ZAZ automobiles Ukraine 1958 – 1994

ZAZ Zaporozhets

ZAZ Zaporozhets

ZAZ-966 Logo

ZAZ-965 and ZAZ-968 cars

ZAZ Zaporozhets (UkrainianЗапоро́жецьRussianЗапоро́жецAbout this sound pronunciation ) was a series of rear-wheel-drivesuperminis (city cars in their first generation) designed and built from 1958 at the ZAZ factory in Soviet Ukraine (UkrainianЗапорізький автомобільний заводZaporiz’kyi Avtomobilnyi Zavod, or Zaporizhian Automobile Factory). Different models of the Zaporozhets, all of which had an air-cooledengine in the rear, were produced until 1994. Since the late 1980s, the final series, 968M, was replaced by the cardinally different ZAZ-1102 Tavriahatchback, which featured a front-wheel drive and a more powerful water-cooled engine.

The name Zaporozhets translates into a Cossack of the Zaporizhian Sich or а man from Zaporizhia or the Zaporizhia Oblast.

Zaporozhets is still well-known in many former Soviet states. Like the Volkswagen Beetle or East Germany‘s Trabant, the Zaporozhets was destined to become a “people’s car” of the Soviet Union, and as such it was the most affordable vehicle of its era. At the same time, it was rather sturdy and known for its excellent crossing performance on poor roads. Another important advantage of the Zaporozhets was its ease of repairs. The car’s appearance gave birth to several nicknames that became well known across the Soviet Union: horbatyi (“hunchback“, owing to ZAZ-965’s insect-like form; although ZAZ factory workers never used this nickname), malysh (English: Kiddy),ushastyi (“big-eared“, due to 966 and 968’s round air intakes on each side of the car to cool the rear-mounted engine), mylnitsa (“soap-box”, for ZAZ-968M, lacking “ears” and producing a more box-like appearance).

Numerous special versions of the Zaporozhets were produced, equipped with additional sets of controls that allowed operating the car with a limited set of limbs, and were given for free or with considerable discounts to disabled people, especially war veterans, side-by-side with SMZ-series microcars. These mobility cars would at times consume up to 25% of ZAZ factory output.

First generation (1960-1969)

ZAZ-965 (1960-1963)

ZAZ-965A (1962-1969)

ZAZ-965A
Overview
Manufacturer Zaporizhian Automobile Factory
Also called Zaporozhets
Production 1960–1969
Body and chassis
Class City car (A-segment)
Body style 2-door saloon
Layout RR layout
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,160 mm (85.0 in)
Length 3,330 mm (131.1 in)
Width 1,395 mm (54.9 in)
Height 1,450 mm (57.1 in)
Curb weight 665 kg (1,466 lb)
Chronology
Successor ZAZ-966 Zaporozhets

ZAZ-965

The ZAZ 965 was a city car produced from 1960 to 1963. Design of a car accessible to the public, and one in part taking the place of the soon to be discontinued Moskvitch 401, began in 1956. Following the growing trend of city cars (then accounting for between 25% and 40% of all European car sales), the minister in charge of Minavtroprom (the Soviet automotive ministry) Nicholas Strokin selected the new Fiat 600 as the model to follow. However, apart from general principles of mechanics and a close visual similarity to the Fiat 600, the ZAZ was in fact a completely different car.

ZAZ-965 dashboard

The first prototype, the Moskvich-444, was designed by MZMA in October 1957; it used the same glass for front and rear windows. Its ground clearance, on 13 in (330 mm) wheels, was 200 mm (7.9 in). The prototype was first powered by a flat twin-cylinder MD-65 engine provided by the Irbitskiy Motorcycle Plant, which was “totally unsuited”: it produced only 17.5 hp (13.0 kW; 17.7 PS) and lasted only 30,000 km (19,000 mi) between major overhauls. As a result, a search for another engine was begun, and the success of the VW Type 1‘s boxer led to a preference for an air-cooled engine, which NAMI (the National Automobile Institute) had on the drawing board.Minavtroprom, however, preferred a 23 hp (17 kW; 23 PS) rear-mounted 746 cc (45.5 cu in) V4, the NAMI-G, which had the additional advantage of being developed for the LuAZ-967. As a result, it had characteristics not common for automobile engines, including a magnesium alloy engine block. (This engine, the MeMZ 965, would be built by the Melitopolski Motor Plant, MeMZ.) It had the drawback of needing to have the rear of the car redesigned to fit, as well as needing a new rear suspension. The influence of the LuAZ designers led to the introduction of independent suspension on all four wheels. Its front doors open in a manner like suicide doors, partly to make it more accessible to the disabled.

One of the primary differences was that the engine, which featured a V4 layout in place of the Fiat‘s inline-four, was air-cooled. The Zaporozhets also featured bigger wheels and front suspension on torsion bars. In 1958, the government ordered production of the car in the reformed ZAZ factory, under its final designation ZAZ-965. All further production of the car was carried out there.

The new car was approved for production at the MeMZ factory 28 November 1958, changing the name to ZAZ (Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant) to reflect the new profile. The Zaporizhia factory was supplemented with the Mikoyan Diesel-Building Factory in Melitopol, which was part of the Soyuzdieselcombinat.

The first car, dubbed the ZAZ-965 Zaporozhets, was delivered 12 June 1959, was approved 25 July 1960, and entered production 25 October. The Zaporozhets was priced at 1,800 rubles.

There was also a car-derived van model for the Soviet post office, the 965S, with right-hand drive and blanked-off windows.

ZAZ-965A

ZAZ-965AE

The 965A was an improvement on the 965 and was produced from November 1962 to May 1969. In total, 322,106 units of the 965 were produced. It was powered by a MeMZ 965 rear-mounted, air-cooledOHV 887 cc (54.1 cu in) V4 engine, partially of aluminium design, producing 27 PS (20 kW). From November 1966 some cars were fitted with the slightly more powerful 30 PS (22 kW) MeMZ-965A engine. The 965’s modest engine output has given ground to an urban joke that it was used as a starter motor in Soviet tanks.

