BERKELEY Cars

1959 berkeley t60-logos

Berkeley Cars 1956 – 1960 Biggleswade England UK

Berkeley Cars Ltd.
Industry Motor vehicle
Fate bankruptcy
Founded 1956
Defunct 1960
Headquarters Biggleswade, England, UK
Key people
Charles Panter, Lawrie Bond
Products SA322, SE328, SE492, T60, B95, B105

Berkeley Cars Ltd /ˈbɑːrkl/ of Biggleswade, Bedfordshire, England produced economical sporting microcars with motorcycle-derived engines from 322 cc to 692 cc and front wheel drive between 1956 and 1960.

History

The Berkeley automobile was a collaboration between designer Lawrence “Lawrie” Bond and the Berkeley Coachworks factory owned by Charles Panter, which at the time was one of the largest manufacturers of caravans in Europe. It was an ideal project for Berkeley, who had developed considerable skills in the use of Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), and were looking for something to fill the gaps in the very seasonal caravan market. What Panter and Bond wanted to achieve was “something good enough to win World 750cc races… but cheap, safe, easily repairable and pretty.”

The early cars were an immediate success on the home market, and several derivative models were spawned over the four years of car production. Export markets, most notably the United States, were exploited and the cars earned a reputation for fun, if fragile, sports motoring on a budget. Recognising the threat posed by the newly introduced Mini and Austin-Healey Sprite in the late fifties, the company started to develop are a more conventional model with the support of Ford.

The caravan market collapsed towards the end of 1960, and Berkeley’s poor cash flow forced the company into liquidation on 12 December 1960, taking its car manufacturing activities with it. After having produced about 4100 cars of various types, the workforce was laid off shortly before Christmas that year. An attempted sale of the company to Sharp’s Commercials Ltd (manufacturer of the Bond Minicar) came to nothing, and the company’s assets were liquidated in 1961.

The factory was later used by Kayser Bondor Ltd to make women’s underwear, but it was demolished in 2002 and the site turned over to housing. A road named ‘Berkeley Close’ in the housing estate provides the only obvious link to the car factory.

Today there is an active owner’s club (the Berkeley Enthusiasts’ Club), which provides a range of parts and services aimed at preserving the remaining few hundred cars known to survive worldwide.

Models

Sports (SA322)

Berkeley Sports SA322
Berkeley SA322 side view
Overview
Production Oct 1956 – Jan 1957
163 produced
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 322cc transverse two stroke twin, air-cooled
Dimensions
Wheelbase 70 in (1,800 mm)
Length 123 in (3,100 mm)
Width 50 in (1,300 mm)
Height 41.5 in (1,050 mm)
Curb weight 605 lb (274 kg)

Berkeley’s first production car was the ‘Sports’ (type SA322), announced in September 1956 and produced from October 1956 to January 1957. Production began with two prototypes (registered RMJ395 and RMJ946), which were seen being tested with enthusiasm around the neighbourhood of Biggleswade in the late summer of 1956. Stirling Moss drove one at Goodwood in September, and the car was launched to the public at the 1956 London Motor Show – one year ahead of the Lotus Elite, which was also to be of fibreglass monocoque construction.

Bond’s attractive 2-seater open tourer design capitalised on Berkeley’s GRP experience, and consisted of three large mouldings (floor or ‘punt’, nose, tail) with no conventional chassis. The front edges to the doors slanted forward so that when the doors were opened they hinged upwards and then closed by themselves. Although usually configured as a two-seater with simple bench seat, a hatch could be removed from behind the front seat, revealing a compartment normally containing the spare wheel and some luggage space which could double as a basic seat for a small child. Equipment was basic, even the fuel gauge was an optional extra.

Power was provided by a British Anzani twin-cylinder 322 cc two-stroke engine producing 15 bhp (11 kW; 15 PS) and mounted transversely, driving the front wheels via a chain and three-speed gearbox. The engine was already used by various motorcycle manufacturers such as Cotton and Greeves, but in the Berkeley was fitted with a Siba Dynastart to provide both battery charging and electric starting. It was a very advanced two-stroke engine which incorporated a rotary inlet valve mechanism in the centre of the crankshaft. The gearbox was a three-speed Albion HJR5, utilising a steering column-mounted gearchange.

The car had all-round independent suspension by coil springs and in spite of the tiny engine gave remarkably good performance owing to its light weight (kerb weight 605 lb (274 kg)) and excellent roadholding.Girling hydraulic brakes with 7 in (180 mm) drums were used.

The identification plate was a plain stamped alloy rectangle fitted on the engine bay side wall just above the Dynastart and marked SA322 B1 etc. (Sports Anzani 322cc Berkeley Chassis number 1).

Sports (SE328)

Berkeley Sports SE328
1959BerkeleySportsSE328
Overview
Production Jan 1957 – Apr 1958
1259 approx produced.
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 328cc transverse two stroke twin, air-cooled
Dimensions
Wheelbase 68 in (1,700 mm)
Length 122.5 in (3,110 mm)
Width 50 in (1,300 mm)
Height 43.5 in (1,100 mm)

Berkeley SA328 Excelsior engineBerkeley SA328 Excelsior engine

After 163 of the SA322 cars had been manufactured, a change was made to the SE328 model with a 328 cc Excelsior engine offering 18 bhp (13 kW; 18 PS). The production run ran from Jan 1957 to April 1958 with chassis numbers from 164 to 1422, many being exported to the United States where it sold for approximately $1600 (equivalent to $13.5 thousand today). The manufacture touted the number 70, meaning it could reach 70 mph and had an average fuel economy of 70 mpg. The export model was differentiated by having separate headlamps whereas on the home market they were faired into the wings, although the export type lamps could be specified.

Early cars from Jan 1957 to about chassis number 476 in June 1957 still used a column gear change. During their production run a Deluxe model was offered which was bodily the same but featured polished wheel trims and spinners, tachometer and twin carburettors. The chassis plate was similar to the Anzani type on the early cars but was later changed to a printed type fitted to the bulkhead above the brake master cylinder. The printed type chassis plate had type ‘SE328’ printed on it. Most of these cars had the three-speed gearbox similar to the Anzani except for the mounting flanges. All of the cars had the sloping leading edges to the doors.

Motor magazine tested a 328 cc Berkeley in 1957 and found it to have a top speed of 62.1 mph (99.9 km/h) and acceleration from 0-50 mph (80 km/h) in 30.6 seconds. A fuel consumption of 58.3 miles per imperial gallon (4.85 L/100 km; 48.5 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £574 on the home market including taxes of £152 (equivalent to £12.5 thousand today).

The SE328 enjoyed considerable success and press exposure through their involvement with lightweight motor racing, and their famous drivers included Pat Moss who drove one in the 1958 Liège-Brescia-Liège rally for cars up to 500cc. The Berkeley team – a works-supported entry of six cars including BBC commentator Robin Richards – led as far as Slovenia, but slow climbing in summer heat found their weakness and Pat ended up being towed back to Italy by another Berkeley. None of the Berkeleys finished the event.

Sports and Twosome (SE492)

Berkeley Sports SE492

MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA

Berkely Sports SE492

Overview
Production Oct 1957 – Mar 1959
666 approx produced.
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 492 cc transverse two stroke three cylinder, air-cooled
Dimensions
Wheelbase 70 in (1,778.0 mm)

In late 1957 a new derivative model was introduced, using a 30 bhp (22 kW; 30 PS), Excelsior three-cylinder 492 cc engine with triple carburettors. This engine configuration was made possible by the vertically split crankcase of the Excelsior engine and modular crankshaft and barrels, which made adding a central cylinder relatively easy. A four speed gearbox was standardised. The top speed was now 80 mph (130 km/h). The production ran from October 1957 to March 1959 with chassis numbered 1 to 666. From about October 1958, in order to coincide with the introduction of the ‘Foursome’ (see below), they were renamed the ‘Twosome’. Also at the 1958 Motor Show a Fixed Head (or Hardtop) was announced and displayed that had external as well as the usual internal door handles, but there are no records that this body style actually reached production.

It is probable that cars pre chassis number 120 (approx), about April 1958, had similar bodies to the early Berkeley “Sports” cars. Cars from about April 1958 to the end of production had vertical front door edges and internal door hinges, as well as body moulding and a few mechanical changes. Early cars were fitted with the four speed TR gearbox whilst later cars had the larger and stronger VR gearbox.

The cars enjoyed some success in Motor Sport and Giovanni Lurani bought three which he took to Italy, fitted them with his own design of hardtop, and running them in the 750 cc GT class, one driven by Lorenzo Bandini finishing first in the 1958 Monza 12 hour race.

Reliability, always questionable with the air-cooled two-strokes, became more of an issue with the extra heat generated by the triple, and there are many recorded reports of warranty claims. At one point the US authorities appear to have stopped a shipment of Berkeleys at the dock pending rectification of what they considered a serious design issue. There seems little doubt that profitability of the Berkeley programme was impacted as a result of these claims and the aggressive export drive to markets not familiar with the eccentricities of British sports motoring.

Foursome

Berkeley Foursome
Berkeley Sports Car 492cc 1961 - Flickr - mick - Lumix
Overview
Production 1958–1959
20 approx produced.
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 492 cc transverse two stroke three cylinder, air-cooled
Dimensions
Wheelbase 78 in (1,981.2 mm)
Length 131 in (3,300 mm)
Width 54 in (1,371.6 mm)
Height 46 in (1,200 mm)

Announced in October 1958, this model was wider and longer than its forebears and differed structurally in that the rear swinging arms were lower and external to the body, and the spare wheel was mounted at the rear of the car. The type reference is supposed to be SE492/4 but one has the reference B.100. The chassis numbers are D1/1 to D1/19 but then again one example has D1/100, this particular car could be the prototype since it appears in publicity pictures.

The list price of the Foursome was £700 including Purchase Tax, with an additional £28 for the optional hardtop (equivalent to £14.7 thousand and £587 today).

B95 and B105

Berkeley B95 and B105
B95
Overview
Production Mar 1959 – Dec 1960
178 approx produced.
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 692 cc transverse four stroke twin, air-cooled
Dimensions
Wheelbase 70 in (1,778.0 mm)
Length 125 in (3,200 mm)
Width 50 in (1,270.0 mm)
Height 45 in (1,143.0 mm)
Curb weight 886 lb (402 kg)

The B95 and B105 models were launched at the 1959 Geneva Motor Show and boasted more power from twin-cylinder Royal Enfield 692 cc four-stroke engines, with the 40 bhp (30 kW; 41 PS) Super Meteor engine in the B95 and the 50 bhp (37 kW; 51 PS) Constellation unit in the B105 which could reputedly exceed the magic 100 mph (160 km/h). The engines featured Berkeley-design primary chain cases to accommodate a Lucas Bendix starter motor, an external Lucas dynamo mounted above the gearbox, and a duplex (or double-row) chain drive to the differential. Kerb weight increased to 402 kg (886 lb). B95 engine numbers have the unique prefix ‘SMTB’, while B105 engines are prefixed ‘SMUA’.

The prototype car was SE492 chassis number 638, which was modified to add bracing to withstand the extra power and weight of the four-stroke engine, a taller bonnet (US hood) with large grille to accommodate the engine, and unfaired headlights. In mid-February 1959 this car spent two weeks at the Royal Enfield factory, during which time it covered 500 miles of general road use and 1,000 mi (1,600 km) of endurance testing at MIRA.

By the time of the press release announcing the launch of the B95 in March 1959, a further 2,500 mi (4,000 km) of road and track tests had also been carried out by Berkeley factory drivers. Perhaps to address the reputation for breaking down that the two-strokes had developed, especially in export markets, it was emphasised by the factory that during this testing there had been no involuntary stops or any form of mechanical failure, and that further testing would be performed until a total of 15,000 mi (24,000 km) had been completed.

At its launch, the B95 cost £659 (equivalent to £13.8 thousand today). Chassis numbers followed on from the SE492 series, and chassis number 670 (the earliest known B95) was registered at the end of March 1959. The first B105, chassis number 686, was delivered about one month later. Series production continued to chassis number 835. A separate batch of about 12 cars (chassis numbers 850 to 861) appear to have been made for Mantles Garage in the summer of 1960, which utilised some chassis parts and the bucket seats of the T60.

About 178 B95 and B105 models were made in total, of which approximately 15 to 20 cars were sold to export markets.

QB95 and QB105

Berkeley QB95 and QB105
Overview
Production 1959
2 approx produced.
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 692 cc transverse four stroke twin, air-cooled
Dimensions
Wheelbase 78 in (1,981.2 mm)
Length 133.5 in (3,390 mm)
Width 54 in (1,371.6 mm)
Height 46 in (1,168.4 mm)

In October 1959 the Q range was announced, with longer and wider bodies the same dimensions as the Foursome. The wheelbase went up from 70 inches (1,800 mm) to 78 inches (2,000 mm) and the track from 42 inches (1,100 mm) to 46 inches (1,200 mm). The Qs were four seaters (just), although the QB version dispensed with the rear seat to give extra luggage space. The only ‘official’ mention comes from the Autocar magazine’s Motor Show edition of October 1959, when it appears that Berkeley’s stand featured a red soft-top QB95 and a blue QB105 with a black hard-top. From this single reference it is assumed that Berkeley built at least two models of this series, although none are thought to have survived.

T60

Berkeley T60
1960 Berkeley T60 in red
Overview
Production Sept 1959 – Dec 1960
1800 made
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 328 cc transverse two stroke twin, air-cooled
Dimensions
Length 122.5 in (3,110 mm)

Surprisingly late-on in the British microcar boom of the 1950s, Berkeley’s only three-wheeler model was not introduced until September 1959. It was an instant success in the UK where three-wheelers could legally be driven on a motorcycle licence, so were suitable for a motorcyclist with family. Another advantage was that the purchase and road tax fees for three-wheelers cost considerably less than four-wheeled vehicles. Thus at its launch, the T60 only cost £400 (equivalent to £8.39 thousand today).

They were fitted with the 328cc Excelsior Talisman engine like the older SE328, and the four speed and reverse type VR gearbox, and were available as both soft and hardtops. The chassis plate, mounted on the bulkhead above the brake master cylinder, was the printed SE328 type but with ‘T60’ stamped in the chassis number block along with the chassis number. Chassis numbers run from 1 to approximately 1800. The first 600 cars (approximately) had a bench seat with an umbrella-type pull handbrake and aluminium reinforcement sections in the punt body section. Cars thereafter had steel punt chassis sections, bucket seats and a floor-mounted handbrake lever.

In their road test of October 1959, The Motor Cycle magazine described the car as “a fascinating, front-wheel-drive sports car which combines economy with liveliness and superb cornering.”

Drive was still to the front wheels through a four-speed gearbox, but a trailing arm replaced the swing axle independent suspension of the four-wheeled cars. The very last cars had a revised ‘unit’ front and rear suspension layout, presumably to stop the bridge over the differential from breaking and the rear damper top mount detaching itself from the car.

T60/4

Berkeley T60/4
Overview
Production Oct – Dec 1960
approx 50 made
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 328 cc transverse two stroke twin, air-cooled
Dimensions
Length 122.5 in (3,110 mm)

The T60/4 was produced from October 1960 and are mechanically and outwardly similar to the late T60. It was the same length and width as the standard T60, but differed in having extra room in the back for two seats, the additional space being created by a revised rear body moulding, thus creating proper seats in the back for two children. The rear bench seat was fastened to the car and the centre backrest had a bulge in it because of the revised rear wheel arch. The Car was available in both soft-top and hardtop forms. These cars used the revised front and rear suspension layouts used on the very late T60’s.

The T60/4 had its own series of chassis numbers, prefixed “T60.4” and followed by a serial number. About 50 were made.

Both variants of T60 were in production at the time the company was declared insolvent in December 1960.

B65

Berkeley B65
Overview
Production Sept – Dec 1960
Less than 20 produced.
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 492 cc transverse two stroke three cylinder, air-cooled
Dimensions
Wheelbase 70 in (1,778.0 mm)

The B65 was announced in September 1960 to compliment the T60, B95 and B105. They were bodily the same as late SE492, complete with the lower front right hand side bulge in the punt to accommodate the larger 492cc engine, but were fitted with the 328cc Excelsior engine. Although logically these cars should have run from chassis number 1422 to 1520, it seems more likely that chassis numbers ranged from 1500 to 1520. Very few of these cars are known to exist and the ones that do seem to suggest a production run of about 20 cars or less. The type reference marked on the chassis plate is B65.

