PANHARD (LEVASSOR) Paris France 1891




René Panhard, Émile Levassor
Paris, France
Renault Trucks Defense

1890-95 Panhard et Levassor. This model was the first automobile in Portugal
Panhard et Levassor (1890-1895). This model was the first automobile in Portugal

1894 Panhard et Levassor'sPanhard et Levassor’s
Daimler Motor Carriage, 1894

1933 Panhard et Levassor X741933 Panhard et Levassor X74

1937 Panhard et Levassor Dynamic1937 Panhard et Levassor Dynamic

1955 DB Panhard HBR1955 DB Panhard HBR

1960 Panhard DB Le Mans1960 Panhard DB Le Mans

1963-1967 Panhard 241963-1967 Panhard 24
Panhard is a French manufacturer of light tactical and military vehicles. Its current incarnation was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005. Panhard had been under Citroën ownership, then PSA (after the 1974 Peugeot Citroën merger), for 40 years. The combined company now uses the Panhard name; this was decided based on studies indicating that the Panhard name had better brand recognition worldwide than the Auverland name. Panhard once built civilian cars but ceased production of those in 1968. Many of its military products however end up on the civilian market via third sources and as military/government surplus vehicles. Panhard also built railbuses between the wars.



Panhard was originally called Panhard et Levassor, and was established as a car manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887.

Early Years

Panhard et Levassor sold their first automobile in 1890. based on a Daimler engine license. Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimler’s interests in France. Following Sarazin’s 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazin’s widow Louise to carry on her late husband’s agency. The Panhard et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890. Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, and shared improvements with one another.
These first vehicles set many modern standards, but each was a one-off design. They used a clutch pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox. The vehicle also featured a front-mounted radiator. An 1895 Panhard et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower (3.0 kW; 4.1 PS) with a steering wheel, believed to be one of the earliest employments of the principle.

In 1891, the company built its first all-Levassor design, a “state of the art” model: the Systeme Panhard consisted of four wheels, a front-mounted engine with rear wheel drive, and a crude sliding-gear transmission, sold at 3500 francs. (It would remain the standard until Cadillac introduced synchromesh in 1928.) This was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, who formed his own car company.

In 1895, 1,205 cc (74 cu in) Panhard et Levassors finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr. Arthur Krebs succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, and held the job until 1916. He turned the Panhard et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturer of automobiles before World War I.

Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard et Levassor developed the Panhard rod, which became used in many other types of automobiles as well.
From 1910 Panhard worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology that had been patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard & Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, but these were offered alongside cars powered by sleeve valve power units. Following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhard’s own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard cars used sleeve valve engines.

The First World War

Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, Panhard & Levassor’s 18CV and 20CV models were the official presidential cars.
During the war Panhard, like other leading automobile producers, concentrated on war production, including large numbers of military trucks, V12-cylinder aero-engines, gun components, and large 75 and 105 diameter shells.
The military were also keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP. General Joffre himself (not, till December 1916, promoted Marshal of France) used two 35HP Panhard Type X35s with massive 4-cylinder 7,360cc engines for his personal transport, and these were frequently to be seen by Parisians carrying military leaders between the front-line and the Élysée Palace.

Between two world wars

Following the outbreak of peace in 1918, Panhard resumed passenger car production in March 1919 with the 10HP Panhard Type X19 which used a 4-cylinder 2,140cc engine. This was followed three months later by three more 4-cylinder models which will have been familiar to any customers whose memories pre-dated the war, but they now incorporated ungraded electrics and a number of other modifications. For the 15th Paris Motor Show, in October 1919, Panhard were displaying four models, all with four cylinder engines, as follows:

Panhard Type X19 2,150 cc / 10 HP
Panhard Type X31 2,275 cc / 12 HP
(This replaced the 12 HP Panhard Type 25 for 1920.)
Panhard Type X28 3,175 cc / 16 HP
Panhard Type X29 4,850 cc / 20 HP