As Soviet drivers were expected to do much of the servicing themselves, and auto workshops were in short supply anyway, the engine’s 90° V4 layout proved more practical, especially in harsh winter conditions. The higher centre of gravity of the engine also provided superior traction on steep slopes, though this advantage, which was also continued in later models, came at the expense of the car’s infamous cornering stability.

The 965A also had its versions for the disabled (ZAZ-965B, AB, AR), as well as a more luxurious export variant ZAZ-965AE Yalta.

Despite low prestige of those cars, they have shown an unbeaten accessibility and popularity among the Soviets, becoming the “car for pensioners and intellectuals”. They were the cheapest Soviet-made cars. Quite a large number of them was produced in variants for disabled people, with modified steering.

Between November 1966 and May 1969 the 965A and its successor, the ZAZ966, were produced concurrently.

When production of the 965 ended, 322,116 had been built.

The 965 also inspired the 1962 prototype NAMI 086, named Sputnik (Fellow Traveller), with a 15 PS (11 kW) 500 cc (31 cu in) vee-twin (half an MeMZ 965), electromagnetic clutch and four-speed transmission. Fitted with four-wheel independent suspension and weighing just 520 kg (1,150 lb), intended for use by the disabled, it was never built.

The ZAZ KD of 1969 was also based on the 965, fitted with a glassfibre body, giving it a weight of only and a top speed of 75 mph (121 km/h) on just 30 PS (22 kW). It was never produced in quantity, either.

Second generation (1966-1994)

ZAZ-966 (1966-1972)

ZAZ-968 (1971-1980)

ZAZ-968M (1979-1994)

Vladimir Putin with his 1972 ZAZ-968
Overview
Manufacturer ZAZ (Zaporizhian Automobile Factory)
Also called Zaporozhets
Production 1966–1994
Body and chassis
Class Supermini (B)
Body style 2-door notchbacksaloon
Powertrain
Engine 1.2L MeMZ-968V4
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,160 mm (85.0 in)
Length 3,730 mm (146.9 in)
Width 1,540 mm (60.6 in)
Height 1,370 mm (53.9 in)
Curb weight

780 kg (1,720 lb)

(dimensions for ZAZ-968)

Chronology
Predecessor ZAZ-965A (Zaporozhets)
Successor ZAZ-1102 Tavria

ZAZ-966

ZAZ-966

The second generation of the Zaporozhets was a series of subcompact cars, production starting of the 966 in November 1966, although the prototype was working on as 1961. It had a completely restyled bodywork (done entirely by ZAZ), no longer resembling the Fiat 600 and arguably similar to the Chevrolet Corvair or the NSU Prinz. This was an effort to cure some of the 965’s issues, such as torsion bars that lost tension, suicide doors, and engine overheating and noise. The engine was the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) 887 cc (54.1 cu in) MeMZ 966A. A radio was standard equipment. The price had inched up, too, from 1,800 rubles at the 965’s debut to 2,200 by 1969.

While featuring a larger two-door notchbacksaloon body, it still featured an air-cooled V4 engine and featured more prominent air intakes – the so-called “ears”, although a decorative chrome grille was also present. The car’s rear suspension was also replaced. The 966 started out as the simpler ZAZ-966V (ЗАЗ-966В in Cyrillic) with the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) engine from the 965A, which was also featured on all later models. Much like the 965A, the 966V was also produced in several special variants for the disabled (VR, VB, VB2 – until January 1973). It was produced in tandem with the 965 from November 1966 to May 1969.

ZAZ launched an upgraded 966B in 1968, powered by a new 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS) 1,197 cc (73.0 cu in) MeMZ 968 V4, while the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) 966A-powered model became the 966-1 which was only ever produced in small numbers. The 966B, weighing in at 780 kg (1,720 lb), was heavier than the earlier model, but faster, reaching 75 mph (121 km/h).

The 966 was discontinued in 1972, with the introduction of the ZAZ 968.

Nicknamed “Zapo” in the Eastern Bloc, the 966 was also popular in Western Europe, including some Scandinavian countries and France. Some markets fitted a 956 cc (58.3 cu in) Renault engine.

ZAZ-968

ZAZ-968

ZAZ-968 rear view

The ZAZ-968 and its modifications were produced from 1971 to 1980. It featured the same 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS) 1,197 cc (73.0 cu in) MeMZ 968 V4 as the ZAZ 966, but the exterior design was slightly modernized. The most obvious alteration was replacing the fake chrome grille in the car’s front with a horizontal chrome decoration. Among other changes was the less austere dashboard and better front brakes. The 968 was discontinued in 1978, having been produced simultaneously with the newer 968A since 1973, which was produced until 1980. It introduced new safety measures, including a safer driving wheel and a plastic dashboard instead of the earlier metal one. The 968A also had its variants for the disabled (the ZAZ-968R, B, B2, AB, and AB2) with the 30 hp (22 kW; 30 PS) 887 cc (54.1 cu in) engine.

Toward the end of 1974, an up-market 968A debuted, surviving until 1979. Among its improvements were padded dash, energy-absorbing (collapsing) steering column, and seats from the VAZ-2101. The export 968E (destined mostly for the Eastern Bloc) had headlights able to meet international standards, a safety glass windscreen, and anti-theft steering lock.

ZAZ-968M

ZAZ-968M
ZAZ-968M

In 1979, the 968 series was replaced by the modernized 968M. Prototyped in 1977, it had the “ears” removed and replaced much of the chrome exterior with black plastic. Its interior design was also upgraded, featuring a closed-space glove compartment and a slightly more modern dashboard. It was offered with either the MeMZ 968E (40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS), carbureted, low-compression for 76-octane fuel); 968GE (40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS), dual carburettor); or the MeMZ 968BE (50 hp(37 kW; 51 PS), 8.4:1 compression, for 93-octane). Instead of the side-mounted “ears”, the hood lid and rear quarter panels were louvered.

The 968M is the most contemporary Zaporozhets model and also spent the most time in production, spanning a career from 1979 to 1 June 1994. Some of its special variants include the ZAZ-968MB2, for drivers who have only one foot, the ZAZ-968MB for drivers who have no feet.