Bandit

Berkeley Bandit
Bandit
Overview
Production 1960
2 made
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine 997 cc longitudinal four stroke four-cylinder, water-cooled
Dimensions
Wheelbase 82 in (2,082.8 mm)
Length 143 in (3,600 mm)
Width 54 in (1,371.6 mm)
Height 44 in (1,117.6 mm)

For 1961 the intention was to move into the mainstream sportscar market with the Bandit designed by John Tojeiro. This was to be powered by the 997 cc Ford engine (as in the 105E Anglia) with Berkeley-designed MacPherson strut front and independent rear suspension. The car had a complex sheet steel chassis, braced by a GRP floor which was riveted to it, and boasted 8in diameter Girling disc brakes at the front. This made the design more conventional than earlier models, but still retaining a distinctive design and relatively light weight.

The cost of the development programme exacerbated the financial difficulties facing the company at the end of 1960, and despite active involvement in the project from Ford the Bandit failed to survive Berkeley’s insolvency. Only two prototypes were produced; the original Motor Show and press car registration number 700CNM, which has since been restored, and a second prototype car registered YRX292, which had a 1340cc Ford Classic engine. This car was sold in Dursley in 1966 and was last seen in Swindon in the late 1960s.

The car was to have sold for £798, equivalent to about £16 thousand today, which would have made it more expensive than the Mini and Austin-Healey Sprite.

Replicas

In the 1980s a new company was formed in Syston, Leicestershire, to restore Berkeley cars. By 1991 it was using the original moulds to make new body panels and in 1993 complete T60 cars were being made with a new ladder type chassis. A choice of engines was available, including Mini, Citroen 2CV and motorcycle units.

In the late 1980s, in Auckland, New Zealand, a few cars called the ‘Ibis Berkeley’ were made that paid homage to the Berkeley—but using Mini front and rear subframes and a fibreglass monocoque 6 inches wider. Sold as complete body units to accept Mini parts by Ian Byrd and Tim Monck-Mason, these were advanced little cars using carbon fibres and foam beams. This later became the WASP looking more like a scaled down Cobra.

BERKELEY CARS were produced between October 1956 and December 1960 by Berkeley Coachworks at their Hitchin Street, Biggleswade factory in Bedfordshire.
Designed by Laurie Bond of Minicar fame, the original Berkeley “Sports” introduced in 1956 was a lightweight two-seat sports car powered by a 322cc Anzani two-stroke twin producing 15 bhp. Initial difficulties with supply and performance resulted in a change in January 1957 to the Excelsior Talisman Twin two-stroke of 328cc, with a 20% increase in power to 18bhp.

The car was unique at the time of its launch in that it employed not only a transverse engine and front wheel drive, but a complete fibreglass monocoque hull reinforced locally by lightweight aluminium sections. Endowed with exceptional road holding by virtue of its all independant suspension and low centre of gravity, superb handling and braking, public demand, particularly from America resulted in a search for a more powerful engine. The Excelsior MotorCycle Company supplied the answer in the form of a 492cc three-cylinder version of the Talisman. With over 30 Bhp available to propel 6’12 cwt, performance now matched the looks of the car. The car could now cover the quarter mile in 22.4 seconds.

In an attempt to expand the appeal of the Berkeley a four-seat version, achieved by lengthening and widening the basic shell, was introduced and called the Foursome. Although powered by the same 492cc engine that was proving very popular, the Foursome failed to attract the buyers and only 17 were built.
In terms of out and out performance the Royal Enfield powered B95 and B105 cars, introduced in 1959, were the best yet. Producing over 40 bhp (and 50 bhp for the B 105) and bags of torque, the twin cylinder four strokes could rocket the Berkeley to over 100 mph if the intrepid driver had the nerve. In October 1959 the rarest of the production cars were launched – the “Q” cars. These were Q and QB versions of the B95 and B 105. These larger bodied cars were commensurate with the 1958 Foursome bodies, The Q models were occasional four-seaters, the QB models were described as “roomy two-seaters” with extra luggage capacity.

Although around 2,500 four-wheeled Berkeley’s were produced by far the most well remembered, and now most common version, was the three-wheeled T60.Conceived as a basic model and employing the 328cc Talisman twin engine, the T60 was an overnight success and held great appeal for the ex-motorcyclist looking for car type transport powered by an engine/transmission he was familiar with. A 2+2 version the T60/4 was developed for the small family and was launched in September 1960.

Throughout their short career Berkeley’s built up an enviable reputation in the field of competition. On rallies, driving tests and full-blown racing circuits the little Berkeley’s defied all attempts by the handicappers to keep them from the front. Superb brakes, leech-like roadholding and chuckable handling ensured what they lost on the straights they rapidly made up on the corners. International recognition came from the string of successes achieved by Count “Johnny” Lurani’s team of 492 cc cars at Verona, Monza and in the Mille Miglia.
Financial pressure from unsympathetic banks, economic unease and credit restrictions were to combine to bring this once highly successful caravan concern to an end.

The Bandit, an altogether more conventional vehicle employing a steel chassis and a Ford Anglia engine but retaining all of Berkeley’s reputation for performance pointed the way for the future. Sadly it came too late to save the firm. Only two prototypes were produced of a car which, given a little time and development, could have assured continuing success for Berkeley cars.

1956 BERKELEY CAR Magazine advert clipping NOT A COPY 1956 1956 Berkeley Sports (motor 56-46-12) 1956 Berkeley Sports SA 322 1956-59 Berkely Card 1957 1303 1957 Berkeley 328cc roadster at the Geraldine Vintage Car & Machinery Club Museum, New Zealand 1957 Berkeley Coupe 1957 Berkeley Deluxe Convertible 1957 BERKELEY SPORTS CAR original 1957 UK magazine advert cutting ‘phenomenal’ 1957 Berkeley Sports USA 1957 ORIGINAL VINTAGE 1957 BERKELEY SPORTS CAR ADVERT 1958 Berkeley 350 roadster 1958 Berkeley 500 coupe 1958 Berkeley B65 4 wheel (GB) 1958 Berkeley Gilmore SE492 1958 berkeley med 1958 BERKELEY REPLICA ROADSTER STREET RACE 1958 Berkeley SE328 1958 1958 berkeley se328 logo 1958 Berkeley SE328 1958 Berkeley sports car photo vintage print ad 1958 BERKELEY The ROYAL ENFIELD – CAR berkeley02 1958 Berkley B90 Sports 500cc 3 cylinder 30bhp front wheel drive 1958 British Berkeley Vintage Race Car 1959 A Berkeley B105 four-wheel sportscar of 1959 sportscar 1959 BERKELEY B95 B105 Sports Car Automobile Stamp 1959 Berkeley Foursome 1959 Berkeley SE 328 Roadster F 1959 Berkeley SE328 Roadster 1959 1959 Berkeley Se328 Roadster Racer England Factory Vintage Speedster Classic Car a 1959 Berkeley Se328 Roadster Racer England Factory Vintage Speedster Classic Car 1959 Berkeley SE492 Engine 1959 Berkeley SE492 1959 Berkeley Sports SE328 1959 Berkeley Sports 1959 berkeley t60-logos 1959 Berkeley with Riva's hardtop at the Motor Show in Turin 1959 Berkeley-Sport-002-800 1959 Berkerley T60 a 1959 Berkerley T60 1960 Berkeley B95 1960 Berkeley T 60 Bl 1960 Berkeley T-60 (GB) 1960 Berkeley T-60 2 (GB) 1960 Berkeley T60 drawing 1960 Berkeley T60 in red 1960 Berkeley T-60 yellow (GB) 1960 berkeley-t60-08 1960 berkeley-t60-front 1960 Berkely T60 stamp 1960 Berkely T-60 three-wheeled convertible a 1960 Berkely T-60 three-wheeled convertible 1960s three-wheeled Berkeley T60 sports 1961 Berkeley Sports Car 492cc berkeley 2 biggles 2013 General iPhone Berkeley 29 IRP med Berkeley a10 Berkeley Bandit Berkeley Foursome Berkeley SA328 Excelsior engine Berkeley Sportscar 42 Berkeley stories Berkeley Super Berkeley T60 berkeley BerkeleyBadge Berkeley-Cars-logos-1 berkeley-sports-04 berkeley-sports-08 Berkely Article a Berkely Article b Berkely Crossley Nigels-Cars berkely images Bonner's Bad Berkeley, Salt Flats, speedweek, bonneville, fwd, 1959 Berkeley 310miles p-h Bonneville Salt Flats 310 MPH Berkeley Emblem Berkeley highly modified 1959 Berkeley, on the Bonneville salt flats denton 2

References

  1. Jump up^ ‘The Berkeley – a moulded miniature’ Autocar September 14, 1956
  2. Jump up^ ‘The Berkeley Car’ The Motor, Sept 12th 1956
  3. Jump up^ “50’s Superbomb!” Sporting Cars February 1983
  4. Jump up^ Wotherspoon, Nick (1993). ‘Lawrie Bond – the man and the marque. Oxford: Bookmarque. ISBN 1-870519-16-7.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Robson, G. (2006). A-Z of British Cars 1945–1980. Devon, UK: Herridge Books. ISBN 0-9541063-9-3.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k John Bolster tries the Berkeley, Autosport Magazine, Sept 21 1956
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Modern Engines – 322cc British Anzani Uni-Twin, The Motor Cycle, May 17, 1956
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e “The Berkeley Sports two-seater”. The Motor. 3 April 1957.
  9. Jump up^ “Economy Sports Car: “The $1600 Berkeley.” Popular Mechanics, July 1957, p. 121, bottom of page.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k Culshaw; Horrobin (1974). Complete Catalogue of British Cars. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-16689-2.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e ‘Berkeley Fousome’ Autocar October 24, 1958
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b “Road Impressions of new models”. The Motor Cycle. 1959-10-15. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b Georgano, N. (2000). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. London: HMSO. ISBN 1-57958-293-1.

Berkeley Cars

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Posted in Anzani, Berkeley Cars, Cars, England, Excelsior, Excelsior Talisman engine, Ford, Girling disc brakes, Lucas, microcars, Royal Enfield, Siba Dynastart, Super Meteor engine, UK, You Tube Video's | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

PLYMOUTH

1960s and 1970s Plymouth logo

Plymouth (automobile) 1928 – 2001 Auburn Hills, Michigan, United States

Plymouth
Industry Automobile
Fate Withdrawn from the market in 2001; models were either discontinued or rebranded as Chrysler
Founded July 7, 1928
Founder Walter Chrysler
Defunct June 29, 2001; 15 years ago
Headquarters Auburn Hills, Michigan
United States
Products Cars, Minivans
Parent Chrysler (1928–1998)
DaimlerChrysler (1998–2001)

Plymouth was a brand of automobiles based in the United States, produced by the Chrysler Corporation and its successor DaimlerChrysler. The brand first appeared in 1928 in the United States and was discontinued in 2001.

History

Origins

1928 Plymouth Model Q Coupe1928 Plymouth Model Q Coupe

The Plymouth automobile was introduced at Madison Square Garden on July 7, 1928. It was Chrysler Corporation’s first entry in the low-priced field, which at the time was already dominated by Chevrolet and Ford. Plymouths were actually priced slightly higher than their competition, but offered standard features such as internal expanding hydraulic brakes that the competition did not provide. Plymouths were originally sold exclusively through Chrysler dealerships, offering a low-cost alternative to the upscale Chrysler-brand cars. The logo featured a rear view of the ship Mayflower which landed at Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts. However, the inspiration for the Plymouth brand name came from Plymouth binder twine, produced by the Plymouth Cordage Company, also of Plymouth. The name was chosen by Joe Frazer due to the popularity of the twine among farmers.

The origins of Plymouth can be traced back to the Maxwell automobile. When Walter P. Chrysler took over control of the troubled Maxwell-Chalmers car company in the early 1920s, he inherited the Maxwell as part of the package. After he used the company’s facilities to help create and launch the six-cylinder Chrysler automobile in 1924, he decided to create a lower-priced companion car. So for 1926, the Maxwell was reworked and rebadged as the low-end four-cylinder Chrysler “52” model. In 1928, the “52” was once again redesigned to create the Chrysler-Plymouth Model Q. The “Chrysler” portion of the nameplate was dropped with the introduction of the Plymouth Model U in 1929.

Great Depression, 1940s–1950s

1939 Plymouth in a Swedish 1940s fashion photo1939 Plymouth in a Swedish 1940s fashion photo.

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Plymouth Police Car 1947

1947 Plymouth police car property of the Glendale Police Dept. in Glendale, Arizona1948 Plymouth Special De Luxe Coupé1948 Plymouth Special De Luxe Coupé1949 Plymouth four-door sedan1949 Plymouth four-door sedan

While the original purpose of the Plymouth was to serve a lower-end marketing niche, during the Great Depression of the 1930s the division helped significantly in ensuring the survival of the Chrysler Corporation in a decade when many other car companies failed. Beginning in 1930, Plymouths were sold by all three Chrysler divisions (Chrysler, DeSoto, and Dodge). Plymouth sales were a bright spot during this dismal automotive period, and by 1931 Plymouth rose to number three in sales among all cars. In 1931 with the Model PA, the company introduced floating power and boasted, “The economy of a four; the smoothness of a six.”

Plymouth emblem

In 1933, Chrysler decided to catch up with Ford and Chevrolet with respect to engine cylinder count. The 190 cu in version of Chrysler’s flathead-six engine was equipped with a downdraft carburetor and installed in the new 1933 Plymouth PC, introduced on November 17, 1932. However, Chrysler had reduced the PC’s wheelbase from 112 to 107 in (284.5 to 271.8 cm), and the car sold poorly. By April 1933, the Dodge division’s Model DP chassis, with a 112-inch (284.5 cm) wheelbase, was put under the PC body with DP front fenders, hood, and radiator shell. The model designation was advanced to PD’ and the car was marketed as the “DeLuxe” 1933 Plymouth. This car sold very well and is the 1933 model most commonly found in collections. The PC became the ‘Standard Six’. It had been the ‘Plymouth Six’ at introduction, and was sold through to the end of 1933, but in much lower numbers. It is consequently in the minority in collectors’ hands today. In 1937, Plymouth (along with the other Chrysler makes) added safety features such as flat dash boards with recessed controls and the back of the front seat padded for the rear seat occupants.[4] The PC was shipped overseas to Sweden, Denmark, and the UK, as well as Australia. In the UK, it was sold as a ‘Chrysler Kew’, Kew Gardens being the location of the Chrysler factory outside London. The flathead six which started with the 1933 Model PC stayed in the Plymouth until the 1959 models.

In 1939, Plymouth produced 417,528 vehicles, of which 5,967 were two-door convertible coupes with rumble seats. The 1939 convertible coupe was prominently featured at Chrysler’s exhibit at the 1939 New York World’s Fair, advertised as the first mass-production convertible with a power folding top. It featured a 201 cu in, 82 hp version of the flathead six engine.

1954 Plymouth Belevedere Suburban Station Wagon 2-dA 1954 Plymouth two-door station wagon

For much of its life, Plymouth was one of the top-selling American automobile brands; it, together with Chevrolet and Ford, was commonly referred to as the “low-priced three” marques in the American market. Plymouth almost surpassed Ford in 1940 and 1941 as the second-most popular make of automobiles in the U.S. In 1957, Virgil Exner’s new Forward Look design theme, advertised by Plymouth with the tagline “Suddenly, it’s 1960”, produced cars with much more advanced styling than Chevrolet or Ford. The 1957 total production soared to 726,009, about 200,000 more than 1956, and the largest output yet for Plymouth. However, the 1957–1958 Forward Look models suffered from poor materials, spotty build quality, and inadequate corrosion protection; they were rust-prone and greatly damaged Chrysler’s reputation.

In 1954, Chrysler started its decade-long unsuccessful attempt to develop and market a viable car powered by turbine engine when it installed an experimental turbine developed specifically for vehicles in a Plymouth.