By 1925, all Panhard’s cars were powered by Knight sleeve valve engines that used steel sleeves. The steel sleeves were thinner and lighter than the cast iron ones that had been fitted in Panhard sleeve valve engines since 1910, and this already gave rise to an improved friction coefficient permitting engines to run at higher speeds. To reduce further the risk of engines jamming, the outer sleeves, which are less thermally stressed than the inner sleeves, were coated on their inner sides with an anti-friction material, employing a patented technique with which Panhard engineers had been working since 1923. This was one of several improvements applied by Panhard engineers to the basic Knight sleeve-valve engine concept.
In 1925 a 4.8 litre (292ci) model set the world record for the fastest hour run, an average of 185.51 km/h (115.26 mph).
A surprise appeared on the Panhard stand at the 20th Paris Motor Show in October 1926, in the shape of the manufacturer’s first six cylinder model since before the war. The new Panhard 16CV “Six” came with a 3445cc engine and sat on a 3540 mm wheelbase. At the show it was priced, in bare chassis form, at 58,000 francs. Of the nine models displayed for the 1927 model year, seven featured four cylinder engines, ranging in capacity from 1480cc (10CV) to 4845cc (20CV), and in price from 31,000 francs to 75,000 francs (all in bare chassis form). Also on show was an example of the 8-cylinder 6350cc (35CV) “Huit” model which Panhard had offered since 1921 and which at the 1926 show was priced by the manufacturer in bare chassis form at 99,000 francs.
When Panhard presented their 1931 line-up at the Paris Motor Show in October 1930, their last two four cylinder models had been withdrawn, along with the 10CV 6-cylider Type X59. Instead they concentrated on their “S-series” cars, designated “Panhard CS” and “Panhard DS” according to engine size, and introduced a year earlier.[10] Publicity of the time indicated the “S” stood for “Voitures surbaissées” (having an “underslung” chassis,) but, clearly captivated by the power of alliteration, added that “S” also indicated cars that were “…souples, superiéres, stables, spacieuses, silencieuses, sans soupapes (ie using valveless cylinders)…”. Four of the five Panhards exhibited featured increasingly lavish and pricey 6-cylinder engined cars, their engine sizes ranging from 2.35-litres to 3.5-litres. There was also an 8-cylinder 5.1-litre Panhard Type X67 on display, with a generous 3,590 mm (141.3 in) wheelbase and listed, even in bare chassis form, at 85,000 francs.
Panhard et Levassor’s last pre-war car was the unusually styled monocoque Dynamic series, first introduced in 1936.
Panhard et Levassor also produced railbuses, including some for the metre gauge Chemin de Fer du Finistère.
Post-war era
After World War II the company was renamed Panhard (without “Levassor”), and produced light cars such as the Dyna X, Dyna Z, PL 17, 24 CT and 24 BT. The company had long noted the weight advantages of aluminum, and this as well as postwar government steel rationing (designed to limit new car models to ensure an orderly return to production at the major firms), encouraged the firm to proceed with the expensive alternative of making the bodies and several other components out of aluminum; thus the Dyna X and early Dyna Z series 1 had aluminum bodies. Unfortunately, cost calculations by Jean Panhard himself, inheriting son and managing director of the firm, failed to account fully for all of the extra cost of aluminum vs steel, as his calculation were made for the sheet metal panel area actually utilized per body shell, and erroneously did not account for the cut offs and scrap of each of the stampings making up the shell. Once in production, a re-examination cost analysis showed a cost of 55,700fr for aluminum shells and only 15,600fr for steel. The use of aluminum had pushed the firm perilously close to bankruptcy, and a rush engineering job saw the firm return to steel. Thus, the later Dyna Z (from mid September 1955) and the successor PL 17 bodies were steel, and the major stampings retained the heavier gauge intended for durability with aluminum, so as to avoid complete replacement of the stamping dies.
The air-cooled flat-twin engine of the Dyna was also used by Georges Irat for his “Voiture du Bled” (VdB) off-road vehicle, built in Morocco in small numbers in the early 1950s.
The styling of the Dyna Z was distinctively smooth and rounded, with an emphasis on aerodynamics and an overall minimalist design. The 24 CT was a later (fr summer 1963-on) stylish 2+2 seater; the 24 BT being a version of the same with a longer wheelbase and space for four.
For a period after the war, the Panhard-based Monopole racing cars received unofficial support from Panhard (as did DB and other clients such as Robert Chancel), using it to good effect in winning the “Index of Performance” class at Le Mans in 1950, 1951, and 1952. In 1953, Panhard moved on to a more direct involvement with Chancel, which however came to an end after the deadly 1955 Le Mans. In the latter half of the fifties and the early sixties, the Deutsch Bonnet racers (“DB Panhard”) picked up this mantle and went on to dominate the “Index of Performance” as well as other small-engine racing classes.
The last Panhard passenger car was built in 1967. After assembling 2CV panel trucks for Citroen in order to utilize capacity in face of falling sales, and raising operating cash by selling ownership progressively to Citroën (full control as of 1965), in fall of 1967 the civilian branch was absorbed by Citroën, and the marque was retired. Since 1968 Panhard has only made armored vehicles.
In 2004, Panhard lost a competition to another manufacturer of military vehicles, Auverland, for the choice of the future PVP of the French Army. This allowed Auverland to purchase Panhard in 2005, then a subsidiary of PSA Peugeot Citroën. However, the fame of Panhard being greater, it was decided to retain the name; the PVP designed by Auverland would bear a Panhard badge.
Today the only use of the name Panhard is the “Panhard rod” (also called Panhard bar) This is a suspension link invented by Panhard that provides lateral location of the axle. This device has been widely used ever since on other automobiles or as after marked upgrade to rear axles for vintage American cars.
In October 2012, Renault Trucks Defense, division of Swedish Volvo Group since 2001, finalized the acquisition of Panhard for 62.5 million euros.
Car models
Panhard models
Construction period
Panhard Dyna X
Panhard Junior
Panhard Dyna Z
Panhard PL 17
Panhard CD
Panhard 24
Models with Panhard technology
Construction period
Dyna Veritas
Rosengart Scarlette
DB Le Mans
Current military models