Planned 968s with 1,300 cc (79 cu in) or 1,400 cc (85 cu in) engines were never realized.

Export versions

Among the export variants produced by ZAZ were ZAZ-965E, ZAZ-965AE, ZAZ-966E, ZAZ-968E, and ZAZ-968AE, which had improved consumer qualities. Depending on target markets, commercial names Jalta or Eliette were used for these models.

In total, 3,422,444 Zaporozhets vehicles were manufactured and powered by air-cooled engines from the Melitopol factory from 1960 to 1994.

You Tube Video’s:

ZAZ ЗАЗ-965АЭ:

https://youtu.be/5IagKvx6O8w

Made in USSR Zaporozhets ZAZ 968M you tube:

https://youtu.be/6k5KZAZDXQk

Russian Car transporting a Cow (Very Funny!!!!)

https://youtu.be/Hz_ru7rB6GA

See also

Similar air-cooled and rear-engined vehicles:

Chevrolet Corvair

NSU Prinz

Hillman Imp

Hino Contessa

Russian President Vladimir Putin and his spouse Lyudmila on the way to the informal dinner with the American President George Bush and his spouse Laura.

ADN-ZB Kutscher 21.10.75-Berlin: Blick auf das Werk für Fernsehelektronik im Berliner Stadtbezirk Köpenik

EPSON MFP image

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KAMAZ-Kama3- Trucks Tatarstan Russian Federation -1976-present

KAMAZ (Камский Автомобильный Завод – КАМАЗ / Kamskiy Avtomobilny Zavod – translated: Kama Automobile Plant) is a Russian brand of trucks and engines manufacturer located in Naberezhnye ChelnyTatarstanRussian Federation. It is famous for its cab over trucks. KAMAZ is a portmanteau which stands for a factory on Kama River.

KAMAZ opened its doors in 1976. Today, heavy duty models are exported to many areas of the world including the CIS, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa. The trucks have won the Dakar Rally a record fourteen times. KAMAZ is the largest truck producer in Russia and the CIS. The factory produces 43,000 trucks a year (2014). Reinforced KAMAZ trucks are used by the Russian army.

History

KamAZ-53501

KamAZ-6560

USSR 1974 postage stamp featuring a KamAZ truck

In 1969, the Resolution of the Central Committee of the USSR Communist Party and the USSR Council of Ministers was approved which envisaged construction of a complex of heavy duty truck production plants. 70 potential sites to locate the facilities were investigated. Choice went in favor of Naberezhnye Chelny, then a small town on the Kama River. Its advantages were obvious. So far as its geographical situation was concerned, Naberezhnye Chelny was right in the center of the former Soviet Union. The navigable rivers – the Kama River and the Volga River – as well as proximity of the railway line, were central to meeting all the logistical needs of the construction site for materials, raw materials, equipment, components while, going forward, to meeting the need to ship ready-made trucks to customers. The fact that the huge construction company “KamGESenergostroy” existed in the region allowed construction of plant buildings and apartment blocks for prospective KAMAZ employees to be completed.

Workers and engineers, representing more than 70 ethnicities, converged on Naberezhnye Chelny to fuse into a “melting pot” of the construction project personnel. Orders placed by KAMAZ to procure construction materials and equipment were filled by all the ministries and departments, a total of over 2000 enterprises. Over 100,000 personnel were employed at the construction site itself. The would-be truck plant was being provided with the most state-of-the-art manufacturing equipment by the contemporary standards. More than 700 international firms were among equipment vendors for KAMAZ facilities, including such globally known corporations as Swindell-Dressler, Holcroft, CE-Cast, Ingersoll Rand, Ex-Cello (U.S.A.), Hueller-Hille, Liebherr (West Germany), Morando, Fata (Italy), Renault (France), Sandvik (Sweden), Komatsu and Hitachi (Japan).

On December 13, 1969, ground was broken and the first bucket of soil was excavated at the construction site of the Kama River Truck Plant which was rated for production of 150,000 heavy duty trucks and 250,000 engines per year. The Complex of Plants on the Kama River sprawled over a vast territory measuring 57 square km. Concurrent to construction of the truck plant, huge social challenges were tackled. Hundreds of thousands of people were provided by KAMAZ with comfortable housing, modern educational facilities, kindergartens and creches, hospitals and clinics, numerous cultural, sporting, recreational and leisure centers. KAMAZ was instrumental in transforming the Kama River Area into a powerful industrial and scientific research hub and developing the infrastructure for the suburban agricultural zone.

Every year the population of the city grew by another 30-40 thousand or so. Whereas before construction of KAMAZ got underway, 27,000 residents had lived in Naberezhnye Chelny, the current population has now reached more than half a million.

Owners and management

The authorized capital of “KAMAZ” is 35.36 billion rubles. The shareholders of the plant as of June 2010 are: 49.9% of the shares owned by the state corporation “Russian Technologies State Corporation“; 27.3% controlled by the company “Troika Dialog“; 11% owned by Daimler (a block of 10% was sold to Daimler AG by Troika Dialog for $250 million in early December, 2008); 4% owned by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

At the same time, “KAMAZ” has a lot of minority shareholders (more than 76,000 individuals).

In early March, 2008 the Board of Directors of KAMAZ was elected, which included 15 people, including: The mayor of the city of Naberezhnye Chelny (April 2010 – Prime Minister of Tatarstan) – Ildar Khalikov, head of the management Federal Agency for State Property Management (Rosimushchestvo) – Ivan V. Aksenov, and the Director-General of the “Russian Technologies State Corporation” Sergey Chemezov.