1960s–1970s

Although Plymouth sales suffered as a result of the quality control problems and excesses of Exner-styled models in the early 1960s, people bought enough of the cars to keep the division profitable. Starting in 1961, the Valiant compact became a Plymouth, further boosting sales. Under the impression that Chevrolet was about to “downsize” its 1962 models, Chrysler introduced a significantly smaller standard Plymouth for 1962. As is known, Chevrolet’s big cars were not downsized, catching Plymouth in a sales slump in a market where “bigger was better”. The ’63 Fury, Belvedere, and Savoy were slightly larger and more substantial, featuring a totally new body style, highlighted by prominent outboard front parking lights. For 1964, Plymouth got another major restyle, featuring a new “slantback” roofline for hardtop coupes that would prove extremely popular. Many enthusiasts consider the ’64s to be the most attractive of the early ’60s Plymouths.

For 1965, the Fury models were built on the new C-body platform. The Savoy line was discontinued and the Belvedere was classified an intermediate, retaining the B-body platform used starting 1962. The low-end series was Fury I, the mid-level model was Fury II, and the higher-end models were Fury IIIs. The Sport Fury, which featured bucket seats and console shifter, was a mix of luxury and sport. Ford and Chevrolet had introduced luxury editions of their big cars for 1965 and Plymouth responded in 1966 with the VIP, a more luxurious version of the Fury. Furys, Belvederes, and Valiants continued to sell well during the late-1960s and early-1970s.

1950 plymouth de Luxe1950 plymouth de Luxe

Of note are the Plymouth “muscle cars” of the late 1960s. As the performance car market segment expanded during the late 1960s and early 1970s, Plymouth participated and produced some of the most memorable models. Many consider the Barracuda fastback of 1964 to be the first of Plymouth’s sporty cars. Based on the Valiant, it was available with a durable Slant Six, or 273 cubic-inch small block V8. For 1967, Plymouth introduced the Belvedere GTX, a bucket-seat high-style hardtop coupe and convertible that could be ordered with either the Super Commando 440, or Hemi 426 V8. Looking for an advantage at the drag races, 1968 had a stripped-down Belvedere coupe, the Road Runner, which featured a bench seat and minimal interior and exterior trim, but was available with Chrysler’s big-block engines and a floor-mounted four-speed manual transmission. The Barracuda, originally a “compact sporty car”, became a top-tier muscle car in 1968-’69 when it was made available with the 426 Hemi and 440 big block engines, respectively, – putting it in contention with America’s most powerful muscle cars. With the success of their small- and big-block-powered sporty cars – principally among them the GTX, Barracuda (and the more muscular ‘Cuda), Road Runner, Sport Fury GT, and Valiant Duster 340, Plymouth unveiled the ‘Rapid Transit System’, which was similar to Dodge’s ‘Scat Pack’ concept- an all-inclusive club made up of Plymouth sports cars which provided further immersion into their performance automobiles. Throughout this period in Plymouth history, the brand also competed heavily in professional automobile racing. Their foremost success stories come from racing icon Richard Petty’s career with Plymouth in NASCAR; Dan Gurney, who raced a ‘Cuda as part of the All American Racers in numerous Trans Am events; and Sox and Martin, one of the most well-known drag-racing teams of the period, only raced Plymouths after 1964. The GTX, Barracuda/’Cuda, and Road Runner continued into the 1970s, but as that decade wore on, emissions and safety regulations, along with soaring gasoline prices and an economic downturn, spelled death for the majority of Plymouth’s muscle-car brands. Nonetheless, the compact Valiant sold well, built an enviable reputation for attractive styling, durability, economy, and value, and offered the hi-po 360-4 V8 right through the final year. Although the Valiant hardtop was discontinued for 1967, it was reintroduced as a virtual clone of the Dodge Dart Swinger for 1971 under the model name “Valiant Scamp”. The Scamp was produced along with the Valiant, Dodge Dart, and Swinger until 1976, when it was replaced with the Volaré. Featuring transverse-mounted torsion bars and a slightly larger body, the Volaré (and its Dodge twin, the Aspen) was an instant sales success. Available as coupe, sedan, or station wagon, the Volaré offered a smoother ride and better handling than the Dart/Valiant, but unfortunately suffered quality control problems and by 1980, was selling poorly.

1962 Plymouth Belvedere1962 Plymouth Belvedere

Realizing that front-wheel drive, four-cylinder engines, and rack-and-pinion steering would become the standards for the 1980s, Chrysler introduced a new compact car for 1978, the Plymouth Horizon/Dodge Omni twins, based on a Simca platform. Horizon sold well, but unfortunately suffered from a scathing report by Consumer Reports, which found its handling dangerous in certain situations. Plymouth continued to sell the Horizon until 1987, when a gaggle of front-wheel drive compact cars made up the line. Big Plymouths, including the Fury and Gran Fury, were sold until the early 1980s, but mostly as fleet vehicles. While attempting to compete with Ford and Chevrolet for big-car sales, Plymouth was hurt by Chrysler’s financial woes in the late 1970s, when both its competitors downsized their full-size models.

Final years

1960s and 1970s Plymouth logo

1960s logo

Most Plymouth models, especially those offered from the 1970s onward, such as the

1960 Plymouth Valiant side view showing the semi-fastback1960 Plymouth Valiant side view showing the semi-fastback Valiant,Plymouth Volaré two-door sedan coupéPlymouth Volaré two-door sedan coupé Volaré,Plymouth acclaimPlymouth acclaim Acclaim,1990 Plymouth Laser RS Turbo1990 Plymouth Laser,1995 Plymouth Neon Sport Coupe1995 Plymouth Neon Sport Coupe Neon, and1995-98 Plymouth Breeze1995-98 Plymouth Breeze Breeze,

were badge-engineered versions of Dodge or Mitsubishi models. By the 1990s, Plymouth had lost much of its identity, as its models continued to overlap in features and prices with Dodges and Eagles. In an attempt to fix this, Chrysler tried repositioning Plymouth to its traditional spot as the automaker’s entry-level brand. Part of this marketing strategy included giving Plymouth its own new sailboat logo and advertisements that focused solely on value. However, this only further narrowed Plymouth’s product offerings and buyer appeal, and sales continued to fall.

Chrysler considered giving Plymouth a variant of the highly successful new-for-1993 full-size LH platform, which would have been called the Accolade, but decided against it. By the late 1990s, only four vehicles were sold under the Plymouth name: the Voyager/Grand Voyager minivans, the Breeze mid-size sedan, the Neon compact car, and the Prowler sports car, which was to be the last model unique to Plymouth, though the Chrysler PT Cruiser was conceived as a concept unique to Plymouth before production commenced as a Chrysler model.

1990s letter emblem from a 1999 NeonThe late ’90s letter emblem from a 1999 Neon

Plymouth Prowler 01The 1999-2001 Plymouth Prowler and the 2001-2002 Chrysler Prowler

After discontinuing the Eagle brand in 1998, Chrysler was planning to expand the Plymouth line with a number of unique models before the corporation’s merger with Daimler-Benz AG. The first model was the Plymouth Prowler, a hot rod-styled sports car. The PT Cruiser was to have been the second. Both models had similar front-end styling, suggesting Chrysler intended a retro styling theme for the Plymouth brand. At the time of Daimler’s takeover of Chrysler, Plymouth had no models besides the Prowler not also offered in similar version by Dodge.

From a peak production of 973,000 for the 1973 model year, Plymouth rarely exceeded 200,000 cars per year after 1990. Even the Voyager sales were usually less than 50% that of Dodge Caravan. In Canada, the Plymouth name was defunct at the end of the 1999 model year. Consequently, DaimlerChrysler decided to drop the make after a limited run of 2001 models. This was announced on November 3, 1999.

The last new model sold under the Plymouth marque was the second-generation Neon for 2000. The PT Cruiser was ultimately launched as a Chrysler, and the Prowler and Voyager were absorbed into that make, as well. Following the 2001 model year, the Neon was sold only as a Dodge in the US, though it remained available as a Chrysler in Canadian and other markets. The Plymouth Breeze was dropped after 2001, before Chrysler introduced their redesigned 2001 Dodge Stratus and Chrysler Sebring sedan.

Timeline

1949 Plymouth Special DeLuxe Station Wagon, advertisementA 1949 Plymouth Special DeLuxe Station Wagon, advertisement

1983-85 Plymouth Caravelle1984-1985 Plymouth Caravelle

1990-'91 Plymouth Laser1993 plymouth laser1990 Plymouth Laser

2000-01 2nd Plymouth Neon1995 Plymouth Neon

1997-00 Plymouth Grand Voyager1998 Plymouth Voyager (short wheelbase) SE1998 Plymouth Voyager Expresso

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1998 Plymouth Voyager

2001 Plymouth the last automobile built, 2001, Belvidere, IL, USA, a NeonThe Last Plymouth built, 2001

  • 1955: Plymouth first offered a V-8 engine.
  • 1956: The automatic three-speed TorqueFlite transmission was introduced on some premium models. The Plymouth Fury was introduced.
  • 1957: As with all other Chrysler divisions, the Forward Look design made its debut on the 1957 Plymouths. Torsion-Aire front suspension was introduced on all models.
  • 1960: Dodge introduced the smaller, lower-priced Dart model that competed directly with Plymouth’s offerings. The new compact Valiant was introduced as a marque unto itself. All Plymouths now featured unit-body construction.
  • 1961: Valiant was repositioned as a Plymouth model for US market; Dodge got the badge-engineered Lancer version. Rambler and then Pontiac assumed third place in industry sales for the remainder of the 1960s.
  • 1962: Sales dropped dramatically with the introduction of a line of unpopularly styled, downsized full-sized models.
  • 1963: Valiant received a new, trim body resulting in a significant increase in sales. Full-sized models were restyled to look larger.
  • 1964: The new Barracuda fastback coupe was introduced in April. Full-sized models were restyled with a new “slantback” hardtop coupe roofline.
  • 1965: Plymouth rejoined the full-sized car market with the new Fury, based on the Chrysler C-body. The intermediate B-body model line became the Belvedere and Satellite for 1965. Push-button automatic transmission controls were replaced with a conventional column- or floor-mounted lever.
  • 1967: The GTX was introduced.
  • 1968: The Road Runner entered the Plymouth line-up.
  • 1970: Duster coupe was introduced in the Valiant line for 1970, along with the new E-body Barracuda.
  • 1971: The British Hillman Avenger was imported as the Plymouth Cricket; it was discontinued in mid-1973. The new Valiant Scamp two-door hardtop was a badge-engineered Dodge Dart Swinger.
  • 1973: Plymouth production hit an all-time peak of 973,000. The Plymouth Cricket in Canada was now based on the Dodge Colt.
  • 1974: The full-sized Plymouth Voyager van, based on the similar Dodge B-series van, and Trailduster SUV, based on the Dodge Ramcharger, were introduced. The Dodge Dart and Plymouth Valiant were, for the first time, different only in name and minor trim details (grille and tail lamps) as the two cars now shared the same 111-in wheelbase (both division’s fastbacks remain 108 in). Barracuda was discontinued.
  • 1975: The car that was to become the 1975 Plymouth Sebring was instead released as the new Chrysler Cordoba.[citation needed]
  • 1976: The Volaré was launched, and the Valiant was discontinued at year-end.
  • 1977: The large Gran Fury was discontinued.
  • 1978: The mid-sized Fury was discontinued at the end of the model year. The subcompact Horizon was introduced. Chrysler Canada introduced the Plymouth Caravelle based on the Dodge Diplomat.
  • 1979–1980: Chrysler made several thousand more Dodges than Plymouths for the first time. More Plymouths would be made than Dodges for 1981 and 1982, but from then on, always be more Dodges were made than Plymouths.
  • 1980: The Newport-based Gran Fury (R-body) was introduced. This was the last year for the Volaré and Road Runner.
  • 1981: The compact
  • 1988 Plymouth Reliant wagon 1983 Plymouth Reliant K coupe 1985-89 Plymouth Reliant K LE 1987 Plymouth ReliantPlymouth Reliant was introduced. The full-sized Gran Fury sedan and Trailduster SUV were discontinued.
  • 1982: The mid-sized Plymouth Gran Fury, a Dodge Diplomat with a Plymouth grille, was introduced in the United States.
  • 1983: The subcompact Plymouth Scamp pickup, based on the Dodge Rampage, was introduced and sold for one year only. The Caravelle four-door sedan based on the E-body and a two-door coupe based on the K-body were introduced in Canada. The sporty subcompact
  • 1979 Plymouth Horizon TC3Horizon TC3 was renamed Turismo. The full-sized Voyager van was discontinued.
  • 1984: The Voyager minivan and Mitsubishi-based Colt Vista multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) were introduced.
  • 1985: The E-body Plymouth Caravelle was introduced in the United States.
  • 1987: The compact P-body Plymouth Sundance entered the line-up with three- and five-door hatchbacks. The Turismo was discontinued.
  • 1989: The mid-sized Gran Fury (Caravelle in Canada), as well as the Reliant, are discontinued after this model year. The Reliant and E-body Caravelle are replaced by the Acclaim.
  • 1990: The Mitsubishi-based Plymouth Laser sport-compact was introduced. The L-body Horizon was discontinued.
  • 1992: The higher-priced Acclaim models were repositioned as Chrysler LeBarons. Total sales of Acclaim and LeBaron dropped. Total 1993 Plymouth model-year production dropped to 159,775, along with 237,875 Voyager models. Dodge built 300,666 Caravans.
  • 1994: The little-advertised Laser and the popular Sundance and Colt compacts all end production. They are replaced by a single car, the Neon, a car that Chrysler decided to offer as a Plymouth after dealers protested the loss of the Sundance and Colt with no replacement.
  • 1995: Plymouth’s lineup was at its all-time low, just three cars: the Acclaim, the Neon, and the Voyager/Grand Voyager. The number went up to four in 1997, with the introduction of the Prowler, but never got any higher.
  • 1996: Chrysler announced the new Plymouth Breeze six months after sister Dodge Stratus and Chrysler Cirrus models. Chrysler originally had no plans to replace the Acclaim model.[citation needed]
  • 1996: In an attempt to move Plymouth downmarket, Chrysler made the redesigned Voyager only available in base and mid-level SE models. All of the higher-end trim levels available on the previous generation were now only be found on the Dodge Caravan. The high-end trim levels could still be found in certain markets outside the US.
  • 1997: Production for the 1997 model year was 178,807 cars plus 187,347 Voyager models. Dodge built 448,394 cars and 355,400 Caravans.
  • 1999: Total 1999 production for Plymouth cars was to 195,714 with Dodge at 394,052. Voyager production numbered 197,020, compared to 354,641 Caravans. The redesigned 2000 Neon became the brand’s last new model.
  • 2000: The mid-sized Breeze ended production. This was also the last year for the Voyager minivan as a Plymouth. All 2000 Voyagers built in December 1999 and beyond were badged as Chrysler Voyagers. In Canada, the redesigned Neon was sold under the Chrysler name and both the Plymouth and Dodge names were dropped on all car models, save for the Prowler and Viper. The Voyager name was dropped in Canada as all Chrysler dealers sold Dodge trucks, including the Caravan. Total 2000 model year production for Plymouth was 108,546 compared to 459,988 Dodge cars. Voyager production totalled 123,869 versus 330,370 Caravan models.
  • 2001: In Plymouth’s final model year, only the Neon remains. The Prowler and the Voyager became Chryslers. The Voyager gained a high-end LX trim, as well as a base eC trim, and it retained the SE trim. The Breeze was dropped as Chrysler issued the Chrysler Sebring sedan to replace the Chrysler Cirrus. The PT Cruiser was launched as a Chrysler, though it was originally planned to be a Plymouth. The final Plymouth, a Neon, was assembled on 28 June 2001, with a total of 38,657 built for the model year.

(All production numbers – Ward’s Automotive Yearbook, various issues, 1973 to 2002)[citation needed]

Plymouth car models

Plymouth trucks

Plymouth built various trucks and vans over the years, mainly rebadged Dodge or Chrysler vehicles. Early pickups, delivery trucks, and other commercial trucks were available, and later an SUV, full-sized vans, and minivans. Plymouth had supplied components to the Fargo vehicles, another member of the Chrysler family, but entered the commercial market in 1937 with the PT50.