A VBL of the French Army
A VBL of the French Army

PVPXL / AVXL: an enlarged AVL
TC 54
TC 10
TC 24
Peugeot P4
ERC 90 Sagaie
VBR: enlarged VBL multipurpose armored vehicle
VAP: Véhicule d’Action dans la Profondeur (deep penetration vehicle), VBL based special operations vehicle
VPS: P4 based SAS Patrol vehicle

Vehicles in service
Panhard has supplied more than 18,000 military wheeled vehicles to over 50 countries with a range of combat vehicles weighing less than 10 tonnes, as follows:

5,400 armoured wheeled vehicles (AML, ERC 90 Sagaie, and LYNX VCR 6×6)
2,300 VBL in 16 countries which includes 1600 in service with the French Army
933 A4 AVL—PVP—selected by the French Army
9,500 vehicles under 7 tonnes; most being jeep-like vehicles produced under the Auverland name.


1896 Panhard et Levassor 4 CV with Wagonette body

Panhard et Levassor 4 CV with Wagonette body (1896)

1898 Panhard et Levassor Landaulette type AL

Panhard et Levassor Landaulette type AL (1898)

1900 Panhard et Levassor automobile

Panhard et Levassor automobile circa 1900

1900 Panhard et Levassor water-cooled 2-cylinder automobile engine

Panhard et Levassor water-cooled 2-cylinder automobile engine, circa 1900

1901 Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton coachwork by Kellner

Panhard et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton coachwork by Kellner (1901)

1902 Panhard et Levassor 7 CV Voiturette

Panhard et Levassor 7 CV Voiturette (1902)

1903 Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc

Panhard et Levassor Char-à-banc (1903)

1914 Panhard et Levassor 10 CV

Panhard et Levassor 10 CV (1914)

1924 Panhard et Levassor X46 2300cc Saloon by Salmons and Son, Tickford

Panhard et Levassor X46 2300cc (1924) Saloon by Salmons and Son, Tickford

1934 Panhard et Levassor Cabrio-Coupé Pourtout

Panhard et Levassor Cabrio-Coupé Pourtout

1934 Panhard et Levassor Eclipse Pourtout

Panhard et Levassor Eclipse (1934) Pourtout

1952 Panhard X 86 1952

Panhard Dyna X 86 Saloon (1952)

1952 Panhard Dyna 750 Coupé Allemano

Panhard Dyna 750 Coupé Allemano (1952)

1953 Panhard Dyna Z

Panhard Dyna Z (1953)

1966 Panhard 24 1ct

Panhard 24 CT, (1966)

