol engine from the Fiat Punto tuned to develop 100 PS (74 kW; 99 bhp) through a six-speed manual transmission. It differs from other Pandas by being equipped with 4-wheel disc brakes, tinted windows, and sports styled front and rear bumpers. The Panda 100 HP features a unique suspension setup with modified springs, dampers, bushes and compliance giving a considerably firmer ride.

The Panda 100 hp offers 0–100 km/h acceleration in 9.5 s and a maximum speed of 185 km/h (115 mph), with fuel consumption at 6.5 L/100 km (43.5 mpg-imp; 36.2 mpg-US) in the EU combined cycle and 154 g/km of CO2emissions. It was available in black, white, red, metallic blue, and metallic gray while a “Pandamonium Pack” which added red disc brakes, decals and colour-coded wing mirrors was an optional extra.

Due to tightening emissions regulations, Fiat halted all Panda 100HP production in July 2010.

  • The 4×4 Climbing edition, introduced in December 2004, has a higher ride height and larger wheels and tires than other editions. The four-wheel drive system also makes this edition slower than others. Features are similar to those found in the Dynamic. The Climbing, however, lacks a differential lock and transmission with reductor. The Climbing edition can be distinguished by a slightly higher suspension, additional black plastic overlays on the bumpers and a “Climbing” badge just below the “Panda” badge on the left side of the rear licence plate. Swedish magazine Vi Bilägare found in a test 2007 that Panda 4×4 is a good and economical choice for a small family who need a car with four-wheel drive.
  • The 4×4 Cross edition, similar to the Climbing, features differently shaped front and rear lights and additional side cladding. Unlike the Climbing, the Cross does have a differential lock. The Cross edition became available in January 2006 in Italy.

The Actual and Active are also bases for the Actual Van and Active Van, which can be used as small vans (they also have an additional safety net behind the front seats and removable rear seats). These versions can be identified by small “Van” label on the back door.

During the time, many limited editions of Panda (Active and Dynamic editions only) were produced. Each of them had additional interior fittings, differentiating them from the base model.

Prototypes and special editions

  • The 360 Special Series, based on the 1.2 L Dynamic, is distinguished by a black and white crosshair style logo on the B pillar. Other upgraded features include; 14 inch alloy wheels, metallic paint, special interior trim (including the Fiat brand on the front seats), built in bluetooth phone system, CD player, air conditioning and a split folding rear seat. Other more standard features include; electric windows, central locking system and dual speed power steering. The total of all these extras comes somewhere in the region of £1,600 but surprisingly the upgraded 360 model actually retails at roughly £400 less than the Dynamic model. On the safety side of things, it comes with anti lock brakes and brake assist as well as two airbags as standard (driver and passnger) with the option of adding an extra four airbags taking the total up to six.
  • Fiat Panda Alessi
Fiat Panda II Alessi

Fiat Panda Alessi

Italian Design house Alessi created a special edition featuring a two-tone paint scheme and unique trim inside and out. Fiat gave away some of Alessi’s products (coffee machine and tin-can openers) for the special model’s debut at the Ideal Home Show in the UK.

  • Fiat Panda Jolly

The Fiat Panda Jolly was created by Fiat Styling Center and Stola and inspired by boat design. It served as a special shuttle bus in Capri during the summer of 2006. The interior features innovative materials and exclusive trims. The concept mainly came from the 600 Multipla Jolly, a car created by Carrozzeria Ghia in 1956, which could be found on the streets of Capri 50 years ago. Defined by Fiat as “a car with a fresh, light and Mediterranean look both in the colors and materials”, the Panda Jolly is inspired by the interior design and yacht design worlds, and features styling elements that remind of the spirit and way of life of the 1960s.

The interiors are created by Paola Lenti, an Italian leading company in the Interior Design sector, specialized in the research and development of innovative fabrics and materials. All the seats are upholstered in the exclusive sailing-inspired Rope fabric. This material is nonallergic, nontoxic, antibacterial and resistant to UV rays. Many structural elements like the floor, sills and various trims are made with pickled natural ash finish with white ash inlays.

  • Fiat Panda Terramare 4

Panda Terramare’s creator is Milan born Maurizio Zanisi, an independent former Iso Rivolta engineer, and his self-built amphibian is based on a Panda 4×4 chassis, but with an inflatable flotation belt, and waterjet propulsion driven off the rear axle.

On July 21, 2006, the Terramare crossed the English Channel from Folkestone in Kent to Cap Gris Nez in just over 6 hours.[27]

  • Fiat Panda Luxury

At the ‘Luxury & Yachts’ show in February 2006, Fiat exhibited a one-off car based on the 4×4 called the ‘Luxury’. The outside of the car features dipped silver paintwork, precious metal trim and gleaming jewel-like mouldings with back-lit inset crystals. The interior features dipped silver appointments, precious metal details, Jewel Alcantara upholstery and leather with mother of pearl finish. The Fiat logo is also worked on the seats with stylish studs and crystals.

  • Fiat Panda Hydrogen
Fiat Panda Hydrogen

Fiat Panda Hydrogen

Main article: Fiat Panda Hydrogen

The Panda Hydrogen, a car prototype driven by a hydrogen Fuel Cell, was a joint venture between Fiat Auto, the Fiat Research Centre and Fiat Powertrain Research & Technology with the support of the Research and Environment Ministries.

On the Panda Hydrogen, the Fuel Cell System is housed beneath the floorpan. The fuel cells are made up of several cells connected in series. Inside, the hydrogen and oxygen molecules are forced to react with the aid of a catalyst to produce water and heat. Electrical energy is generated with very high efficiency and zero emissions from the vehicle itself.

At full power, the Fuel Cell engine on the Panda Hydrogen delivers 60 kW (82 PS; 80 hp) that allows the car to reach a top speed of more than 130 km/h (81 mph), with acceleration from 0 to 50 km/h (31 mph) in 5 seconds. The car can also easily climb a gradient of 23% at take-off.

During 2006 a demonstration stage of small Panda Hydrogen fleets, was a forerunner to other demonstration programs promoted and supported by the European Union and by the Italian Ministries and Regions. The aim is for such vehicles to be marketed within 15 to 20 years.

  • Fiat Panda Tanker

Unveiled at the Bologna Motor Show in Italy, the Panda Tanker features only three doors. And although the overall shape has remained unchanged, the two rear doors have been replaced by solid panels to free up some extra load space in the practical cabin. Rugged extras and underbody protection also help to set the Tanker apart from the standard Panda 4×4 model. Designed in conjunction with Italian extreme sport clothing manufacturer Dainese, the show star is equipped with sports seats incorporating a rigid titanium fibre shell.

Reflecting the matt paint finish of the exterior, the cabin has a back-to-basics feel. With no rear seats, the load floor offers flexible attachments for fixing sports kit, while an aluminium structure is designed to carry mountain bikes.

  • Fiat Panda MultiEco

The Panda MultiEco show-car made its world debut in Geneva 2006. Fiat sees this unit as the future of cars with a low environmental impact: the concept car represents the most advanced frontier achievable in terms of emissions and consumption, combining technologies that already exist or are ready for production.

The show-car combines an innovative ‘powertrain’ architecture – an engine with dual petrol/methane fuel supply, MTA transmission and BAS device – with the use of eco-compatible materials (recycled, recyclable or of natural origin) for the exterior and interior. The result is made even more interesting by the painstaking optimisation of the aerodynamics and a significant weight reduction.

Panda MultiEco is equipped with a dual-fuel (methane and petrol) FIRE engine – future developments will also make it possible to use a methane/hydrogen mix – combined with a BAS (Belt-driven Alternator-Starter) device and a Dualogic robotised gearbox.

  • Fiat PanDAKAR

Two factory-built Fiat Panda 4x4s were prepared to contest the gruelling Dakar 2007 rally raid, which started in Lisbon.

Euromilhoes Lisboa Dakar 2007 - 06-21 01 2007

Entered in the T2 category, the class which most closely represents production vehicles, the two Panda 4x4s, driven by Miki Biasion and former Dakar winner, Bruno Saby, respectively, are powered by Fiat Auto’s 1.3-litre Multijet turbodiesel combined with a six-speed manual gearbox. The engines deliver 105 bhp (78 kW) at 4500 rpm and a peak torque of 123 lb·ft (166.8 N·m). at 2500 rpm. Apart from their small dimensions, the two cars are particularly noteworthy for their automatic all-wheel drive system with viscous coupling and locking differential, a system that provides more grip and traction on rough and soft terrain thanks to the optimal split of drive to the wheels.

The two Pandas competing in Dakar 2007 have been equipped specifically for this rally: so room has been found inside for accessories like aluminium platforms to help extricate the vehicles from soft sand, shovels, spare wheels, water reserves for the crew, and other specialised equipment useful for the occasion. The Fiat expedition to Dakar included a Fiat Sedici as service back-up, and three Iveco trucks to transport spares and technicians.

Both PanDAKAR retired on the fourth stage of the event.

  • Fiat Panda Simba

The Simba was unveiled at the Bologna Motor Show in 2002 purely as a concept car to give an idea how the following years production Panda would look. Some of the rugged styling cues made it on the production ‘Cross’ model

  • Fiat Panda Aria
Fiat Panda Aria

Fiat Panda Aria

Fiat presented Aria concept in Frankfurt Motor Show 2007. The Aria is equipped with new environment-friendly technology and outputs only 69 g/km CO2. With 900 cc turbocharged straight-2 engine it produces 80 bhp (60 kW), its also capable of using both petrol and CNG.

This new engine is equipped with Fiat’s Multiair technology, which uses electrohydraulic valve activation system. In monofuel (petrol) version the engine is capable of producing 105 bhp (78 kW). The car is also equipped with Stop&Start function, which helps to reduce consumption by 10% in urban driving.

Engines

The smallest engine, the 1.1 L petrol SOHC FIRE engine, which is rated at 54 bhp (40 kW) and found in the Fiat Seicento, has been criticised for being underpowered for the Panda, which weighs over 850 kg (1,874 lb), and the acceleration in particular was considered to be very slow. This engine is a construction from the early ’80s.

The 1.2-litre (actually 1,242 cc), 60 hp (45 kW) engine is a derivative of the 1,1 litre and gives quite adequate performance in the Panda. The higher torque is a more important advantage than higher maximum power on this engine compared to the smaller 1,1 litre.

The 1.3-litre Multijet diesel engine is rated at 75 bhp (56 kW) and 100 lb·ft (140 N·m) of torque; it is the most economical of all available engines. However, this engine is detuned from the Punto (where it develops 120 lb·ft (163 N·m) of torque) due to the Panda’s weaker transmission. Pandas with diesel engines can be easily distinguished by a “Multijet” badge on the right side of the rear licence plate.

Introduced into the range in 2006 was the 1368 cc FIRE engine which had previously seen service in the Fiat Stilo and the second generation Punto Sporting (contrary to some press reports, it is not an adapted version of the 1.4 16v Starjet engine used in the Grande Punto). This FIRE engine has four cylinders in-line with sixteen valves actuated by belt driven double overhead camshafts.

The engine is undersquare with bore and stroke of 72 and 84 mm (2.8 and 3.3 in) respectively, running at a compression ratio of 10.8:1. Ignition is by Fiat’s Jet Thrust Stochiometric system with sequential multi-point fuel injection.

Chinese copy controversy

In December 2006, Fiat considered taking legal action against Chinese automaker Great Wall Motor for the company’s Peri, which is a copy of the Panda’s design.

In July 2008, Fiat successfully sued Great Wall and had the Peri banned from importation into Europe. In addition, the court order ruled for Great Wall to pay Fiat a 15,000 euro fine for the first Peri imported, and an additional 50,000 euros for every subsequent car that was imported.

However, on October 2009, Great Wall Motor sued Fiat, accusing the latter of espionage. In the lawsuit, Great Wall claims that “Fiat once instigated espionage to prowl into its research center and take photos of Peri small car that was still under developed.”

Third generation (2011–present)

Third generation (319)
Overview
Production 2011–present
Assembly Pomigliano d’Arco, Italy
Designer Centro Stile Fiat
Body and chassis
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-driveor four-wheel-drive
Platform Fiat Mini platform
Related Lancia Ypsilon
Fiat 500
Fiat Uno
Ford Ka
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,300 mm (90.6 in)
Length 3,653–3,686 mm (143.8–145.1 in)
Width 1,643–1,672 mm (64.7–65.8 in)
Height 1,551–1,605 mm (61.1–63.2 in)
Curb weight 940–1,115 kg (2,072–2,458 lb)

Fiat presented the third generation of the Panda at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2011. The new architecture is based on the Fiat Mini platform. The production began in the renewed Pomigliano d’Arco Plant in the last quarter of 2011.

The older model stayed in production and was sold as Panda Classic, remaining popular thanks to its lower pricing (about 27%). The decision to manufacture the car in Italy, instead of manufacturing it with the cheaper workforce in Tychy, Poland, was taken because of the agreement between Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti and Fiat directors not to close down any of Fiat’s plants in Italy.

Models

Panda Natural Power

The Natural Power is the CNG/petrol bi-fuel version of the Panda. Unlike the previous generation – which adopted a 70 PS 1.4 FIRE inline four – it is powered by the turbocharged, 0.9 liter, two-cylinder TwinAir engine. The system is developed in-house and factory installed. CNG is stored in two – one 22 L and one 50 L – gas cylinders: the former housed longitudinally in the transmission tunnel, the latter transversally behind the rear axle. The boot’s volume remains unvaried, thanks to the cylinders being both located under the floorpan; on the other hand this requires a 40 mm taller ride height and a reworked, transversal silencer.

Total fuel capacity is 72 liters – or 12 kilograms – of CNG and 35 L of petrol – two liters less than the monofuel version’s 37. At startup the engine runs on petrol, but switches to CNG immediately after; the car switches back to petrol only if it runs out of CNG or by driver input via a dedicated button on the dashboard.

Panda EasyPower

The EasyPower is the LPG/petrol bi-fuel version of the Panda; like the Natural Power it is too factory developed and manufactured. Its 1.2 FIRE inline four develops 69 PS.

Panda Trekking

Launched in late 2012, the Trekking is a two wheel drive model offering the looks and features of the Panda 4×4. It is distinguished from the 4×4 by the absence of skid plate inserts on bumpers, no “4×4” inlay in the bodyside molding and alloy wheels painted silver instead of a darker grey. Available on this model are the 0.9 TwinAir turbocharged petrol, TwinAir Natural Power turbocharged petrol/methane and PS 1.3 Multijet IIturbodiesel. Despite being front wheel drive only, the Trekking still offers some offroad capability thanks to the standard M+S tires and “Traction +” ESC-based electronically simulated front locking differential.

Fiat Panda 4x4 in action.

A Panda 4×4 in action.

Panda 4×4

The third generation all wheel drive Panda was introduced at the 2012 Paris Motor Show. The engine lineup includes the TwinAir turbocharged petrol engine and Multijet IIturbodiesel. The TwinAir engine is linked to a six-speed transmission with a short ratio first gear and the Diesel is linked to a 5-speed transmission.

The Panda 4×4 receives model specific bumpers with extra cladding, body side moldings, plastic wheelarch extensions and 175/65 M+S tires on 15″ dark grey alloy wheels. The full-time all wheel drive system is composed by two open differentials front and rear and a rear mounted electronically controlled coupling, which sends torque to the two axles in proportion depending on road conditions. At the rear there’s a specially developed torsion beam semi-independent suspension, a change from the previous generation’s trailing arms. An electronically simulated locking differential (termed ELD,Electronic Locking Differential) supplements the open-type differentials. The ELD works automatically by braking the wheel(s) where the ESC sensors detect excessive wheel slip, thus making the differentials more torque to the wheels in better traction conditions; this functionality is useful on low-grip surfaces, and is activated by the driver via a console switch.

2014 Fiat Panda Cross.

Fiat Panda Cross.

Panda Cross

Launched at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show, it’s the range topping, offroad-styled Panda. Mechanically it’s based on the Panda 4×4, offering the same choice of powertrains. As in the previous generation the Cross is recognizable by its wider 185/65 tyres on specific alloy wheels, new fascias with prominent skid plates and unique broken up head- and taillights arrangement. The new bumpers, together with an increased ground clearance, give the car better approach and departure angles.

Special editions

Panda 4×4 Steyr

Austrian market only special edition, announced in 2012. Its Steyr Tractor theme celebrates the several collaborations throughout the years between Fiat and former Steyr-Daimler-Puch, such as the development of the original Panda’s four wheel drive system. Built on the basis of the Panda 4×4 1.3 Multijet II with richer interior standard equipment, it was available in red or white with contrasting colour side stripes and Steyr logo decals.

Panda 4×4 Antarctica

This limited, 200 cars edition was premiered at the 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show, commemorating the 30th anniversary of the Panda 4×4. It was too based on the Panda 4×4 1.3 Multijet II, featuring several normally extra cost options like automatic climate control, parking sensors and Blue&Me Bluetooth connectivity as standard. The exterior was characterized by a white with black roof two-tone paint scheme accented by orange wheel centers and side mirror caps.

Euro NCAP test results
Fiat Panda (2011)
Test Points %
Overall: 4 /5 stars
Adult occupant: 30 80%
Child occupant: 31 63%
Pedestrian: 18 49%
Safety assist: 3 43%

Safety

The third generation Panda was tested by Euro NCAP towards the end of 2011, and achieved a four star result. One star was dropped mainly because the Panda’s electronic stability control wasn’t available on all trim levels, such as the one of the tested car. Fiat clarified on the same day that ESC would be offered on the entire Fiat Panda range in the first months of 2012.

Collision avoidance system

Fiat’s City Brake Control low-speed crash avoidance system is available as optional on the Panda. The system works by readying and if necessary automatically executing an emergency stop whenever an imminent collision is detected by its laser sensor. In 2013 City Brake Control attained the Euro NCAP Advanced reward.

Records

At 5:28pm on Monday, 11 February 2013, Philip Young and Paul Brace broke the world record drive, in either direction, from Cape Town in South Africa to London in Great Britain with a Fiat Panda 0.9 TwinAir. The drive started the 1 February and ended 10 days, 13 hours and 28 minutes later, shaving over a day off the previous record, achieved by a Land Rover Defender two years earlier.

Awards

  • Panda 4×4: Top Gear Magazine’s “SUV of the Year 2012”.
  • Panda TwinAir Turbo Natural Power: “Das grünste Auto der Schweiz 2013” (“Greenest car in Switzerland”), part of Swiss Car of the Year 2013.

1982 Fiat Argenta

Fiat Argenta
Fiat Argenta
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1981–85
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Body style 4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine Petrol:
1.6 L straight-4
2.0 L straight-4
2.0 L straight-4 supercharged
Diesel:
2.5 L straight-4
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,558 mm (100.7 in)
Length 4,449 mm (175.2 in)
Width 1,650 mm (65.0 in)
Height 1,420 mm (55.9 in)
Curb weight 1170 kg
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 132
Successor Fiat Croma

The Fiat Argenta is a large family car produced by the Italian automobile company Fiat from 1981 to 1985. It was a comprehensive update of the Fiat 132 and the last mass-produced Fiat with rear-wheel drive. This model was available in sedan/saloon style only.

Argenta (1981-1984)

The Argenta was closely based on its predecessor Fiat 132. All body panels and windows except the doors were new. Other changes included new trim, wheels, dashboard, mirrors and rectangular headlights.

The Argenta came with a choice of 4 different engines (market dependent):

  • Argenta 1600

1.6 litre petrol producing 96 hp (72 kW) 1585 cc

  • Argenta 2000

2.0 litre petrol with 113 hp (84 kW) 1995 cc

  • Argenta 2000ie

2.0 litre petrol with Bosch L-jetronic fuel injection producing 122 hp (91 kW) 1995 cc

  • Argenta 2500 D

2.5 litre diesel with 75 hp (56 kW) 2435 cc

Marelli Digiplex electronic ignition was fitted to the 2000ie.

Argenta (1984-1985)

Fiat Argenta showing new facelift grille

Fiat Argenta showing new facelift grille

In 1984, the Argenta was face-lifted. The grille was renewed with the then corporate 5-bar grille, new front end, new bumpers and an anti-roll-bar was mounted on the rear axle. The front axle was widened by 60 mm (2.4 in), and new wheels with flat wheel trims & chrome embellishers used. Some minor changes were made inside the car, most notably to the seat/door/rooflining trim and a new steering wheel. The radio antenna moved from inside the windscreen to the roof.

The Argenta had also two new engines: Fiat’s first turbodiesel, 2.5 litre producing 90 hp (67 kW), and for the Argenta VX a supercharged 2.0 engine with 135 hp (101 kW), shared the Lancia Volumex models. Both these models had rear disc brakes and a 70litre fuel tank instead of 60litre.

The new versions were named:

  • Argenta 100
  • Argenta 110
  • Argenta 120ie
  • Argenta VX (SX on the Italian market)
  • Argenta Turbo D

The car remained in production until 1985 when it was replaced by the Croma.

1983 Fiat Regata

Fiat Regata
Fiat Regata 75ie Eleganza
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Also called Fiat Marengo (Van)
Fiat Regatta (Sweden, Latin America)
Production 1983-1990
Assembly Mirafiori, Turin, Italy
Córdoba, Argentina
Body and chassis
Class Small family car
Body style 4-door saloon
5-door estate“Weekend”
Layout FF layout
Related Fiat Ritmo
SEAT Málaga
Holland Car DOCC (Ethiopia)
Nasr Dogan (Egypt)
Nasr Kartal (Egypt)
Tofaş Doğan (Turkey)
Tofaş Şahin (Turkey)
Tofaş Kartal (Turkey)
Powertrain
Engine 1.3 L I4
1.4 L I4
1.5 L I4
1.6 L I4
2.0 L I4
1.7 L diesel I4
1.9 L diesel I4
1.9 L turbodiesel I4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,446 mm (96.3 in)
2,448 mm (96.4 in) Weekend 1985
Length 4,260 mm (168 in)
4,267 mm (168.0 in) Weekend 1985
Width 1,651 mm (65.0 in)
1,650 mm (65 in) Weekend 1985
Height 1,412 mm (55.6 in)
Curb weight 890–1,035 kg (1,962–2,282 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 131
Successor Fiat Tempra

The Fiat Regata is the saloon version of the Fiat Ritmo small family car, produced by Italian automaker Fiat. It was produced from 1983 to 1990, corresponding to the post-facelift Ritmo. The Regata had a choice of three gasoline and two diesel engines.