Truck models

Plymouth concept cars

1952 Plymouth Explorer Ghia Sport Coupe fvl1952 Plymouth Explorer

1960 Plymouth XNR concept car at the 2014 Lime Rock Concours d'Élegance1960 Plymouth XNR1960 Plymouth XNR

1973 Plymouth (Rapid Transit System) Duster 3401973 Plymouth (Rapid Transit System) Duster 340

1988 Plymouth Slingshot Concept Car1988 Plymouth Slingshot

1999-01 Plymouth Prowler and the 2001-02 Chrysler Prowler2001 Plymouth ProwlerPlymouth Prowler

1928 Plymouth Model Q Coupe 1928 Plymouth Model Q, in Auckland New Zealand 1929 Plymouth P2 Deluxe o 1929 Plymouth Phaeton Argentina 1930 Plymouth 30-U 4-Door Sedan 1930 1930-45 Plymouth Valiant dealer Ross Cort, Inc., 392 Sunrise Highway, Rockville Center,NY 1932 plymouth ceurvorst 1933 Plymouth coupe 1933 Plymouth taxi 1934 Plymouth Truck 1936 Plymouth 1937 Plymouth Coupe gebruikt door Humphrey Bogart in de film High Sierra 1937 Plymouth express pickup truck red and black Baltimore MD 1937 Plymouth photographed in Seattle, Washington 1937 Plymouth PT50 Delivery truck

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1939 Plymouth in a Swedish 1940s fashion photo 1939 Plymouth P8 Sedan 1939 Plymouth 1940 De Luxe Plymouth Station Wagon 1941 plymouth sedan delivery 1941 Plymouth Special De Luxe 1941 Plymouth Special Deluxe 1946 Plymouth Special Deluxe P15C Club Coupe 1946-49 Plymouth

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1947 Plymouth Special Deluxe

IM000135.JPG

1948 Plymouth coupe on street in Miami Beach, Florida 1948 Plymouth Special De Luxe Coupé 1948 Plymouth Special De luxe Woody (front left) 1949 Plymouth four-door sedan 1949 Plymouth Special Deluxe Four Door Sedan 1949 Plymouth Special DeLuxe Station Wagon, advertisement 1949 Plymouth voiture a Cuba 1949 Plymouth 1949-50 Plymouth 1950 Plymouth Concord NYPD 1950 Plymouth De Luxe Suburban 1950 plymouth de Luxe 1950 Plymouth Deluxe coupe OCJ-679 1950 Plymouth Deluxe Coupé 1950 Plymouth Suburban ad 1950 Plymouth Suburban 1950-plymouth-ad 1951 Plymouth Cambridge [P-23] 1951 Plymouth Cambridge 2-Door Lot G133 Indianap 1951 Plymouth Cambridge a 1951 Plymouth cambridge policecar 1951 Plymouth Cambridge Sedan plus. Concord Business Coupe and Suburban 1951 Plymouth cambridge 1951 plymouth cambridge_sedan_ho_sm_51_03 1951 Plymouth Concern Cambridge Cranbrook Dealer Sales Brochure ORIGINAL 1951 Plymouth Cranbrook at a local storage yard 1951 Plymouth Cranbrook interior 1951 Plymouth Cranbrook Sedan 1951 Plymouth P25 Cranbrook as built by Chrysler Australia 1952 Plymouth 1 1952 plymouth 1952 convert 1952 Plymouth Cambridge [P-23] 1952 Plymouth Cambridge 2dr 1952 plymouth cambridge 4dr sedan 1952 Plymouth Cambridge 4dr 1952 Plymouth Cambridge Four Door Sedan [P-23] 1952 plymouth cambridge yellow cab classic 1952 Plymouth Cambridge 1952 plymouth concord 3p 1952 plymouth concord 1952 Plymouth Cranbrook Cambridge Concord ORIGI 1952 Plymouth Cranbrook Cambridge Concord ORIGINAL Dealer Sales Brochure 1952 Plymouth Cranbrook Four Door Sedan 1952 Plymouth cranbrook-belvedere 1952 Plymouth Explorer Ghia Sport Coupe fvl 1952 plymouth 1952 Plymouth-09-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17 1952-53 Plymouth Cranbrook Club Coupé 1953 plymouth 1953 06 1953 plymouth 1953 cambridge sedan 1953 Plymouth Brochure Cranbrook Cambridge C 1953 Plymouth Brochure Cranbrook Cambridge Club 1953 PLYMOUTH CAMBRIDGE 2 1953 Plymouth cambridge-2 1953 Plymouth Cranbrook Cambridge Dealer Sales Brochure ORIGI 1953 Plymouth Cranbrook Cambridge Dealer Sales Brochure ORIGINAL 1953 Plymouth Cranbrook cars 1953 Plymouth Cranbrook Convertible Club Coupe 1953 Plymouth ROM 1953 Plymouth1953 1953 Plymouth-cranbrook 1953-Plymouth-Cambridge-Club-Sedan 1954 plymouth a 1954 Plymouth Belevedere Suburban Station Wagon 2-d 1954 Plymouth Belm. 1954 plymouth belvedere 1954 plymouth explorer ghia 1954 PLYMOUTH Explorer 1954 Plymouth Plaza 2-door Suburban 1954 Plymouth Savoy 1955 Plymouth Belvedere 2d htp - aqua black - 841 1955 Plymouth Belvedere 4dr Sedan 1955 Plymouth Belvedere 1955 Plymouth Plaza Six Sedan in Havana 1955 plymouth savoy 1956 Plymouth Belvedere Fury 1956 Plymouth Belvedere 1956 Plymouth longroof 1956 Plymouth Plainsman concept wagon 1956 Plymouth Savoy 1 1956 Plymouth Savoy Coupe Utility 1956 plymouth savoy 1956 Plymouth wagon 1956 Plymouth 1957 Plymouth Belvedere a 1957 Plymouth Belvedere Sport Coupe 1957 Plymouth Belvedere 1957 plymouth convertable 1957 Plymouth Fury Hardtop Coupe 1957 Plymouth Fury 1957 Plymouth future ad 1957 Plymouth Suburbans 1958 Plymouth Belvedere 4 dr htop also oz asmbld 58,59== 1958 Plymouth Belvedere Sport Coupe 1958 Plymouth Belvedere 1958 Plymouth Custom Suburban 1958 Plymouth Fury Christine 1958 Plymouth Suburban 1958 Plymouth Tornado Concept a 1958 Plymouth Tornado Concept 1958_Plymouth_Plaza_(Rassemblement_Mopar_Valleyfield_'10) 1959 Plymouth Belvedere 2-door Hardtop 1959 Plymouth Belvedere 4-door Hardtop 1959 Plymouth DeLuxe Suburban 4-door 1959 Plymouth Fury at the Auto & Technik Museum, Sinsheim

DCF 1.0

DCF 1.0

1959 Plymouth Sport Fury, photographed on the premises of the Louwman museum, The Hague, The Netherlands. Olympus E-520 digital camera 1960 Plymouth Belvedere Sedan 1960 plymouth belvedere 1960 plymouth fury (2) 1960 Plymouth Fury convertible a 1960 Plymouth Fury Convertible 1960 Plymouth Fury police car 1960 Plymouth Fury Station Wagon LSideRear 1960 Plymouth Fury Suburban 1960 Plymouth Fury 1960 Plymouth Savoy 4-door Sedan 1960 Plymouth Valiant automobile 1960 Plymouth Valiant back 1960 Plymouth Valiant side view showing the semi-fastback 1960 Plymouth XNR concept car at the 2014 Lime Rock Concours d'Élegance 1960 Plymouth XNR Virgil Exner Sr.'s 1960 Plymouth XNR 1960 Vailiant On Display At The Chicago Auto Show 1960 Valiant V100 1960 Valiant V100a 1960 Valiant V100b 1960 Valiant 1960-61 tail lamp with reversing lamp Valiant cat 1960s and 1970s Plymouth logo 1961 Plymouth ad 1961 plymouth belvedere 1961 Plymouth Fury 4dr sedan from the rear 1961 Plymouth Fury sedan 1961 plymouth fury 1961 Plymouth Solid Beauty 1961 Plymouth Station Wagon 1961 Plymouth styling 1961 Plymouth Valiant V-200 Station Wagon 1961 Plymouth Valiant V-200 Suburban 1961 Plymouth Valiant V200 1961 Plymouth Valiant V-200 1961 Plymouth Valiant Wagon 1961 Valiant V-100 Two Door 1961 Valiant V100 1962 Plymouth Belvedere four-door sedan finished in white with red interior 1962 Plymouth Belvedere Sedan (Orange Julep) 1962 Plymouth Belvedere 1962 Plymouth Sport Fury - white - fvr 1962 Plymouth Valiant 2-door with Hyper Pak 1962 Plymouth Valiant instrument cluster 1962 Plymouth Valiant taillight 1962 Plymouth Valiant This is a 4 bbl Slant-6 Hyper-Pak reproduction by Clifford Performance in a 1962 Plymouth Valiant. 1962 Plymouth 1963 Plymouth Belvedere (13867644073) 1963 Plymouth Valiant Signet (Les chauds vendredis '10) 1964 Plymouth Savoy four-door sedan 1964 Plymouth Valiant Convertible 1965 Canadian Valiant Custom 200 sedan 1965 Plymouth Barracuda Formula S 1965 Plymouth Belvedere II Station Wagon, in Silver Lake (LA,CA) 1965 Plymouth Satellite FR-38-09 1965 Plymouth Sport Fury, Wheels Day, Apr 2009 1965 Plymouth Valiant 100 black front

Photo of my 1965 Plymouth Satellite. Photo taken c. 1966

Photo of my 1965 Plymouth Satellite.
Photo taken c. 1966

1966 Plymouth Barracuda 1966 Plymouth Belvedere Sedan 1966 Plymouth Satellite Convertible 1966 Plymouth Satellite 1966 Plymouth Sport Fury 1966 Plymouth Valiant Signet Convertible front right 1967 Plymouth Belvedere (Cruisin' At The Boardwalk '11) 1967 Plymouth Fury Station Wagon 2 1967 Plymouth GTX a 1967 Plymouth GTX 1967 Plymouth Satelitte 2-door hardtop 1967 Plymouth Sport Fury III 2-door Fast Top 1968 Plymouth Ad 1968 Plymouth Fury 1968 Plymouth satellite 1968 Plymouth VIP 1969 Plymouth Barracuda 1969 Plymouth Fury III Convertible 1969 Plymouth Sport Fury Convertible (Rigaud) 1969 Plymouth Valiant Signet 4-Door Sedan 1969 Plymouth Valiant Signet 1970 Duster 340 with logo 1970 Plymouth Duster 340 1970 Plymouth Fury III Convertible (Orange Julep) 1970 Plymouth red GTX 1970 Plymouth Road Runner 440+6 - 2-pillar coupe body 1970 Plymouth Road Runner a 1970 Plymouth Road Runner Superbird 1970 Plymouth Roadrunner Superbird SUperbirdEyes 1970 Plymouth Sport Suburban 1970 Plymouth Valiant 1971 Plymouth Cricket, winner of the 1971 Press-on-Regardless Rally 1971 Plymouth Rapid Transit System 1971 Plymouth Valiant Scamp 1971-Plymouth-Duster-Valiant-02 1972 Plymouth Fury Sport Suburban 1 1972 Plymouth Fury Sport Suburban 1972 Plymouth Scamp - Mopar Muscle Magazine 1972 Plymouth Scamp in Red Deer 1972 Plymouth Scamp s 1972 plymouth scamp 1972 plymouth-models-72a 1972 plymouth-models-72b 1973 Plymouth (Rapid Transit System) Duster 340 Classic American Muscle Car Photography Stock Image 1973 Plymouth Scamp Grey 1973 Plymouth Scamp Y 1973-plymouth-scamp-340- 1974 Plymouth Fury II 2-door hardtop 1974 Plymouth Fury sedan C-body 1974 Plymouth Valiant Swedish police car 1974 Valiant VH Charger 1975 Plymouth Fury 2-Door Hardtop 1975 Plymouth Valiant Brougham in brown, by night 1975-77 Plymouth Gran Fury VIP (1966–1969) 1977 Plymouth Gran Fury Sport Suburban 1977-80 Plymouth Trail Duster 1978 Plymouth Fury 1979 Plymouth Horizon TC3 1980-81 Plymouth Gran Fury Salon 4dr 1982-89 3rd Plymouth Gran Fury 1983 Plymouth Scamp GT 1983 Plymouth Turismo, - Scamp pg 11_jpg 1983 plymouth-scamp-GT 1983-85 Plymouth Caravelle 1985 L-body Plymouth Duster, 1985 or 1986 Plymouth Duster EEK 1985 Plymouth Voyager LE. The alloy wheels are from a 1989 Voyager LX 1987 Plymouth Reliant 1988 Plymouth Slingshot Concept Car 1990 Plymouth Laser RS Turbo 1990-'91 Plymouth Laser 1990s letter emblem from a 1999 Neon 1991 Plymouth Grand Voyager LE minivan 1991-92 Plymouth Acclaim 1992 Plymouth Laser RS Turbo 1992-94 Plymouth Laser specs 1993 plymouth laser 1995 Plymouth Neon Sport Coupe 1995-98 Plymouth Breeze 1996 Plymouth Breeze Green 1997-00 Plymouth Grand Voyager 1998 Plymouth Voyager (short wheelbase) SE 1998 Plymouth Voyager Expresso 1999-01 Plymouth Prowler and the 2001-02 Chrysler Prowler 2000-01 2nd Plymouth Neon 2001 Plymouth Prowler 2001 Plymouth the last automobile built, 2001, Belvidere, IL, USA, a Neon

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20600323464_d7b01d58f0_o Chrysler Valiant GLX (CM) Cpjec-_XEAABjVk IMCDb.org 1952 Plymouth Cambridge [P-23] in Bigger Th IMCDb.org 1952 Plymouth Cambridge [P-23] in Kiss Plymouth 1000 Plymouth acclaim Plymouth Ad Plymouth Belvedere, Belgian p3 Plymouth convertible Photo - 1 Plymouth Duster EEK Plymouth emblem Plymouth Fury

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Plymouth Horizon-1 Plymouth logo.svg Plymouth P 2 Plymouth P 12 coupe 2 Plymouth P 12 coupe Plymouth P Plymouth P25 Cranbrook Plymouth Portland police car Plymouth Prowler 01 Plymouth Road Runner Superbird Plymouth Satellite front policecar Plymouth Satellite Sebring (16305406701) Plymouth Sport Fury Plymouth VALIANT SCAMP a Plymouth Valiant Scamp Plymouth Valiant Plymouth Valiant-Logo Plymouth Volaré two-door sedan coupé Plymouth_GTX_('10_Centropolis_Laval)

Model Year Type Specifications Features
XX-500 1951 Sedan
Belmont c.1953 2-seaterConvertible 3.9L 150 hp V8
Explorer 1954 Coupé 3.7L 110 hp Straight-six engine
Cabana 1958 Station wagon Non-runner Unique glass roof for the rear portion of the car.
XNR 1960 2-seaterconvertible 2.8L 250 hp Straight-six engine
Asimmetrica 1961 3.7L 145 hp Straight-six engine
Valiant St. Regis 1962 Coupé
V.I.P. 1965 4-seaterconvertible Unique roof bar from the top of the windshield to the rear deck.
Barracuda Formula SX 1966 Coupé
Duster I Road Runner 1969 340 hp V8
426 hp V8
All features of the Road Runner plus flaps on top and sides and adjustable spoilers on the side of the rear fender, all to reduce lift.
Rapid Transit System ‘Cuda (440) 1970 Convertible
Rapid Transit System Road Runner Coupé Three-colored tail lights: red for “braking”, yellow for “coasting” and green for “on the gas”.
Rapid Transit System Duster 340 5.6L c.300 hp V8
Concept Voyager II 1986 Minivan
Slingshot 1988 2-seater coupé 2.2L 225 hp turbocharged Straight-four engine Canopy that swings upwards to open the car
Adjustable four-wheel independent suspension
Keyless credit card-like entry
Combined headlight and rear-view mirror pods
Exposed engine and suspension
Speedster 1989 2-seaterconvertible No opening doors, to make getting in more fun
Voyager 3 Minivan The front of the car could be driven by itself or driven when attached to a “miniature tractor-trailer
Glass roof
X2S Coupé
Convertible
2.0L (turbocharged) 167 hp V6
Breeze c.1990 Sedan 2.0L 132 hp 4 cylinder engine
2.4L 150 hp Straight-four engine
Prowler 1993 Convertible 3.5L 214 hp V6
Expresso 1994 Compact car
Backpack 1995 2-seat truck 2.0L 135 hp Inline-four engine Space for a laptop on a small table
Built-in bike rack on the back
Pronto 1997 Sedan 1.6L 115 hp Inline-four engine The front of the car resembled that of the Prowler
Roll-back fabric top
Pronto Spyder 1998 Convertible 2.4L 225 hp Straight-four engine
Howler 1999 3.5L c.250 hp V6
4.7L c.250 hp V8
Voyager XG[19] Minivan 2.5L 115 hp turbocharged diesel engine Powered retractable sunroof.