Group structure

KAMAZ Publicly Traded Company has more than 110 subsidiaries and affiliates, it owns shares in the authorized capital of more than 50 different companies and businesses. Together they form KAMAZ Group.
The group includes:

Truck Assembly Plant (Naberezhnye Chelny)

Metallurgical Complex, KAMAZ PTC

KAMAZ Foundries (now one of the largest in Russia)

KAMAZ Forge

KAMAZ Truck Assembly Plant

KAMAZ Press and Stamping Plant

Engine Plant, KAMAZ PTC

Remdiesel (Engine Re-Manufacture Plant)

KAMAZ Trade and Finance Company JSC

Neftekamsk Automotive Plant (NEFAZ) – manufactures buses and vehicles on KAMAZ chassis

Auto Trailer Plant OJSC (formerly СЗАП (En:SZAP) of Stavropol)

KAMAZ Technical Service OJSC

KAMAZ Auto Technology

RIZ OJSC (formerly of KAMAZinstrumentspetsmash)

KIP Master OJSC

KAMAZ-FINANCE

KAMAZ-CAPITAL KAMAZ R & D Center

The main production facilities of the plant are located in the industrial area of Naberezhnye ChelnyNefaz buses are produced in Neftekamsk (Bashkortostan).

There are also foreign manufacturing facilities in the following locations: VietnamIndiaKazakhstan (KAMAZ-Engineering JSC).

Competition

Kamaz vehicles have won the truck category of the Dakar Rally 14 times as of 2017. All 14 of the 2010 Dakar Rally stages in the truck category were won by Kamaz trucks.

Generations

1 – 1976–2000  Diskless wheels. Low cabin roof. Corrugated sidewalls sleeping compartment. Lights on the front of the cab.

2 – 1995 — Increased height of the cab roof. Disc wheels. Rectangular lights on the bumper. New bumper with sidewalls. Underride underbody.

3 – 2004 — New surround bumper (double for tractors). New headlamps with headlamp swivel sections, which call on the sidewalls of the bumper. We haul tractors appeared high cab. Smooth walls of the sleeping compartment. Voluminous front fenders. Some of the trucks new plastic dashboard instead of metal

4 – 2010 — Large-scale modernization. All new front of cabin, including new radiator grille. New front bumper. New headlight lens type in one case with swivel headlights. Plastic dashboard with electronic instrument cluster. Part of trucks equipped with Cummins engine manufacturing joint venture Cummins and KAMAZ in Naberezhnye Chelny.

КАМАЗ-2257Э.

5 –  2014  — cabin from Mercedes-Benz Axor with some modifications

6 –  ? —  Being developed – completely new cab – jointly with South Korean engineering company DMEC. Prototype trucks already presented

Models

File:Putin speaks on the 2,000,000th truck produced by KamAZ.ogv

Russia‘s President Vladimir Putin speaks about the 2,000,000th truck produced by KamAZ around the world, 2012.

Trucks

3rd Generations of KAMAZ. KAMAZ 65117

Firefighting vehicle ATs-5,0-100 on KAMAZ-65224 chassis (4th Generation of KAMAZ trucks

From 1976 – 2015, KAMAZ has produced trucks as follows :

KAMAZ 4308 4×2 Medium-range truck & 4×2 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 4326 4×4 Side truck & 4×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 4326-9 Dakar 4×4 Dakar Rally Sport truck

KAMAZ 4911 Extreme 4×4 Civilian Sport truck Dakar Rally

KAMAZ 43114 6×6 Flat bed truck & 6×6 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 43118 6×6 Flat bed truck & 6×6 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 43253 4×2 Flat bed truck & 4×2 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53205 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53215 6×4 Flat bed truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53228 6×6 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53229 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53205 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 52212 6x4L Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 52213 6x4L Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53605 4×2 Dump truck

KAMAZ 5513 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit & 6×4 Garbage truck

KAMAZ 5320 6×4 Flat bed truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53202 6×4 Flat bed truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53212 6×4 Flat bed truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53213 6×4 Flat bed truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53229 6×4 Flat bed truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53228 6×6 Flat bed truck & 6×6 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 5511 6×4 Dump truck

KAMAZ 5512 6×6 Dump truck

KAMAZ 45141 6×6 Dump truck

KAMAZ 54115 6×4 Tractor truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 55111 6×4 Dump truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 6520 6×4 Dump truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 6522 6×6 Dump truck & 6×6 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 6540 8×4 Dump truck & 8×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 6560 8×8 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 5360 4×2 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53602 6×2 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 43082 6×2 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 6360 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53228 6×6 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 53229 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 5523 6×6 Logging truck

KAMAZ 63968 Typhoon 6×6 Armored infantry transport

KAMAZ 65111 6×6 Dump truck

KAMAZ 65115 6×4 Dump truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 65116 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 65117 6×4 Flat bed truck & 6×4 Cab and Chassis Unit

 Military tank transporter KAMAZ 65225 with an SU-85 at the parade rehearsal in Red Square

Tractor truck

KAMAZ 6440 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 65116 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 6460 “Continent” 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 6460-73 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5460 “Continent” 4×2 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5460-73 4×2 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5460-06 “Cummins” 4×2 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5470 4×2 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5490 4×2 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5410 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 54101 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 54102 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 54112 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 54105 6×4 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5415 4×2 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5415M 4×2 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5425 4×2 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 5425M 4×2 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 44108 6×6 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 65225 6×6 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 65226 6×6 Tractor truck

KAMAZ 65228 8×8 Tractor truck

Engines KAMAZ Engines

KAMAZ 740.10 180 – 210 HP V8

KAMAZ 740.31 225 – 240 HP V8 Turbo Euro 0

KAMAZ 740.73 400 HP V8 Turbo Euro 4

KAMAZ 740.622 280 HP V8 Turbo Euro 3

KAMAZ 740.632 400 HP V8 Turbo Euro 4

KAMAZ 740.662 300 HP V8 Turbo Euro 4

KAMAZ 740.602 360 HP V8 Turbo Euro 3

KAMAZ 740.652 260 HP V8 Turbo Euro 3

KAMAZ 7403.10 260 HP V8 Turbo Euro 0

KAMAZ 74037.10 260 HP V8 Turbo Euro 0

KAMAZ 74006.10 220 HP V8 Turbo

KAMAZ 7409 series 180 – 360 HP V8 Turbo (240HP – 360HP) Euro 3 – 4 (240HP – 360HP)

KAMAZ Cummins

Cummins ISB6.7e4 245 – 300 HP I6 Turbo Euro 2 – 4

Cummins ISB6.5e4 185 HP I6 Turbo Euro 2

1989 360HP Cummins L6 Turbo Euro 2

KAMAZ Mercedes

Daimler OM457LA 428 HP I6 Turbo Euro 5

Other vehicles

KAMAZ 4310 6×6 Cab and Chassis Unit

KAMAZ 43269 Vystrel (BPM-97) Wheeled armoured vehicle

KAMAZ Barhan 4×4 multipurpose vehicle, a large prototype SUV built on a Kamaz-43501 chassis, made by CaRS, a private company. Original prototype was on a GAZ-66 chassis.