Spanish builder SEAT created a similar saloon car from Ritmo underpinnings called the SEAT Málaga. Nevertheless, development for the two cars was separate.

1983

The Regata, unveiled at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 1983, was developed from the pre-facelift Ritmo (which had been known in United Kingdom and United States markets as the Fiat Strada) and utilised almost all the mechanicals, although the wheelbase was stretched slightly. A conventional four-door three-box design, it bore very little external resemblance to the original Ritmo although it hinted strongly at the look of the 1982 face-lift for that car. In the Swedish market the car was called “Regatta”, as Regata was uncomfortably close to a derogatory term for an overbearing woman. The same name was used in Latin American markets.

The engines offered were also similar, being the 1,301 cc inline-four rated at 68 PS (50 kW; 67 hp) (Regata 70) and the 1,498 cc I4 rated at 82 PS (60 kW; 81 hp) (Regata 85). Both of these were SOHC engines. A DOHC 1585 cc I4 rated at 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp) (Regata 100) was also available with two SOHC diesels, a 1,714 cc straight-four rated at 58 PS (43 kW; 57 hp) (Regata D) and a 1,929 cc straight-four rated at 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp) (Regata DS), the latter of which was added in 1984. An economy model called the “ES” (“Energy Saving”) was also available, it featured an early start-stop system. It featured some detail modifications to the aerodynamics, an optimised (higher compression ratio and different valve timing) 1301 cc engine (rated at 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp)), an engine shut-off system (when idling) and electronic ignition.

Fiat Regata Weekend Perugia

Fiat Regata Weekend

The Regata Weekend estate was introduced in November 1984. It was available with the 1.3 L or 1.6 L engines and both diesel engines. Replacing the 131 Panorama, it featured a folding rear bumper, enabling easier access to the load area. The suspension and brakes were uprated to cope with the extra weight. Alongside there was also a two-seater Van derivative called the Marengo, only available with the larger diesel engine.

1986

A mid-life update was carried out in 1986, in which numerous small details were changed, most notably new doors with an altered window line. New door handles, grille, bumpers and wheel trims also featured. The 1,585 cc engine gained fuel injection to become the 100S i.e. (also available with a catalytic converter, losing some power and becoming the 90i.e.) whilst a catalysed and fuel-injected 1,498 cc unit powered the 75i.e. The 85 Automatic was also replaced by the 70 Automatic with a 1.3 litre engine rated at 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp).

The diesel-powered models also changed slightly. An 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) 1,929 cc turbodiesel engine was introduced (badged Regata Turbo DS) whilst the 1,714 cc unit dropped in capacity to 1,697 cc (but gained power to 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) and had reduced fuel consumption). This model was simply badged as the Regata D. The weight was also reduced slightly.

Production ceased in 1990, when the Tempra was introduced.

Sevel production

1993 Fiat Regata by sevel

1993 Sevel-built Regatta

The Regata started production by Sevel in Argentina in 1985, where production continued until 1995. As in Sweden, but for unknown reasons, the car was called the Regatta (with two t’s) in Latin America. Unlike its European sisters, the car was considered somewhat upmarket in Latin America. The Regatta 85 received a 82 hp (61 kW) 1.5-litre, while a 100S came with a 100 hp (75 kW) 1.6-litre version. Along with a 1987 facelift, the 2000 Twincam replaced the 100S, carrying the same level of equipment but with a larger Twin Cam 2-litre engine with 10 more hp and considerably more torque. The 2000 managed the 0–100 km/h sprint in 9.8 seconds and had a rear spoiler. The Regatta 85 changed names, becoming the Regatta 1.5 S (Super) and SC (Super Confort).

A more thorough facelift in 1988 produced the Regatta Edición II. The engines remained the same until the 1990 model year, when both engines were replaced by the 87 hp (65 kW) 1581 cc engine from the Fiat Tipo. Later a cheaper 1.4 S using the 1372 cc Tipo engine, with 63 hp (47 kW), was added to the line-up. Production ended in 1995 as the Regata was replaced by the Tempra in Latin America as well. The Regatta Weekend (Station Wagon) was also produced in Argentina between 1986 and 1992, only available with the 1.5 or Tipo 1.6 engines.

Fiat Regata 75S rear

Rear view of Fiat Regata

Movie roles

The Regata featured strongly in the 1986 film Gung Ho, centred on a (fictional) Japanese auto manufacturer reopening a shutdown automobile factory in a fictional western Pennsylvania town, the main model produced by “Assan Motors” were in fact Fiat Regatas (and Fiat 147s) in various stages of completion. The factory shots took place in the Fiat plant in El Palomar, Argentina.

1983 Fiat Uno

Fiat Uno
Fiat Uno II
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Also called Tofaş Uno
Fiat Mille
Production Fiat Uno: 1983–1995 (Italy)
1984–2013 (South America)
1995–2003 (Morocco)
1992-2000 (Philippines)
Novo Fiat Uno: 2010–present (South America)
Assembly Turin, Italy
Cape Town, South Africa
Betim, Brazil
Bursa, Turkey
Manta, Ecuador
Casablanca, Morocco (SOMACA)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Las Piñas, Philippines
Body and chassis
Class Supermini
Layout FF layout
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 127
Successor Fiat Punto

The Fiat Uno was a supermini car produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat. The Uno was launched in 1983 and built in its homeland until 1995, with production still taking place in other countries for some years, with the final Uno built in Brazil in 2013.

With approximately 8,800,000 built, it’s the eighth most produced automobile platform in history, after the Volkswagen Beetle, Ford Model T, Lada Riva, 1965-70 GM B platform, 1981–97 GM J platform, 1961-64 GM B platform, and 1977-90 GM B platform.

The Uno name was reintroduced in 2010 in South America for the Fiat Panda based car built in Brazil.

First series (1983–1989)

Fiat Uno
Fiat Uno Mk I

A first generation five door Uno
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Also called Fiat Mille
Fiat Mille Way
Innocenti Mille
Innocenti Mille Clip
Production 1983–1995 (Italy)
1995–2002 (Poland)
1995–2003 (Morocco)
1983–present (South America)
Assembly Turin, Italy
Cape Town, South Africa
Betim, Brazil
Bursa, Turkey
Manta, Ecuador
Casablanca, Morocco (SOMACAKragujevac, Serbia
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro
Body and chassis
Class Supermini
Body style 3-door hatchback
5-door hatchback
3-door panel van
Layout FF layout
Platform Type One platform (Tipo Uno)
Related Fiat Duna
Fiat Elba
Fiat Fiorino 2nd series
Powertrain
Engine Straight-4
Transmission 4 and 5-speed manual
Selecta CVT
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,362 mm (93.0 in)
Length 3,645–3,689 mm (143.5–145.2 in)
Width 1,549–1,562 mm (61.0–61.5 in)
Height 1,405–1,422 mm (55.3–56.0 in)
Curb weight 711–910 kg (1,567–2,006 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 127
Successor Fiat Punto (Europe)
Fiat Palio (South America/Asia)
Fiat Uno SX red hl

Rear view of three door first series Uno.

The Uno (Type 146) was launched in January 1983 to replace the ageing Fiat 127, which itself had revolutionized the supermini market on its launch more than 10 years earlier. Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro‘s ItalDesign company, its tall, square body utilising a Kamm tail achieved a low drag coefficient of 0.34 won it much praise for airy interior space and fuel economy. It incorporated many packaging lessons learnt from Giugiaro’s 1978 Lancia Megagamma concept car (the first modern people carrier / MPV / mini-van) but miniaturised. Its tall car / high seating packaging is imitated by every small car today. It reversed the trend for lower and lower built cars. It showed that not just low sleek cars could be aerodynamic, but small, roomy, boxy well packaged cars could be too.

United Kingdom sales began in June 1983, with more than 20,000 being sold in its first full year on sale and peaking at more than 40,000 sales in 1988.

In 1984 it was voted European Car of the Year.

Initially, the Uno was offered with the 0.9 litre (903 cc) OHV, 1.1 litre (1116 cc), and 1.3 litre (1301 cc) 138-series SOHC petrol engines and transmissions carried over from the 127. The 1.3 (1300 cc) diesel (not for the UK market) engine was launched a couple of months later. The Uno’s badging was not by the commonly used measurement of engine size but by metric horsepower: 45, 55, 60, 70, or 75. The Uno was available as either a 3 or 5-door hatchback. It also featured ergonomic “pod” switchgear clusters each side of the main instrument binnacle, (that could be operated without removing the driver’s hands from the steering wheel), although indicators remained on a stalk; an unusual arrangement similar to that used by Citroën.

The Uno had MacPherson strut independent front suspension and twist-beam rear suspension with telescopic dampers and coil springs.

From 1985, the 1.0 litre (999 cc) SOHC Fully Integrated Robotised Engine (FIRE) powerplant was offered. This was a lighter engine, built with fewer parts, and gave improved performance and economy.

Turbo i.e.

1988 Fiat Uno Turbo i.e. (UK-registered)

A 1988 Fiat Uno Turbo i.e. (UK-registered)

In April 1985 the hot hatch version of the first series Uno – the Uno Turbo i.e. – was launched as a 3-door only derivative. Despite marketing claims that it was fitted with an engine “specifically developed for turbocharging” the Turbo i.e. model actually used a Ritmo/Strada-derived 1.3 146-series engine with Bosch multi-point fuel injection, Magneti Marelli electronic ignition and a water-cooled IHI turbocharger with an intercooler to reduce intake air temperatures. The resultant power plant was highly regarded and considered as more technologically advanced than many of its contemporaries. Engine capacity was initially stated as 1299cc but this was revised early on in production to 1301cc. In both forms the engine offered 106 PS (105 bhp) but owners report that the 1301cc version was notably more responsive and had greater torque than the earlier 1299cc unit. Cars built from 1985 to late 1987 were fitted with a Ritmo/Strada-derived 5-speed gearbox. This was then replaced by a newly-developed ‘C510’ 5-speed gearbox, often referred to by owners as the ‘Tipo style’ gearbox, featuring a more durable differential and improved gearchange linkage. Ratios were unchanged between the two units.

1988 Fiat Uno Turbo i.e. engine bay

First Series Turbo i.e. Model Engine Bay

The Turbo i.e. offered significant performance improvement over standard Uno models and was capable of reaching 200 km/h (124 mph), thanks in part to the car’s low 845 kg (1,863 lb) weight. Reliability was improved due to the reduction in maximum turbo boost pressure for mass-production from 1.0 to 0.6 bar but conversely, it allowed tuners to modify the engine relatively easily to run 1.0bar boost pressure for even greater performance without significantly compromising reliability.

1988 Fiat Uno Turbo i.e. Body Graphics

Body Graphics/Stripes as fitted to the rear-quarter panel of a 1988 Turbo i.e. Model

Externally, the Turbo i.e. model sported black plastic sill trims and arch extensions (similar to that of the 70SX model), plus a revised front bumper with foglamps and inlets/scoops to direct air to the oil cooler and intercooler. Decals were added along the side of the car, initially as “T U R B O” in large outline letters but then later in stripe form with “Turbo i.e.” cut into the rear-quarter section and complimentary stripes across the tailgate. This also deviated from the pressed steel tailgate fitted on non-turbo models as it was manufactured from fibreglass and incorporated a high-level spoiler to improve looks and aerodynamic performance. All body glass benefited from a very light green tint.

Suspension was lowered and uprated, 13″ alloy wheels with Pirelli P6 tyres were fitted and the brakes upgraded to vented discs on the front and solid discs on the rear to replace the drum units of the non-turbo models.

1988 Fiat Uno Turbo i.e. Interior

First Series Turbo i.e. Model Interior

Interior equipment was upgraded in the Turbo i.e. model with ‘sports’ seats, plush red carpet and an extended centre-console. Later models had red seatbelts in place of earlier black versions.

Options on the Turbo i.e. model included polished Cromodora wheels, electric windows, manual sunroof and a ‘digital’ instrument panel, which used bar-graphs in place of dial gauges for fuel level, coolant temperature, boost pressure, etc, and a numerical display of speed that, in the UK market, could be switched between mph and kph at the press of a button. Such units were rare.

Fiat Uno Turbo i.e. Digital Instrument Cluster

First Series Uno Turbo i.e. Model Digital Instrument Display

An option on later first series Turbo i.e. models was called ‘Anti-Skid’ – a simple form of ABS that only operated on the front wheels and only once per ignition cycle meaning that if it was triggered during a journey it would not do so a second time until the ignition had been turned off and on again. Whilst it was an admirable attempt on Fiat’s part at improving driver safety and reducing accidents the ‘Anti-Skid’ system was largely regarded as ineffective and unreliable.

Diesel and Selecta Models

In 1987, a 1.7 litre diesel engined 60DS version was launched together with the Uno Selecta continuously variable transmission (CVT) automatic. The CVT transmission was a co-development with Dutch Van Doorne and Ford, (Fiat owned 24% stake of Van Doorne at that time).

Second series (1989–1995)

 Fiat Uno II back 4d

Rear view of second generation five door Uno

DCF 1.0

A second generation three door Uno

First shown at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 1989, the Uno received a thorough facelift. The bodywork at the nose was updated and a different tailgate was fitted, improving the drag coefficient to Cd 0.30, and matching the corporate look of the then new Fiat Tipo. The interior was also revised. The pod switchgear was replaced by stalks and an effort was made to stop the dashboard rattles of the Mark I. At this time, the old 1.1 litre engine was replaced by a new FIRE version, and a new Fiat Tipo-derived 1.4 litre (1,372 cc) engine replaced the Ritmo/Strada-derived 1.3 litre in both naturally aspirated and turbo versions. A 1.4 litre Uno Turbo could reach a claimed 204 km/h (127 mph), while the 1.0 version only managed 140–145 km/h (87–90 mph) depending on which transmission was fitted. The Uno Turbo i.e. variant was also restyled, upgraded with a Garret T2 turbine, Bosch LH Jetronic fuel injection and better aerodynamics.

Uno production ceased in Italy in 1995, with sales throughout Western Europe stopping at the same time. A total of 6,032,911 units were built in Fiat’s Italian factories. The Uno’s replacement in Western Europe was the Fiat Punto, which was launched in late 1993.

Continuing global production (1995–present)

Innocenti Mille 1.0i.e.

Brazilian-built Uno, sold as “Innocenti Mille” in Italy

After Western European production and sales ceased, the Uno continued to be manufactured and sold in many other regions.

Argentina

In Argentina, the 3-door Fiat Uno was produced by Sevel Argentina S.A. from March 1989 to 2000, 179,767 units were built. Engines Motor Tipo ranged from a 1,049 cc 52 PS (38 kW) petrol four to a 1.6-liter, 87 PS (64 kW) SCV/SCR version on top, with a 1.3-liter 45 PS (33 kW) diesel engine also available. A specific saloon version with four doors was also produced from 1988 to 2000. Called Duna or Elba, 257,259 units of this version were built in Fiat’s Córdoba plant. In addition to 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6-liter petrol versions, the diesel 1.3 was also available.

Brazil

The car was made in Brazil until December 2013 in three versions: Mille Economy, Uno Furgão and Fiorino Furgão. A total of 3.6 million Unos and Milles were built in Brazil during its 30-year production run.

2004 facelift Fiat Uno a

2004 facelift Fiat Uno

In the second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s, the Uno was also available as a sedan, a pick-up, and in a wagon version. These are called Prêmio, Fiorino Pick-Up, and Elba respectively.

The Brazilian Uno featured an independent, transverse leaf spring suspension at the rear, based on the tried and tested Brazilian Fiat 147 (similar to the Italian Fiat 127). The clamshell design of the hood was also unique, since the Brazilian Uno kept the spare tire located in the engine bay, like the old Fiat 147, thus saving extra space for the luggage in the trunk. Originally sold with 1.05, 1.3 or 1.5 litre petrol engines (also in versions made to run on ethanol), and a 1.6 litre was added to the lineup in 1989. The now redundant 1.5 was cancelled, but another 1.5 was introduced in 1991, this one derived from the 1.3.

The Fiat Uno family, in Brazil, had a turbocharged 1.4-litre four inline sports version, the Uno Turbo i.e., available between 1994 and 1996. This car was sold as a normal production vehicle with 1801 units produced.

2004 facelift Fiat Uno

Modified interior of the 2004 facelift Fiat Uno

From 1990 to 2013, a 1.0-litre version was sold as the Fiat Mille, as a budget entry-level model, and received its most recent facelift for the 2004 model year. A Fire engine was used since 2001. The 2005 Brazilian range has received a Flex Fuel system, enabling the car to use ethanol or gasoline as fuel, both pure or in any proportion mixture; also, there is a version fitted for unpaved roads called Mille Way, which includes a more resilient suspension, larger wheels and side cladding.

Despite the launch of the new Brazilian-built Uno in 2010, production of the Mille Economy and Mille Way continued until December 2013, only with a 1.0-litre engine. The Uno Furgao van (based on the series Uno) and the Fiorino Furgão were available with a 1.25-litre Fire engine.

Safety

The Brazilian Fiat Uno has been rated as highly unsafe by Latin NCAP, scoring only one star for adult occupants and two stars for children. Unfortunately, this is the safety standard of low-cost Brazilian cars.

India

After an abortive launch in 1996 when its CKD joint partner PAL delivered only 617 cars of the 30,000 ordered, Fiat started its venture as a 50-50 Industrial Joint Venture between Fiat Group Automobiles S. p. A. (Fiat) and Tata Motors Limited (who now own Jaguar-LandRover) in January 1997. At present the company employs about 600 employees in its Ranjangaon facility in the Pune District of Maharashtra. The Uno was initially a success in India, but then it faded badly due to poor dealer support.

Morocco

The Fiat Uno was also assembled in Morocco until 2003 by SOMACA (Société Marocaine des Constructions Automobiles), and remains a popular choice of car for “petit-taxi” use.

South Africa

In South Africa, the Uno was assembled under licence by Nissan from 1990 until 1998 and then by Fiat from 1998 up until 2006. Unos manufactured by Nissan had the word “licence” underneath the Fiat badge on the rear end and models included the 1108 cc FIRE,1372 cc PACER, PACER SX and 1372 cc TURBO. Later on there were also a number of special editions produced which included the Beat (1372 cc), the Rio (1108 cc) and for a short period the Cento (999 cc). After Fiat re-entered the South African market in 1998 Unos were rebadged as either the (1108 cc) Mia or (1372 cc) Tempo. They also featured the Fiat centenary badge from that point on. By the time initial production of the Uno ended in 2006 only the (1108 cc) Mia was available for sale. 110,000 units were produced between 1990 and 2002.

In 2007, the Fiat Uno was redesigned and it re-entered the South African new car market. The car was now marketed and distributed by Fiat themselves. The model line-up includes the Uno Way, which has a higher suspension than the regular Uno and colour-coded bumpers. It is based on the 1983–1990 design, and is powered by a 1.2-litre 4-cylinder petrol engine.

Philippines

Local manufacturer Francisco Motors, primarily known as a manufacturer of the Jeepney, partnered with Fiat to create a joint venture called Italcar Pilipinas Inc. in 1990. They assembled the Fiat Uno from 1992-2000 under the People’s Car Program, which was an incentive by the government of President Corazon Aquino to stimulate car production in the Philippines. The joint venture hoped to compete with local stalwarts such as the Toyota Corolla and Nissan Sentra with the Uno in the taxicab market, which accounted for many sales. The Uno was not popular and production decreased yearly until the venture was terminated in 2000.

Poland

Production in Fiat’s factory in Poland ran until 2002. 173,382 units were built from June 1995 to October 2002.

Pakistan

The Fiat Uno is also assembled from complete knock down (CKD) kits in Pakistan by Raja Motor Company. Production started in 2001 and continued until 2004 when the manufacturing plant had to be closed down. Only the diesel variant of the car was made available under the 1.7D model. Although large scale manufacturing of the car has ceased, stocks of CKD are still being assembled and sold at present.

Sales performance

United Kingdom

The Uno was quite popular in Britain, with 190,000 Mark I examples sold from its launch there in June 1983 until the launch of the facelifted model in late 1989.

New Zealand

The Uno was a surprise hit for Fiat in New Zealand, where a combination of low prices and well received styling saw over 1000 Unos a year being imported from Italy right up until the late 1980s, with the 3000th New Zealand Uno being celebrated in December 1988. Generally sold in 3 and 5-door hatchback form, a limited number of Fiorino panelvans and 3-door station wagons – badged as Fiat Penny – were also sold. A number of Unos sold in New Zealand were built to British specifications, which included a mile-per-hour speedometer.

Fiat Uno (2010–present)

“Novo” Fiat Uno
2011 Fiat Uno 1.4 Attractive in Argentina
Overview
Production 2010–present
Assembly Betim, Brazil
Guayaquil, Ecuador
Body and chassis
Class Supermini
Body style 3-door hatchback
5-door hatchback
Layout FF layout
Platform Fiat Economy
Related Fiat Palio
Fiat Grand Siena
Powertrain
Engine 1.0 Fire EVO Flex l4
1.4 Fire EVO Flex l4
Transmission 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,376 mm (93.5 in)
Length 3,770 mm (148 in)
Width 1,640 mm (65 in)
Height 1,490 mm (59 in)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat Mille (Brazil)

The Fiat Uno name was resurrected for project Progetto 327, the Brazilian-built “Novo Uno” (New Uno). The new Uno is engineered at Brazil and co-designed with Turin’s Fiat Centro Stile, and is basically a more urban interpretation of the Fiat Panda style on a Fiat Palio. It is larger and roomier than the first, but smaller and cheaper than the second platform. The car has two options of engines: the 1.0 Fire Evo (73 hp) and the 1.4 Fire Evo (83 hp), both able to use ethanol, gasoline or a mix of both fuels.

It will be sold in several South American countries as well as Brazil, but it has yet to be confirmed whether this Uno will be sold in Europe.