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Kimes, Beverly Rae; Clark, Jr., Henry A. Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1942 (second edition). Krause publications. p. 1156. ISBN 0-87341-111-0.
  2. Jump up^ Gunnell, John; Schrimpf, Dennis; Buttolph, Ken. Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975 (second edition). Krause publications. p. 534. ISBN 0-87341-096-3.
  3. Jump up^ “What’s in a Name? (How Plymouth Was Named)”. Allpar.com. 1928-01-11. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  4. Jump up^ http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Plymouth/1937_Plymouth/1937_Plymouth_Biggest_Value_Brochure/1937%20Plymouth%20Biggest%20Value-19.html
  5. Jump up^ “1939 Plymouth – history”. Joesherlock.com. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  6. Jump up^ Vincent Curcio (2001), Chrysler: The Life and Times of an Automotive Genius, p.472
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Benjaminson, Jim. “Plymouth cars 1957: Three Years Ahead”. Allpar.com. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  8. Jump up^ “Insider’s history of Plymouth – Part V”. Allpar.com. 1956-10-30. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  9. Jump up^ “Turbo Plymouth Threatens Future of Standard.” Popular Science, July 1954, p. 102, mid page, p. 103, bottom page.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b “How Plymouth Works: 1990, 1991, 1992 Plymouths” by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, retrieved on 2011–01–20.
  11. Jump up^ Yates, Brock (1996). The Critical Path: Inventing an Automobile and Reinventing a Corporation “Showtime in St.Louis” p.209-11. Little, Brown.
  12. Jump up^ “How Plymouth Works: 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 Plymouths” by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, retrieved on 2011–01–20.
  13. Jump up^ “Dodge Intrepid, Eagle Vision, Chrysler 300M, New Yorker, and LHS – the LH cars, with reviews”. Allpar.com. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  14. Jump up^ Benjaminson, Jim. “Plymouth commercial vehicles”. Allpar.com. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  15. Jump up^ http://www.conceptcars.it/usa/plymouth/xx500.htm
  16. Jump up^ http://www.rmauctions.com/lots/lot.cfm?lot_id=1052628
  17. Jump up^ http://www.carfolio.com/specifications/models/car/?car=228668&l=nl
  18. Jump up^ http://musclecars.howstuffworks.com/classic-muscle-cars/1970-plymouth-duster-340.htm
  19. Jump up^ http://www.theautochannel.com/news/press/date/19981029/press019465.html
  • Kimes, Beverly Rae (Historian and Author) and Clark, Henry Austin, Jr. (Chief of Research) (MCMLXXXIX). Standard Catalog of American Cars, 1805-1942 (Second edition). Krause Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-87341-111-0.
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NAVISTAR INTERNATIONAL COORPORATION

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Navistar International Coorporation -International Harvester Company (II) 1902 – present Lisle Illinois United States of America

Navistar International Corporation
Public
Traded as NYSENAV
Industry Automotive
Predecessor International Harvester Company
Founded 1902
Headquarters Lisle, Illinois, United States
Area served
North America, South America, Russia, UK, Greece, Eastern Europe, India, Middle East, China, Singapore, South Korea
Key people
Troy A. Clarke, President, Chief Executive Officer
Walter G. Borst, Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Steven K. Covey, Senior Vice President, General Counsel & Chief Ethics Officer
Products Trucks
Buses and School buses,
Diesel engines
Chassis
Revenue 10.775 billion USD(2013)
Number of employees
16,500
Website www.navistar.com

Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Corporation (for­merly In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Com­pany) is an Amer­i­can hold­ing com­pany that owns the man­u­fac­turer of In­ter­na­tional brand com­mer­cial trucks, IC Bus school and com­mer­cial buses, Work­horse brand chas­sis for motor homes and step vans, and is a pri­vate label de­signer and man­u­fac­turer of diesel en­gines for the pickup truck, van, hoes and SUV mar­kets. The com­pany is also a provider of truck and diesel en­gine parts and service.

Head­quar­tered in Lisle, Illi­nois, Nav­is­tar has 16,500 em­ploy­ees and an an­nual rev­enue of $10.775 bil­lion (in 2013). The com­pany’s prod­ucts, parts, and ser­vices are sold through a net­work of nearly 1,000 dealer out­lets in the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Mex­ico and more than 60 deal­ers in 90 coun­tries through­out the world. The com­pany also pro­vides fi­nanc­ing for its cus­tomers and dis­trib­u­tors prin­ci­pally through its wholly owned sub­sidiary, Nav­is­tar Fi­nan­cial Corporation.

History

The merger of Mc­Cormick Har­vest­ing Ma­chine Com­pany and the Deer­ing Har­vester Com­pany in 1902 re­sulted in the for­ma­tion of the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Com­pany (IH) of Chicago, Illi­nois, which over the next three-quar­ters of a cen­tury evolved to be­come a di­ver­si­fied man­u­fac­turer of farm­ing equip­ment, con­struc­tion equip­ment, gas tur­bines, trucks, buses, and re­lated com­po­nents. Dur­ing World War II, In­ter­na­tional Har­vester pro­duced the M-se­ries of mil­i­tary trucks that served the Ma­rine Corps and the U.S. Navy as weapons car­ri­ers, cargo trans­porters and light ar­tillery move­ment. Today, Nav­is­tar pro­duces In­ter­na­tional brand mil­i­tary ve­hi­cles through its af­fil­i­ate Nav­is­tar Defense.

1986-1991: Transition from agricultural roots

In­ter­na­tional Har­vester fell on hard times dur­ing the poor agri­cul­tural econ­omy in the early to mid-1980s and the ef­fects of a long strike with the UAW over pro­posed work rule changes. IH’s new CEO, Don­ald Lennox, di­rected the man­age­ment or­ga­ni­za­tion to begin ex­it­ing many of its IH’s his­tor­i­cal busi­ness sec­tors in an ef­fort to sur­vive. Some of the sales of prof­itable busi­ness en­deav­ors were ex­e­cuted to raise cash for short-term sur­vival, while other di­vi­sions were sold due to lack of im­me­di­ate prof­itabil­ity. Dur­ing this pe­riod of ques­tion­able eco­nomic sur­vival, in an ef­fort to raise needed cash and to re­duce losses, the man­age­ment team led by Mr. Lennox at IH shed many of its op­er­at­ing di­vi­sions: Con­struc­tion Equip­ment Di­vi­sion to Dresser In­dus­tries; Solar (gas tur­bines) Di­vi­sion to Cater­pil­lar; Cub Cadet (lawn and gar­den equip­ment) to MTD Prod­ucts and, lastly, the Agri­cul­tural Di­vi­sion to Ten­neco, which merged it with their J.I. Case sub­sidiary. The Scout and Light Truck Parts Busi­ness was sold to Scout/Light Line Dis­trib­u­tors, Inc. in 1991.

After the Agri­cul­tural Di­vi­sion sale in 1985, all that re­mained of IH was the Truck and En­gine Di­vi­sions. The com­pany changed its name in 1986 to Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Cor­po­ra­tion. (The In­ter­na­tional Har­vester name and IH logo were as­sets of the Agri­cul­tural Di­vi­sion and con­se­quently were part of the sale to Ten­neco; the IH name and logo are still in use, hav­ing been in­cor­po­rated into the Case IH brand name). In the early 1980s, IH de­vel­oped a se­ries of re­li­able large-dis­place­ment V8 diesel en­gines that were sold as an op­tion for heavy-duty Ford 3/4-ton and 1-ton pickup trucks.

Nav­is­tar still uses the “In­ter­na­tional” brand in its diesel en­gine and truck prod­uct lines, and the brand name con­tin­ues on in prod­uct lines of Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional’s In­ter­na­tional Truck and En­gine Cor­po­ra­tion subsidiary.

1990s-early 2000s: Rediversification

Dur­ing the 1980s and 1990s, the pop­u­lar­ity of diesel en­gines had made Nav­is­tar a lead­ing man­u­fac­turer of bus chas­sis, par­tic­u­larly school buses. The com­pany pur­chased one-third of Amer­i­can Trans­porta­tion Cor­po­ra­tion (Am­Tran), an Arkansas-based man­u­fac­turer in 1991, and the re­main­ing two-thirds in April 1995. By be­com­ing both a body and chas­sis man­u­fac­turer at the same time, Nav­is­tar gained sig­nif­i­cant mar­ket share in the in­dus­try. In 2002, Am­Tran was re­branded as IC (In­te­grated Coach) after a few months as In­ter­na­tional Truck and Bus.

After nearly a cen­tury of busi­ness in Chicago, Nav­is­tar an­nounced its plans on 30 Sep­tem­ber 2000 to leave the city and re­lo­cate its cor­po­rate of­fices to west sub­ur­ban War­renville, Illi­nois. The com­pany’s Mel­rose Park, Illi­nois plant is no­table for a sig­nif­i­cant work­place shoot­ing on Feb­ru­ary 5, 2001.

International MXT Wayco.ca
International MXT, the smallest of the
2004-08 International CXT Commercial Extreme Truck 1
XT pickup trucks

In 2004, Nav­is­tar re-en­tered the re­tail ve­hi­cle mar­ket for the first time since 1980. The In­ter­na­tional XT (Ex­treme Truck) pickup truck was a se­ries of three pickup trucks. It was (by far) the largest pickup truck avail­able for re­tail sale and two of the three ver­sions (the CXT and RXT) were es­sen­tially2002 International DuraStar MuncyTruck

In­ter­na­tional Duras­tar medium-duty trucks fit­ted with pickup beds. The third ver­sion (the MXT) was es­sen­tially a street-le­gal ver­sion of a2006 International MXT-MV HuskyNav­is­tar-de­signed mil­i­tary ve­hi­cle. The three XT trucks were sold until 2008.

In 2005, Nav­is­tar pur­chased the Work­horse com­pany (started in 1998 by in­vestors who took over pro­duc­tion and sales of Gen­eral Mo­tors’ pop­u­lar P-se­ries Step­van chas­sis when GM dropped it), a man­u­fac­turer of step-van and motor home chas­sis, to seem­ingly re-en­ter the de­liv­ery van market. It ap­peared that the new sub­sidiary might also ben­e­fit by its as­so­ci­a­tion with a com­pany whose his­tory from the 1930s into the ’60s in­cluded the pop­u­lar1938-1975 Preserved International Harvester Metro Van in Portland in 2012Metro van. For a short time Work­horse of­fered an in­te­grated chas­sis-body prod­uct called Met­roStar. In Sept. of 2012, Nav­is­tar an­nounced the shut down of Work­horse and the clo­sure of the plant in Union City, IN in order to cut costs.

2006-2008

Accounting issues

In Jan­u­ary 2006, the com­pany de­clared it would not file its form 10-K an­nual re­port with the U.S. Se­cu­ri­ties and Ex­change Com­mis­sion on time. The delay was caused by the dis­agree­ment with its au­di­tors, De­loitte and Touche, over com­plex ac­count­ing is­sues. In April, Nav­is­tar fired De­loitte, its in­de­pen­dent au­di­tor for 98 years, and hired KPMG to help re­state earn­ings back to 2002 to fix ac­count­ing er­rors. On De­cem­ber 15, 2006, Nav­is­tar ex­ec­u­tives an­nounced fur­ther delay of its re­state­ment and 2006 re­sults. The an­nounce­ment prompted the New York Stock Ex­change (NYSE) to an­nounce the delist­ing of the com­pany, after 98 years of trad­ing, al­though the NYSE sub­se­quently de­layed the delist­ing pend­ing an ap­peal by Nav­is­tar. How­ever, Nav­is­tar was re­moved from the S&P 500 Index, and the NYSE even­tu­ally de­nied Nav­is­tar’s ap­peal and delisted the stock; it traded on the Pink Sheets until 30 June 2008, when it was relisted on the NYSE, under its pre­vi­ous ticker sym­bol, NAV, after catch­ing up with its filings. Christo­pher An­der­son, the De­loitte part­ner re­spon­si­ble for the 2003 audit, ac­cepted a one-year sus­pen­sion from pub­lic au­dits in 2008, and be­came the first in­di­vid­ual to be fined by the PCAOB.

CEO Daniel Us­t­ian agreed to sur­ren­der to Nav­is­tar shares worth $1.3 mil­lion, while for­mer Chief Fi­nan­cial Of­fi­cer Robert C. Lan­nert con­sented to repay $1.05 mil­lion, each sum re­flect­ing mon­e­tary bonuses they had re­ceived dur­ing the re­state­ment pe­riod, the SEC said. Four other com­pany ex­ec­u­tives paid civil penal­ties with­out ad­mit­ting liability.

In De­cem­ber 2014, Nav­is­tar dis­closed more ac­count­ing prob­lems. These in­volved out-of-pe­riod ad­just­ments, which were cor­rec­tions of prior pe­riod er­rors re­lat­ing to prod­uct war­ranties. This re­sulted in a $36 mil­lion in­crease in Cost of Prod­ucts Sold. In ad­di­tion, a ma­te­r­ial weak­ness was dis­closed. In the com­pany’s an­nual 10K, they re­ported that weak­ness was “sur­round­ing val­i­da­tion of the com­plete­ness and ac­cu­racy of un­der­ly­ing data used in the de­ter­mi­na­tion of sig­nif­i­cant ac­count­ing es­ti­mates and ac­count­ing trans­ac­tions. Specif­i­cally, con­trols were not de­signed to iden­tify er­rors in the un­der­ly­ing data which was used to cal­cu­late war­ranty cost es­ti­mates and other sig­nif­i­cant ac­count­ing es­ti­mates and the ac­count­ing ef­fects of sig­nif­i­cant transactions.

Hybrids and Navistar Defense LLC, 2003-present

In Oc­to­ber 2003, Nav­is­tar CEO Dan Us­t­ian an­nounced the com­pany would be form­ing a de­fense busi­ness unit in order to sell mil­i­tary ve­hi­cles. Nav­is­tar De­fense would be led by Archie Mas­si­cotte, a 26 year vet­eran of the com­pany. Us­t­ian stated “This is a nat­ural area of growth for In­ter­na­tional. We al­ready have all the plat­forms that the U.S. mil­i­tary and other NATO coun­tries could lever­age for prod­ucts and services.”

In 2007, Nav­is­tar’s In­ter­na­tional Truck and En­gine Cor­po­ra­tion be­came the first com­pany to enter hy­brid com­mer­cial truck pro­duc­tion, with theUPSIntl4000In­ter­na­tional DuraS­tar Hy­brid diesel-elec­trictruck.

Nav­is­tar De­fense LLC is the prime sup­plier of2007-present International MaxxPro MRAPMRAP ar­mored ve­hi­cles to the US mil­i­tary. The Navistar 7000 seriesNav­is­tar 7000 se­ries has been fielded by the Cana­dian Forces for do­mes­tic op­er­a­tions. In 2005, the U.S. Army or­dered 2,900 7000-MVs for the Afghan Na­tional Army and Iraqi Min­istry of De­fense and an ad­di­tional order of 7,000 was added in 2008.

Nav­is­tar De­fense also has a small Cana­dian branch, named Nav­is­tar De­fence Canada.

Nav­is­tar De­fense re­ported sales of $3.9 bil­lion in 2008 and $2.8 bil­lion in 2009.

In Oc­to­ber 2009, the com­pany en­tered into a strate­gic agree­ment with Czech-based com­pany Tatra to jointly de­velop, pro­duce and mar­ket new mil­i­tary vehicles.

In De­cem­ber 2009, an­a­lysts were skep­ti­cal of the com­pany’s long-term po­ten­tial. “Nav­is­tar came out of nowhere and be­came a big player with MRAP, in what was a short-term pro­gram,” said Dean Lock­wood, an an­a­lyst at Fore­cast In­ter­na­tional Inc., a Con­necti­cut-based de­fense con­sul­tant. “They didn’t prove them­selves to be a long-term major player.”