Panhard 178

Panhard 178

Panhard EBR

Engin Blindé de Reconnaissance 75

Panhard French Army

Auto Mitrailleuse Légère HE-60-7

Panhard Peugeot

See also

The 1916 St Chamond tank
Panhard 178
Panhard EBR
Panhard AML
Arthur Constantin Krebs, Panhard General Manager from 1897 to 1916

1892 Pahard Levassoir


1893+1943 Panhard

1893 R 1943 L-panhard

1894 Panhard-Levassor


1898 Panhard-Levassor


1899 Panhard & Levassor


1899 Panhard-Levassor


1900 Panhard et Levassor automobile


1900 Panhard-Levassor


1901 Panhard-Levassor


1902 Panhard & Levassor 10HP a


1903 Panhard Levassor S4M (Mod)Engine 13500cc


1903 Panhard-Levassor


1906 Panhard-Levassor


1906 Panhard-Levassor 24CV (Panhard-Genty),


1906 Panhard-Levassor a


1908 Panhard-Levassor


1909 Panhard 18HP Limousine op straat


1910 Panhard-Levassor


1912 panhard

1912-panhard and levassor ad


1914 Panhard et Levassor 10 CV


1922 Panhard 10HP Torpédo uit


1924 Panhard et Levassor X46 2300cc Saloon by Salmons and Son, Tickford


1924 Panhard Levassor Engine 6300cc


1926 Panhard Lame de Rasoir 1-5litre2

panhard-lame-de-rasoir-1-5 litre

1926 Panhard Lame de Rasoir 1-5litre1


1925 Panhard 4


1927 Panhard Levassor


1929 Panhard 28CV Cab Spyder


1930-34 Panhard


1931 Panhard 6CS de Graaff NL


1931 Panhard-Levassor


1932 Panhard et Levassor X72 6CS RL Conduite Interieure, 7 passengers


1933 Panhard et Levassor X74


1934 Panhard et Levassor Cabrio-Coupé Pourtout


1934 Panhard et Levassor Eclipse Pourtout


1934 Panhard_X72_ar

1934-panhard x72 ar

1934 Panhard_x72_av

1934-panhard x72 av

1934 Panhard_x72_pdb

1934-panhard x72 pdb

1935 Panhard Sans Soupape 6 cyl


1936 - panhard


1936 Panhard Dynamic 140


1936 Panhard Dynamic a


1936 Panhard Dynamic advert


1936 Panhard Dynamic b


1936 Panhard Dynamic Four Door Saloon

1936-panhard-dynamic-four-door-saloon1936 Panhard Dynamic


1937 Dynamic_ar

1937 panhard-dynamic ar

1937 Dynamic_av

1937 panhard-dynamic av

1937 Hab_Dyn

1937-panhard dynamic inside

1937 Panhard & Levassor X77 Dynamic


1937 Panhard et Levassor Dynamic Coupé.


1937 Panhard et Levassor Dynamic


1938 Panhard Dynamic Panoramic


1948 Panhard Dinavia


1948 panhard dynavia  (2)