A new three cylinder, one liter engine is expected in the second semester of 2014.

1986 Fiat Croma

Fiat Croma
2010 Fiat Croma facelift
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1985–1996
2005–2011
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat Argenta
Successor none

The Fiat Croma is the name used for two automobiles produced by Italian automaker Fiat, one a large family car built from 1985 to 1996 and the other a cross-over wagon built from 2005 to 2011. The first generation was made available in hatchback/liftback style only, and a second generation was made available in estate/wagon style only.

First generation (1985–1996)

First generation (154)
Fiat Croma 1
Overview
Production 1985–1996
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Body style 5-door liftback
Platform Type Four platform (Tipo Quattro)
Related Saab 9000
Lancia Thema
Alfa Romeo 164
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,660 mm (104.7 in)
Length 4,495 mm (177.0 in)
Width 1,755 mm (69.1 in)
Height 1,425 mm (56.1 in)
Curb weight 1,095 kg (2,414 lb) approx
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat Argenta
1987 Fiat Croma CHT rear

1987 Fiat Croma CHT

The original Croma (Type 154) was a five-door notchback liftback penned by Giorgetto Giugiaro of Ital Design and built on the Type Four platform, which was designed in cooperation between several companies and was also used for the Saab 9000, Lancia Thema and Alfa Romeo 164. Although the other models were executive cars, the Croma was marketed in the large family car segment, replacing the Fiat Argenta in the Fiat lineup.

The Croma was the first large car produced by Fiat to feature a transverse-mounted engine and front wheel drive.

Facelift

Fiat Croma after facelift 1991

Fiat Croma (after 1991 facelift)

Fiat Croma rear a.f.

Fiat Croma rear

The Croma received a light facelift for 1988, first shown in Frankfurt in September 1987. The black plastic between the rear lamps was now ridged rather than smooth, the lower portion of the bumpers were body-colored, and the turn signals received clear glass rather than amber.[4] A more significant facelift in 1991 with new front design including changes to the lights, bumpers grille and sheet-metal changes to wings and bonnet. Also in 1991 the direct injected diesel engine was equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger (“VNT”).[5]

Production ceased in 1996, and Fiat abandoned the large family car segment. The Bravo/Brava-based Fiat Marea small family car replaced the Croma and Tempra as the largest saloon and estate in Fiat’s model range.

Engines

The Croma was available with a variety of petrol and diesel engines, the former from the Fiat DOHC engine family. Base models had the 1585 cc, 83 PS (61 kW) and 1995 cc, 90 PS (66 kW) “Controlled High Turbulence” (CHT) powerplants, followed by two fuel injected 2.0 L units, one with 120 PS (88 kW) and the other a turbocharged and intercooled version giving 155 PS (114 kW). The later 2.5 L petrol V6 unit was from Alfa Romeo, but as with the 1.6 L engine, was not available in all markets. The 2.0 CHT was designed specifically to provide low fuel consumption under light and medium loads thanks to two separate inlet manifolds of different diameters.

The Fiat Croma was the first passenger car in the world to have a direct injection Diesel (Turbo D i.d.) engine, in 1986. Other diesel engines were the Fiat’s 1.9 L fitted with a turbocharger with direct injection, giving 92 PS (68 kW), and the 2499 cc unit supplied by Iveco, with a normally aspirated version giving 75 PS (55 kW) and a turbocharged one with 115 PS (85 kW). This one replaced the original 2446 cc with 100 PS (74 kW). Diesel engined variants of this car were not marketed in the UK.

Second generation (194)
2005 Fiat Croma prima del Restyling
Overview
Production 2005–2011
Assembly Cassino – Piedimonte S. Germano (Frosinone), Italy
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Body style 5-door estate
Platform GM Epsilon platform
Related Cadillac BLS
Opel Signum
Opel Vectra
Saab 9-3
Powertrain
Transmission 5 and 6-speed manual
6-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,700 mm (110 in)
Length 4,755 mm (187.2 in)
4,783 mm (188.3 in) (facelift)
Width 1,775 mm (69.9 in)
Height 1,600 mm (63 in)
Chronology
Successor none

Second generation (2005–2011)

Fiat CROMA arr

Rear view of the second generation Fiat Croma

2007 facelifted Fiat Croma

The 2007 facelifted Fiat Croma

In 2005, Fiat announced a large cross-over wagon with an upright tailgate, reminiscent of that of the Fiat Stilo, resurrecting the Croma nameplate. Again, Giugiaro styled the exterior, while the chassis was provided via the short-lived link with General Motors. The new Croma (Type 194) is therefore based on the extended variant of the GM Epsilon platform sharing components with the Opel Vectra and Saab 9-3. It went on sale in Italy in June 2005.

Unlike the previous model, and aware of its lack of image in the upper market segments, Fiat opted for not developing a standard large family car but developing a “Comfort Wagon”, an automobile with design elements of both estates and large MPVs. Its height of 1,600 mm (63.0 in) falls between the Mitsubishi Grandis and Ford S-Max large MPVs (1,655 mm (65.2 in) and 1,660 mm (65.4 in) respectively) and SEAT Altea XL (1,525 mm (60.0 in)).

In February 2007, Fiat UK announced that the Croma would no longer be generally available in the United Kingdom, after less than 900 were sold in the whole of 2005. Production of the second generation Croma stopped in early 2011. Despite not being a showroom hit, the Croma managed to sell in quite reasonable numbers with 65,000 sold in one year alone.

Safety

The Croma has seven airbags as standard including knee bag for the driver. As standard the Croma is equipped with anti-lock braking system and electronic brakeforce distribution. It has a five-star EuroNCAP crash rating for adult occupant protection:

Euro NCAP test results
Fiat Croma (2008)
Test Score Rating
Adult occupant: 34 5 /5 stars
Child occupant: 39 4 /5 stars
Pedestrian: 6 1 /4 stars

Facelift

The Croma got a minor facelift at the end of 2007 and was termed the Nuova Croma. A new grille (Bravo look) and rear bumper, as well as some material changes inside are the main differences. Fiat now designates the revised model as “Station Wagon” instead of the previously used term “Comfort Wagon”. The Nuova Croma is only sold in mainland Europe.

Engines

The Croma, built at Fiat’s Cassino factory, has three trim levels and five engine options. Like the chassis, petrol engines were supplied by Opel, beginning with the brand new evolution of the Family 1 Ecotec 1.8 L with 140 PS (103 kW), followed by the torquier L850 Ecotec 2.2 L with 147 PS (108 kW). However, the bulk of the sales is represented by Fiat’s own Multijet engine, available in three variants 1.9 L with 8 valves and 120 PS (88 kW), 1.9 L with 16 valves and 150 PS (110 kW), and the range topper five-cylinder 2.4 L 20V, with 200 PS(147 kW). The Diesel engines are fitted with a standard six-speed manual gearbox, 6-speed automatic (standard on 2.4 engines) is also available.

1988 Fiat Tipo

Fiat Tipo
2004 Fiat tipo 1,6 DGT
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1988-1995
Assembly Cassino – Piedimonte S. Germano (Frosinone), Italy
Pomigliano d’Arco, Italy (1989-1990)
Betim, Brazil
Bursa, Turkey (Tofaş)
Designer Ercole Spada (I.DE.A Institute)
Body and chassis
Class Small family car
Body style 3/5-door hatchback
Layout front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Platform Type Two platform (Tipo Due)
Related
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.1 L I4
  • 1.4 L I4
  • 1.6 L I4
  • 1.7 L I4
  • 1.8 L I4
  • 2.0 L I4
  • 1.7 L diesel I4
  • 1.9 L diesel I4
  • 1.9 L TD I4
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,540 mm (100.0 in)
Length 3,958 mm (155.8 in)
Width 1,700 mm (66.9 in)
Height 1,445 mm (56.9 in)
Curb weight 1,020–1,230 kg (2,250–2,710 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat Ritmo
Successor Fiat Bravo/Brava

The Fiat Tipo (Type 160) is a small family car designed by the I.DE.A Institute design house and produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat between 1988 and 1995.

The Tipo was initially available only as a five-door hatchback. The car was made entirely out of galvanized body panels to avoid rust, and was built on a completely new Fiat platform, which was later used on Fiat, Alfa-Romeo, and Lancia models. It also stood out because of its boxy styling that gave it innovative levels of packaging – rear passenger room being greater than that in a rear-wheel-drive Ford Sierra, but in a car that was of a similar size to the smaller Ford Escort. This type of design was comparable to the smaller Fiat Uno, which was launched five years before the Tipo.

For 1989, the Tipo won the European Car of the Year award and 1989 Semperit Irish Car of the Year in Ireland.

The car has been extremely popular in Brazil. It outsold the Volkswagen Gol, which had been the best-selling Brazilian car for over 20 years. Only the Tipo, the Fiat Uno Mille, and Fiat Palio have also ever outsold the Gol.

Variants

Fiat Tipo 1.4L rear

Five-door Tipo 1.4, rear view

Launched in June 1988,[5] initially base (i.e.), DGT, (early Italian market DGT models were badged as ‘digit’, presumably in recognition of the digital dash, but this was quickly changed to DGT after a dispute over ownership of the name, leading to confusion about whether the model was diesel-powered) S, SX and 16v trim levels were available. Power from 58 to 148 PS (43 to 109 kW; 57 to 146 bhp) came from 1.1-, 1.4-, 1.6-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 1.8- 16-v, 2.0-, and 2.0-L 16-v petrol engines, as well as a 1.7-L diesel, 1.9-L diesel, and 1.9-L turbodiesel. The 1.1-L base engine was widely regarded as underpowered for the car, which was otherwise roomy for five adults and with above-average equipment. The top of the range was the 2.0 Sedicivalvole (16 valves). The Sedicivalvole gained its engine from the Lancia Thema, and with a much smaller and lighter bodyshell to house it, this power unit brought superb performance and handling, and a top speed of around 130 mph (210 km/h), which made it faster than the Volkswagen Golf GTI of that era.

Tofaş-Fiat Tipo 1.4 fl

Second series Tipo five-door (Tofaş-built version)

The Tipo was facelifted in 1993 and a three-door version was added, as well as minor exterior changes (the two evolutions of the car can be differentiated by their slightly different radiator grilles and headlamps) and improved specifications; safety features like stiffer bodyshells, driver’s airbag, and side impact bars were added to the range. This included the new S, SX, and SLX trim levels, as well as a new eight-valve 2.0-L GT model.

The Tipo ceased production in the summer of 1995 and was replaced by the three-door Fiat Bravo and five-door Fiat Brava. The Tempra saloon and estate (station wagon) were replaced by the Marea. The Bravo and Brava were strong sellers throughout Europe, but the Marea was a disappointment in most markets.

Fiat Tipo Sedicivalvole in a classic car show

Fiat Tipo Sedicivalvole in a classic car show, NEC Birmingham, UK

It was a reasonably strong seller in the United Kingdom, initially winning plaudits for its innovative and practical design, as well as its good handling. The 1.1 litre version was not available in the United Kingdom – the 1.4 litre was the base model. The digital dashboard of higher-end models proved to be controversial and unreliable. The car launched into a favourable market in the United Kingdom, where none of the “big three” carmakers (Ford, Vauxhall, and Austin Rover) had launched a new car of this size since 1984. However, these three marques all had new Tipo-sized products within three years, and increased competition reduced the Tipo’s sales. The final two years 1994/95 had a significant increase in sales, but these were mostly of the low-priced 1.4 litre models.

Production elsewhere

In Brazil, it only started to be produced in 1995, in a single trim level. It had a 1.6 litre, eight valve engine with multipoint fuel injection, which offered a 10 PS (7.4 kW) increase compared to the old 1.6 litre i.e., producing 92 PS (68 kW). Previously, the Tipo had been imported from Italy and was available with three different trims that were closely associated with its engines: the basic 1.6 i.e., the luxurious 2.0 litre (eight valve), and the sporty two-litre, sixteen valve Sedicivalvole. Seventeen 1.7 litre models were also brought in; they are all in Estoril Blue color and received complete equipment.

It was also built in Turkey, by Tofaş. The Turkish-built cars generally did not feature catalytic converters and some thus have marginally more power than the models listed in the table beneath. The Turkish cars also have a small “Tofaş” logo on the left side of the bootlid, and production there continued at least until 2000.

This was part V, next chapter History FIAT part VI  1990-1999

FIAT History part IV 1966-1979

FIAT

History

part IV

1966-1979

1966 Fiat 124 1200

1966 Fiat 124

Fiat 124
Fiat 124-Sedan Front-view
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1966–1974
Assembly Turin, Italy
Casablanca, Morocco (Somaca)
Body and chassis
Class Family car
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
Layout FR layout
Related SEAT 124
VAZ-2101 (Lada 1200)
VAZ-2103 (Lada 1500)
VAZ-2105 / VAZ-2107 (Lada Riva)
Murat 124/Tofaş Serçe
Premier 118NE
Powertrain
Engine 1,197 cc ohv I4
1,438 cc ohv I4
1,438 cc dohc I4
1,592 cc dohc I4
1,756 cc dohc I4
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual (Special T)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,420 mm (95.3 in) (sedan)
2,420 mm (95.3 in) (station wagon)
Length 4,042 mm (159.1 in) (sedan)
4,045 mm (159.3 in) (station wagon)
Width 1,625 mm (64.0 in) (sedan)
1,625 mm (64.0 in) (station wagon)
Height 1,420 mm (55.9 in) (sedan)
1,440 mm (56.7 in) (station wagon)
Curb weight 855–950 kg (1,885–2,094 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 1300/1500
Successor Fiat 131

The Fiat 124 is a mid-sized family car manufactured and marketed by Fiat between 1966 and 1974. The sedan superseded the Fiat 1300 and Fiat 1500 and spawned variants including a station wagon (with stiffened springs and a revised final drive ratio), four-seater coupé, two-seater spider convertible and a slightly lengthened and more luxurious version, the 125, launched in early 1967.

The Russian-produced Lada produced until 1988 was based on the Fiat 124, along with other licensed variants manufactured worldwide. The 124 was superseded in its home market by the slightly larger Fiat 131 Mirafiori.

Launch

Following its introduction in 1966 with a publicity stunt, with Fiat filming the dropping of the car by parachute from a plane, the 124 won the 1967 European Car of the Year. The station wagon variant, as well as the 124 Sport Spider and the 124 Coupé variants debuted at the 1967 Turin Motor show.

As a clean-sheet design by Oscar Montabone, the chief engineer responsible for its development, the 124 used only the all-synchromesh gear box from the Fiat 1500. The 124 featured a spacious interior, advanced coil spring rear suspension, disc brakes on all wheels and lightweight construction.

Engines

Power came from a 1.2 L (1,197 cc) Fiat OHV inline-four engine. Also, there were the 124 Special with a 1,438 cc OHV engine and the 124 Special T with 1,438 cc and 1,592 cc twin cam OHC engines. The twin cams are connected to a five-speed gearbox.

  • 1200 (1,197 cc) – 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) – 66 PS (49 kW; 65 hp) (1966–1974)
  • 1400 (1,438 cc) – 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp) – 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) (1968–1974)
  • 1400 Special T (1,438 cc) Twin cam – 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) (1968–1972)
  • 1600 Special T (1,592 cc) Twin cam – 95 PS (70 kW; 94 hp) (1973–1974)
  • Abarth Rally (1,756 cc) Twin cam – 128 PS (94 kW; 126 hp) (1972–1973)
  • 2000 (1,920 cc) Twin cam – 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) (1979)

Foreign production

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Fiat sought to extend its worldwide reach by entering into various collaborative agreements with smaller manufacturers (mostly in developing nations) by licensing the 124 design following its discontinuation in mainstream Western European markets, including the widely known variant manufactured by AvtoVAZ in the former Soviet Union, manufacturer of the Lada.

Soviet Union/Russia

Main article: VAZ-2101

VAZ-2101 Lada 1200

VAZ-2101

In 1966, Fiat entered into a collaborative agreement with the Soviet government to establish car manufacture in the depressed Samara region of Russia. Fiat was contracted to built the massive VAZ plant in the newly created town of Togliatti, named after the Italian communist leader of the same name. The factory produced an adapted version 124R of the 124, known as the VAZ-2101 “Zhiguli” (sold as the Lada 1200 in export markets), until 1982, and 1200s until 1987. These were based on the 124 but modified at more than 800 points, the major modifications being an entirely different OHC engine developed by Fiat, hydraulic clutch, drum brakes at the rear, modified suspensions, etc. Early modifications include the VAZ-2102 (station wagon), 2103 (Lada 1500), 2106 (Lada 1600) and 21011 (Lada 1300). The updated versions of the 124-based design were produced to September 2012, as the VAZ-2104, 2105 and 2107 – marketed as the Lada Riva (or Lada Classic) in most Western European markets. Production of this line reached 17,332,954 cars, this being the second largest production volume for a car in automotive history

India

IM000785.JPG

 1989 Premier 118NE

The Fiat 124 was also introduced in India by Premier Automobiles Limited. Premier had acquired in 1981 the chassis of the facelifted SEAT 124  after authorisation from Fiat and was released in the autumn of 1985 as the Premier 118NE. The car was very similar to the 1966 version except for a few cosmetic changes to the front and rear. However, Premier incorporated the Nissan A12 (1,171 cc and 52 bhp) powertrain instead of the original Fiat engine along with a Nissan manual gearbox. Added in 1996, there was also a version called the 1.38D which sported a diesel engine, built under license from Fratelli Negri Machine Sud, Italy.

At the end of production an improved model called Viceroy was released in collaboration with Peugeot. Production ended in 2001.

Spain

1970 SEAT 124

 SEAT 124, manufactured circa 1970

In the frame of the licence agreement between SEAT and Fiat, it was produced and sold in Spain with the name SEAT 124 from 1968 to 1975. Also a clone from the 124 Special with some elements from Fiat 125 was produced from 1969 to 1975 with the 1438 cc engine along with the twin-cams known as the “FUs” 1,600 cc (1970–72), and 1,800 cc (1972–75) branded as SEAT 1430. In 1975 when Fiat stopped production of the Fiat 124, the SEAT 124 had a minor facelift done by Giorgetto Giugiaro changing the aesthetics of the car by changing the round headlamps to rectangular design and integrating taillights into the body, car was known as the SEAT 124D and remained in production until 1980 with the Sport versions now codenamed the “FLs”, FL-40/45 1600cc 90HP, FL-80/82 1800 114HP and FL-90 1919cc 114HP The car was very successful in Spain, and was sold in both the four-door and station wagon versions.

Bulgaria

The Fiat 124 was also produced under the name Pirin-Fiat in Lovech, Bulgaria, on the basis of complete knockdown (CKD) kits between 1967 and 1971.

Turkey

Tofaş Serçe, Turkish version of Fiat 124

 Tofaş Serçe, Turkish version of Fiat 124

The Fiat 124 was also produced by Tofaş under the names “Murat 124” between 1971-1977 and “Serçe” (means “sparrow” in Turkish) between 1984-1994, in Bursa, Turkey. 134,867 Murat 124s were produced between 1971 and 1994. Tofaş concurrently produced the Fiat 131 series under the name Murat 131 between 1976 and 2002. Today, the company manufactures bona fide Fiat models.

Korea

The Fiat 124 was also produced under the name Fiat-KIA 124 by Asia Motors in South Korea, between 1970 and 1975.

Egypt

From 2002 to 2007, LadaEgypt company built at least 9,000 cars (2,200 in 2006) in the shell of VAZ-2107 (Riva), and it continues in 2012.

1966 Fiat 124 Coupé 1400

1966 Fiat 124 Coupé

FIAT 124 Coupé
1972-75 Fiat 124 Sport Coupé 1800 3ª serie

1972 FIAT 124 Coupé 1800
Overview
Manufacturer FIAT
Production 1967-1975
Designer Mario Boano
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door Coupe
Layout FR layout
Related SEAT 124 Sport
Powertrain
Engine straight-4
1438 cc AC
1608 cc BC
1592 cc CC
1756 cc CC
Transmission 4-speed manual (1967-68)
5-speed manual (1969-)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 95.3 in (2,421 mm)
Length 162 in (4,115 mm) AC
165 in (4,191 mm) BC
167 in (4,242 mm)-171 in (4,343 mm) CC
Width 65.8 in (1,671 mm)
Height 52.8 in (1,341 mm)
Curb weight 2,110 lb (960 kg) AC
2,214 lb (1,004 kg) BC
2,205 lb (1,000 kg)-2,360 lb (1,070 kg) CC

three-box, Notchback design of the Fiat 124 Coupé

the three-box, Notchback design of the Fiat 124 Coupé

FIAT 124 Coupé is an Italian car produced between 1967 and 1975 in three generations.

The four cylinder, aluminum, twin overhead cam engine was designed by ex-Ferrari engineer Aurelio Lampredi. Originally, the AC or first generation featured an 1,438 cc engine, which grew to 1,608 in the second or BC generation. The third generation, or CC, was first officially offered with the 1,592 cc and then 1,756 cc (some early CC left the factory with left over 1,608 cc engines).

Other mechanicals include a 5-speed gearbox (although very early AC models featured only a 4-speed), disc brakes at each wheel, power brakes, double wishbone front suspension, one carburetor per cylinder (2 Dual Weber or Solex carburetors on the BC series 1608 engine – except for the USA version which received mild carburation due to emissions constraints), electric fuel pump (on the CC series), and suspension by coil springs.

Design

The 124 Coupé was designed as a three-box, notchback by Mario Boano, known for designing the bodywork on the Ferrari 250 GT “Boano”. As many parts as possible were used from the 1966 FIAT 124 sedan, which was later made in the USSR by Lada only being discontinued in 2012, long after the Coupe’s demise. Mario Boano was hired by FIAT and was made responsible for the in-house Fiat Centro Stile, while the softtop Spider was designed by Pininfarina. The Spider and Coupé shared the same basic platform as the 124 Sedan (or Berlina in Italian), however the Spider had a 14 cm shorter wheelbase .