Kamaz Mustang

The Kamaz Мустанг (Mustang) is a family of general military utility trucks with numerous variants. The family is based on the 1st generation KamAZ family launched in the early 1980s. A three-person cab is standard across the Mustang range. It has a sleeping berth and tilts forward for engine access. This cab can be fitted with an add-on armour kit.

The Mustang family is available in eight (8) model:

Original three:

And the Kamaz-43501, -5450, -6450, and -5350 trucks with armoured cabs.:

Gallery

References

  1. Jump up^ “Новости. ОАО “КАМАЗ””. Kamaz.net. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  2. Jump up^ Nepomnyashchii, Alex (2010-06-21). “”Troika” depart to partners”Vedomosti № 111 (2629) (in Russian). (Subscription required (help)).
  3. Jump up^ Stolyarov, Gleb; Fedorinova, Yulia (2007-05-17). “”Kamaz” does not pay the Federal Property Management Agency”Vedomosti, № 88 (1862) (in Russian). (Subscription required (help)).
  4. Jump up^ http://www.dp.ru (7 March 2008). “”KAMAZ” approved candidates to the Board”Business Petersburg (Online) / Moscow / (in Russian). ISSN 1606-1829.
  5. Jump up^ KAMAZ-Metallurgy / / ROSFINPROM.
  6. Jump up^ “Russian Kamaz Master occupies 2015 Dakar Rally’s entire podium”Russian News Agency “TASS”. 17 January 2015.
  7. Jump up^ http://kamaz.net/en/news/2003/12/22/
  8. Jump up^ http://kamaz.net/en/news/2003/12/22/
  9. Jump up^ http://kamaz.net/en/news/2003/12/22/

#

Mercury Turnpike Cruiser SPECIAL EXTRA

Mercury Turnpike Cruiser

The Mercury Turnpike Cruiser is a full-size automobile that was the flagship model of the Mercury division of Ford Motor Company for the 1957 and 1958 model years. Named after the 1956 creation of the Interstate Highway System, the Turnpike Cruiser was produced in two-door and four-door hardtop bodystyles. In 1957, a two-door convertible was also produced, serving as the pace car for the Indianapolis 500 of that year.
They are best known for the unique styling cues and wide array of gadgets including a “Breezeway” power rear window that could be lowered to improve ventilation, “twin jet” air intakes at upper corners of car’s windshield, “seat-o-matic” automatically adjusting seat, and an average speed “computer” (that would tell your average speed at any point along a trip).

Contents
1
1957
1.1
Convertible Cruiser
2
1958
3
References
4
External links

5

You Tube Videos:

https://youtu.be/FaMOyWmAkNw

https://youtu.be/tdBu2oI15bI

1957

rear view showing “Breezeway” window
For 1957, the Turnpike Cruiser was the premium model offering from Mercury. In addition to its unique features, the car was further differentiated from other Mercury models by a gold anodized trim strip in the car’s rear fin. It came standard with an automatic transmission and a 368-c.i.d. engine producing 290 horsepower (220 kW); this engine was optional on other Mercurys. A tachometer was available. Safety features such as an impact absorbing, deep-dish steering wheel, front seat stops (to keep the front seat from breaking away) and safety door locks were standard, while seat belts and a padded dash were optional.
The Turnpike Cruiser would comprise 8.47% of Mercury sales in 1957.[1] Motor Trend gave high marks for fuel economy (14.6mpg at 60mph) and comfort, low for handling.
Convertible Cruiser

1957 Mercury Turnpike Cruiser convertible

1957 Convertible Cruiser with “Continental Kit” spare tire
Later in the model year an open car named Convertible Cruiser was added to this series. From the beginning it was created only to be used as the official pace car of the 1957 Indianapolis 500. On January 7, 1957, it was announced that the Convertible Cruiser would be available as a production model as well. All Convertible cruisers had a continental tire kit and were painted yellow (Sun Glitter), similar to the original pace cars.

1958
In 1958 the Turnpike Cruiser joined the mid-range Mercury Montclair line with only minor trim changes to the car from the previous year, but the convertible version was not offered this year. A further upgrade of luxury equipment and appearance of the Turnpike Cruiser became the Mercury Park Lane which replaced it entirely for 1959.
Standard engine became the 383-c.i.d. “Marauder” V8 engine, with the 430-c.i.d., 360 horsepower (270 kW) version available as an option. A triple-carburetor”Super Marauder” 400 horsepower (300 kW) version was available across the Mercury line. Self-adjusting brakes were added.
From 1963 to 1966 Mercury revived the most distinctive feature of the Turnpike Cruiser, returning a retractable “Breezeway” rear window, on its full-size Monterey, Montclair and Park Lane model ranges.

Cars Wallpapers


References
^
Jump up to:
a b c d Flory, Jr., J. “Kelly” (2008). American Cars, 1946-1959 Every Model Every Year. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7864-3229-5.
Jump up
^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1957 Mercury/album”. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
Jump up
^ http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1957-1958-mercury-turnpike-cruiser2.htm
Jump up
^ http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Mercury/1957%20Mercury/1957_Mercury_Foldout/1957%20Mercury%20Foldout-03.html
Jump up
^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1957 Mercury/1957_Mercury_Foldout”. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
Jump up
^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1957 Mercury/1957_Mercury_Brochure”. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
Jump up
^ http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1957-1958-mercury-turnpike-cruiser3.htm
Jump up
^ http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Mercury/1958%20Mercury/1958_Mercury_Brochure/1958%20Mercury%20Brochure-31.html
Jump up
^ “Directory Index: Mercury/1958 Mercury/1958_Mercury_Brochure”. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.