In 2010, Nav­is­tar De­fense’s sales were $1.8 bil­lion. The com­pany’s 2010 An­nual 10K re­port stated “we con­tinue to ex­pect that over the long term our mil­i­tary busi­ness will gen­er­ate ap­prox­i­mately $1.5 bil­lion to $2 bil­lion in an­nual sales.”

In 2011, Nav­is­tar De­fense’s sales were $2.0 billion.

In 2012, Nav­is­tar De­fense re­ported $1.0 bil­lion in sales. Busi­ness In­sider ranked Nav­is­tar De­fense at 22 in the top 25 US de­fense companies.

In 2013, Nav­is­tar De­fense re­ported $543 mil­lion in sales. In the com­pany’s 10K fil­ing, they pro­jected mil­i­tary sales to con­tinue to de­cline, cit­ing U.S. bud­getary constraints.

In 2014, Nav­is­tar De­fense re­ported $149 mil­lion in sales. The com­pany pro­jected 2015 mil­i­tary sales to be slightly higher due to re­cent con­tract awards re­lat­ing to the gov­ern­ment’s MRAP fleet.

Contract awards, losses and other events

On Au­gust 22, 2012, Nav­is­tar De­fense lost their bid for the En­gi­neer­ing, Man­u­fac­tur­ing & De­vel­op­ment (EMD) con­tract worth $187 mil­lion for the Army and Ma­rine Corps’ Joint Light Tac­ti­cal Ve­hi­cle (JLTV) pro­gram. Nav­is­tar had pro­posed its Saratoga ve­hi­cle for the com­pe­ti­tion. On Fri­day Au­gust 28, 2012, Nav­is­tar filed a protest with the Gov­ern­ment Ac­count­abil­ity Of­fice (GAO), but pulled their protest on Tues­day, Sep­tem­ber 4, 2012.

On June 20, 2013, Nav­is­tar De­fense idled pro­duc­tion at their West Point, MS pro­duc­tion plant. 80 work­ers were no­ti­fied that July 5, 2013 would be their last day. West Point was best known for man­u­fac­tur­ing MRAP ve­hi­cles. The com­pany cited se­ques­tra­tion, the draw­down in Afghanistan and a chal­leng­ing en­vi­ron­ment in the de­fense in­dus­try as factors.

Navistar-International-Symbol

On Au­gust 22, 2013, Nav­is­tar De­fense lost their bid for the Ground Mo­bil­ity Ve­hi­cle (GMV) 1.1 con­tract, po­ten­tially val­ued at $562 million. Nav­is­tar had pro­posed its Spe­cial Op­er­a­tions Tac­ti­cal Ve­hi­cle (SOTV) for the com­pe­ti­tion. On Tues­day Sep­tem­ber 1, 2013, Nav­is­tar De­fense and AM Gen­eral filed a protest. On De­cem­ber 19, 2013, the Gov­ern­ment Ac­count­abil­ity Of­fice (GAO) de­nied Nav­is­tar and AM Gen­eral’s protests.

In Jan­u­ary 2014, the Pen­ta­gon an­nounced they had no­ti­fied al­lies of their in­tent to give away or scrap 13,000 used MRAPs. This was due to the war in Afghanistan wind­ing down, the mil­i­tary want­ing a lighter ve­hi­cle and high cost to ship them from the mid­dle east back to the U.S. Re­cip­i­ents have in­cluded var­i­ous po­lice de­part­ments and some uni­ver­si­ties. Nav­is­tar De­fense built 9,000 of the 27,000 ve­hi­cles bought by the Pen­ta­gon. Giv­ing away the MRAPs was seen as a blow to Nav­is­tar De­fense’s parts sales.

In De­cem­ber 2014, Nav­is­tar De­fense lost their bid for the En­gi­neer­ing, Man­u­fac­tur­ing De­vel­op­ment (EMD) con­tract for the Ar­mored Multi-Pur­pose Ve­hi­cle (AMPV). BAE was awarded the $382 mil­lion con­tract on De­cem­ber 23, 2014.

Nav­is­tar De­fense lost their bid for Canada’s De­part­ment of Na­tional De­fence (DND) MSVS (Medium Sup­port Ve­hi­cle Sys­tem) Pro­ject – SMP (Stan­dard Mil­i­tary Pat­tern) ve­hi­cles con­tracts. They pro­posed their ATX8 ve­hi­cle as part of an agree­ment with Czech-based com­pany Tatra. The con­tract was for ac­qui­si­tion and in-ser­vice sup­port (ISS) of a fleet of up to 1,500 SMP ve­hi­cles, up to 150 Ar­mour Pro­tec­tion Sys­tems (APS) kits, and 300 Load Han­dling Sys­tem (LHS) trailers. Com­peti­tors in­clude Oshkosh (MTVR), BAE Sys­tems (FMTV), Daim­ler AG (Zet­ros), Re­nault Trucks (Kerax 8×8) and Rhein­metall/ MAN (HX77 8×8). A con­tract award de­ci­sion is ex­pected in June 2015. On July 16, 2015, Canada awarded the Ac­qui­si­tion and In Ser­vice Sup­port con­tracts to Mack De­fense, LLC (Re­nault Trucks).

On July 25, 2014, the DOD awarded a $27.6 mil­lion mod­i­fi­ca­tion to an ex­ist­ing con­tract to ac­quire mine-re­sis­tant, am­bush-pro­tected hard­ware kits to up­grade MaxxPro Dash and long-wheel base am­bu­lances to their final con­fig­u­ra­tion. Es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date is May 30, 2015.

old_logos

On Au­gust 27, 2014, the DOD awarded a $38 mil­lion con­tract to Nav­is­tar De­fense to re­store MRAP Maxx Pro Dash ve­hi­cles to “like-new” stan­dards. The DOD re­ported that Nav­is­tar was the only bid­der. The work in­cludes adding in­de­pen­dent sus­pen­sion sys­tems and re­place­ment of manda­tory parts, with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of June 30, 2016. Work will be per­formed in West Point, MS.

In Sep­tem­ber 2014, Nav­is­tar De­fense an­nounced they would hire 200 work­ers and re-open op­er­a­tions at their West Point, MS pro­duc­tion plant. West Point had been idle since June 2013 due to se­ques­tra­tion, the draw­down in Afghanistan and de­clin­ing orders.

In Sep­tem­ber 2014, amidst nu­mer­ous di­vesti­tures, Nav­is­tar Inc. CEO Troy Clark gave Nav­is­tar De­fense a vote of con­fi­dence, not­ing that the mil­i­tary busi­ness unit would be re­tained. In a Sep­tem­ber 2014 in­ter­view with Reuters he said “it’s not a bil­lion-dol­lar growth op­por­tu­nity, but it’s not some­thing that’s bleed­ing off the fu­ture for­tunes of our company.”

On Oc­to­ber 14, 2014, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $9.2 mil­lion firm-fixed price for­eign mil­i­tary sale (FMS) con­tract to Jor­dan for one hun­dred 4-ton 4×4 cargo trucks and twenty days of op­er­a­tor and main­te­nance train­ing. Work will be per­formed in New Carlisle, Ohio with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of May 20, 2015. Bids were so­licited via the in­ter­net with nine­teen received.

On Feb­ru­ary 2, 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $15,381,152 firm-fixed-price con­tract with op­tions for eight MRAP MaxxPro Hard­ware Kits to sup­port MaxxPro ve­hi­cle stan­dard­iza­tion and reset. Work will be per­formed in Lisle, Illi­nois, with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of July 16, 2016. Bids were so­licited via the In­ter­net with one re­ceived. Fis­cal 2015 other pro­cure­ment (Army) funds in the amount of $15,381,152 are being ob­lig­ated at the time of the award. Army Con­tract­ing Com­mand, War­ren, Michi­gan, is the con­tract­ing ac­tiv­ity (W56HZV-15-C-0070).

On March 18, 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $83,424,223 cost-plus-fixed-fee multi-year con­tract for sys­tem tech­ni­cal sup­port and sys­tem sus­tain­ment tech­ni­cal sup­port for MRAP MaxxPro ve­hi­cles. Fund­ing and work lo­ca­tion will be de­ter­mined with each order with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of March 31, 2019. One bid was so­licited with one re­ceived. Army Con­tract­ing Com­mand, War­ren, Michi­gan, is the con­tract­ing ac­tiv­ity (W56HZV-15-D-0037).

NavistarLogo1

On April 13, 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $17,522,057 firm-fixed-price con­tract with op­tions to pro­cure seven Mine Re­sis­tant Am­bush Pro­tec­tion MaxxPro Dash hard­ware kits for MaxxPro ve­hi­cle stan­dard­iza­tion and reset. Work will be per­formed in Lisle, Illi­nois, with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of Dec. 31, 2015. One bid was so­licited with one re­ceived. Fis­cal 2014 and 2015 other funds in the amount of $17,522,057 are being ob­lig­ated at the time of the award. Army Con­tract­ing Com­mand, War­ren, Michi­gan, is the con­tract­ing ac­tiv­ity (W56HZV-15-C-0092).

On April 30, 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense was awarded a $31,199,783 mod­i­fi­ca­tion (P00004) to con­tract W56HZV-14-C-0102 for reset and up­grade of the MRAP (mine-re­sis­tant am­bush pro­tected) fam­ily of ve­hi­cles to Code-A stan­dards. Work will be per­formed in West Point, Mis­sis­sippi, with an es­ti­mated com­ple­tion date of July 31, 2016. Fis­cal 2013 and 2015 other pro­cure­ment (Army) and op­er­a­tions and main­te­nance (Army) funds in the amount of $17,990,419 were ob­lig­ated at the time of the award. Army Con­tract­ing Com­mand, War­ren, Michi­gan, is the con­tract­ing activity.

In April 2015, Nav­is­tar De­fense Pres­i­dent Bob Walsh re­signed. On May 19, Kevin Thomas was pro­moted to President.

2001-Present: Failed engine strategy, layoffs, consolidation and turnaround

Failed Engine Strategy

In 2001, then CEO Dan Us­t­ian faced nu­mer­ous EPA reg­u­la­tions to re­duce the amount of ni­tro­gen ox­ides and soot em­a­nat­ing from diesel en­gines. De­spite the change in the com­pli­ance arena, the reg­u­la­tions would not begin to be phased in until 2007, with full im­ple­men­ta­tion slated for 2010.

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Us­t­ian had mul­ti­ple en­gi­neer­ing paths avail­able. Among them were Se­lec­tive Cat­alytic Re­duc­tion (SCR), Ex­haust Gas Re­cir­cu­la­tion (EGR) or the use of ni­tro­gen oxide ab­sorbers. All re­quired more en­gi­neer­ing and de­vel­op­ment to achieve com­pli­ance. Us­t­ian be­lieved truck­ers did not want to bother with an extra tank of fluid af­tertreat­ment. As a re­sult, he con­vinced the com­pany to spend $700 mil­lion to fund EGR development.

On Oc­to­ber 31, 2007, Nav­is­tar for­mally an­nounced their in­tent to move for­ward with EGR as the com­pany’s strat­egy. The com­pany state­ment in­cluded Us­t­ian men­tion­ing “I have pub­licly been an ad­vo­cate of cus­tomer friendly emis­sions con­trol so­lu­tions which do not add ad­di­tional costs to our truck and bus cus­tomers. While SCR is a means to achieve the NOx re­duc­tion re­quire­ment for 2010, it comes with a steep cost to our cus­tomers. Our abil­ity to achieve our goals with­out adding cus­tomer cost and in­con­ve­nience is a com­pet­i­tive ad­van­tage for International.”

On No­vem­ber 24, 2008, Nav­is­tar re­vealed it would use EPA Cred­its in order to com­ply with the 2010 legislation.

In Feb­ru­ary 2009, Us­t­ian touted the ben­e­fits of EGR tech­nol­ogy as a key dif­fer­en­tia­tor for the com­pany’s en­gines. How­ever, by now, the rest of the in­dus­try had cho­sen to use the com­pli­ant SCR tech­nol­ogy. Us­t­ian dis­agreed with SCR, say­ing “the other thing that EGR avoids is the risks of an SCR strat­egy. Read the label on this and it will show you that there are chal­lenges with keep­ing con­trol of using this tech­nol­ogy: ‘Store be­tween 23 de­grees and 68 de­grees.’ So es­sen­tially it says you can’t throw it out­side. You can’t op­er­ate it in con­di­tions above 85 [de­grees] or below 12 [de­grees]. You can, but, it will put the bur­den onto the cus­tomers.”

Non-Conformance Penalties

The EPA rec­og­nized Nav­is­tar’s im­mi­nent non-com­pli­ance and cre­ated a sys­tem of Non-Con­for­mance Penal­ties (NCPs) that in­cluded a $1,919 dol­lar fine for every non-com­pli­ant en­gine that Nav­is­tar sold. To bridge the gap, Nav­is­tar began using EPA cred­its it had pre­vi­ously earned for being com­pli­ant in lieu of pay­ing fines. In Au­gust 2012, Nav­is­tar stated they would run out of EPA cred­its soon. Only days ear­lier the EPA an­nounced in­creased new penal­ties of $3,744 per engine.

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In March 2009, Nav­is­tar sued the EPA, claim­ing that the agency’s guid­ance doc­u­ments for SCR im­ple­men­ta­tion were in­valid be­cause they were adopted with­out a pub­lic process and with input only from the SCR en­gine mak­ers. Nav­is­tar and the EPA set­tled the law­suit a year later.

Fur­ther mask­ing the EGR prob­lem were high mil­i­tary sales. In the com­pany’s 2010 10K re­port, Nav­is­tar cited or­ders for MRAPs as off­set­ting flat com­mer­cial sales due to the recession.

Move to Lisle, IL

In Sep­tem­ber 2010, de­spite un­cer­tainty over EGR and a slug­gish econ­omy, Nav­is­tar lead­er­ship re­vived an ef­fort to re­lo­cate the com­pany head­quar­ters from War­renville, IL, to nearby Lisle, IL. The new head­quar­ters was ex­pected to re­tain or cre­ate 3,000 per­ma­nent jobs and about 400 con­struc­tion jobs. Nav­is­tar Pres­i­dent Dan Us­t­ian said roughly 500 en­gi­neers would be hired im­me­di­ately. Nav­is­tar aimed to in­vest $110 mil­lion in the 1.2 mil­lion-square-foot Lisle cam­pus, which would in­clude prod­uct de­vel­op­ment. The state gave Nav­is­tar in­cen­tives of nearly $65 mil­lion, in­clud­ing tax credits.

In March 2011, Nav­is­tar an­nounced the move to Lisle. Ren­o­va­tions were com­pleted in the fall, but the com­pany grad­u­ally moved from War­renville to Lisle in sum­mer 2011. “You can’t build a cam­pus like this any­where for any­where near the price we paid for this, and even though you might get more in­cen­tives, when you look at the whole pic­ture, you re­ally can’t beat it,” said Don Sharp, Nav­is­tar vice president.

In 2011, Nav­is­tar began phas­ing out its Truck De­vel­op­ment and Tech­nol­ogy Cen­ter (TDTC) in Fort Wayne, In­di­ana. In early De­cem­ber 2011, the com­pany laid off 130 em­ploy­ees, mostly en­gi­neers and de­sign­ers who were United Auto Work­ers members. In total, 300 out of 1,400 Fort Wayne em­ploy­ees even­tu­ally ac­cepted of­fers to re­lo­cate to Illi­nois. The other 1,100 work­ers ei­ther re­tired or chose to re­main in In­di­ana and find work elsewhere. The cost to move em­ploy­ees and con­sol­i­date op­er­a­tions was es­ti­mated to be $75 mil­lion. The only Nav­is­tar em­ploy­ees re­main­ing after De­cem­ber 2012 were 20-25 peo­ple man­ning the com­pany’s test track on Ox­ford Street. In late July 2015, the TDTC closed and the re­main­ing work­ers were let go.

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In Jan­u­ary 2012, the EPA adopted an in­terim final rule that al­lowed Nav­is­tar to con­tinue sell­ing the en­gines sub­ject to NCPs. Sev­eral Nav­is­tar com­peti­tors sued, and in June 2012 the same ap­peals court ruled that EPA’s in­terim rule was in­valid be­cause it did not give the pub­lic no­tice and an op­por­tu­nity for comment.