There were approx 113,000 AC Coupés, 98,000 BC Coupés 1,438 cc/1,608 cc, and about 75,000 CC Coupés manufactured. There were ongoing changes with all models making them almost individual by year (e.g. lack of rear sway bar on 1969 ACs, etc.)

The Fiat 124 Spider Abarth came with dual Weber 44 IDF carburetors unlike the regular 124 coupes and spiders which were equipped with dual Weber 40 IDF carbs. Fiat twincam engines tend to be oversquare in design, that is, big bore and short stroke.The 1608 cc is a perfectly square engine, its bore being 80 mm and its stroke being 80 mm. This gives them the ability, when combined with the camshafts and proper carburetors, to rev to high rpms. The Fiat 2-liter is the final evolution for this engine, and by creating a longer stroke (90 mm), actual capacity came to 1995 cc (the bore had been raised to 84 mm earlier on when the 1592 and 1756 engines first appeared). These were not used in any Coupes, but only on Spiders from 1979 on. This engine can be found, in turbocharged and intercooled form, in the Lancia Delta Integrale rally cars. These cars (in several forms and classes) took the World Rally Championship a total of seven times in the 1980s and 1990s.

Engines

  • 1400 (1438 cc) – 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp)
  • 1600 (1608 cc) – 110 PS (81 kW; 108 hp)
  • 1600 (1592 cc) – 108 PS (79 kW; 107 hp)
  • 1800 (1756 cc) – 118 PS (87 kW; 116 hp)

Chassis numbers

AC

Fiat 124 Sport Coupé AC

Fiat 124 Sport Coupé AC.

  • 1967 AC – starts 000001 – #034513
  • 1968 AC – #034514 – #066279
  • 1969 AC – #066280 – #113869

The AC model began in 1967 and came with a 1438 cc twin cam, 4-speed gearbox (the option of a 5-speed item appearing in mid-’67), front and rear anti-roll bars and a torque tube rear axle. It featured a 120 mph speedo, three supplementary gauges, a faux wood steering wheel, a woodgrain dash and console top, as well as tail lights shared with the Lamborghini Espada and Iso Rivolta.

124 Sport Coupes were modern in chassis and engine design. Braking was via four 9″ disc brakes with a front/rear weight-sensitive proportioning valve. It also had a sealed cooling system, viscous fan clutch and a toothed timing belt for the twin-cam motor, the first mass-produced engine to feature this instead of the usual chain-drive.

The torque-tube rear axle of the A series was replaced by a four-link rear axle with a Panhard rod in mid-’68, and remained the same throughout B and C models.

BC

1969 Fiat 124 Sport Coupe 1600 BC

Fiat 124 Sport Coupe 1600 BC 1969.

  • 1970 BC – #113870 – #115876
  • 1971 BC 1438 cc – #115877 – #139912
  • 1971 BC1 1608 cc – #139913
  • 1972 BC1 1608 cc – #181442

The BC featured revised styling with twin headlights and revised taillights shared with the Lamborghini Jarama.

The BC was available with both the 1438 cc and later (although sooner in Europe) the 1608 cc engine. Other details remained similar to the AC except the interior dash now had a 140 mph or 220 km/h speedo, 9000 rpm tacho in 1608 cc models and a clock. The steering wheel now had black painted spokes and the seats had for the first time cloth inserts in the centre. There was no woodgrain inside like before (all the panels were finished in black vinyl and the gauge rims were matt black to match) and “eyeball” vents were fitted in the centre console where the AC had a decorative panel simply filling in the space for an optional radio.

Options included green tinted windows, Cromodora alloy wheels with Chrome centre hub cap (as per AC optional), radio, seat headrests, rear windshield electric defrosting, electronic ignition. At the end of the BC run air conditioning was available as an option as well. The fuel tanks were always around 46 litres (12 US gal; 10 imp gal) and all fasteners used are metric as per European measurement.

CC

1971 Fiat 124 Sport Coupe CC

 Fiat 124 Sport Coupe CC.
  • 1973 CC 1608 cc – #206905
  • 1973 CC 1592 cc – #213370
  • 1974 CC1 1756 cc – #240100
  • 1975 CC1 1756 cc – #269934

The CC Coupe arrived in 1973 with new front styling and a revised squarer rear tail with a new deeper trunklid. Taillights also changed to a now vertical arrangement and side rear windows were revised.

The CC started with a small batch fitted with the 1608 cc engine, soon changing to a revised 1592 cc engine (slightly shorter stroke at 79,2 mm to create a “sub-1600” engine to fit the lower tax bracket in Italy) and an enlarged 84 mm bore creating an engine of 1756 cc. The 1592 cc and 1756 cc (sourced from the new Fiat 132, introduced in 1972) both made use of a single carburetor again (the Weber 34 DMS). In spite of this change the 1756 cc was the most powerful engine produced with 118 hp (88 kW) and 115 mph (185 km/h) top speed.

The CC’s revised interior featured a new dashboard incorporating a lower panel on the passenger side, an alloy fascia in front of the driver and seats covered completely in cloth. There was a new vinyl-covered steering wheel rim with anodised silver spokes. The optional but not uncommon Cromodora wheels now had a revised design with no chrome centre hubcap, instead having exposed wheelnuts. These were of an 8 slot design, the earlier wheels used coming in 6 slot configuration (an 8-slot design was also current but not original to the 124 range).

SEAT 124 Sport

The car was also built with 1600 (FC-00) and 1800 (FC-02) engines under license in Spain as the SEAT 124 Sport. The first series produced was equivalent to the BC series of Fiat’s version, and used 1608 cc engines provided by Fiat itself. The second series was a direct copy of the CC model, with both the 1592 and 1756 cc engines. SEAT later developed facilities for producing its own engines of this family, but it appears that the Sport versions were actually built in Italy.

1966 Fiat 124 Spider 1400

Fiat 124 Sport Spider

Fiat 124 Sport Spider
1974 FIAT 124 SPORT SPIDER 1800, 72-YA-19

1974 Fiat 124 Sport Spider
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat 1966-1982
Pininfarina 1983-1985
Also called Pininfarina Spider (1983-1985)
Production 1966-1985
Assembly Turin, Italy
San Giorgio Canavese, Italy(Pininfarina)
Designer Tom Tjaarda Designer, Franco Martinengo Design Director, Battista PininfarinaPininfarina
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door cabriolet
Layout FR layout
Related Fiat 124
Powertrain
Engine 1,438 cc (1.4 L) I4
1,592 cc (1.6 L) I4
1,608 cc (1.6 L) I4
1,756 cc (1.8 L) I4
1,995 cc (2.0 L) I4
1,995 cc (2.0 L) turbo I4
1,995 cc (2.0 L) sc I4
Transmission 4/5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 89.75 in (2,280 mm)
Length 156.25 in (3,969 mm)
Width 63.5 in (1,613 mm)
Height 49.25 in (1,251 mm)

The 124 Sport Spider is a 2+2 convertible sports car marketed by Fiat from 1966 to 1980 – having debuted at the November 1966 Turin Auto Show. Designed and manufactured by Italian carrozzeria Pininfarina, Fiat and Pininfarina continued to market the monocoque-bodied car as the 2000 Spider from 1979 to 1982. Pininfarina itself assumed the car’s marketing from 1983 to the end of its production in 1985 – as the Pininfarina Spider Azzura.

The body of the car was designed and marketed by Pininfarina. The convertible body was designed by Tom Tjaarda, who used his earlier designs of Chevrolet Corvette “Rondine” and Ferrari 275 GTS. Several years later, in 1981, on the 50th anniversary of Pininfarina, this fact was further emphasized by producing a Fiat Spider 2000 Pininfarina 50th (Golden) Anniversary Edition. In 1972, a sports version of the Spider was revealed. This was required for a type-approval of its rally version, which earned some remarkable success. The models sold in showrooms were marked as 124 CSA (C-Spider-Abarth). The vehicle had a capacity of 128 hp. In three years, Fiat manufactured less than 1,000 CSA models, which were intended for sale to individual clients. Apart from the Fiat Spider 2000 Pininfarina 50th (Golden) Anniversary Edition, this is one of the versions most eagerly sought by collectors.

The car was sold in Europe and the U.S. from its introduction until the 1975 model year when it was modified to comply with new U.S. regulations and no European version was produced. Sales in Europe resumed when Pininfarina took over production in 1983 under the name Pininfarina Europa Spider.

The Sports Spider and the Fiat 124 Coupé shared the numeric portions of their name with the 124 sedan along with much of their running gear – and, in the case of the Coupé, a shared platform. The Sports Spider utilized a shorter platform along with a shorter wheelbase, and in contrast to the Pinifarina styled and manufactured Spider, Fiat designed and manufactured the Coupé in-house.

Engines

The four-cylinder engine used in the Spider and Coupé was a double overhead cam, aluminum crossflow head version of the sedan’s pushrod unit. It started in 1966 with a capacity of 1438 cc progressively increasing to 1608 cc in 1970 (although this reduced to 1,592 cc in 1973), 1,756 cc in 1974 and finally 1,995 cc in 1979. The Fiat Twin Cam engine was designed by Aurelio Lampredi.[4] Bosch fuel injection replaced the previously used Weber carburetors midway through 1980. In 1981 and 1982, Fiat USA, Inc. partnered with Legend Industries to create approximately 700 turbo models for US markets. There was also a supercharged model called Volumex offered toward the end of production, which was sold only in Europe, where it cost 35% more than a regular, fuel-injected Spidereuropa. This family of engines was designed by ex-Ferrari chief engineer Aurelio Lampredi and in one form or another remained in production into the 1990s giving it one of the longest production runs in history. The double overhead cam (DOHC) version was the first mass manufactured DOHC to utilize reinforced rubber timing belts, an innovation that would come into nearly universal use in the decades after its introduction. Its family powered race cars such as: FIAT 131 Mirafiori, 124 Special T, Lancia Beta Montecarlo, Delta Integrale and many others.

Suspension

Suspension was conventional by unequal length wishbones and coil over damper at the front and by coil sprung live rear axle at the rear which was located by a transverse link (Panhard rod) and two pairs of forward extending radius rods to react braking and acceleration and to control axle wind-up.

Specification

The Coupe and Spider were first sold in the US market in 1968. In 1969, the Spider featured four-wheel disc-brakes, double overhead cams, hesitation wipers, steering-column mounted lighting-controls, radial ply tires and a five-speed manual transmission. An optional three-speed automatic transmission from General Motors was available from 1979 through 1985 for North America as well as Japan. Its convertible top could be raised and locked in under a minute. When the engine was upgraded to two litres, the model was renamed as the Fiat 2000 Spider.

Fiat subsequently stopped marketing the Spider and the X1/9 — to have their marketing assumed by their respective carozzeria. In Europe, the Ritmo Cabrio was also marketed by Bertone rather than Fiat themselves. In the USA, Fiat turned over marketing and support of the Spider and the X1/9 to International Automobile Importers, Inc., headed by Malcolm Bricklin.

An early special version was the 124 Spider Abarth which featured an independent rear axle, hardtop, different seats, interior etc. and only came in 3 colours.

Rallying

Fiat Abarth 124 Rallyes in Abarth factory in Turin

Fiat Abarth 124 Rallyes in Abarth factory in Turin.

In 1971 the 124 Spider was prepared for the World Rally Championship when Abarth became involved with its production and development. Abarth designer Ing. Colucci was responsible for getting the 124 Spider into Group 4 rally trim. Over this period the Abarth Spider had relative success with wins at the 1972 Hessen Rally, Acropolis Rally, 1973 Polish Rally, 19th on the 1973 RAC rally and 7th to mostly the Alpine Renaults on the 1973 Monte Carlo Rally. The Spider continued to perform with 1st, 2nd and 3rd in the 1974 8th Portuguese TAP Rally, 6th in the 1974 1000 Lakes, 4th in the 1975 Monte Carlo Rally and also with Markku Alén driving the Spider to 3rd place. By 1976 the days of 124 rallying were numbered due to the appearance of the Fiat-Abarth 131.

Production

The model line ceased in 1985 after almost 200,000 Spiders alone had been built, of which 75% were for the US market. There were nine models of the Spider, the AS, BS, BS1, CS, CSA (Abarth), CS1, CS2, CS0, and DS.

  • 1966 Fiat 2300 B Familiare

1968 Fiat 850 Special

1967 Fiat 125

Fiat 125
1969 Fiat 125 S
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1967-1972
Assembly Turin, Italy
Casablanca, Morocco (SOMACA)
Córdoba, Argentina (till 1982),
Rancagua, Chile
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Body style 4-door Sedan
5-door Estate car
Related Fiat 1300/1500
Fiat 124
Zastava 125pz
Polski Fiat 125p
FSO Polonez
Powertrain
Engine 1608 cc DOHC
Transmission 4-speed manual
(125: 1967–1973)
5-speed manual
(125S: 1968–1970, 125 Special1970–1973)
3-speed automatic
(125S:
1968–1970, 125 Special1970–1973)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,505 mm (98.6 in)
Length 4,232 mm (166.6 in)
Width 1,625 mm (64.0 in)
Height 1,440 mm (56.7 in)
Curb weight 1,150 kg (2,535.3 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 1500
Successor Fiat 132

The Fiat 125 is a large family car introduced by Fiat in 1967 and produced by them until 1972. Derivatives were built under license outside Italy until the 1990s. As launched the car was unusual in blending saloon car passenger accommodation with sports car performance, a combination which would be more widely adopted by the European volume auto-makers in the decade ahead.

The body

The floor pan was virtually unchanged from that of the longer variant of the outgoing model, the Fiat 1300/1500, and the chassis used was the same as the Fiat 1300/1500. The body was a slightly lengthened development of the Fiat 124: both models shared the same passenger compartment and doors, but the 125’s rear seat was set slightly further back, reflecting the 2505 mm wheel-base, inherited from the Fiat 1500 and over 8 cm (3 inches) longer than that of the 124.

Engine and running gear

The new car’s engine was based on the one fitted in the Fiat 124 Sport: a 1608 cc DOHC unit with 90 bhp driving the rear wheels. The 125 was equipped with a Solex carburettor. The car was fitted with an alternator, reflecting the twin headlights and the increasing number of energy intensive electrical components appearing on cars at this time. Other noteworthy features included the electromagnetic cooling fan clutch.

Developments

In 1968 the 125S (“Special”) was added to the range, with 100 bhp (from a modified cylinder head, camshafts, inlet/outlet manifold and Weber/Solex carburettor) and, unusually at this time, a five-speed gearbox. It also had one of the worlds first intermittent wipers, halogen lights, servo-assisted twin circuit brakes and optional superlight magnesium wheels. A variety of other improvements were made including improved cabin ventilation, trim and styling.

The 125 was praised when new for its handling and dynamics. British Autocar found the slight understeer tendencies were easily cured by adjusting the front camber.

The Special was facelifted in 1971 using pretty much the same trim as the 125S, but both front and rear lights were new and wider, enhancing the visual width of the car. The interior gained upgraded upholstery of the seats and a wood facia. A three-speed automatic transmission as well as air condition became available as an option.

Variations

A variant, the 125 T, was made by the Fiat importers in New Zealand, Torino Motors, for the annual 6 hour production car race, the Benson and Hedges 500. The 125T has larger valves, two twin Weber DCOH or Dell’Orto 40DHLA carburettors (depending on availability), modified camshafts and a higher compression ratio to produce around 125 bhp (93 kW), lowered and stiffer suspension. All featured Ward alloy wheels and were painted bright yellow. Sources for production figures quote that between 84 and 89 were modified. Reasons for stopping production are sometimes given that Fiat headquarters found out and stopped this venture. However a more likely scenario is that selling the required 200 cars in a market that only sold 1000 Fiats in total each year was a tall order.

Other versions were built by Moretti, who made the 125GS 1.6 with styling similar to the Fiat Dino Spider. Zagato made the 125Z; Savio, a 125 Coupé and 125 Station Wagon; Pininfarina, a 125 Executive; and Vignale produced the Samantha, a two-door coupé with pop-up headlights, designed by Virginio Vairo.

Production

Production by Fiat in Italy ceased in 1972 when the Fiat 132 was introduced, a total of 603,877 cars having been built.

Foreign production

Poland

1975 + Polski Fiat 125p

Polski Fiat 125p (after 1975)

Main article: Polski Fiat 125p

A licence copy was also produced in Poland by the Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych (FSO) from 1967 until 1991, under the brand Polski Fiat as the Polski Fiat 125p, and later as the FSO 1500, FSO 1300, or FSO 125p.

It was a somewhat simplified variation of the Fiat car, with outdated 1300 cc or 1500 cc engines and mechanicals from the Fiat 1300/1500. Polish cars differed in details from Italian ones, most visible were four round headlights instead of square ones, simpler bumpers and front grill, orange front turn signal lenses, different shape details in tail and front lamps design, simpler body sheet metal stampings, old Fiat 1300/1500 chassis and interior. This model was also available as an estate (the Polski Fiat 125p Kombi) and a pickup developed in Poland after Italian Fiat 125 production ended in 1972.

Yugoslavia

The Zastava 125 Zastava produced model identical to the Polish 125p. Available versions were called 125 PZ with 1295 or 1481 cc engines.

Egypt

In Egypt production of the Polish 125p version went on under the name Nasr 125 until 1983, remaining one of the most sought-after cars due to its strength and reliability.

Argentina

In Argentina the 125 was built from 1972 to 1982, initially by Fiat-Concord and later Sevel. In addition to the 4-door sedan version, a station wagon (called “Familiar”), a pickup (called “Multicarga”, a unique Argentine design) were built. There was also a coupe called 125 Sport with the same mechanics than the sedan, but based on the Fiat Coupé 1500 Vignale.

Colombia

A few copies were made of Italian 125 and was quickly replaced by Polish 125p better suited to the local market.

Chile

A car that was manufactured almost equal to the Fiat 125 Special “restyling in 1970.

Morocco

SOMACA (Société Marocaine de Construction Automobile) assembled 125 in Casablanca.

1969 Fiat 128

Fiat 128
1970 Fiat 128 Kent UK
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Also called Nasr 128 GLS 1300
Moretti 128 Roadster
Zastava 128/301
SEAT 128
Production 1969–1985
Assembly Rivalta, Torino, Italy
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Casablanca, Morocco (Somaca)
Bogota, Colombia (CCA)
Homagama, Sri Lanka (Upali)
Helwan, Egypt (Nasr)
Body and chassis
Class Small family car
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
3-door estate
5-door estate (Argentina)
2-door coupe
3-door coupe
Layout FF layout
Related Fiat X1/9, Autobianchi A111
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,445 mm (96.3 in)
Length 3,850 mm (151.6 in)
Width 1,590 mm (62.6 in)
Height 1,340 mm (52.8 in)
Curb weight 750–770 kg (1,650–1,700 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 1100
Successor Fiat Ritmo

The Fiat 128 is a front-engine, front wheel drive four-passenger compact manufactured and marketed by Fiat for model years 1969–1985 in two- and four-door sedan, three- and five-door wagon as well as two-door and three-door coupes (128SL/128 3P) variants. Rather than a sport or convertible model carrying the 128 nameplate, the 128 running gear and engine were reconfigured for a mid-engined layout and marketed as the Fiat X1/9.

With engineering by Dante Giacosa and engine design by Aurelio Lampredi, the 128 was noted for its relatively roomy passenger and cargo volume — enabled by a breakthrough innovation to the front-engine, front-drive layout which became the layout “adopted by virtually every other manufacturer in the world” for front-wheel drive. Fiat promoted in its advertising that mechanical features consumed only 20% of the vehicle’s volume and that Enzo Ferrari drove a 128 as his personal vehicle. The 128 was voted European Car of the Year for 1970.

3,107,000 examples were manufactured by Fiat from 1969 to 1985.[6] Until 2001, versions of the 128 were also manufactured elsewhere in the world under license, for example by Zastava.

Development

With engineering by Dante Giacosa and engine design by Aurelio Lampredi, the 128 was noted for its relatively roomy passenger and cargo volume — enabled by a breakthrough innovation to the front-engine, front-drive layout which became the layout “adopted by virtually every other manufacturer in the world” for front-wheel drive. Fiat promoted in its advertising that mechanical features consumed only 20% of the vehicle’s volume and that Enzo Ferrari drove a 128 as his personal vehicle.”

Fiat built an entire new plant in Rivalta, northwest of Turin, specifically to manufacture the new 128.

Front drive innovation

1969 Fiat 128 2 door Graham Ruckert

First series Fiat 128

Front-wheel drive had previously been introduced to small, inexpensive cars with the British Mini. As engineered by Alec Issigonis, the compact arrangement located the transmission and engine sharing a single oil sump — despite disparate lubricating requirements — and had the engine’s radiator mounted to the side of the engine, away from the flow of fresh air and drawing heated rather than cool air over the engine. The layout often required the engine be removed to service the clutch.

As engineered by Dante Giacosa, the 128 featured a transverse-mounted engine with unequal length drive shafts and an innovative clutch release mechanism — an arrangement which Fiat had strategically tested on a previous production model for a full five years, the Primula from its less market-critical subsidiary, Autobianchi. The layout enabled the engine and gearbox to be located side by side without sharing lubricating fluid while orienting an electrically controlled cooling fan toward fresh air flow. By using the Primula as a test-bed, Fiat was able to sufficiently resolve the layout’s disadvantages, including uneven side-to-side power transmission, uneven tire wear and potential torque steer, the tendency for the power of the engine alone to steer the car under heavy acceleration.

The compact and efficient layout — a transversely-mounted engine with transmission mounted beside the engine driving the front wheels through an offset final-drive and unequal-length driveshafts — subsequently became common with competitors and arguably an industry standard.[

The layout was sufficiently flexible that Fiat reconfigured the 128 drive-train as a mid-engined layout for the Fiat X1/9.

Design

The all new 1.1 liter Fiat SOHC engine, engineered by noted engine designer Aurelio Lampredi, featured an iron block mated to an aluminum head along with a belt-driven single overhead camshaft producing 49 hp.

The 128 was styled similarly to the 124 and 125 and featured rack-and-pinion steering, front disc brakes, independent rear suspension with a transverse leaf spring, and a strut-type front suspension with integral antiroll bar.