1948 Panhard Dynavia


1948 Panhard Dynavia 610cc 22pk 130km-p-u


1948 panhard dynavia a


1948 Panhard Levassor Dynavia


1948 Panhard Levassor Dynavia a


1949 panhard dyna a


1949 Panhard dyna bw


1949 Panhard Dyna X84 Canadienne Dynavia


1949 Panhard X86 décapotable-1


1950 Panhard Dyna Sedan


1950 panhard dyna X


1950 Panhard Dyna X86 Roadster


1951 Panhard Dyna X86 Cabriolet (750cc)


1951-61 Panhard Dyna DD-58-23

1951-61-panhard-dyna-dd-58-23 NL

1952 Panhard Dyna 750 Coupé Allemano


1952 Panhard Dyna X 86 Saloon


1952 Panhard Dyna X86


1952 Panhard Junior rood a


1952 panhard junior


1952 Panhard Veritas Dyna Sport


1953 Panhard Colli Sportscar Allemano Berlinetta


1953 Panhard Dyna Z


1953 Panhard Dyna Z1


1953 Panhard Junior


1954 Panhard Devin


1954 panhard dyna


1954 panhard dyna a


1954 Panhard dyna commerciale

1954-panhard-dyna-commerciale.1954 Panhard Dyna Z1


1955 Panhard HBR


1955 Panhard Rafale Carrosserie Futuriste POTIER


1955 Panhard SERA Coupe Rafale


1956 Panhard Dyna Junior


1956 Panhard Dyna RP-34-64

1956-panhard-dyna-rp-34-64 NL

1956 Panhard Dyna Z12(NL)

1956-panhard-dyna-z NL

1956 Panhard Dyna Z12


1956 panhard-dyna-fv

1956-panhard-dyna-fv ad

1957 Panhard Dyna Z Sedan


1957 Panhard PL17


1957 Panhard Z 12


1958 panhard dyna cabrio


1958 Panhard Dyna Z11

1958-panhard-dyna-z1958 Panhard Dyna Z15


1958 panhard dyna

1958-panhard-dyna ad

1959 Panhard 2 vanuit auto Hanne D 2009-06-25

1959 Panhard 3
1959 Panhard
1959 PANHARD Dyna Z Break Pichon-Parat
1959 Panhard DynaZ
1959 Panhard PL17 L1
1959-65 Panhard_PL17_005
1960 panhard
1960 Panhard DB Le Mans
1961 Panhard PL 17
1961 Panhard PL17 L4(NL)
1962 Panhard CD Le Mans
1963 Panhard 17B
1963 Panhard 17B Break
1963 panhard 17b-jr
1963-panhard-17 ad
1963 Panhard 24CT(NL)
1963-panhard-24 NL
1963 Panhard CD Tourisme - coupe body
1963 Panhard PL 17 Tigre with matching traile
1963 Panhard PL17 L8
1963-65 Panhard_CD_001
1963-65-panhard cd
1963-1967 Panhard 24
1964 Panhard 24
1964 panhard 24b-640
1964 Panhard CD Sport
1964 panhard le mans
1965 panhard 17a-jr
1965-panhard-17 ad
Panhard_PL17_Cabriolet 002
1965 panhard pl17 cabriolet
1965 Panhard 24 CD
1965 panhard 24b-b
1965 Panhard 37 24BT
1965 Panhard CT 24 Coupe
1966 Panhard 24 1ct
1966 Panhard b
1966-panhard 24
1967 Panhard 24 CT
1967 Panhard 24 CTa
1967 Panhard 24CT
1979 PANHARD la doyenne
Panhard Mulhouse France
panhard g
panhard-vbl-01 amphibie voertuig
panhard lemans
1991 Panhard-Levassor
1991 PANHARD Les premiers tours
cést tout

Author: Jeroen

In Dutch, my homelanguage: Ik ben Jeroen, tot januari 2015 was ik al dik 26 jaar werkzaam in een psychiatrisch ziekenhuis in een stad vlakbij Werelds grootste havenstad Rotterdam. Eerst als verpleegkundige/begeleider op high care, later op afdeling dubbeldiagnose (verslavingen) en ook nog een tijdje als administratief medewerker. Ik heb een spierziekte "Poli Myositis" (alle spieren zijn ontstoken) daardoor weinig energie. Sinds augustus 2015 is daarbij de diagnose Kanker gesteld, en ben ik helemaal arbeidsongeschikt geworden en zit middenin de behandelfase. Gelukkig ben ik daarnaast getrouwd, vader, en opa, en heb de nodige hobby's. Een daarvan is transportmiddelen verzamelen en daarmee een blog schrijven. Dit blog begon met bussen, maar nu komen ook sleepboten, auto's trucks en dergelijke aan bod. Kijk en geniet met me mee, reageer, en vul gerust aan. Fouten zal ik ook graag verbeteren. In English: I'm Jeroen, till januari 2015 I was already 26 years working as a nurse in a psychiatric hospital, near Rotterdam, Worlds biggest harbour with more than 98 nationalities living within it's borders. First I worked on closed high care ward and the last years on a ward with mainly addicted people. I liked my work very much. In 2007 I got ill. I got the diagnose Poli Myositis, a musscle dissease. Al my mussles are inflamed. And last august I got another diagnose. Cancer. It's plaveicelcel carcinoma and treated with Chemo and radioation. So I've even less energy than the last years. Still I try to make something of my life and the blog is helping with surviving with some pleasure.

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