In the mean time, Nav­is­tar’s EGR de­ci­sion had led to sig­nif­i­cant re­li­a­bil­ity and qual­ity prob­lems. Truck dri­vers began los­ing trust and con­fi­dence as Nav­is­tar ve­hi­cles were break­ing down fre­quently. Con­se­quently, they aban­doned Nav­is­tar trucks in favor of com­peti­tor’s trucks.

Tension Mounts

In June 2012, spec­u­la­tion mounted about a pos­si­ble takeover of the strug­gling truck maker. This came as hedge fund MHR Fund Man­age­ment LLC dis­closed a 13.6% stake in the com­pany, slightly higher than bil­lion­aire ac­tivist in­vestor Carl Icahn’s 11.9% stake. As a re­sult, Nav­is­tar adopted a poi­son pill de­fense. If the plan were trig­gered by an out­side in­vestor tak­ing a stake of 15 per­cent or more in the com­pany, then Nav­is­tar would issue its share­hold­ers rights that would let them buy new com­mon stock in the com­pany at a dis­count of 50 per­cent: For each share held, the in­vestor could buy $280 worth of new shares for $140. The in­vestor who took the 15 per­cent stake or more would not have the right to buy ad­di­tional shares.

In Au­gust 2012, Nav­is­tar an­nounced it would use Cum­mins en­gines and SCR technology. After 37 years with the com­pany, Dan Us­t­ian re­tired im­me­di­ately in Au­gust 2012 and left his po­si­tion on the board as well. For­mer Tex­tron CEO Lewis Camp­bell was named in­terim CEO and Troy Clarke was pro­moted to Chief Op­er­at­ing Officer. Us­t­ian’s sev­er­ance pack­age began at $7.9 mil­lion. The com­pany’s proxy state­ment dur­ing this time es­ti­mated the total pack­age to be $14.6 mil­lion, con­tin­gent on a share price of $42.07 on Oct. 31, 2011, the end of the com­pany’s fis­cal year.

On Sep­tem­ber 9, 2012, bil­lion­aire and key stock holder Carl Icahn sent an open let­ter to Nav­is­tar’s board, blast­ing them for “abysmal busi­ness de­ci­sions” and “poor cor­po­rate gov­er­nance.” Icahn noted from 2009-2012, that “this Board has au­tho­rized spend­ing share­holder money on law­suits against sup­pli­ers, com­peti­tors and reg­u­la­tors, mar­ket­ing plans to con­vince cus­tomers that non-com­pli­ant en­gines are ac­tu­ally com­pli­ant, ac­cu­mu­lat­ing non-core as­sets such as a Recre­ational Ve­hi­cle man­u­fac­turer, and a “gold-plated” cor­po­rate head­quar­ters that cost over $100 mil­lion. The one thing this Board re­fused to spend money on was a back-up plan in­volv­ing the in­dus­try stan­dard tech­nol­ogy Nav­is­tar now must rely on.”

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In a Sep­tem­ber 2012 in­ter­view, Cum­mins CEO Tom Linebarger said, “all we did was act nice to them (Nav­is­tar) even when they didn’t talk nicely about us,” he smiled, re­call­ing harsh com­ments that Nav­is­tar ex­ec­u­tives had made about SCR being used by all its competitors.

In Oc­to­ber 2012, Chief Prod­uct Of­fi­cer Deepak Kapur stepped down, fol­lowed by Group Vice Pres­i­dent of Prod­uct De­vel­op­ment Ramin Younessi in De­cem­ber 2012. CIO Don Sharp also left the com­pany in April 2013.

Layoffs and consolidation

Au­gust 2012 fea­tured a Vol­un­tary Sep­a­ra­tion Pro­gram (VSP) as well as in­vol­un­tary lay­offs. This was due to the failed en­gine strat­egy, ris­ing war­ranty costs and de­clines in com­mer­cial and mil­i­tary sales. The com­pany let go 500 em­ploy­ees and in Sep­tem­ber 2012, an­nounced plans to lay off 200 more salaried employees.

In ad­di­tion, the com­pany an­nounced it would close its Gar­land, Texas man­u­fac­tur­ing fa­cil­ity by mid-2013, re­sult­ing in the loss of 900 jobs.

In March 2013, Nav­is­tar an­nounced that in­terim CEO Lewis Camp­bell would step down and COO Troy Clarke would be named CEO and Chair­man of the Board. Jack Allen was named COO. In June 2013, CFO A.J. Cederoth stepped down and James M. Moran, Nav­is­tar se­nior vice pres­i­dent and trea­surer, would act as in­terim CFO until a suc­ces­sor could be found. In late June 2013, for­mer Gen­eral Mo­tors ex­ec­u­tive Wal­ter Borst was named Ex­ec­u­tive VP and CFO.

In Sep­tem­ber 2013, Nav­is­tar an­nounced it would cut 500 more jobs amid a larger than ex­pected third quar­ter loss. Nav­is­tar re­ported a slower than ex­pected re­turn to prof­itabil­ity due to large mar­ket share losses, de­clin­ing sales and weak mar­ket conditions.

In May 2014, a third round of lay-offs in as many years oc­curred at the cor­po­rate head­quar­ters as part of on­go­ing cost cut­ting measures.

On July 31, 2015, Nav­is­tar ceased op­er­a­tions and laid off the re­main­ing 15 em­ploy­ees at the Truck De­vel­op­ment and Tech­nol­ogy Cen­ter (TDTC) in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

Cost-cutting and divestitures

As part of the turn­around plan, Nav­is­tar ex­ec­u­tives cut costs ag­gres­sively. They cut SG&A costs by 16% in 2013 and cut prod­uct de­vel­op­ment spend­ing by 24%. In­terim CEO Lewis Camp­bell’s pri­or­i­ties in­cluded a focus on qual­ity, re­duc­ing the com­pany’s cost struc­ture and par­ing back its prod­uct line.

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Nav­is­tar also sold sev­eral busi­nesses that it deemed were not pro­vid­ing enough of a Re­turn On In­vested Cap­i­tal (ROIC). Among them were their Monaco RV busi­ness as well as Work­horse Chassis. They also ex­ited their joint ven­ture with Mahin­dra  and sold off their E-Z Pack unit, which made bod­ies for garbage trucks, as well as its Con­ti­nen­tal Mixer unit, which made con­crete mix­ers, for prices the com­pany char­ac­ter­ized as “not material.”

In Jan­u­ary 2014, Forbes re­ported sev­eral key chal­lenges fac­ing Nav­is­tar, which in­clude de­clin­ing mil­i­tary sales, a pen­sion plan un­der­funded by $2.7 bil­lion, two self-dis­closed weak­nesses in ac­count­ing prac­tices and a new col­lec­tive bar­gain­ing agree­ment for the com­pany’s 6,000 full and part-time work­ers who are rep­re­sented by labor unions.

In Feb­ru­ary 2014, Nav­is­tar an­nounced it would move some en­gine pro­duc­tion op­er­a­tions from Huntsville, AL, to Mel­rose Park, IL by sum­mer 2014. The move elim­i­nated 280 jobs in Al­abama and saved an es­ti­mated $22 mil­lion. Nav­is­tar said it would keep two other diesel en­gine plants op­er­at­ing in Huntsville.

In Sep­tem­ber 2014, Nav­is­tar re­ported its best quar­ter in years. It an­nounced a third quar­ter net loss of $2 mil­lion, or $0.02 per di­luted share, com­pared to a third quar­ter 2013 net loss of $247 mil­lion, or $3.06 per di­luted share. It was also in Sep­tem­ber that CEO Troy Clarke an­nounced that the com­pany’s biggest di­vesti­tures were com­plete, and that the focus would now be on re­gain­ing lost mar­ket share.

On No­vem­ber 6, 2014, lead­er­ship changes con­tin­ued at Nav­is­tar, with Ex­ec­u­tive VP and COO Jack Allen re­tir­ing im­me­di­ately. Rather than hire a new COO, CEO Troy Clarke split the COO du­ties among three other executives.

Legal issues and struggle for profitability

In De­cem­ber 2014, the United States Ju­di­cial Panel on Mul­ti­dis­trict Lit­i­ga­tion or­dered that 13 of 14 civil law­suits brought against Nav­is­tar for MaxxForce en­gines would be con­sol­i­dated into one case. The con­sol­i­dated law­suits say Nav­is­tar’s use of Ad­vanced Ex­haust Gas Re­cir­cu­la­tion emis­sion con­trol sys­tem, or EGR, was de­fec­tive and re­sulted in re­peated en­gine fail­ures and fre­quent re­pairs and downtime.

On De­cem­ber 16, 2014, Nav­is­tar re­ported a larger than ex­pected 4th quar­ter net loss of $72 mil­lion. While sales rose 9 per­cent to $3 bil­lion, the com­pany cited re­struc­tur­ing and war­ranty costs as the main rea­sons for the loss. A day ear­lier, the com­pany an­nounced it would be clos­ing its en­gine foundry in In­di­anapo­lis, re­sult­ing in the loss of 100 jobs and cost­ing $11 mil­lion. The com­pany es­ti­mated an­nual sav­ings of $13 mil­lion in op­er­at­ing costs.

In March 2015, Nav­is­tar re­ported a first quar­ter 2015 net loss of $42 mil­lion, or $0.52 per di­luted share, com­pared to a first quar­ter 2014 net loss of $248 mil­lion, or $3.05 per di­luted share. Rev­enues in the quar­ter were $2.4 bil­lion, up $213 mil­lion or 10 per­cent, ver­sus the first quar­ter of 2014. The higher rev­enues in the quar­ter were dri­ven by a 17 per­cent year-over-year in­crease in char­ge­outs for Class 6-8 trucks and buses in the United States and Canada. This in­cluded a 42 per­cent in­crease in school buses; a 25 per­cent in­crease in Class 6/7 medium trucks; a 7 per­cent in­crease in Class 8 heavy trucks; and a 5 per­cent in­crease in Class 8 se­vere ser­vice trucks. Higher sales in the com­pany’s ex­port truck op­er­a­tions also con­tributed to the in­crease, par­tially off­set by a de­crease in used truck sales. The com­pany fin­ished the first quar­ter with a 27 per­cent year-over-year in­crease in order back­log for Class 6-8 trucks.

On June 4, 2015, Nav­is­tar re­ported a sec­ond quar­ter net loss of $64 mil­lion, or 78 cents a share, com­pared with a year-ear­lier loss of $297 mil­lion, or $3.65 a share. Rev­enue fell to $2.69 bil­lion from $2.75 bil­lion. An­a­lysts had ex­pected a loss of 18 cents a share and rev­enue of $2.82 billion.

On June 9, 2015, Nav­is­tar named Jeff Sass as the new Se­nior VP of North Amer­i­can Truck Sales. Sass pre­vi­ously worked 20 years for rival Paccar.

On June 12, 2015, Mark Rachesky’s MHR Fund Man­age­ment LLC dis­closed a 6% in­creased stake in Nav­is­tar, up to 15,446,562 shares. The firm now owns 18.9% of Navistar.

In July 2015, the En­vi­ron­men­tal Pro­tec­tion Agency filed a civil law­suit against Nav­is­tar seek­ing $300 mil­lion in fines over its use of non-com­pli­ant en­gines in its 2010-model trucks – en­gines that did not meet the agency’s ex­haust emis­sion standards. “Be­cause (Nav­is­tar) com­pleted man­u­fac­tur­ing and as­sem­bling processes for the sub­ject en­gines in 2010 … each and every en­gine was ‘pro­duced’ in 2010 and is there­fore not a model 2009 en­gine,” the com­plaint said. Nav­is­tar clas­si­fied the en­gines as 2009 model year en­gines be­cause it began as­sem­bling them in 2009. Nav­is­tar has stated they dis­pute the al­le­ga­tions and would “ag­gres­sively de­fend” their position.

On July 20, 2015, Nav­is­tar an­nounced that it was re­fi­nanc­ing the $697.5 mil­lion se­nior se­cured term loan fa­cil­ity of Nav­is­tar, Inc., which ma­tures in Au­gust 2017, with a new $1.040 bil­lion se­nior se­cured term loan, which will ma­ture in Au­gust 2020. The re­fi­nanc­ing will ex­tend the ma­tu­rity of the term loan fa­cil­ity and pro­vide ad­di­tional liq­uid­ity and fi­nan­cial flex­i­bil­ity for the company.

Brands

International Trucks

UPSIntl4000
 DuraStar Box (van body) truck
Navistar International Prostar
 ProStar® Semi tractor
FEMA - 38851 - County Road crew cleans storm drainage ditches
 WorkStar Dump truck

In 1986, after the tran­si­tion from In­ter­na­tional Har­vester to Nav­is­tar, the truck prod­uct line (es­sen­tially all that was left) dropped the “Har­vester” por­tion of the brand name. In­ter­na­tional pro­duces a va­ri­ety of medium-duty, over-the-road, and se­vere-ser­vice trucks.

Pickups (XT-Series)
International CXT pickupMXT (2004–2008)
International MXT Wayco.caCXT
International MXT on dealer delivery trailerRXT
Medium Duty
International TerraStarInternational TerraStar Class 4-5 conventional
Ford LCF (and its International CF-CityStar counterpart)International CityStar LCF (low-cab forward) cab-over
International durastarInternational DuraStar Class 6-7 conventional
Class 8
2008-present International LoneStarInternational LoneStar conventional
2006-present International ProStarInternational ProStar+ conventional
International 9400i RedInternational 9000 Series conventional
2002-present International TranStar tractorInternational TranStar conventional
Severe-service
International PayStarInternational PayStar conventional
2008-present International WorkStarInternational WorkStar conventional

Navistar Defense

Pickup trucks
  • International SOTV-A
  • International SOTV-B
  • International MXT-MV
  • International MXT-MVU
MRAPs
Class 8
  • International ATX -6
  • International ATX -8
  • International 5000-MV
  • International 7000-MV

IC Bus

Further information: IC Bus and AmTran
IC BE school bus
 IC Bus BE-Series school bus

In­ter­na­tional has a long his­tory in the school bus in­dus­try as a chas­sis provider, dat­ing to when school buses first be­came mo­tor­ized. In 1991, Nav­is­tar en­tered the school bus in­dus­try as a body man­u­fac­turer when it began its ac­qui­si­tion of Am­Tran, an Arkansas-based com­pany founded as Ward Body Works in 1933. Today, IC Bus pro­duces sev­eral mod­els of full-sized school buses along with buses for com­mer­cial use.

School/activity buses
Ford cutaway van chassis with a modular body Ambulance NY CityAE-Series cutaway-cab conventional (based on International TerraStar)
BE-Series conventional (International 3300LP chassis)
2005-present International 3300 HCS bus49CE-Series conventional (International 3300 chassis)
available in diesel-electric hybrid configuration
2007 International 3000-3900 IC RE 300 Of Fairfax County Public Schools Fairfax, VirginiaRE-Series rear-engine transit-style (International 3000 chassis)
Commercial buses

Along with com­mer­cial-use de­riv­a­tives of the school bus prod­uct lines, IC of­fers these dis­tinct products:

Motorcoaches

IC Bus has in­tro­duced con­cept ve­hi­cles in both 40 feet (12 m) and 45 feet (14 m) lengths.

International Harvester/Navistar diesel engines

In­ter­na­tional Truck and En­gine re­cently launched the “MaxxForce” brand name for its line of diesel en­gines. En­gines were re­branded as “MaxxForce” fol­lowed by a num­ber cor­re­spond­ing to the en­gine’s dis­place­ment, rounded up. So the 4.5L VT275 be­came the “MaxxForce 5. The Maxxforce Diesel en­gine line has re­cently been dis­con­tin­ued as a re­sult of Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional hav­ing many is­sues and re­ports of prob­lems with the en­gine. Ford con­tin­ued to use the Power Stroke brand name on their In­ter­na­tional-sourced en­gines. How­ever, the new 6.7L Power Stroke is not an In­ter­na­tional de­signed engine.

Joint ventures

Ford Motor Company

Since the 1980s, Nav­is­tar has had a close re­la­tion­ship with Ford Motor Com­pany. The re­la­tion­ship started out as an en­gine-shar­ing deal, but evolved into the pro­duc­tion of en­tire ve­hi­cles. How­ever, in May 2014, Ford cut Nav­is­tar out of the busi­ness of the F-650 and F-750 com­mer­cial trucks. Nav­is­tar had built them for Ford since 2001. Be­gin­ning in 2015, Ford plans to start mak­ing the trucks them­selves. It is ap­prox­i­mately a $400 mil­lion a year business.