1976 Second series Fiat 128 with new rectangular headlights

Second series (1976) Fiat 128 with new rectangular headlights

Initially, the 128 was available as a two-door or four-door sedan. At the 1970 Turin Motor Show a three-door station wagon model called “Familiare” was added to the lineup.[7] The car was only available with a 1116 cc engine on launch, though the two-door-only 128 Rally edition launched in 1971 used a 1290 cc unit. Also in 1971, the Sport Coupé, an all-new coupé body on a shortened 128 platform, was unveiled at the Turin Show. On launch it was available with both existing 128 engines. The 128 range underwent a facelift in 1972, featuring a revised grille. 1974 saw the launch of the 128 Special, which used the Rally engine in a four-door sedan body. In 1975 the 128 3P (3-door) Berlinetta replaced the Sport Coupe. In 1976, the range received new bumpers, rectangular headlights, taillights and dashboard as well as modifications to the engines. At this time, the wagon was also renamed the “Panorama”.

Production of all 128s except that of the base 1100 cc powered model ended in 1979 after the introduction of the Fiat Ritmo/Strada in 1978. In 1980 production of the small three-door station wagon Panorama was dropped from the range and 128 production finally ended in 1985.

Road test

The British “Motor” magazine tested a Fiat 128 in April 1970, shortly after its UK launch. The car had a top speed of 85.4 mph (137.4 km/h) and accelerated from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 15.5 seconds. An “overall” fuel consumption of 27.5 miles per imperial gallon (10.3 L/100 km; 22.9 mpg-US) was recorded. This put it fractionally behind the contemporary Morris 1300 on maximum speed but usefully ahead on acceleration. The two were closely matched on fuel economy, where both were outrun by the Ford Escort 1300 Super also included in the comparison, here in its four-door version. The Fiat’s £876 manufacturer’s recommended price was not too far above the Morris 1300’s £830 and the Escort’s £838. The testers commended the Fiat’s interior space and excellent performance. Wind and road noise were low, but engine noise was not.

Models gallery

Fiat 128 Familiare (station wagon) 3-door

Fiat 128 Familiare (station wagon) 3-door

Fiat 128 Rural 5-door, Argentinian productionFiat 128 Rural 5-door, Argentinian production

1971 Fiat 128 RallyFiat 128 Rally (1971)

1988 Fiat Super Europa 1.3 (Argentina)Rear view of 1988 Fiat Super Europa 1.3 (Argentina)

1972 Fiat 128 Sport Coupé SL 1100Fiat 128 Sport Coupé SL 1100 (1972)

1978 Fiat 128 3P (3-door) BerlinettaFiat 128 3P (3-door)

FIAT Moretti 128 RoadsterMoretti 128 Roadster

Licensed production

Zastava 128Zastava 128

1990 Fiat 128 Super Europa, manufactured between 1983–1990 by Sevel Argentina

Fiat 128 Super Europa, manufactured between 1983–1990 by Sevel Argentina

The 128 formed the basis of the Zastava 128 (four-door sedan) and Zastava 101 (three-door and five-door hatchbacks) ranges of cars manufactured by the “Zastava Automobili” company in Serbia. The 128-based Zastavas were available throughout Europe in the ’70s. In Britain, three variants were offered: a three-door hatchback (Zastava Yugo 311/313), four-door saloon (Zastava Yugo 411/413) and a five-door hatchback (Zastava Yugo 511/513). As one of the Serbian automaker’s most affordable models, production ended in November 2008.

Zastava also produced the 128 in its original, four-door sedan form. Until 2009, CKD kits were manufactured by Egypt’s Nasr car company as the Nasr 128.[2]

In Argentina, the 128 was produced from 1971 to 1990 as a four-door sedan or five-door wagon, the Fiat 128 Rural, the latter unique to Argentina. Several trims and versions were available, including the IAVA sport series. In 1983 the car received a facelift with new headlamps, tail lamps and front grille, which was marketed as the Super Europa.

In Colombia, the 128 was produced by “Compañía Colombiana Automotriz” in Bogota.

In Spain, SEAT manufactured its own version of 128 3P Berlinetta model (31,893 copies).

In Sri Lanka, the Fiat 128 was manufactured by the Upali Motor Company until 1978.

1969 Fiat 130

Fiat 130
1976 Fiat 130 165PS

1976 Fiat 130 Saloon
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1969-1977
Designer Paolo Martin for Pininfarina (coupé)
Body and chassis
Class Executive car
Body style 4-door saloon
2-door coupé
5-door station wagon
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine 2866 cc OHC V6
3235 cc OHC V6
Transmission 3-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,720 mm (107.1 in)
Length 4,750 mm (187.0 in)
Width 1,803 mm (71.0 in)
Height 1,473 mm (58.0 in)
Curb weight 1,550 kg (3,417 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 2300

The Fiat 130 is a large executive car which was manufactured by the Italian automaker Fiat from 1969 to 1977. It was available as a 4-door saloon and as a 2-door coupé.

The saloon was launched at the 39th Geneva Motor Show in March 1969, replacing the previous largest and most exclusive Fiat saloon, the Fiat 2300. It was a thoroughly modern car, with four-wheel independent suspension (torsion bars in the front and coil springs in the rear), standard power steering and four-wheel disc brakes, and was the first Fiat to adopt an alternator instead of a direct-current generator.

The Coupé, based on the same platform, was introduced in March 1971 having been designed by Paolo Martin of Pininfarina, who also manufactured the car. With a unique interior design (adopted in the saloon when it was upgraded to the 130B version which also featured the Coupé’s enlarged 3235 cc V6), it featured a button-operated mechanism allowing the driver to open the passenger-side door. In addition to this model, there were two one-off variations built, a 2-door estate named Maremma and a 4-door saloon named Opera.

Production of the saloon finished in 1976, with 15,093 produced. The Coupé continued until the following year, and production ended with 4,294 built in total.

Engine

Using the “128 type A” motor as a basis, a new crossflow V6 engine, with a 60° vee angle and rubber-toothed-belt driven twin overhead camshafts was developed for the model by Aurelio Lampredi. It became known as the “130 type A” engine with a capacity of 2866 cc and a power output of 140 bhp (104 kW; 142 PS) at 5600 rpm.

The engine was uprated to 160 bhp (119 kW) for 1970, which involved raising the compression ratio from 8.3:1 to 9.0:1, increasing the size of the carburettor choke from 42 to 45 mm and reducing back pressure by extending the portion of the exhaust manifold that used individual pipes on each side of the V format engine. This provided useful performance improvements in a market-segment where relatively new models from Mercedes-Benz and Jaguar north of the Alps were setting an increasingly competitive pace.

In 1971, the “130 type B” engine was introduced, featuring a slightly increased bore (102 mm instead of 96 mm), displacing 3235 cc and producing 165 bhp (123 kW) at 5600 rpm.

Powertrain

Power was delivered to the rear axle via standard Borg-Warner three-speed automatic transmission, and a five-speed ZF S5-18/3 ZF manual was an option.

Suspension

Front suspension was MacPherson-like with torsion bars instead of springs, to allow room for the wide V6 and the optional air conditioning. The height of the front suspension is adjustable, using eccentric cams in the ends of the torsion bars, where they are attached to the body.

The rear suspension is independent using conventional springs, with good wheel geometry control and a limited-slip differential. It is noteworthy that the rear suspension geometry can be finely tuned.

Steering

The 130 has ZF power steering. The steering column is adjustable for rake and reach.

Fiat 130 Saloon type “A”

Launched in 1969, with the 2866 cc 140 bhp (104 kW; 142 PS) engine. The press soon concluded that the 140 bhp (104 kW; 142 PS) was insufficient in view of the weight of about 1,600 kg (3,527 lb), hence the Fiat 130 berlina type “A” did not compete with the big BMW and Mercedes sedans. Interior design was not ambitious, with rectangular dials in the dashboard, a black plastic centre console and black plastic everywhere.

Fiat 130 Coupé

Fiat 130 Coupe (UK model)

 Fiat 130 Coupe (UK model)

Identified as type “BC” on their chassis, the 130 Coupe appeared in 1971 at Geneva motor show exhibiting a completely new 2-door body and a completely new interior. Both exterior and interior styling were the work of Paolo Martin at Pininfarina. The car won a design prize, attributed to Pininfarina, and this helped Pininfarina begin a new life after all those years relying on the “Fiat 1800/Peugeot 404/Austin A60” concepts. Pininfarina extended the Fiat 130 Coupé line with two proposals that were rejected by Fiat : the Maremma in 1974 (2-door shooting brake) and the Opera in 1975 (4-door saloon). Paolo Martin never got involved in these Fiat 130 Coupé variations, as he left the company soon after the design prize in 1971.

The seats were shaped and designed by Paolo Martin with the collaboration of Giovanni Gottin, a specialist established in Turin. The dashboard was redesigned with sporty round dials, using white needles.

Fiat 130 Coupé

Fiat 130 Coupé

The central console was redesigned by Paolo Martin, featuring wooden veneer, a row of switches and soft illumination throughout using state of the art fibre optics. The steering column is adjustable for rake and reach. The driver’s seat has a degree of height adjustment.

Fiat 130 Coupé production figures*
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 Totals
347 1,746 1,344 617 197 221 19 4,491

*stated by Pininfarina production records

Fiat 130 Berlina type “B”

These cars were improved in 1971, taking on board some Paolo Martin innovations conceived for the Coupé. The steering column, the dashboard, the central console and the ventilation are identical to the Coupé. The seats, the steering wheel and the door panels were improved, but differently from the Coupé. One can say the 1971 “B” version from 1971 is significantly more refined than the “A” version dating from 1969. Retrospectively, if one compares the 130 with big BMW and Mercedes sedans, the Fiat 130 Berlina type “B” may be the winner in terms of interior design and some comfort elements. But if one is considering the dynamic elements like power and ride comfort, the Fiat 130 type “B” is still lagging as the engine is not blessed with fuel injection (somewhat difficult to start—depending on the conditions), the engine does not have hydraulic self-adjusting valves, and the engine is simply not powerful enough. All this combines with a worryingly high fuel consumption. And this lack of dash and lack of efficiency are not compensated for with an extra smooth ride.

Critical Appraisal

The UK´s Motor magazine reviewed the 130 and decided that the car´s strong points were excellent handling and road-holding, smooth ride, very high standard of interior and comfort plus an enormous boot. Against the car were its noisy engine, heavy fuel consumption and price. Motor described ultimate cornering power as very high. The UK´s Autocar tested the car and described it as a dignified Italian. Its determination was similar to that of Motor but added that the brakes were spongy, road noise was obtrusive though to its credit the car was very well appointed and finished and had first-class visibility. Concerning the handling, Autocar went on to say that “seldom have we encountered such excellent handling in a car of this size. Its superbly balanced feel inspires tremendous confidence, allowing high averages to be achieved without conscious driver effort”. Under a review of the coupe version of the 130, Car described the engine as providing a comfortable level of overall performance with good intermediate range torque. According to Car the saloon had a less-controlled ride than the coupe and less positive handling, the hard-driven saloon getting “more wallowy at times”

  • 1969 Fiat Dino 2.4 Coupé
  • 1969 Fiat Dino 2.4 Spider
  • 1970 Fiat 124 Special T
  • 1970 Fiat 418 urban bus
  • 1971 Fiat 127

1971 Fiat 127

Fiat 127
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1971—1983
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door sedan
3-door hatchback
3-door station wagon (Brazil)
4/5-door sedan (SEAT Spain)
2-door open-roof utility
Layout FF layout
Related Zastava Koral
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 850
Successor Fiat Uno

The Fiat 127 was a supermini produced by the Italian automaker Fiat from 1971 to 1983. It was introduced in 1971 as the replacement for the Fiat 850. Production of the 127 in Italy ended in 1983 following the introduction of its replacement, the Fiat Uno.

Overview

Series I
Fiat 127
Overview
Production 1971—1977
Powertrain
Engine 903 cc OHV straight-4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,225 mm (87.6 in)
Length 3,595 mm (141.5 in)
Width 1,525 mm (60.0 in)
Height 1,360 mm (54 in)

Initially only available as a two-door saloon when launched in April 1971, a three-door hatchback, using an identical body profile but with a full-depth rear door and folding rear seat, was launched the following yearThis was Fiat’s first supermini-sized hatchback, along with a state-of-the-art transverse-engine/front-wheel-drive layout, with the transmission mounted on the end of the engine, both design ideas had been fully trialled since 1964, by Fiat’s Autobianchi subsidiary with the Autobianchi Primula and 1969 Autobianchi A112. The 1969 Fiat 128 was the first Fiat badged car to use the same transverse powertrain layout. The 127 used the rugged 903 cc overhead valve engine, that had powered the Autobianchi and, with various cylinder capacities, earlier generations of Fiat cars. The 127 also featured a unique transverse leaf spring suspension at the rear.

The car was one of the first of the modern superminis, and won praise for its utilisation of space (80 percent of the floor space was available for passengers and luggage) as well as its road-holding. It was launched a year before the comparable Renault 5, and before the end of the 1970s most mass market European manufacturers were producing similar cars, notable examples being the Ford Fiesta and Volkswagen Polo, while General Motors added a three-door hatchback to the Opel Kadett range, which was reworked for British production and sold as the Vauxhall Chevette.

It was also the first car fitted with an all-polypropylene bumper on steel support.[2] The 127 was an instant success, winning the European Car of the Year award for 1972, and quickly became one of the best-selling cars in Europe for several years. It was the third Fiat in six years to receive this accolade.

In June 1974, slightly over three years after the model’s introduction, Fiat reported that the one millionth 127 had been completed at the Mirafiori plant in Turin. The (in its time) hugely successful Fiat 600 had taken seven years to reach that same milestone.

Series 1

The Series 1 car changed little during its lifetime. However, in May 1973 saloons became available in both standard and deluxe versions. In 1975 the 127 Special variant was released which featured a restyled front grille and detail changes to the interior. The deluxe version was differentiated by its reclining front seats and opening hinged rear side windows as standard equipment. During the next couple of years the Fiat 850, which had initially been marketed alongside the 127, was withdrawn from most markets.

Series 2

Series II
Fiat 127 2 v sst
Overview
Production 1977—1981
Powertrain
Engine 903 cc 100 GL.000 OHV I4
1,049 cc 127 A.000 OHC I4
1,301 cc diesel I4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,225 mm (87.6 in)
Length 3,645 mm (143.5 in)
Width 1,527 mm (60.1 in)
Height 1,358 mm (53.5 in)
Curb weight 688 kg (1,517 lb)

The Series 2 version of the 127 debuted in May 1977. It featured a restyled front and rear, a new dashboard (although almost identical in layout to that of the Series 1), larger rear side windows (using rear quarter pressings derived from those used on the Brazil market Fiat 147) and the option of the 1,049 cc engine – uniquely for the 127 this was the five-bearing “Brazil” engine from the 147 rather than the Fiat OHC unit from the 128. The tailgate was extended and now reached nearly to the rear bumper, addressing complaints about the high lip over which luggage had to be lifted for loading into the earlier 127 hatchbacks.

There was also a “high-cube” panel van version, known as the Fiorino which was based on the Series 2 bodyshell, and this remained in production until 1984, when a new Uno-based Fiorino debuted.

In Scandinavia and the Baltic nations it was particularly successful, and there are still many in circulation today.

Series 3

Series III
1982-83 Fiat 127 final iteration
Overview
Also called Fiat Stella (Finland)
Production 1982—1983
Powertrain
Engine 903 cc OHV straight-4
1049 cc OHC straight-4
1301 cc SOHC straight-4
1301 cc straight-4 diesel

The Series 3 was launched in Italy in January 1982 and soon reached other European markets. It is distinguishable from the Series 2 by a more assertively plastic grille. The addition of a corresponding panel at the rear of the vehicle implied a new ‘house style’ inspired by the recently introduced Ritmo/Strada range. The car received a completely new dashboard design and interior, again following the design language first seen in the Ritmo. The 1,301 cc Fiat SOHC engine was also introduced as an option for the Series 3.

In nations like Norway, Denmark and Finland it was particularly successful, and there are still many in circulation today.

The 127 was replaced as Fiat’s high volume product in this sector by the Fiat Uno in January 1983, though versions manufactured in South America continued in production till 1995: Fiat imported the South American 127 Unificata to Europe, until 1987.

Engines (from 1977)

Engine Cyl. Power Torque
0.9 8V S4 45 PS (33.1 kW; 44.4 hp) 63 N·m (46 lb·ft)
0.9 8V S4 45 PS (33.1 kW; 44.4 hp) 64 N·m (47 lb·ft)
1.05 8V S4 50 PS (36.8 kW; 49.3 hp) 77 N·m (57 lb·ft)
1.05 8V S4 70 PS (51.5 kW; 69.0 hp) 83 N·m (61 lb·ft)
1.3 8V S4 75 PS (55.2 kW; 74.0 hp) 103 N·m (76 lb·ft)

International variants

SEAT 127 4-door.

SEAT 127 4-door.

SEAT 127

As happened with other Fiat models of that era, SEAT made a Spanish version of this car called the SEAT 127. Due to SEAT design policy, a 4-door variant of the car was also produced, as well as a later five-door version. SEAT also produced a unique variant of the 127 OHV engine. This had 1,010 cc instead of 903 cc and produced 50 bhp (37 kW; 51 PS). The four-door SEAT 127 was exported to certain markets with Fiat badging.

When their licence from Fiat expired, SEAT redesigned some parts of the car and created the SEAT Fura Dos. Some design parts of this model were also used in the Ibiza mark 1. SEAT produced 1,238,166 units of the 127 between 1972 and 1984.

Polski Fiat 127p at Muzeum Inżynierii Miejskiej in Kraków.

Polski Fiat 127p at Muzeum Inżynierii Miejskiej in Kraków.

Polski Fiat 127p

Fiat 127 was also produced under Fiat license by Polish automobile manufacturers FSO (between 1973 and 1975) and FSM (between 1974 and 1975) under the name Polski Fiat 127p. These were assembled using both Italian and Polish parts. Originally the Polski Fiat 127p was to be produced in large numbers as a people’s car, but when it became apparent that it would be about 30% more expensive than the 126p it was decided to concentrate on the latter while the larger 127p was only produced in very small numbers.

Fiat 147

In Brazil the car was known as the Fiat 147 (later Spazio), a 3-door station wagon version called “Panorama”. There was also a conventional two-door three-box saloon available ” Fiat Oggi“, a pick-up called “City” and a van called “Fiorino” was also produced there. The Brazilian built versions utilized a 1050 Cm3 engine and a 1300 Cm3 engine called “Fiasa ” and also utilized a 1.3 L Diesel engine (for export markets only). From 1981 this variant (called a 127) was actually exported to Europe, to be sold alongside the 127 sedans and hatchbacks. A total of 1,169,312 units were built from 9 July 1976 to the end of 1986 in Brazil and 232,807 units were also built in Argentina between 1982 and 1996, as the Fiat 147, Spazio, and Vivace. It was also assembled in the CCA in Colombia.

Although the car achieved reasonable selling figures, the model was titled as “low-level” and “not so reliable” by early buyers, because of the fact that Fiat was just starting selling cars in Brazil in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was the first model produced by FIAT in Brazil, in 1976.

Specials

1980 Moretti Midimaxi (2nd series)

1980 Moretti Midimaxi (2nd series)

Italian coachbuilder Moretti made a canvas-topped version in the style of the Renault Rodeo and Citroën Méhari called the “Midimaxi” (to set it apart from the smaller, 126-based Minimaxi). In spite of its rugged appearance, the front-wheel drive underpinnings remained the same. The Midimaxi was first shown at the 1971 Turin Motor Show, which was also when the very similar Fissore 127 Scout first appeared.

Movie roles

In the 1986 film Gung Ho, centered on a (fictional) Japanese auto manufacturer reopening a shutdown automobile factory in a fictional western Pennsylvania town, some of the movie’s “Assan Motors” cars were Fiat 127s (and Fiat Regatas) in various stages of completion.

1972 Fiat X1/9

Fiat X1/9
Bertone X1/9
1974 Fiat X1.9
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat (1972–1982)
Bertone (1982–1989)
Production 1972–1989
~140,500 produced (Fiat)
~19,500 (Bertone)
Assembly Fiat
Bertone (after 1982)
Designer Marcello Gandini at Bertone
Body and chassis
Class Sports car / Roadster
Body style Two-seater targa
Layout Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Related Fiat 128
Fiat Strada/Ritmo
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual (after 1978, with 1.5 L engine)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,202 mm (86.7 in)
Length 3,830 mm (150.8 in)
Width 1,570 mm (61.8 in)
Height 1,170 mm (46.1 in)
Curb weight 880 kg (1,940 lb)-962 kg (2,121 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 850 Spider

The Fiat X1/9 is a two-seater mid-engined sports car designed by Bertone and manufactured by Fiat from 1972-1982 and subsequently by Bertone from 1982-1989.

With a transverse engine and gearbox in a mid-mounted, rear-wheel drive configuration, the X1/9 was noted for its excellent handling, lightweight-removable hardtop, front and rear-storage compartments — and for being designed from its conception to meet the late 60s U.S. safety regulations.

Pre-production

History and packaging

The X1/9 succeeded a 1969 show concept car called the Autobianchi Runabout, with styling by Bertone under chief designer Marcello Gandini. The Runabout was powered by the engine of the Autobianchi A112.

Designed around the all-new 128 SOHC engine and gearbox (transmission) from the front wheel drive Fiat 128, the X1/9 relocated the transverse drive train and suspension assembly from the front of the 128 to the rear of the passenger cabin, directly in front of the rear axle, giving a mid-engined layout. The layout also located the fuel tank and spare wheel side by side ahead of the engine, directly behind the seats — optimizing the proportion of the car’s weight falling within its wheelbase for more effective handling and also enabling cargo areas front and rear.

Fiat began marketing a right-hand drive variant in 1976.

Unlike Fiat’s marketing nomenclature at the time which used a numerical system (e.g., 127, 128, 124, 131) denoting relative position in the model range, the X1/9 retained its prototype code as its marketing name. Fiat’s prototype coding used X0 for engines, X1 for passenger vehicles and X2 for commercial vehicles. The X1/9 was thus the ninth passenger car developed using the nomenclature.