SUBARU

Subaru Corporation

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915

In 1932 it became: Nakajima Aircraft Company

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Coordinates: 36°17′51″N 139°22′05″E / 36.2975685°N 139.368058°E / 36.2975685; 139.368058

Subaru Corporation
Native name
スバル
Industry Automobile manufacturing
Founded July 15, 1953; 63 years ago (1953-07-15)
Founder Kenji Kita
Chikuhei Nakajima(predecessor)
Headquarters Ebisu, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Yasuyuki Yoshinaga, (Representative Director, President and CEO)
Jun Kondo, (Representative Director & Vice-President)
Products Automobiles
Divisions Subaru Tecnica International
Website Subaru Global

Subaru (スバル?) (/ˈsbər/ or /sᵿbˈɑːr/;Japanese pronunciation: [sɯ.ba.ɾɯ]) is the automobile manufacturing division of JapanesetransportationconglomerateSubaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI)), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.

Subaru cars are known for the use of a boxer engine layout in most vehicles above 1500 cc. Most Subaru models have used the Symmetrical All Wheel Drive drive-train layout since 1972. The flat/boxer engine and all-wheel-drive became standard equipment for mid-size and smaller cars in most international markets by 1996, and is now standard in most North American market Subaru vehicles. The lone exception is the BRZ, introduced in 2012, which uses the boxer engine but instead uses a rear-wheel-drive structure. Subaru also offers turbocharged versions of their passenger cars, such as the Impreza WRX and the Legacy 2.5GT. The 2.0XT trims of the Outback and Forester also include a turbocharged engine.

In Western markets, the Subaru brand has traditionally been popular among a dedicated core of buyers. Marketing is targeted towards specific niches centered on those who desire the company’s signature drive train engine, all-wheel/rough-road capabilities or affordable sports car markets.

Subaru is the Japanese name for the Pleiades star cluster M45, or “The Seven Sisters” (one of whom tradition says is invisible – hence only six stars in the Subaru logo), which in turn inspires the logo and alludes to the companies that merged to create FHI.

All pictures from my collection: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214689494617313&set=ms.c.eJxVWFkOHTEIu1GFwWz3v1jFU9VxfubDGpawxQTmYM1yWehA~%3BME~%3BJJzosHRBvBAm~%3BzgwaU7~_RzKiY3zxH8EOuWv7~%3BeOZMTb16TGU7c58UpNdm~%3BtZ5yy60f0g0WjRA2ea54r1ntnZVM1Rm~%3BNpRjtnvUyR9PXCg9R6STSmbVmeGo1s82iRCrP1DtUzXK~%3BPQxo901JiaM3tik9zBNDh~%3Bmgm14eP5llve3LR4xpDtO~%3BF~%3BslFj82nuayrDLGPrVmfz5~%3BcInZyRKroBhuVKluXnKbX7MA1zoRvGOTsju408dmBTkrecXWxw1Ipz077ouGcAlAS~_dmorSfvjLNeivhsmER~_J4JrWmNRa77fKbjcvvRIfHx7uwUpOtYyJBfJS5FU5kb49kBsua15Sr5yPWddusnCstO1EtJsw7VP7wyaQTq4SUHQidp4aiydG66VkO0b1L7IixI1p0XbSK2EHG6Qzz~_Xjkcqa6M0O7W10S~%3BiG63W6zSXetjkxtMXfZpHzzWopanmCV8~_ldDpG6PI~_HWrRmyGS6j12Vq6at6z9UR1u5Z8~%3BllfSj1j7GxlPv~_cVOs~%3B5FJn3cBm2Trr7KQ0hrtmu659YVcPpVJIX~_rZx1GrXYk53VzVgzvFPlJ~_9amanbapU2K8bBOq5~_ZY6pSYyBtbqjmM~_9T8xE31UA~_vuzNVKs~_fUc3l3DI~_yE0z9bmNW4~_tq59KtXW1UZqvmdOcj1T7Vqk~%3B18jV2u8ZbfGc4mqstMJvuG31qlSelNbG5s06nZlXLW16M1rWNrQ2rA9RKdRsa3f~%3BaqoZirRv60xYd27r2dejtlM1~_~%3Bkj1euRtTaPrTg9vQ8y25rBq~_4dlCK~%3Ba0bnKrd2tCu3UDsPt7FJ33qYg9tOj0odknr2OnbR6k~_fZrmtnLUB~_MOI0nchebc4pkBFEmGm3MbS0qz5IGsm~%3Be6We4xDpX6UzVRzRxukxk6qzVZ8TuPCYSp19zRVc88aqNanw1D6z1oaHp9n0iBxdttsg9Sq224b1B~%3BY3YNmihzXkuqNqkoC1H82zB0P0uZSCQ7vNi~_15QPzGkEugsriHHHW1WeQsDCVIsKU29w3LR4P02HhKlVMC~_0LVIRFKgOpWYvWaLSvKa9zNA9RdtoDi9VTTITx4TZDGPUUbpXGEp~%3B9ajW1Vn3QpvPQr02t1cNYW1tlywwCFuLPEuFPxMgBTHIRPy2lNU9OwrSiyG6Y5pTpCdOZycyG8l5nMmGjHLKOeGt8WDhEPSxP4GGebQs8J~_1KKKN2NhpwtT6nOfEgDWhUObOARpVruNVAkfPnOelyb09TpBuQvcCPMOLpr7S7G7RT8pYtjwch4JrBxABORdwvGA9yUsIPPSMDrvtghl14VCom4csHWbhsdp5EI3R3mPJLs0qxAN1zPSv6~_lmR32ap0bgMxqwidv~_o9cuXssroHDCeaAwX1Lmasw1ljF5mACnxKViCOkULtlCm5~_V15SO26qKqrMmLtchSKXYgdWJXR6M0y5UDpM6NupM~_~%3BV6TgZJ92WsHt098SBsTykC87be2SjQ67Ee9BWHEUVRBEo3R3pmrw51QZIBV6~_O8ApeonjV3Pft6t~_tdQLvKgH~%3B~%3BhB1XUM52Hh8i~%3B9zs9ZGOOyR9ZLYEuttnHwZy641k5zgJfHX63ZobprfelV3Y6rtNIUJnVHhZhq3sjMuI1aiGz9GUx~%3BotW5A75ZAMnS0R19ruL3Krp0iFzwVIThFVGSF3yiH3Eeu8FZay~_QZtO3SXyWDtBFQqNyKF~%3BwQ3Ikp26vgt66WRzztF6ynyXgtauE3knaL1FBmF6FGEGTHC6yJ~%3BS6RGIzMiJuSfCwaBF~_mbkTJJ3EGdoockXTh2tGXzYUQdcQ8aipDJkB6MvqencNVTG9Qtm2uGxs7zT1N38~_iupE7I6GOHdPV5Z0mJ6r06ZisjijHPc1IQ1I1DsT5EMOWujGElUytq8lcNUglXZnwqYcPBFoYfS4JjisQ2W7hoHLvn4kEGXHxSNFoeh1bEkfr~_U9YXV42G1a8WJfLWtxwLl~_AN1XTZknj3ZOocO6TzmWNgROpLV11Lmksv34tQJmVGMTu79OWE0R058rpL78os4TasuFVYz0UflGl8Mu6tR7JzUlnJ5xU0o0vuL2adP~%3BJGxLonvdRo3JNIQU~%3BhdR5CkTFkyQ1LXjeb2joOWcohGfdWOjIlyDYUpMIZZXl3vPxzDxMQ9p429nv~%3B~_v65~%3Bbn0tZDN7Brp5RybXQonYbNQIzc~_~_~_6PDX0tBHda3hjZy7uWHyneA5nEZ7LQJh3Hyey26b~%3BRouQc.bps.a.10214689172449259.1073742084.1422084541&type=3&theater