Concept car

The prototype car featured a distinctive wedge shape and took many styling cues from contemporary power-boat design. Though the more extreme features of the Runabout such as the C pillar mounted headlights and the small wind-deflector windscreen were lost for the production car, many aesthetic features of the Autobianchi Runabout are readily identifiable on the X1/9. The long flat bonnet (hood) with central indentation, the large front overhang, the wedge shape with prominent C pillar roll-over hoop and the car-length indented plimsoll-line all made the successful transition to the X1/9, giving it a highly distinctive appearance.

Once developed for production, the two-seater featured sharp-edged styling with a wedge shape, pop-up headlights and a removable hard top roof panel (targa top). The removable hardtop stores in the front luggage compartment, below the front hood, only slightly reducing the space available for cargo. An aftermarket company offered a top made of lightweight clear-smoked polycarbonate.

Production

Essential X1/9 Sales in European and UK markets

The car was developed for release for European sales in 1972 to replace the 850 Spider by Bertone. It was not intended as a replacement for the 124 Sport Spider and production of the 124 Spider and X1/9 continued in parallel for much of the X1/9’s life. The car’s monocoque body was produced at the Bertone factory in Torino (Turin) and then transported to the Fiat’s Lingotto factory for final assembly. In 1982, shortly after the introduction of the 1500 model, complete production was assumed by Bertone with models subsequently badged as the Bertone X1/9. Bertone models featured revised footwells redesigned to enhance legroom and sitting comfort for persons taller than the original design target.

1978 Fiat X19

1976 Fiat X1/9 (1300 cc)

The first models featured a 75 bhp (56 kW) 1290 cc single overhead cam engine with an aluminium head.

The last production models were named the Gran Finale and sold over the 1989/1990 period. They were a dealer modification of the Special Edition (commonly abbreviated to SE) of 1988/1989, with the addition of a rear spoiler and Gran Finale badges.

US Sales of X1/9s

The X1/9 underwent three generations in the USA: 1974 cars, 1975-78 cars, and 1979-87 cars.

1974 USA examples aligned closely with worldwide models, including small bumpers, 1290cc engine, and 4-speed transmission.

1978 US market Fiat X1,9 with ladder bumpers

1978 US market Fiat X1/9 with “ladder” bumpers

1975-78 USA cars were unique to the US market with “ladder-style” impact absorbing bumpers front and rear. To meet USA evaporative and exhaust emission standards, X1/9’s were fitted with exhaust gas recirculation valves, air pumps and an activated charcoal system. These cars were rated at 63HP.

In 1979 USA cars received an increase in displacement to 1498cc and a 5-speed transmission. 1979 USA cars retained the previous emission controls. Model years 1980 and 1981 saw a transition from carburetion to Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection, with the changeover coming in 1980 for cars sold in California and a gradual changeover for “federal” cars from late 1980 to 1981 model years. The combination of Fuel Injection (FI), a catalytic converter and unleaded gasoline allowed these cars to meet California and later federal emission standards. FI cars were rated at 75HP.

1988 - FIAT X1,9 1500 cc

1988 – FIAT X1,9 1500 cc

In 1979 USA X1/9s also received both exterior and interior revisions including integrated bumpers front and rear, as well as a new front grille and airdam. The instrument panel and dash redesign moved the heating and ventilation controls from the center console up to the main dash, relocated the radio into the center dash area, moved the fuse panel from the area above the driver’s left knee to the area above the passenger’s footwell where the glovebox was, and moved the glovebox atop the dash.

Fiat X19 Engine Bay

Fiat X19 Engine Bay

During 1982, Fiat ended its presence in the USA. Fiat turned over marketing and support of the X1/9 to International Automobile Importers, Inc., headed up by Malcolm Bricklin, and turned over full production duties to Bertone. 1983 was a transition year for the orphaned X1/9, which thereafter was sold as the “Bertone X1/9.” IAI and Bertone continued to update the X1/9, such as providing rust protection, revised seating to accommodate taller drivers, and a modernized electrical system for 1984 models.

Fiat X1,9Interior

Fiat X1,9 Interior

US sales of the X1/9 took a nose dive in the final few years, and 1987 was the last year that IAI imported X1/9s to the USA.

Fiat X1, 9 Dallara ant

Fiat X1,9 Dallara ant

From mid 1987 to end of the production in 1989 the BERTONE X1/9’s were imported to USA by M.I.K. Automotive, Inc. in North Hollywood California, owned by Miro Kefurt, who at that time was number one Bertone dealer in USA and one of the very few that sold exclusively X1/9s. Last four X1/9s were imported to USA in April 1990 (1989 Model Year produced 12/1989).

1973 Fiat 126

Fiat 126
Polski Fiat 126p
1973 Fiat 126
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat (1972-1980)
FSM (Polski Fiat 126p, 1973-1992)
Fiat Auto Poland (1992-2000)
Also called Zastava 126
Production 1972–2000
4,673,655 units
Designer Sergio Sartorelli
Body and chassis
Class City car
Body style 2-door saloon/sedan
3-door hatchback (PF 126p Bis)
Layout RR layout
Related Fiat 133
SEAT 133
Powertrain
Engine 594 cc Straight-2
652 cc Straight-2
704 cc Straight-2
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,840 mm (72.4 in)
Length 3,054 mm (120.2 in)
Width 1,378 mm (54.3 in)
Height 1,302 mm (51.3 in)
Curb weight 580–619 kilograms (1,279–1,365 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 500
Successor Fiat Cinquecento

The Fiat 126 (Type 126) is a city car introduced in October 1972 at the Turin Auto Show as a replacement for the Fiat 500. Some were produced in Bielsko-Biała, Poland, as the Polski Fiat 126p until 2000. It was replaced by the front-engined Fiat Cinquecento in 1993.

History

The 126 used much of the same mechanical underpinnings and layout as its Fiat 500 rear-engined predecessor with which it shared its wheelbase, but featured an all new bodyshell closely resembling a scaled-down Fiat 127.

Engine capacity was increased from 594 cc to 652 cc at the end of 1977 when the cylinder bore was increased from 73.5 to 77 mm. Claimed power output was unchanged at 23 PS (17 kW), but torque was increased from 39 N·m (29 lb·ft) to 43 newton metres (32 lb·ft). The 594 cc engines were still available in early 1983 production.

A subsequent increase took the engine size to 704 cc in new “restyling” model Fiat 126 Bis (1987–1991), with 26 PS (19 kW) of motive power.

Fiat 126 Napoli post facelift Italy

Fiat 126 post facelift (Italy)

In Italy, the car was produced in the plants of Cassino and Termini Imerese until 1979. By this time 1,352,912 of the cars had been produced in Italy.

The car continued however to be manufactured by FSM in Poland, where it was produced from 1973 to 2000 as the Polski Fiat 126p. Even after the introduction of the 126 Bis (a 126p with water-cooled 704 cc engine of indigenous Polish construction), the original model continued to be produced for the Polish market. The car was also produced under licence by Zastava in Yugoslavia. In 1984, the 126 received a facelift, giving it plastic bumpers (for all versions) and a new dashboard. This model named Fiat 126p FL. In 1994, the 126p received another facelift, and some parts from the Fiat Cinquecento, this version was named 126 EL. The 126 ELX introduced a catalytic converter.

Despite clever marketing, the 126 never achieved the frenzied popularity of the 500. The total number of 126 produced is: 1,352,912 in Italy, 3,318,674 in Poland, 2,069 in Austria, and an unknown number in Yugoslavia. For a brief period in the early 1990s, a German company called POP also offered convertible versions of the 126 BIS. Two models were offered: a lesser equipped one called the “POP 650” and a more luxurious model called the “POP 2000”.

Polski Fiat 126p

1973 Polski Fiat 126p (Poland)

1973 Polski Fiat 126p (Poland)

The car was produced in Poland under the brand Polski Fiat 126p (literally in English: Polish Fiat 126p) between 1973 and 2000. At first it was almost identical with the basic model: differences included a higher chassis, a modified grille on the back, and the front blinkers that were white in Italy but orange for other markets. To distinguish it from the original Italian car, the letter “p” was added to its name. It was produced by Fabryka Samochodów Małolitrażowych (FSM) in Bielsko-Biała and Tychy under Italian Fiat licence. Throughout the 1980s the 126p was continuously modified. First it received upgraded brakes and new wheels from Italian Fiat, hazard blinkers were added to meet new law requirements, in 1985 tail fog light and factory back-up light were added to then standard plastic bumpers, an electronic ignition system and alternator replaced undersized generator around 1987. The factory battery in 126p had only 35 Amp-hour capacity which combined with undersized generator resulted in never fully charged battery unless someone drove the car without stopping for extended time period. Some owners upgraded to a 45 Amp-hour battery from Fiat 125p (1.5 Liter engine) to improve the cold start reliability. Due to a relatively low price it was very popular in Poland and was arguably the most popular car there in the 1980s. Its very small size gave it the nickname maluch (“the small one”,”small child”, pronounced [ˈmalux]). The nickname became so popular that in 1997 it was accepted by the producer as the official name of the car.

1989–1993 FSM Niki (Australia)

1989–1993 FSM Niki (Australia)

It was exported to many Eastern Bloc countries and for several years it was one of the most popular cars in Poland and in Hungary as well. It also found a minor market in Australia between 1989 and 1992, under the name FSM Niki. During that period it was Australia’s cheapest car. There was a convertible version developed for Australian market.

Throughout the 1980s there were several experimental prototypes developed in Poland. A cargo version called “Bombel” (literally can mean “a bubble” but referred to a familial and alternative term for “small child”) for its fiberglass bubble shaped cargo enclosure, an off road version propelled by caterpillar tracks and a front wheel drive, front engine, with longer front end and flat cargo area in the rear where the original 126 had engine. The rear of this prototype was similar to the 126 Bis which also had a rear hatch for accessing the cargo space above the flat water cooled engine hidden in the floor. There was also an attempt at installing a small diesel engine (due to gasoline rationing) in the classic 126p body.

History of PF 126p

  • 1972 – the FSM car factory was built in Bielsko-Biała.
  • 6 June 1973 – the first Polski Fiat 126p constructed from Italian parts. The official price was 69,000 Polish złotys with PKO Bank Polski accepting pre-payments on savings books starting 5 February 1973.
  • 22 July 1973 – the official opening of the factory’s production line (by the end of that year over 1500 Fiats were manufactured).
  • September 1975 – production started in a factory in Tychy.
  • 1977 – engine capacity increased from 594 cc to 652 cc. Engine power increased to about 24 horsepower (18 kW).
  • 1978 – production of types with engine capacity 594 cc ended.
  • 1979 – production of Polski Fiat 126p continued only in Bielsko-Biała.
  • 1981 – 1,000,000th Polski Fiat 126p produced.
  • December 1984 – technical changes in the construction and body. Type FL introduced.
  • 1987 – beginning of the production of the water-cooled Polski Fiat 126p Bis version (704 cc capacity).
  • May 1993 – 3,000,000th Polish Fiat 126p produced.
  • September 1994 – body improvement, creating type “el” with parts similar to those used in Fiat Cinquecento.
  • January 1997 – introduction of a catalytic converter.
  • 22 September 2000 – production ended after a production run of 3,318,674 units. All Fiats of the last limited Happy End series were yellow or red (500 cars in red and 500 cars in yellow).

The global production of this amiable car was 4,673,655 units: 1,352,912 in Italy, 2,069 in Austria by Fiat-Steyr and 3,318,674 in Poland.

Political connotations

1973 Poland Fiat - curiosity about passers-by

 Poland 1973 – curiosity about passers-by

The PF 126p has special meaning for Poles and its story had a connection with Polish politics during the communist period (Polish People’s Republic, up to 1989). In a communist system, a private car was considered a luxury good, due to limited availability and low salaries. In 1971 there were only 556,000 passenger cars in Poland. In a socialist planned economy, decisions on whether a state-owned factory could produce a car were taken on political and not just economic grounds. The authorities themselves initially did not find the idea of private cars attractive. The first relatively cheap Polish car was the Syrena, but it was outmoded and its production was limited. Limited numbers of cars were also imported from other Eastern Bloc countries. It was difficult to buy a western car because the Polish złoty, like other currencies in communist states, was not convertible to western funds and there was no free market in the country.

Thus, the PF 126p was intended to be the first real, popular and affordable car, to motorize ordinary families. The licence was bought after the rise to power of a new communist party leader, Edward Gierek, who wanted to gain popular favour by increasing consumption after the Spartan period under Władysław Gomułka. Despite the fact that it was a very small city car, it was the only choice for most families, playing the role of a family car. During holidays, it was common to see four-person families driving PF-126s abroad with huge suitcases on a roof rack; sightings of PF-126s towing a small Niewiadów N126 caravan specially designed for the PF 126 were also occasionally reported. PF 126p production, however, was not sufficient and the PF 126p was distributed through a waiting list. Usually families had to wait a couple of years to buy a car. A coupon for a car could also be given by the authorities based on merit.

Nicknames

In Poland it is called Maluch, which literally means “small one” or toddler, as well as mały Fiat (“small Fiat”), in contrast to Fiat 125p, called duży Fiat (“big Fiat”). In some regions, it is also called Kaszlak literally “cougher” (derived from kaszel meaning “cough“, as its engine’s sound resembles a cough when it is started).

2014 Fiat 126p in Havana, Cuba

Fiat 126p in Havana, Cuba, March 2014

In Albania and Kosovo it is known as Kikirez.

In Serbian and Croatian it is known as Peglica (meaning “little iron“).

In Slovene the 126 is also called Bolha (“flea“), Piči-poki (loosely translated as “fast-and-loud”) or Kalimero on Slovenian coast after a cartoon character Calimero.

In Hungarian, it is known as kispolszki (“little Polish”, while the 125p is the nagypolszki, meaning “big Polish”), kispolák (“little Pole“) or törpe-polyák (“dwarf Pole”); also, the car was nicknamed egérkamion, meaning “a mouse’s truck” or aszfaltpattanás, meaning “asphalt pimple”.

In Germany the Fiat 126 was known as the Bambino, the Italian word for child.

In Cuba it is known as “Polaquito” and in Chile as “Bototo”.

1973 Fiat 132

Fiat 132
Fiat 132 GLS 1600, pictured in 2011 in the Netherlands

Fiat 132 after the 1974 redesign
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1972–81
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Body style 4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Related SEAT 132

Kia Fiat 132

Powertrain
Engine Petrol:
1.6 L straight-4
1.8 L straight-4
1.8 L straight-4
2.0 L straight-4
2.0 L straight-4 supercharged
Diesel:
2.0 L straight-4
2.5 L straight-4
Transmission 4 and 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,557 mm (100.7 in)
Length 4,405 mm (173.4 in)
Width 1,640 mm (64.6 in)
Height 1,422 mm (56.0 in)
Curb weight 1120-1170 kg (2469-2579 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 125
Successor Fiat Argenta

The Fiat 132 is a large family car produced by the Italian automobile company Fiat from 1972 to 1981. An updated version of the 132, called the Argenta was produced from 1981 to 1985.

Fiat 132 (1972–73)

1972-74 Fiat 132 a

Fiat 132 (1972 – 1974)

The 132 was introduced as a replacement for the Fiat 125 and like it, came with twin overhead cam (TC) engines as standard. However, the Fiat 132 looked more like the larger top-of-the-range Fiat 130.

Like the 125, the 132 came with a five speed gear box, optional in some markets and standard in others: this was still a relatively unusual feature in this class of car in 1977. GM “Strasbourg” automatic transmission was listed as an option.

Fiat 132 (1974–76)

A major update to the front suspension was implemented for January 1974 in response to criticism of the handling and very low geared steering. Press reports of the time commend the improved handling which was also supported by the fitting of wider tires, although poor fuel consumption at high speed continued to draw adverse comment, even where the (unusual for the time) five speed transmission option was specified. In the same year an external redesign gave the impression of a lowered waistline resulting from larger side windows and included a reshaped C-pillar which appeared to owe something to the recently introduced BMW E12. For the driver, new shock absorbers accompanied the suspension improvements. The 1600 cc engine remained unchanged but the 1800 cc engine benefitted from a modified cylinder head and carburettor resulting in a small increase in claimed output to 107 hp (80 kW), along with a usefully flattened torque curve. Interior improvements included a redesigned steering wheel along with improved heating and ventilation controls.

Fiat 132 (1977–81)

1980 Fiat 132 2000 GLS

Fiat 132 (1980)

In April 1977, the 132 received a further facelift. New plastic “safety” bumpers were introduced to the model, and the gearing of the steering was raised, supported by the addition of servo-assistance. Inside were a new dashboard and seat trims. At this point, with the 130 having been discontinued, the 132 became the “flagship” of the Fiat range.

It was available with seven different engines:

  • 1.6 litre petrol producing 98 hp (73 kW) 1592 cc (later 1585 cc after 1977)
  • 1.8 litre petrol with 107 hp (80 kW) 1756 cc
  • 1.8 litre petrol with 111 hp (83 kW) 1756 cc
  • 2.0 litre petrol 112 hp (84 kW) 1995 cc (from 1977)
  • 2.0 litre petrol with fuel injection producing 122 hp (91 kW) 1995 cc (from 1977)
  • 2.5 litre diesel with 60 hp (45 kW) 2435 cc
  • 2.5 litre diesel with 72 hp (54 kW) 2435 cc

Overseas assembly

The 132 had limited manufacture outside Italy compared to the smaller 124. The car was built in Spain by SEAT with a version that was sold between 1973 and 1982.

In Poland the 132 was offered from 1973 as the Polski Fiat 132p. The car was described as “assembled by FSO“, though actually the cars were shipped from Italy almost complete. FSO only did the final assembly, fitting minor parts like wipers, batteries, wheels and logos. The Polski Fiat 132p was a favourite with high state officials and security services. 270 Argentas were also assembled in this way in 1985 by FSO.

Kia built 4,759 units of the 132 from CKD kits in 1979 in South Korea.

1974 Fiat 133

1974 FIAT SEAT 133

SEAT 133
SEAT 133 front
Overview
Also called Fiat 133
Production 1974–1982
Assembly Spain, SEAT
Argentina, Fiat
Body and chassis
Class City car
Body style Two-door saloon
Layout RR layout
Related Fiat 850
Fiat 126
Fiat 127
Powertrain
Engine 843 cc straight-4 34-37 PS
903 cc straight-4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 79.125 in (2,009.8 mm)
Length 135.875 in (3,451.2 mm)
Width 56 in (1,400 mm)
Height 52.25 in (1,327 mm)
Curb weight 690 kg (1521 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor SEAT 600

The SEAT 133 was a small rear-engine car designed and sold by SEAT in Spain from 1974 to 1979. The car used the chassis and engine of the by then defunct Fiat/SEAT 850 and featured a new body in the style of the contemporary, somewhat smaller and only indirectly related Fiat 126.

The car was first exhibited at the Barcelona Motor Show in May 1974. Noteworthy at that time was the compression ratio of only 8:1, which permitted the car to run on 85 octane petrol/gasoline. This was still appropriate in Spain, but elsewhere in western Europe even “regular” fuel grades by now generally guaranteed a higher minimum octane rating.

The 133’s design premise was that it had to be a cheap car both to develop and build. Thus, the final product inherited most of its components from the SEAT 850 (or very closely related Fiat 850). As with the 850, it was a rear-wheel drive, rear-engined car, a layout a that was being replaced by a trend for front-engined, front-wheel drive hatchbacks like the Renault 5 and Fiat’s own Fiat 127.

Seat 133 Oviedo

SEAT 133

The 133 effectively replaced the SEAT 850 and the SEAT 600 both of which had been produced in considerable numbers with around 800,000 of the more venerable 600 built – almost exclusively for the domestic market – by 1974.

It was developed in Spain by SEAT, with which Italian company Fiat had signed an agreement of collaboration in the 1950s. Initially the 133 was only sold in Spain and did not enjoy great success, since it suffered from frequent overheating problems. It was intended to replace the old 600 and 850 models, and was also meant to provide a means for SEAT to open new markets and make up for the loss of sales in Spain that would come with the disappearance of the restrictions in car imports during the 1970s: it later enjoyed success in other parts of the world, such as Egypt for example, where the car is still in service.

Reflecting the rear engine lay-out, there was just a small well for parcels behind the back seats, with more room for luggage under the ‘bonnet/hood’ at the front of the car.

Up to 200,000 SEAT 133s had been produced by 1979 in Spain. A further 15,821 were made in the Fiat/Sevel Plant at Córdoba in Argentina between 1977 and 1982.

In April 1977, it was announced that Egypt was about to become the world’s 32nd car-producing country. This followed the signing of an agreement for the shipment of ckd kits from Seat’s Barcelona plant to the Helwan premises of the Nasr Automotive Manufacturing Company for assembly, in order to supply the Egyptian market and for export to Iraq.

The SEAT 133 was exported to Germany from the autumn/Fall of 1974: there it found some success among rear-wheel-drive loyalists in the mid-seventies. It was also sold in Britain from June 1975. These countries had no SEAT dealership network at the time, and the cars were branded as Fiat 133s, to be marketed alongside the Fiats 126 and 127.

Fiat 133

Fiat 133 a6

Fiat 133

Fiat 133 was the name used for the car in certain export markets where the SEAT brand was unknown. Around 127,000 units were exported, mostly under the Fiat name.

From 1977 to 1980 the Fiat Argentine subsidiary built them, also under the Fiat name.

Motorsport

The 133 is also popular in the low-budget Finnish motorsport called Jokkis, where over 50 per cent of the drivers drive Fiat 133s.

  • 1975 Fiat 130 Opera
  • 1975 Fiat Mirafiori 1600 CL
  • 1976 Fiat 131 Abarth

1976 Fiat 131

Fiat 131
Fiat 131 S Mirafiori 1600

Fiat 131 (series 1)
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Also called Fiat Mirafiori
Fiat Supermirafiori
Fiat Brava (US)
Fiat SuperBrava
Polski Fiat 131p
Production 1974–1984
Assembly Comprensorio di Mirafiori, Turin, Italy
Bogotá, Colombia
La Victoria, Aragua, Venezuela, Jakarta, Indonesia
Casablanca, Morocco (SOMACA)
Warsaw, Poland (FSO)
Barcelona, Spain (SEAT 131)
Body and chassis
Class Small family car/Mid-size car
Body style 4-door saloon
2-door saloon
5-door estate
3-door panel van
Layout FR layout
Related SEAT 131
Tofaş Şahin
Tofaş Murat 131
Tofaş Dogan
Tofaş Kartal (estate)
Powertrain
Engine I4
Transmission 4 and 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,490 mm (98.0 in)
Length 4,230 to 4,264 mm (166.5 to 167.9 in)
Width 1,644 to 1,651 mm (64.7 to 65.0 in)
Height 1,381 to 1,411 mm (54.4 to 55.6 in)
Curb weight 950 to 1,145 kg (2,094 to 2,524 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 124
Successor Fiat Regata

The Fiat 131, additionally called “Mirafiori”, is a small/medium family car produced by the Italian car manufacturer Fiat from 1974 to 1984. It was exhibited at 1974 Turin Motor Show.

The 131 was the replacement for the successful Fiat 124, and available as a two-door and four-door saloon and 5-door estate. The 131 was given the Mirafiori name after the Turin suburb where the cars were produced. Naming the car in this way marked a break with the former Fiat convention, established in the 1960s, of naming their mainstream models only with a three digit number, and it set the pattern for Fiat to adopt a new naming practice, with carefully chosen names for subsequent new models. Initially, the 131 was offered with 1.3 L and 1.6 L overhead valve engines. Revisions were made in 1978 and 1981, and all models were produced until production ceased in 1984.

In total, 1,513,800 units were produced in Italy.

Specifications

The Fiat 131 employed construction techniques and technologies typical of its day. The body was a steel monocoque. Designed and styled on the typical three-box design, with distinct boxes for the engine compartment, passenger compartment, and boot.

The major mechanical components were also conventional and contemporary, but with some notable advances. The 131 employed a front engine, rear-wheel drive layout, whereby the engine is longitudinally mounted in the front of the car. The gearbox is directly behind the engine, and a tubular propeller shaft, under the transmission “tunnel”, transmits the drive to a solid live rear axle.

The engines were all inline-four types, derived from those used in the outgoing 124 range, with a cast iron cylinder block and aluminium alloy cylinder head. Initially the 131 was offered only with pushrod valve gear, which offered the innovation of being the world wide first engine with OHV valve gear and a belt driven camshaft. Only later in the model’s life came the well known double overhead camshaft (DOHC) engines which used a toothed timing belt. Fuel supply was via a single Weber ADF twin-choke carburettor, fed from a trunk mounted steel fuel tank. Traditional contact breaker ignition systems were used, usually with Marellidistributors.

The suspension system utilised fully independent front suspension, with MacPherson struts, track control arms and anti-roll bar. The rear suspension was quite advanced (when using a solid live rear axle), in that the rear axle was controlled by double unequal length trailing arms and a panhard rod, with coil springs and direct acting dampers. This design proved far superior to many of its contemporaries, especially with vehicle stability and handling.

The braking system was also typical; the front brakes were disc brakes, using a solid iron disc and a single-piston sliding caliper. The rears were drum brakes, utilising leading and trailing shoe design operated by a dual piston fixed slave cylinder. They were operated hydraulically, with a tandem master cylinder assisted by a vacuum servo using two separate circuits. A rear-mounted load sensing valve varied the bias of effort applied to the rear brakes, dependent on the load being carried (and also the pitch dynamics caused by braking effort and road levels). A centrally located floor mounted handbrake operated on the rear axle usingbowden cables.

The cars’ interior offerend another world wide first in having the secondary switches in the dashboard illuminated by a central bulb somewhere in the dashboard and fibre optics from there to the switches.

Series 1

Initially the 131 came with 1,297 cc or 1,585 cc OHV inline-four engines, of the engine family first introduced in the Fiat 124. The first series was available with two body styles; saloon and estate Familiare. Station wagons were built by SEAT in Spain, but were labelled Fiats for all non-Spanish markets. There were two trim levels – the basic “131” and the better appointed “131 S” or “131 Special”, which could be distinguished from the base model by its quadruple circular headlamps, chrome window surrounds and different instrumentation. US market versions had an SOHC 1.8-litre four and were available with a GM three-speed automatic.

In 1976, 400 examples of the Fiat Abarth 131 Rally were built for homologation purposes. These cars were built in a cooperation between Fiat, Bertone and Abarth. Bertone took part-completed two door standard bodyshells from the production line in Mirafiori, fitted plastic mudguards front and rear, a plastic bonnet and bootlid and modified the metal structure to accept the independent rear suspension. The cars were fully painted an trimmed and then delivered back to the Fiat special Rivalta plant where they received the Abarth mechanicals.

The street version of the car used a 16-valve DOHC derivative of the standard DOHC engine, which equipped with a double Weber downdraught carburettor produced 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp). The street cars used the standard gearbox with no synchromesh (Rally type regulations required the use of the same type of synchromesh on the competition cars as on the street versions) and the hopelessly underdimensioned brake system of the small Fiat 127. Competition cars used dry sump lubrication and eventually Kugelfischer mechanical fuel injection. In race specifications, the engine produced up to 240 PS (180 kW) in 1980, being driven to World Champiship status by Walter Röhrl.

Another special version was the nearly 5-metre long “131 Diplomatic” limousine version made in Salvatore Diomante‘s carrozzeria near Turin.

Model Displacement Engine type Power
Mirafiori 1,297 cc straight-4 ohv 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp)
Mirafiori 1,585 cc straight-4 ohv 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)
Familiare 1,297 cc straight-4 ohv 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp)
Familiare 1,585 cc straight-4 ohv 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)
Abarth Rally 1,995 cc straight-4 dohc 140 PS (100 kW; 140 hp)
US version 1,756 cc straight-4 sohc 87 PS (64 kW; 86 hp)

Series 2

The 131 got a minor facelift in 1978. New DOHC, or “Twin Cam” (TC) engines arrived, and these models were badged as Supermirafiori. The biggest change exterior-wise for the Series 2 was larger rectangular shaped front lights (quad round headlights in the US), new bumpers, new bigger rear lights and new interior trim including a chunky, single-spoked steering wheel.

Also in 1978, the 2-door sporting version Racing (Mirafiori Sport in the UK) with 115 PS (85 kW) twin cam engine, was launched. This car had four round headlights (the inner headlights being smaller than the outer ones, unlike any other Mirafiori model produced), different grille, spoilers and extended wheel arches, and a short-throw 5 speed gearbox. The Racing had top speed of 180 km/h (110 mph). Diesel engined versions also had four round headlights (equally sized), and a noticeable (and characteristic) bump in the hood to accommodate the taller engine. The Familiare (estate) was renamed as Panorama.

Dashboard Fiat 131 2nd series mirafiori

Dashboard of Series 2

Fiat 131 2000 Racing

Fiat 131 2000 Racing

1979 Fiat 131 Supermirafiori 98PS

1979 Fiat 131 Supermirafiori 98PS

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fiat-131-marengo-a-van-version-of-131

The Series 2 was marketed in the United States as the Fiat Brava from mid-year 1978 with the same 1.8-litre four as had been used in the US-market 131, but before the year was over this was replaced by the 2 litre twin cam four also seen in the Spider. Initially, a better equipped Super Brava was also available, but the base model and “Super” tag were dropped for 1979. For 1980 a more powerful fuel-injected version was added (102 hp or 76 kW) while the Estate version was dropped. For 1981 the EFI engine became standard equipment and the headlamps were changed for single rectangular units, but this was to be the last year for the Brava/131 in the US.

Mo.

Fiat 131 Volumetrico Abarth

In June 1981, a new sport version, the Volumetrico Abarth, was introduced to some markets, with a supercharged version of the familiar 2-litre twin-cam. This car, also known as the 2000 TC Compressore, was built in a small series (about 200 units ) and could reach 190 km/h (118 mph).

Fiat 131 Supermirafiori rear view

Fiat 131 Supermirafiori rear view

In 1983, the production of saloon version was discontinued, but the estate, now named 131 Maratea, remained in production with two engine choices (115 PS 2.0 TC and 72 PS 2.5 D) until 1985, when they were replaced with the Ritmo-based Regata Weekend. These last versions featured four round headlights and the by-now familiar five-bar grille.

Model Displacement Engine type Power
Mirafiori 1,367 cc straight-4 sohc 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp)LB 0071 A
Mirafiori CL 1,585 cc straight-4 sohc 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp)
Supermirafiori 1,367 cc straight-4 dohc 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)
Supermirafiori* 1,585 cc straight-4 dohc 98 PS (72 kW; 97 hp)
Supermirafiori 1,995 cc straight-4 dohc 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp)
Volumetrico Abarth 1,995 cc straight-4 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp)
Panorama 1,301 cc straight-4 ohv 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp)
Panorama 1,585 cc straight-4 sohc 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp)
Mirafiori Diesel 2000 1,995 cc straight-4 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp)
Mirafiori/Supermirafiori Diesel 2500 2,445 cc straight-4 72 PS (53 kW; 71 hp)

Motorsport

The 131 as a rally car

The Fiat Abarth 131 was a very successful group 4 rally car, winning the manufacturers’ World Rally Championship three times: in 1977, 1978, and in 1980. With this car Markku Alen won the 1978 FIA Cup for Drivers and Walter Röhrl won the 1980 drivers’ World Rally Championship. Between 1976 and 1981 the Fiat 131 won 20 WRC events; other notable drivers were Sandro Munari, Timo Salonen, Attilio Bettega and Michèle Mouton.

Between 1975 and 1977 the official “works” cars carried the Olio Fiat blue and yellow livery, then during 1978 and 1979 seasons they were sponsored by Italian airline Alitalia and bore their distinctive red, white and green livery.

World Rally Championship event victories

Fiat Abarth 131s recorded victories in the following World Rally Championship events:

No. Event Season Driver Co-driver
1 Finland 26th 1000 Lakes Rally 1976 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
2 Portugal 10o Rallye de Portugal Vinho do Porto 1977 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
3 New Zealand 8th South Pacific Rally 1977 Italy Fulvio Bacchelli Italy Francesco Rossetti
4 Canada 5ème Critérium Molson du Québec 1977 Finland Timo Salonen Finland Seppo Harjanne
5 Italy 19o Rallye Sanremo 1977 France Jean-Claude Andruet France Christian Delferrier
6 France 21ème Tour de Corse 1977 France Bernard Darniche France Alain Mahé
7 Portugal 11º Rallye de Portugal Vinho do Porto 1978 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
8 Greece 25th Acropolis Rally 1978 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
9 Poland 38 Rajd Polski 1978 Spain Antonio Zanini Spain Juan Petisco
10 Finland 28th 1000 Lakes Rally 1978 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
11 Canada 6ème Critérium Molson du Québec 1978 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
12 France 37ème Tour de France Automobile 1978 France Michèle Mouton France Françoise Conconi
13 France 22ème Tour de Corse 1978 France Bernard Darniche France Alain Mahé
14 Finland 29th 1000 Lakes Rally 1979 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
15 Monaco 48ème Rallye Automobile de Monte-Carlo 1980 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
16 Portugal 14o Rallye de Portugal Vinho do Porto 1980 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
17 Argentina 2o Rally Codasur 1980 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
18 Finland 30th 1000 Lakes Rally 1980 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
19 Italy 22o Rallye Sanremo 1980 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
20 Portugal 15º Rallye de Portugal Vinho do Porto 1981 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki

Other motorsports

The 131 was also used in the IMSA GT Championship under the GTO classification.

Non-Italian 131 variations

SEAT 131

Main article: SEAT 131

1980 blue SEAT 131, Salamanca, Spain

1980 blue SEAT 131, Salamanca, Spain

The SEAT 131 started its production in early 1975 in Barcelona with two versions initially offered: SEAT 131 L, featuring rectangular front lamps, 1,438 cc OHC engine and 4 speed gearbox and SEAT 131 E featuring four round headlamps, 1,592 cc DOHC engine and 5 speed gearbox. The range grew up in 1976 with the SEAT 131 Familiar, estate version offered with both engines. In 1977 the 131 Automatico (Automatic gearbox) was released and the following year a very short production of the SEAT 131 CLX 1800 was offered. Spain was the only place where the estate 131 was built, but in the export these were labelled Fiat 131 Familiare.

In 1978, the SEAT 131 evolves into the SEAT 131 Mirafiori/Supermirafiori (Panorama for the estate versions), with the same changes as seen on its Italian cousin. The engines remained largely the same, but a 1.8 litre Diesel Perkins 4.108 engine was available in 1979.

A further CLX special edition was launched in 1980. Available only in metallic silver or metallic bronze colours, this 131 CLX had a 1,919 cc engine, developing 114 PS (84 kW) at 5,800 rpm.

In 1981, the Diesel version was developed with a new Sofim engine. This 2,500 cc engine was much more powerful than the Perkins version (72 hp against only 49 hp) and was one of the most successful taxis in early ’80s Spain.

In 1982, the SEAT 131 changed again, gathering all the body changes seen on the Fiat 131 series 3. The 131 was now available in CL, Supermirafiori and Diplomatic versions. The Diplomatic was the top of the range, with a 1,995 cc engine and features such as power steering, power windows or air conditioning. The Panorama versions were the cars chosen by the “Cuerpo Nacional de Policia” (Spanish Police force) as patrol cars.

In 1984, the SEAT 131 range was discontinued, without a direct substitute and the Fiat Ritmo-based SEAT Málaga took its place in 1985.

Murat 131

Main article: Tofaş Şahin

Tofaş industries in Turkey also based their initial production on Fiat 131s built under Fiat license. 131-based models included the Murat 131 built in Bursa, Turkey, the Doğan, Şahin and the Kartal (the estate). These vehicles enjoyed a very long production run (1986-2002 at Turkey, 1991-2009 at Egypt, 2006-2010 at Ethiopia), and were later replaced by newer Fiat models.

Polski Fiat 131p

Final assembly of Fiat 131 took also place in Poland by Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych (FSO) in the years 1975-1981. First series cars were available only in Special trim and were called Polski Fiat 131p Mirafiori, cars of second series were known under the name Fiat 131p Mirafiori and were offered in L and CL trim levels.

Other producers

The Fiat 131 was also produced at Helwan, in Egypt, by El Nasr since at least 1982, on the basis of complete knockdown (CKD) kits. This was followed by CKD assembly of the Tofaş Murat 131 between 1991-2009. The Tofaş Murat 131 has also been assembled in Ethiopia by Holland Car between 2006-2010.

Other CKD production of the Fiat 131 has taken place in the following countries:

  • 1976 Fiat 132 1800 ES
  • 1977 Fiat 132 2000 GLS
  • 1977 Fiat Fiorino (first generation)

1977 Fiat Fiorino

Fiat Fiorino
1977 Fiat Fiorino D pick-up front

Fiat Fiorino pickup, second generation
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1977–present
Body and chassis
Class Light commercial vehicle
coupe utility (1977-2013)
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 500 Commerciale

The Fiat Fiorino is a light commercial vehicle produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat from 1977 to 2000 and from 2007 to present. Its first two generations have been the van derivatives of other small models, such as the Fiat 127 and Fiat Uno, while the current third generation was developed jointly with PSA Peugeot Citroën and is based on the Fiat Small platform.

The current generation, the Sevel LAV, is also built with a passenger body style, as the Fiat Qubo, and is marketed along its rebadged versions, the Citroën Nemo and the Peugeot Bipper. It is situated below the Fiat Doblò, the Citroën Berlingo and the Peugeot Partner, in each manufacturer’s model line-up.

The name comes from an old Italian coin, normally translated into English as the Florin.

First generation (1977–1988)

First generation
Fiat Fiorino D
Overview
Also called Fiat 147 Pick-Up City (Brazil)
Emelba 127 Poker
SEAT Fiorino
Production 1977–1988
Assembly Betim, Brazil (Fiat Automóveis)
Córdoba, Argentina (Sevel)
Barcelona, Spain
Body and chassis
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Related Fiat 127
Fiat 147

Fiat Fiorino D 1st generation back

Fiat Fiorino rear

The first version of the Fiorino is based on the Series 2 Fiat 127 with the back being a van box, i.e. a 1.3 metres (4 ft 3 in) tall “high-cube” design, an arrangement subsequently emulated by several European auto-makers. It was launched in early November 1977, and received a facelift in 1980. The Fiorino used the same engines as Fiat 127. The first generation of Fiorino was assembled in Minas Gerais plant, Brazil and in Córdoba, Argentina. The coupe utility version was called Fiat 147 Pick-up City in Brazil.

Spanish version

In Spain the Fiorino was produced by SEAT and Fiat in a joint venture and called the Emelba 127 Poker and was available as a panel van or pick-up. The 127 Poker was later renamed the SEAT Fiorino, which ended production in 1986 and was replaced by the SEAT Terra, which shares the same engine as the SEAT 127. The Spanish Fiorino was built in Barcelona factorySEAT Fiorino pick-upSEAT Fiorino pick-up

Engines

Model Engine Displacement Power Torque Note
0.9 8V petrol I4 903 cc 45 PS (33 kW; 44 hp) 64 N·m (47 lb·ft)
1.05 8V petrol I4 1049 cc 50 PS (37 kW; 49 hp) 77 N·m (57 lb·ft)
1.3 8V diesel I4 1301 cc 45 PS (33 kW; 44 hp) 103 N·m (76 lb·ft)

Second generation (1988–2013)

Second generation
Fiat Fiorino Panorama
Overview
Production 1988–2013
Assembly Betim, Brazil (Fiat Automóveis)
Córdoba, Argentina (Sevel)
Body and chassis
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Related Fiat Uno
Fiat Mille

2008 Fiat Fiorino Brazilian version

2008 Fiat Fiorino Brazilian version

In 1988 a more modern version was published, it was based upon the Brazilian Fiat Uno. Second generation Fiorino was made also as Panorama and pick-up body styles. The Fiorino for the European market was sold in over 250.000 until 2000. In Europe, it was a great success, especially as a panel van version.

The United Kingdom‘s last year of Fiorino importation was 2001, a year after production ceased in Europe.

In 1992 a facelifted Fiorino debuted, with a new style inspired by the Fiat Tipo, and it received re-engineered platform, new interior and more ecological engine. The last facelift for the European market was introduced in 1997.

In 1994 a new version based on the Fiat Mille (an economy version of the old European Uno) platform deputed in South America. This version assembled in Minas Gerais plant is still on sale in Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Chile. The Fiorino 2nd generation was also assembled in Argentina earlier. Over 1.000.000 Fiorinos has been sold in the South America. In 2004 a new facelift version made debut with Fiat Doblò front-style. In 2009 Fiat introduced a new version with new red Fiat logo in the front of the car.

The Fiat Fiorino was constructed in the factory of Córdoba, Argentina until 2000.

Production of the second generation of Fiorino was dropped in December 2013, when the new generation was unveiled based on the same platform of the new Brazilian Fiat Uno (also called “Novo Uno”). The Fiorino was the leader of the segment for 23 consecutive years.

Engines

The engines are the Fiat 1.7L 8V diesel naturally aspirated or turbocharged, the 1.2L and the 1.4L 8V Fire petrol and for the South America the Flex engine 1.0L and 1.5L 8V. In Brazil, both 1242 cc engines are currently available as flexible fuel technology, working on both gasoline and ethanol.

  • 1.0L gas
  • 1.2L Fire
  • 1.4L petrol
  • 1.5L gas (ver. spi and mpi)
  • 1.7L diesel and turbodiesel

Third generation (2007–present)

Third generation
2009 Fiat Fiorino III

Fiat Fiorino, one of the three versions of the Sevel LAV
Overview
Manufacturer Sevel
Also called Fiat Qubo
Citroën Nemo
Peugeot Bipper
Production 2007–present
Assembly Turkey: Bursa (Tofaş)
Body and chassis
Class Leisure activity vehicle
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Platform GM Fiat Small platform
Related Fiat Grande Punto
Fiat Linea
Opel Corsa D
Powertrain
Engine 1.4 L I4 (petrol)
1.4 L I4 (petrol/CNG)
1.3 L I4 (diesel)
1.4 L I4 (diesel)
Transmission 5-speed manual
6-speed manual
5-speed semi-automatic
6-speed semi-automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase Fiat: 2,513 mm (98.9 in)
Citroën/Peugeot: 2,510 mm (99 in)
Length Fiat: 3,864–3,964 mm (152.1–156.1 in)
Citroën/Peugeot: 3,860 mm (152 in)
Width Fiat: 1,716 mm (67.6 in)
Citroën/Peugeot: 1,710 m (67,000 in)
Height Fiat: 1,721 mm (67.8 in)
Citroën/Peugeot: 1.720 m (67.7 in)
Kerb weight 1,165 kg (2,568 lb)

The third generation Fiat Fiorino leisure activity vehicle was unveiled in mid-2007 and went on sale in early-2008. The Fiorino shares architecture and body work with the Citroën Nemo and Peugeot Bipper under the Sevel joint venture between Fiat and PSA Peugeot Citroën. Built by Tofaş in Bursa, Turkey they are produced in both panel van and passenger body styles and are situated below the larger LAVs Fiat Doblò, Citroën Berlingo and Peugeot Partner, in their manufacturers’ line-ups. Fiat also retails its passenger model as the Fiat Qubo, with the Fiorino name designating the commercial panel van models.

The Fiorino and its siblings are based on the Fiat Grande Punto platform, with a wheelbase of 2,513 millimetres (98.9 in). This project can be seen as a breakthrough in Tofaş history as it carried most of the development work in addition to responsibility for its assembly.

2010 Fiat Qubo

Fiat Qubo

Fiat launched their passenger-carrying equivalent at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2008. It is branded as the Fiat Qubo.

A derivative of the Fiorino (a small MPV), a passenger version of Fiorino was unveiled in June 2008. This version is suitable for up to five people and can be equipped with different engines, including a 1.3 Multijet diesel (75 PS) or 1.4 litre petrol engine with 73 PS (54 kW; 72 hp). The choice of gearboxes is either a five speed manual or a six speed automatic. In some countries (such as Turkey), this car is simply sold as the “Fiorino”.