History

Former logo on a Subaru 360 showing six stars in an arrangement similar to the Pleiades open star cluster

Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI) and Subaru’s first cars

Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915, headed by Chikuhei Nakajima. In 1932, the company was reorganized as Nakajima Aircraft Company, Ltd and soon became a major manufacturer of aircraft for Japan during World War II. At the end of the Second World War Nakajima Aircraft was again reorganized, this time as Fuji Sangyo Co, Ltd. In 1946, the company created the

Fuji Rabbitmotor scooter with spare aircraft parts from the war. In 1950, Fuji Sangyo was divided into 12 smaller corporations according to the Japanese Government’s 1950 Corporate Credit Rearrangement Act, anti-zaibatsu legislation. Between 1953 and 1955, four of these corporations and a newly formed corporation decided to merge to form Fuji Heavy Industries. These companies were: Fuji Kogyo, a scooter manufacturer; coachbuildersFuji Jidosha; engine manufacturers Omiya Fuji Kogyo; chassis builders Utsunomiya Sharyo and the Tokyo Fuji Dangyotrading company.

1955 Subaru 1500, a.k.a. the P-1

Kenji Kita, CEO of Fuji Heavy Industries at the time, wanted the new company to be involved in car manufacturing and soon began plans for building a car with the development code-name P-1. Mr. Kita canvassed the company for suggestions about naming the P1, but none of the proposals was appealing enough. In the end he gave the company a Japanese name that he had “been cherishing in his heart”: Subaru, which is the name of the Pleiades star cluster in Japanese. The first Subaru car was named the Subaru 1500. Only twenty were manufactured owing to multiple supply issues. Subsequently, the company designed and manufactured dozens of vehicles including the 1500 (1954), the tiny air-cooled 360 (1958), the Sambar (1961), and the 1000 (which saw the introduction of the Subaru boxer engine in 1965).

 1958 Subaru 360

Later partnerships

Nissan acquired a 20.4% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, Subaru’s parent company, in 1968 during a period of government-ordered merging of the Japanese auto industry in order to improve competitiveness under the administration of Prime MinisterEisaku Sato. Nissan would utilize FHI’s bus manufacturing capability and expertise for their Nissan Diesel line of buses. In turn many Subaru vehicles, even today, use parts from the Nissan manufacturing keiretsu. The Subaru automatic transmission, known as the 4EAT, is also used in the first generation Nissan Pathfinder. While under this arrangement with Nissan, Subaru introduced the R-2 (1969), the Rex and the Leone (1971), the BRAT (1978), Alcyone (1985), the Legacy (1989), the Impreza (1993) (and its WRX subtype), and the Forester (1997).

Upon Nissan’s acquisition by Renault, its stake in FHI was sold to General Motors in 1999. Troy Clarke, of General Motors served as representative to Fuji Heavy Industries on their corporate board. During that time, Subaru introduced the Baja (2003), and the Tribeca (2005). The Subaru Forester was sold as a Chevrolet Forester in India in exchange for the Opel Zafira being sold as a Subaru Traviq in Japan. Also, the Chevrolet Borrego concept was presented in 2002, a crossover coupe/pickup truck being derived from the Japanese-market Legacy Turbo platform. During the brief General Motors period, a “badge engineeredImpreza was sold in the United States as the Saab 9-2X. An SUV (Subaru Tribeca / Saab 9-6X) was also planned but the Saab version did not proceed, and styling was recycled in the 2008 Tribeca refresh.

GM liquidated their holdings in FHI in 2005. Nearly all Saab-Subaru joint projects were dropped at that time, other than Subaru supplying parts for the Saab 9-2x.Toyota Motors bought a little over 40% of GM’s former FHI stock, amounting to 8.7% of FHI. (The rest of GM’s shares went to a Fuji stock buy-back program.) Toyota and Subaru have since collaborated on a number of projects, among them building the Toyota Camry in Subaru’s Indiana U.S. plant beginning in April 2007. Subaru introduced the Exiga in 2008.

Toyota increased their share of FHI to 16.5% in July 2008. Subsequently, Toyota and Subaru jointly developed the Toyota 86, first sold in January 2012 as the Subaru BRZ and by Toyota under various names.