The Fiat Fiorino Cargo Electric is produced by Micro-Vett.

Citroën Nemo

2010 Citroën Nemo

Citroën Nemo

The Citroën Nemo is a badge engineered van launched in January 2008 by Citroën. The vehicle is the result of a partnership between Fiat, PSA Peugeot Citroën and Tofaş. The other platform derivatives are the Peugeot Bipper and the Fiat Fiorino.

The Citroën Nemo Multispace is a small MPV also introduced in 2008 and based on the same platform.

In April 2010, during a routine evasive manoeuvre test, conducted in Germany, the vehicle rolled over. The shape of the vehicle; as a high-bodied, short wheelbase van caused the roll. The addition of Electronic stability control (ESC) would likely have prevented this but was not available as standard or as an option on the Nemo.

Peugeot Bipper

Peugeot Bipper

Peugeot Bipper

The Peugeot Bipper is a small delivery van sold by French automaker Peugeot since May 2008. It shares its body, platform and most components with the same generations of the Citroën Nemo and Fiat Fiorino.

The Citroën Nemo, Fiat Fiorino III and Peugeot Bipper were developed jointly with Tofaş following a cooperation agreement signed on 31 March 2005. The vans are manufactured on behalf of all the partners in Bursa by Tofaş.

The claim is advanced that the Bipper a “mini-cargovan” designed for big and small cities, cheaper and a little smaller than the Peugeot Partner. It is asserted that the little van is easy to park, handy for deliveries, and faster than competitor vehicles.

The Peugeot Bipper Tepee is a small MPV also introduced in 2008 and based on the same platform.

Engines

Name Fuel Engine type Volume Output Engine code Emission standard CO2 emissions (g/km) Notes
1.4 8V Petrol 4 Cyl Inline 8v OHC 1,360 cc (83 cu in) 73 PS (54 kW; 72 hp) PSA TU3 Euro 4 152
1.4 8V bi-fuel PetrolCNG 4 Cyl Inline 8v 1,368 cc (83.5 cu in) 69 PS (51 kW; 68 hp) Fiat Fire Natural Power Euro 5 114 Only for Fiat Qubo
1.3 16V Diesel 4 Cyl Inline 16v DOHC 1,248 cc (76.2 cu in) 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) Fiat Multijet Euro 4 Only for Fiat Fiorino and Qubo
1.3 16V Diesel 4 Cyl Inline 16v DOHC 1,248 cc (76.2 cu in) 76 PS (56 kW; 75 hp) Fiat Multijet Euro 5 113
1.3 16V Diesel 4 Cyl Inline 16v DOHC 1,248 cc (76.2 cu in) 96 PS (71 kW; 95 hp) Fiat Multijet Euro 5
1.4 8V Diesel 4 Cyl Inline 8v OHC 1,398 cc (85.3 cu in) 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp) PSA DV4 HDi Euro 4 119 Only for Citroën Nemo & Peugeot Bipper (2007-2010)

Sales and production figures

Year Production Sales Notes
Nemo Qubo Bipper Nemo Qubo Bipper
2009 TBA TBA 32,300 TBA TBA 34,300
2010 TBA TBA 42,900 TBA TBA 44,500
2011 33,406 TBA 34,760 34,304 TBA 34,354 Total Nemo production reaches 154,959 units.
Total Bipper production reaches 142,671 units.
2012 27,500 TBA 24,200 28,500 TBA 26,000 Total Nemo production reaches 182,400 units.
Total Bipper production reaches 166,900 units.

Third generation (Brazil) (2013–present)

In 2013 a new version of the Fiat Fiorino van, different from the European version, was introduced in Brazil. This is based on the Brazilian New Uno car.

1978 Fiat Ritmo

Fiat Ritmo
Fiat Ritmo 75cl
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Also called Fiat Strada
SEAT Ritmo
Production 1978–1988
Assembly Cassino, Italy
Barcelona, Spain
Cairo, Egypt (Nasr)(AAV)
Designer Sergio Sartorelli at Centro Stile Fiat Bertone (Cabrio)
Body and chassis
Class Small family car
Body style 3-door hatchback
5-door hatchback
2-door cabriolet
Layout FF layout
Related Fiat Regata
SEAT Ronda
SEAT Malaga
SEAT Ibiza
Powertrain
Engine 1,049 cc Brazil I4
1,116 cc I4
1,301 cc I4
1,498 cc I4
1,585 cc 138 AR.000 twin cam I4
1,995 cc twin cam I4
1,714 cc diesel I4
1,929 cc turbodiesel I4
Transmission 4/5-speed manual
3-speed automatic (VW)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,448 mm (96.4 in) MkI
2,444 mm (96.2 in) MkII
2,432 mm (95.7 in) (125 & 130TC)
Length 3,937 mm (155.0 in)
Width 1,650 mm (65 in)
1,663 mm (65.5 in) (Sport/Abarth)
Height 1,400 mm (55 in)
Curb weight 850-995 kg (1873-2193 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 128
Successor Fiat Tipo

The Fiat Ritmo is an automobile from Italian manufacturer Fiat, launched in 1978. Designed by Sergio Sartorelli‘s Future Studies department at Centro Stile Fiat, it was seen by some as the most distinctive looking small family car in Europe on its launch at the 1978 Turin Motorshow. It was badged in Great Britain and North America as the Fiat Strada. In 1979 SEAT Ritmo production started in Spain and was replaced by a facelifted version in 1982, the SEAT Ronda. During the Ritmo’s production, which ran from 1978 to 1988, a total of 1,790,000 units were made.

History

Underneath, the Ritmo reused most of the front-wheel drive running gear from its predecessor, the 128, which continued production in some regions until 2003. The 1.1 L (60 PS or 44 kW or 59 bhp), 1.3 L (65 PS or 48 kW or 64 bhp) and 1.5 L (75 PS or 55 kW or 74 bhp) petrol engines were reasonably refined and economical, but particularly the smaller ones were somewhat underpowered for the size of the car. Despite this, in 1979 the still smaller 1.05 liter four built by Fiat of Brazil was added to the lineup for certain markets, with the same power and torque figures as those of the 128-derived 1.1 engine. At the 1980 Geneva Motor Show the Ritmo diesel was introduced with a 1,714 cc engine (55 PS or 40 kW or 54 bhp). To accommodate this considerably heavier engine, the steering rack was slowed down (from 3.5 to 4 turns) and the suspension adjusted. Nonetheless, a 65.5% forward weight distribution was hard to mask and both handling and braking suffered when compared to petrol-powered Ritmos.

In 1981 the Ritmo Super (Fiat Superstrada in UK) was introduced with a variety of small changes and, most significantly, revised engines with 75 PS (55 kW; 74 bhp) (1300) and 85 PS (63 kW; 84 bhp) (1500). This extra power was gained through slight alterations to the camshaft profile, a twin carburettor, and a twin exhaust. Other differences included lower profile tyres (Pirelli P8) and a five-speed, closer ratio gearbox. The steering was also somewhat faster.

In May 1981 the first sport Ritmo, the 105TC, was launched. This used a 1,585 cc Fiat DOHC engine derived from that used in the 131 and 132 models, and produced 105 PS (77 kW; 104 bhp). It had the same 14-inch (360 mm) wheels as the Ritmo Super, but with black centre hubcaps. UK and Irish models had black and silver Cromodora alloy wheels (5.5 x 14) as standard. The 105TC was distinguishable from other Ritmo models by its front fog lights integrated into the front bumper, integrated front spoiler combined with wheel arch trims, black lower door paint, black mesh air intake, and lower hatchback rear spoiler.

Abarth

A few months later, at Frankfurt, the Ritmo Abarth 125TC was introduced in Europe; it was never officially sold in the UK, as the position of the exhaust downpipe would have clashed with the right hand-drive steering gear. The 125TC was a modified and revised 105TC with a 1,995 cc DOHC four with 125 PS (92 kW; 123 bhp), ventilated front discs, a new ZF gearbox, revised suspension settings and strengthened components. Outwardly, the 125TC differed only slightly from the 105TC – it gained the chunky four-spoke 14 in alloys later seen on the Bertone Cabrio models, featured a joint “Fiat Abarth” badge on the rear hatch, and the side badges featured an Abarth Scorpion. The 125TC version had top speed of 190 km/h (120 mph) and it could accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 8.7 seconds. Significantly the Abarth models were the last true Abarth cars to be assembled on a separate Abarth production line following the Fiat buyout in 1971.

Fiat Strada (Ritmo) of the first generation, rear view

Fiat Strada (Ritmo) of the first generation, rear view

Technologically, the biggest innovation of the Ritmo was not the car itself, which took the underpinnings of the 128, but the way in which it was manufactured. Fiat, already an industry pioneer in automated assembly, took the ambitious step and made the Ritmo the first car to be almost completely built by robots, earning the car the advertising tagline “Handbuilt by robots”.

Press leaks ahead of launch indicated that the car would be named Fiat 138, highlighting its role as a successor to the successful Fiat 128, but by the time of its announcement Fiat had resolved to follow the precedent set by the Fiat Mirafiori of giving the car a public name, Ritmo, rather than a mere three digit number. “138” remained the internal code for the Ritmo though. The Italian word “ritmo” is usually translated into English as “rhythm”. “Strada”, the name applied in certain anglophone markets, is the Italian word for road.

1982 facelift

1982 Fiat Ritmo 3-door 2nd series.

Fiat Ritmo 3-door 2nd (1982) series.

1982 Fiat Ritmo 2-door Bertone 2nd (1982) series cabriolet with open top

Fiat Ritmo 2-door 2nd (1982) series cabriolet with open top.

An October 1982 facelift saw the Ritmo’s styling become more restrained with more conventional re-designed front and rear ends. Base models sold on the continent featured the by-now familiar corporate five-bar grille with single round headlamps set in a conventional grille, whilst all other models featured twin round headlamps (in the UK, all models of this generation featured twin headlamps). The rear gained conventional light clusters either side of the rear numberplate. The 1.05 litre “Brazil” engine was no longer available.

The 105TC was relaunched with revised interior trim, a dashboard mirroring that of the earlier Ritmo Super, and an upper hatchback spoiler in place of the lower one. In the UK, 7-spoke alloy wheels replaced the earlier Speedline ones. The advertising name was revised to Strada II in the UK, although the car remained badged as a Strada. The US version was unchanged but was finally discontinued at the end of the 1982 model year, leaving only sports cars in the US Fiat lineup (the X1/9 and the 124 Spider).

Most significantly, a hot hatch version — the Abarth 130TC — was added. This model was based on the 125TC with a 1,995 cc engine, but with performance increased to 130 PS (96 kW; 128 bhp) by replacing the single Weber carb used in the 125TC with twin Solex/Weber carbs on a side-draught manifold, and improved cam profiles. The 130TC was capable of 195 km/h (121 mph) and accelerated from 0 to100 km/h (62 mph) in 7.8 seconds. It was a raw hot hatch fitted with Recaro bucket seats as standard in the UK (optional in Europe), and significantly it was the only 1980s hot hatch to continue utilise carburettors instead of fuel injection coming with either twin Solex ADDHE or Weber DCOE40 carburetors. Ignition timing was controlled electronically. Although appearing outwardly similar to the restyled 105TC with its lower door & wheelarch trims, the 130TC could be distinguished by its polished four-spoke alloy wheels (continued from the earlier 125TC), aerodynamic perspex front door wind deflectors, and lower hatchback spoiler. The raw powerful twin-cam mated to a close ratio ZF gearbox made it a handful to drive, with the performance to outpace many of its contemporary rivals such as the Volkswagen Golf GTi, Ford Escort XR3i, Vauxhall Astra GTE and the MG Maestro.

There was a minor change in the spring of 1984, mainly consisting of a shuffling of the roster. Aside from the three-door, four-speed “L” versions (“60” and “Diesel”), all non-sporting Ritmos now had five-speed gearboxes and five-door bodywork. The upper-class 85 Super version was dropped in Italy, where smaller-engined versions ruled the marketplace. The 1.1 litre 60 CL and 60 Super models were new to the lineup.

1985 facelift

1985 Fiat Strada 130 TC Abarth (1985) Series 2

Fiat Strada 130 TC Abarth (1985) Series 2.

1985 Fiat Ritmo 3rd series.

Fiat Ritmo 3rd (1985) series.

1985 saw a minor facelift to the Ritmo range, featuring new rectangular door handles to the five-door versions only (the three-door versions retained the circular door handles). In truth, these were simply Regata parts. Other changes included restyled front & rear bumpers, and lower plastic panels on the doors (again, taken from the Regata). The rear bumper now housed the number plate at low level, whilst the space between the rear lights was filled with a plastic panel. The 1,714 cc diesel engine was replaced with a 1,697 cc unit from the Uno 60D, developing 60 PS (44 kW; 59 bhp). The 105TC three-door model was replaced with the five-door 100S (also fitted with a 1,585 cc DOHC engine). The 130TC Abarth benefitted from the same external changes as the other models, in addition to new wheels and interior trim. In 1986, a new diesel version was launched with a 1,929 cc intercooled turbodiesel (80 PS (59 kW; 79 bhp)), and was badged as the Ritmo Turbo DS (as a five-door only). While marketed across continental Europe, the 100S and the Turbo DS were not sold in the UK or Ireland, nor were any of the fuel injected models.

The year 1988 saw the last Ritmo roll off the production line and the more conventional Tipo take its place as Fiats C-Segment Car. Also 75 i.e. and 90 i.e. with catalytic converters were made to some markets, these had slightly lower power output.

Other models or variants

A saloon version, the Regata, was also launched in 1983, with limited success outside Italy. Mechanically similar to the Ritmo, it was offered in 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 (all petrol) and 1.7, 1.9 and 1.9 Turbo diesel models. An estate version, the Regata Weekend, was launched in 1984, and featured a folding rear bumper section to create a level loading bay. The Regata received a minor facelift in 1986 (bumpers, doors, interior) as well as fuel injection being available with some engines, most notably on the 1,585 cc “100S i.e.”.

The Ritmo Cabriolet was launched in 1981 styled and assembled by the Italian design house Bertone. This model was facelifted at the same time as the Ritmo hatchback models; however, instead of the 1982-on 5-bar grille, the Bertone Cabriolet models featured the simple Bertone roundel. It looked striking Template:Peackock term and was cheaper than a Golf Cabriolet but not up to Volkswagen standards in terms of quality or ability, despite Volkswagen having entrusted assembly of the Golf Cabriolet to Karmann, and Fiat the Ritmo to Bertone.

The Bertone Cabriolet was sold in various European markets in petrol-engined form only (75S/85S/100S, some with fuel injection) until 1988. There were various special editions, including the Chrono and Bianco (all white) models.

Alternate names

Fiat Strada

1982-83 Fiat Strada.

A 1982-83 Fiat Strada.

The Ritmo was sold on the British market as the Strada from the autumn of 1978 until it was replaced by the Tipo in June 1988.

In North America, the Fiat Strada was introduced for the 1979 model year to replace the 128. It used the same 1.5 SOHC engine as the X1/9, generating 69 hp (51 kW), and featured a standard 5-speed manual gearbox. In spite of a roomy interior, the Strada failed to convince enough buyers to forget reliability issues from previous models and was withdrawn from North America in 1982.

SEAT Ritmo

Spanish car maker SEAT began their history as a Fiat licensee, making rebadged clones of Fiat cars, until the agreement was dropped in 1982. From 1979 to 1982 a Spanish version of the Ritmo, the SEAT Ritmo, was produced in Spain near Barcelona. The original SEAT Ritmo was equipped with license-built pushrod engines from the old Fiat 124. When the licence expired, SEAT changed the least possible number of pieces in their model range so that Fiat could not sue them on the basis of patent infringement, and the SEAT Ritmo yielded to the facelifted “System Porsche”-engined SEAT Ronda, which remained in production until 1986. Before the Volkswagen Group takeover, SEAT showed to the press a black Ronda unit with all the in-house developed parts painted in bright yellow in order to expunge any doubts about their right to continue assembling the car, and also about the future of the firm SEAT and their factories.

The reason for the name change in the United States, is rumoured that “Ritmo“, was a brand of sanitary wipes.

Later, a four-door saloon version of the Ritmo was developed on the same underpinnings, called the Málaga. SEAT’s subsequent takeover by Volkswagen saw the Fiat derived models being quickly killed off, the Ronda almost immediately and followed by the Málaga a short while later.

The Fiat Ritmo underpinnings continued in the first generation SEAT Ibiza sold between 1985 and 1993 before being replaced with a Polo based model after the Volkswagen buy-out.

Revival of the Ritmo name

The Ritmo name has subsequently been revived by the Australian Fiat Importer, Ateco Automotive, by badging the New Fiat Bravo as Fiat Ritmo upon its launch in October 2007. Japanese car maker Mazda, already uses the name Bravo for the B Series pickup truck in the region, hence preventing Fiat from also using the name in Australia. Pre-launch indication were that the Ritmo name was to appear on New Zealand bound cars, but this never eventuated and they use Bravo.

1979 Fiat Campagnola

Fiat Campagnola
Fiat Campagnola Mk1
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Also called Zastava AR51/AR55
Production 1951-1973
Dimensions
Wheelbase 225 cm (88.6 in)
Length 360 cm (141.7 in)
403 cm (158.7 in)
Width 148 cm (58.3 in)
Height 195 cm (76.8 in)
Curb weight 1,250 kg (2,760 lb) -1,350 kg (2,980 lb)

The Fiat Campagnola is a heavy-duty off-road vehicle produced by Fiat. Production started in 1951 and it was upgraded in 1974.

Since 1975 it has been delivered to every Italian armed service in many versions with standard or long wheelbase and canvas or hard top.

Fiat 1101 “Campagnola” (1951-73)

Engines

Model Engine Displacement Power Fuelsystem
1101 inline-four ohv 1,901 cc 53-63 hp single carburetor
1102 inline-four ohv 1,901 cc 40-47 hp diesel
1102C inline-four ohv 1,895 cc 47 hp diesel

Fiat 1107 “Nuova Campagnola” (1974-87)

Fiat Nuova Campagnola
popemobile, saint Pope John Paul II was seriously injured by the assassination attempt perpetrated by Mehmet Ali Ağca, Piazza San Pietro, may 1981, 13th.

Fiat Campagnola as Popemobile in which Pope John Paul II was victim of the assassination attempt. This vehicle is now in the “Carriage museum” of the Vatican City.
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Also called Renault TRM500
Production 1974-1987
Dimensions
Wheelbase 230 cm (90.6 in)
Length 378 cm (148.8 in)
403 cm (158.7 in)
Width 158 cm (62.2 in)
Height 195 cm (76.8 in)
Curb weight 1,750 kg (3,860 lb)

The Campagnola was redesigned for launch in June 1974 and in this form produced until 1987.

The new vehicle used the petrol engine of the Fiat 132, but with a longer stroke which increased the capacity to 1,995 cc. – the same enlarged engine turned up in the Fiat 132 itself two years later, albeit with twin overhead camshafts. There was a light alloy cylinder head: instead of the twin overhead camshafts of the 132, the engine in the Campagnola had a single side-mounted camshaft driven by a toothed belt, the valve movement being driven by pushrods and rockers. The large square engine compartment gave easy access to the engine bay which was designed to permit “wading” up to 70 cm deep.

The 57 litre fuel tank was positioned well out of range from rocks and flying stones, being under the twin passenger seat beside the driver.

MacPherson struts suspended all four wheels, with two struts for each of the rear wheels and a single strut for each of the front wheels. All six struts used were of identical specification and thereby interchangeable. Road testers from the UK commended the smoothness of the ride over rough ground which evidently compared very favourably with that offered by the Land Rover of the time.

A military version was introduced in 1976 (AR76) and 1979 after new updated it was called AR76.

Engines

Model Engine Displacement Power Fuelsystem
1107 inline-four ohv 1,995 cc 80 hp single carburetor
1107 D inline-four SOHC 1,995 cc 60 hp diesel
1107 D inline-four SOHC 2,445 cc 72 hp diesel

Others

The “Campagnola” of the Distaccamento Aeroportuale di Ronchi dei Legionari is in the standard wheelbase hard top version. The vehicle is 3.775 metres (148.6 in) long, 1.580 metres (62.2 in) wide and 1.945 metres (76.6 in) high. The wheeltrack is 1.365 metres (53.7 in) and the wheelbase is 2.300 metres (90.6 in). The minimum ground clearance is 0.27 metres (10.6 in).

The powerplant is a Fiat 4-cyl gasoline engine developing 59 kW (79 hp) at 4600 rpm through a 4X4 transmission. The suspension system is independent on all four wheels.

Basic performance data include a 120 km/h (75 mph) maximum speed, a 56° gradeability (150%) and a maximum fording depth of 0.700 metres (27.6 in).

The “Campagnola” is used as an Incident Command post during the first phases of the emergency. It carries loudspeakers and other command and control equipment. Some light rescue equipment is carried in the back, including a rescue saw, an oxygen cutting torch and other ancillary equipment.

Renault derivative

In 1976 the French army was about to replaced its Jeeps and several prototype series were made: Peugeot proposed the P4, an adaptation of the Mercedes G-Wagen, powered by the gasoline engine of Peugeot 504. Citroën offered its own version of the Volkswagen Iltis, using the CX Athena engine and renamed as C44. The Renault Campagnola TRM500 was derivative of Fiat Campagnola and used engine of Renault R20. Finally the Peugeot P4 was chosen as new army jeep.

Zastava

The Campagnola was also license-built by Zastava Trucks, in Yugoslavia.

See also

Alfa Romeo AR51 Matta (1951-1953)

Alfa Romeo AR51 Matta (1951-1953)

Alfa romeo geländewagen

Alfa romeo geländewagen

Iveco Campagnola Alpina SANYO DIGITAL CAMERA Iveco Massif

IVECO Massif or Campagniola

  • 1979 Fiat Campagnola Lunga
  • 1979 Fiat Mirafiori 1300 CL
  • 1979 Fiat Supermirafiori

This was FIAT part IV

In FIAT Part V the years 

1980-1989