Marketing efforts

Some of the advertising slogans Subaru has used in the past include “Inexpensive, and built to stay that way” (USA 1970s – early 1980s), “The World’s Favourite Four Wheel Drive” (in the UK), “Plus on y pense, plus on a le gout de la conduire” (Literally: “The more one thinks, the more one has the taste (or desire, impulse, drive) of driving it”) in French Quebec, “We built our reputation by building a better car”, “What to Drive”, “The Beauty of All-Wheel Drive”, “Driven by What’s Inside”, “Think, Feel, Drive”, “Love. It’s what makes Subaru, a Subaru” (USA early 2010s) and currently “Confidence in Motion” in North America, “All 4 The Driver” in Australia, and “Uncommon Engineering, Uncommon Stability, Uncommon Roadholding, Uncommon Sense” in the UK and “Technology that gives you Confidence in Motion” in Southeast Asia.

As a result of this refocused advertising campaign, Subaru products began to attract a following among the young and educated, who saw the car as a practical alternative to the SUV craze. Subaru has historically been popular in the Northeastern United States as well as the Pacific Northwest. According to Automotive Lease Guide, Subaru ranked second place in vehicles that have the highest overall predicted resale values among all industry and all luxury vehicles for MY 2009. The awards are derived after carefully studying segment competition, historical vehicle performance and industry trends. According to a study done by J.D. Power and Associates for the 2008 Customer Retention Study, Subaru ranked at 50.5%, which was above the national average of 48%.

Hōkago no Pleiades (Original net animation)

Subaru launched an animation series Hōkago no Pleiades (放課後のプレアデス?, Hōkago no Pureadesu, lit. ‘After School Pleiades’) developed jointly with Gainax. The 4-part mini episode series was released on YouTube on February 1, 2011. It featured a magical girl plot with Subaru as a leading protagonist.

Current operations

Subaru’s corporate headquarters are located in Ebisu, Tokyo.

Manufacturing facilities

Subaru is distinct from many of its Japanese competitors in that as of early 2016 it still made almost 75% of its cars sold internationally in Japan. Subaru’s facilities designated to automotive manufacturing are located in Ōta, Gunma Prefecture, consisting of four locations. Subaru-chō is where the Subaru BRZ/Toyota 86 is built, having been re-purposed from kei car production, Yajima Plant is where all current Subaru cars are built, Otakita Plant is where commercial kei trucks are built (originally a factory location of Nakajima Aircraft Company), and Oizumi Plant is where engines and transmissions are built.

Subaru’s only overseas manufacturing facility is located in Lafayette, Indiana; the factory is called Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc.. Due to continued sales growth in North American markets, vehicle production capacity at the Lafayette assembly plant is set to expand to 390,000 vehicles annually. Under the current strategic plan, Subaru will have a total production capacity of 1,026,000 vehicles per year at the end of 2016.

Subaru in Canada

Subaru Canada, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Fuji Heavy Industries of Japan. Headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of 88 authorized dealers throughout Canada.In 1976, Canadians got their first exposure to Subaru vehicles when Subaru Auto Canada Limited (SACL) began offering the Subaru Leone. In 1989, the privately owned SACL was purchased by the Toronto-based Subaru Canada, Inc. who, under the guidance of parent company Fuji Heavy Industries, began an expansion process that would eventually see over 100 Subaru Dealers in operation across the country.

Subaru in the Philippines

Subaru has entered the Philippine operations started in 1996 under the Columbian Motors Philippines ownership but withdrew in 2000. It returned in 2006 under a new ownership by Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc. Subaru has eleven dealerships in the country: Greenhills, Fort Bonifacio, Manila Bay, Alabang, Davao, Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Iloilo, Santa Rosa, Batangas, and Pampanga.

Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc., part of Motor Image Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hong Kong-based Tan Chong International Limited under businessman Glenn Tan, the company markets and distributes Subaru vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of six dealerships in the Philippines.

Subaru in the United Kingdom

In 1974 Robert Edmiston was finance director at sports car manufacturer Jensen Motors. When the company went bankrupt, he used a £6,000 redundancy payout to set up International Motors, which acquired the UK franchise for Subaru and Isuzu. The Coleshill based company is still the parent for Subaru in the UK.

Subaru in the United States

Subaru of America was established in 1968 in Philadelphia by Malcolm Bricklin and Harvey Lamm. It relocated to Pennsauken, New Jersey shortly thereafter and moved to its current headquarters in Cherry Hill, New Jersey when Fuji Heavy Industries acquired full ownership. Subaru of America operates regional offices, zone offices and parts distribution centers throughout the United States. Subaru of America also operates port facilities on both the West and East coasts.

In 1989 Subaru and then-partner Isuzu opened a joint factory in Lafayette, Indiana called Subaru-Isuzu Automotive, or SIA, which initially manufactured the Subaru Legacy and Isuzu Rodeo. In 2001 Isuzu sold their stake in the plant to FHI for $1 due to flagging sales and it was renamed Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. SIA has been designated a backyard wildlife habitat by the National Wildlife Federation and has achieved a zero-landfill production designation (the first automotive assembly plant in the United States to earn that designation).

According to the Kelley Blue Book in 2015, two Subaru models Forester and the Outback in the United States had very short inventory time (the time between being received by a dealer to being sold).

Motorsports

Subaru Rally Team Japan led by Noriyuki Koseki (founder of Subaru Tecnica International, STI) ran Subaru Leone coupé, sedan DL, RX(SRX) and RX Turbo in the World Rally Championship between 1980 and 1989. Drivers for individual rallies included Ari Vatanen, Per Eklund, Shekhar Mehta, Mike Kirkland, Possum Bourne and Harald Demut. Mike Kirkland finished 6th overall and won the A Group at the 1986 Safari Rally. That year Subaru was one of the only manufacturers combining 4WD and turbo after Audi‘s successful quattro system had been introduced in 1980, but Audi withdrew from the WRC after safety concerns and Ford’s serious accident early in the 1986 season. Subaru changed the rally model to Legacy RS for the 1990–1992 period and took part in the first complete season in the World Rally Championship with the same model in 1993.

Modified versions of the Impreza WRX and WRX STi have been competing successfully in rallying. Drivers Colin McRae (1995), Richard Burns (2001) and Petter Solberg (2003) have won World Rally Championshipdrivers’ titles with the Subaru World Rally Team and Subaru took the