 Ford F-650, a product of Blue Diamond Truck
Ford F-650, a product of Blue Diamond Truck

Ford PowerStroke diesel

As a re­sult of the gas crises of the 1970s, big-block gaso­line V8 en­gines (such as the Ford 460) had begun to fall out of favor with pickup-truck buy­ers. In the 1980s, diesel en­gines in Amer­i­can pickup trucks (in­tro­duced by Gen­eral Mo­tors in 1978) had be­come pop­u­lar, as they of­fered the power of a big-block V8 with the fuel econ­omy of a smaller en­gine. Ford en­tered into a sup­ply agree­ment with In­ter­na­tional Har­vester to re­ceive its 6.9 L IDI V8 en­gine. The first diesel-pow­ered Ford pickup trucks de­buted for 1982; it was avail­able for 3/4 and 1-ton mod­els. GM at the time had a De­troit Diesel V8 en­gine also on its debut, prior to that GM used a 350 Diesel. Dodge started using a Cum­mins six-cylin­der in 1988.

In 1994, when the In­ter­na­tional 7.3 L IDI V8 was re­placed by the T444E, the diesel op­tion was branded “Ford Pow­er­Stroke” to em­pha­size the switch to di­rect in­jec­tion. Through­out the 1990s and 2000s, Ford of­fered In­ter­na­tional/Nav­is­tar V8 (as the DT in­line-6 was far too large to pack­age in a pickup truck) in the2011 Ford Super Duty Ford F-250 XLTFord Super Duty pickup trucks.2004-15 F-750 Super Duty in use servicing a water pump

2004-15 F-750 Super Duty in use servicing a water pump

As of 2010, the 6.4 L Ford Pow­er­Stroke V8 was the last of the In­ter­na­tional/Nav­is­tar diesels used in Ford’s F-Se­ries Super Duty lineup. When Ford re­designed the Super Duty in 2011, it was fit­ted with a 6.7 L V8 de­signed and pro­duced by Ford.

Blue Diamond Truck

In 2001, Nav­is­tar formed a joint ven­ture with long­time (20 years) cus­tomer Ford Motor Com­pany to man­u­fac­ture medium-duty trucks and parts, in­clud­ing diesel en­gines for both par­ent com­pa­nies. The new com­pany, Blue Di­a­mond Truck Co. LLC, op­er­ates in the Nav­is­tar plant in Gen­eral Es­cobedo, Mex­ico. Its first prod­ucts were the2008 MHV Ford F650 01

2004 Ford F-650 and F-750 medium-duty trucks.

Anhui Jianghuai Navistar

On 16 Sep­tem­ber 2010, Anhui Jianghuai Au­to­mo­bile Co., Ltd. (JAC) an­nounced joint ven­tures with NC2 Global and Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Cor­po­ra­tion that will de­velop, build, and mar­ket heavy duty trucks and diesel en­gines in China.

Mahindra Navistar

Main article: Mahindra Navistar

Nav­is­tar formed a joint ven­ture with Mahin­dra & Mahin­dra to build heavy trucks in India under the “Mahin­dra In­ter­na­tional” brand, which has since been re­named Mahin­dra Nav­is­tar. These trucks were dis­played at Auto Expo 2010 in Delhi, India.

The Joint Ven­ture ceased as Nav­is­tar ex­ited the joint ven­ture in 2013.

Tatra

Tatra and Nav­is­tar De­fence in­tro­duced at Eu­rosatory Ex­po­si­tion in Paris, France (June 14–18, 2010) the re­sults of their strate­gic al­liance since Oc­to­ber 2009, the mod­els ATX6 (uni­ver­sal con­tainer car­rier) and ATX8 (troop carrier) The ve­hi­cles ap­pear to be based on2010 Tatra T815 TERRno2Tatra T815-7 (T817) 6×6, 8×8 chassis, sus­pen­sion and cab­ins while using Nav­is­tar en­gines and other components. Under the deal Nav­is­tar De­fence and Tatra A.S. will mar­ket the ve­hi­cles in North Amer­ica, which in­cludes sales to the United States mil­i­tary and for­eign mil­i­tary sales fi­nanced by the United States gov­ern­ment. Tatra will source parts and com­po­nents through Nav­is­tar’s global parts and sup­port net­work for Tatra trucks de­liv­ered in mar­kets out­side of North Amer­ica, as well as mar­ket Nav­is­tar-Tatra ve­hi­cles around the world in their pri­mary markets.

Others

  • In 2005, Navistar purchased MWM International Motores, a Brazilian engine manufacturer formerly associated with Deutz AG.
  • Navistar International has a contract with Budget Truck Rental to produce their rental trucks.
  • Navistar entered into an agreement to purchase General Motors’ medium duty truck unit in 2007, but because of changing market conditions, the purchase was not concluded.

Plug-in electric vehicles

Modec FedEx truck, LA
 eStar electric van in Los Angeles in 2010. The vehicle was manufactured in the U.S. under license from Modec.
Coca Cola eStar electric truck at Washington D.C.
 eStar delivery truck in Washington. D.C. in 2012

Plug-in hybrid electric bus

The U.S. De­part­ment of the En­ergy an­nounced the se­lec­tion of Nav­is­tar Cor­po­ra­tion for a cost-shared award of up to US$10 mil­lion to de­velop, test, and de­ploy plug-in hy­brid elec­tric ve­hi­cle(PHEV) school buses. The pro­ject aims to de­ploy 60 ve­hi­cles for a three-year pe­riod in school bus fleets across the na­tion. The ve­hi­cles will be ca­pa­ble of run­ning in ei­ther elec­tric-only or hy­brid modes that can be recharged from stan­dard elec­tri­cal out­lets. Be­cause elec­tric­ity will be their pri­mary fuel, they will con­sume less pe­tro­leum than stan­dard ve­hi­cles. To de­velop the PHEV school bus, Nav­is­tar will ex­am­ine a range of hy­brid ar­chi­tec­tures and eval­u­ate ad­vanced en­ergy stor­age de­vices, with the goal of de­vel­op­ing a ve­hi­cle with a 40-mile (64 km) range. Travel be­yond the range will be fa­cil­i­tated by a clean diesel en­gine ca­pa­ble of run­ning on re­new­able fuels. The DOE fund­ing will cover up to half of the pro­ject’s cost and will be pro­vided over three years, sub­ject to an­nual ap­pro­pri­a­tions.

eStar electric van

The eStar is an all-elec­tric van man­u­fac­tured in Wakarusa, In­di­ana. Pro­duc­tion began in March 2010 and first de­liv­er­ies began two months later. The tech­nol­ogy used in eStar was li­censed to Nav­is­tar in 2009 in a joint ven­ture with Modec and Nav­is­tar bought the in­tel­lec­tual prop­erty rights from the Modec’s bank­ruptcy ad­min­is­tra­tors in 2011. The in­tro­duc­tion of the eStar was sup­ported by a US$39.2 mil­lion U.S. De­part­ment of En­ergy stim­u­lus grant under the 2009 Amer­i­can Re­cov­ery and Rein­vest­ment Act.

The eStar has a 5,100 lb (2,300 kg) pay­load ca­pac­ity and is avail­able with a 14- or 16-foot cargo box. The ve­hi­cle is pow­ered by a 70 kW 102 hp elec­tric motor pow­ered by an 80kWhr lithium-ion bat­tery pack sup­plied by A123 Sys­tems, and also uses re­gen­er­a­tive brak­ing. The elec­tric van has a range of 100 mi (160 km), and a full charge takes be­tween 6 and 8 hours. By May 2010 the eStar had re­ceived U.S. En­vi­ron­men­tal Pro­tec­tion Agency (EPA) and CARB cer­ti­fi­ca­tions. The eStar also meets all Fed­eral Motor Ve­hi­cle Safety Stan­dards (FMVSS).

The first vans were de­liv­ered in May 2010 to FedEx Ex­press for use in Los Angeles. Other cus­tomers in­clude Pa­cific Gas and Elec­tric Com­pany (PG&E), The Coca-Cola Com­pany, and Canada Post. The eStar has a price of US$150,000.

Criticism

In De­cem­ber 2011, the non­par­ti­san or­ga­ni­za­tion Pub­lic Cam­paign crit­i­cized Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional for spend­ing $6.31 mil­lion on lob­by­ingand not pay­ing any taxes dur­ing 2008-2010, in­stead get­ting $18 mil­lion in tax re­bates, de­spite mak­ing a profit of $896 mil­lion and in­creas­ing ex­ec­u­tive pay by 81%. On Jan 31, 2005, Nav­is­tar Fi­nan­cial said it would re­state fi­nan­cial state­ments for fis­cal years 2002 and 2003 and the first three quar­ters of fis­cal 2004, be­cause it did not take into con­sid­er­a­tion po­ten­tial changes to fu­ture in­come. On April 7, 2006, Nav­is­tar re­stated fi­nan­cial re­sults from 2002 through 2004, and for the first three quar­ters of 2005, due to ac­count­ing prac­tices that are the sub­ject of a con­tin­u­ing review.

Images

Navistar International Vehicles

International LoneStar

2010 International LoneStarTractor Trailer

Inter-latrun-exhibition-1

IDF Custom International.

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IC Bus CE300 school bus

2008-11-11 Unloading dumspter from a truck

International DuraStar medium-duty truck

2016-Straszenszenen-Mexico-RalfR-WMA 1084

International 4700 SCD

1908 International highwheel pickup1909 Russian International Harvester Advertising Poster1910 International Harvester vehicle Long Lake Regional Park New Brighton Minnesota Mile 118.51911 IHC Mogul tractor1911 International Harvester Auto Wagon1911 International J30 Touring1912 international highwheel Peddlerswagon1912 StudBus1913 International Harvester Cars Autocar1913 International MW. It is powered by a two cylinder engine rearside1913 International MW. It is powered by a two cylinder engine1916 International Model H Truck1917 International Motor Truck Advertising Poster1917 Model F International Motor Truck1917 Model H International Motor Truck1918 international 2-ton1918 International Fire Truck Advertising Card1920 International Harvester tractor1920 Triumph Medium Weight Truck1920-01 International Truck Calendar1920's McCormick Deering Tractor, 13-33 Model E1921 International-Harvester-six-speed-spezial1922 Ford Model T kid hack bus1922 IHC Saving the World From Starvation Advertisement1923 International Municipal Service Truck Catalog1923 International Red Baby Truck Advertising Poster1923 Red Baby Truck Cartoon1924 International Harvester Repair Service Advertising Poster1924 International Motor Truck Advertising Poster1924 International Motor Trucks Advertising Poster1924 International Truck Advertising Poster1924 Model S for today's Throw-Back Thursday! It featured a 4-cylinder, block cast engine and sliding gear1925 Here's a Good Plan That Succeeds1925 Model S International truck owned by Zieglers Furniture Store1926 IH brochure1926 International Harvester Toy Trucks1926 International Transit THUNDER BAY1927 international 4cyl1927 international 541927 International Harvester toys produced by Arcade Toys1927 international S24 4cyl1927 International stakebed1928 international 1ton 6speed Special1928 International Model 15 with body by Moore1928 International Speed Six Truck1928 international truckdumpbed1928 International Trucks Advertising Poster (Brazil)1929 Deering Farm Equipment and International Truck Advertising Poster1929 International Motor Truck Advertising Poster1929 International Six-Speed Special Truck Advertising Poster1929 International Truck Advertising Poster (Argentina)1929 International Trucks Advertising Poster (Africa and India)1930 Advertisement for International fire-rescue trucks featuring the National Air Races held at Curtiss-Reynolds Airport in Chicago1930 international 6spd1930 International Model A-5 Poster1930 International Model AW-1 Truck Advertising Poster1930 International Six-Speed Special Truck Advertising Poster1930 International SSS Special 1ton6spd4cylflathead3spdtrans2spdrear1930-45 IH dealer in Texas, showing trucks, tractors and refrigeration equipment N.P. Hurst Motor Co. IH1931 International Hainje Heerenveen B-48881931 International o1931 International Truck Advertising Poster1931 McCormick-Deering Corn Sheller and Feed Grinder Poster1932 International A-2 Truck Advertisement1932 International Bread Truck1932 International Harvester Bakeries Poster1932 International Harvester Bottling Truck Poster1932 International Harvester Cordoba-Cruz DE1932 International tractor with sleeper hauling for Golden Age Beer1932 International Trucks for Construction Industry1932 International Trucks Poster1932-1956 international 11932-1956 international 41932-1956 international 51932-1956 international 61932-1956 international 71932-1956 international 81932-1956 international 91932-1956 international 101932-1956 international 111932-1956 international 121932-1956 international 131932-1956 international 141932-1956 international 15

1932-1956 international 161932-1956 international 171932-1956 international 181932-1956 international 191932-1956 international 201932-1956 international 211932-1956 international 221932-1956 international 231932-1956 international 241932-1956 international 251932-1956 international 261932-1956 international 271932-1956 international 281932-1956 international 291932-1956 international 301932-1956 international 311932-1956 international 321932-1956 international 331932-1956 international 341932-1956 international 351932-1956 international 361932-1956 international 371932-1956 international 381932-1956 international 391932-1956 international 401932-1956 international 411932-1956 international 421932-1956 international 431932-1956 international 441932-1956 international 451932-1956 international 461932-1956 international 471932-1956 international 481932-1956 international 491932-1956 international 501932-1956 international 511932-1956 international 521932-1956 international 531932-1956 international 541932-1956 international 551932-1956 international 561933 international 1ton 6cyl1933 International D-1 Trucks Advertising Poster1933 international D1truckbuiltbyWillys1933 Wardbuslogo1934 international 19341935 international 1.1,2ton1935 international 6cyl paddy wagon 41935 International C-1 truck owned by Elsner's Blue Ribbon Bakery1935 International Harvester and Packard1935 International late 6cyl armoured by John C Dix Companyfor Federal Reserve Bank built in MemphisTN WNL1935 International Lawrie ModelCs1935 International Truck Advertisement1935 International Truck Advertising Poster1935 International1935 South African International C-35-CS-35 Truck Brochure1936 international 1936 c1_taxi_norway1936 International C-1 Truck Brochure1936 International C-15 Truck Brochure1936 international C301936 International C-35 B and CS-35-B Bus Flyer1936 International C-40 and CS-40 Ad Flyer1936 International C-300 Truck Brochure1936 International dumptruck1936 International Trucks Ad Proof1937 brochure for heating and defrosting systems used in International trucks1937 international ambulance 19371937 international D21937 International Harvester cab-over-engine (COE) tow truck parked in front of Miller Motors dealership.1937 international harvester-d-21937 International Trail Magazine Cover1937 International Truck Ad Proof1937 McCormick-Deering tractor1937 Two specially designed International trucks connected with an awning at an African camp site1937-40 International milk delivery truck owned by Carnation Milk1938 I H Superior1938 international 6cyl deluxe paneltruck1938 International Builds Trucks for Every Class of Hauling1938 International Carr. Buca Born.1938 International D-40 Truck Brochure1938 International Harvester Ad1938 International Harvester D Series Panel Van1938 International Harvester D-DS-30, D-DS-35, D1938 International Industrial Power Advertising Poster1938 International model D-400, Coca Cola1938 International Trail Magazine Cover of Gatti Expedition1938 International Trail Magazine Cover1938 International Truck Advertising Poster a1938 International Truck Advertising Poster1938 International Trucks Advertisement1938-1975 Preserved International Harvester Metro Van in Portland in 20121939 dodge school bus1939 International Air Mail Delivery Truck Advertising Poster1939 International België1939 International D-301939 International D-300 delivery trucks owned by Golden Age Beer1939 International Harvester carr. Renkema Middelstum B-225141939 International harvester rapid ihc1939 International Harvester woodie wagon 19391939 International Jungle Yacht Truck, Commander Gatti1939 International Models D-500 and DR-700 Trucks1939 International Woodies1939 International-d-series-sedan1939IH1940 international 1940 d-2 woody sw1940 International D-400 Truck Advertising Poster1940 International De Luxe Delivery Truck Advertising Poster1940 International D-Line Truck Advertising Poster1940 International Harvester, D5 Panel Van, 'Weddell's Bread', Aberdeen Street, Geelong1940 International madel D-300, owned by Richfield Petroleum1940 International METRO Delivery Trucks1940 International model D International owned by Standard Oil1940 International model D-151940 International Model D-40 and DS-40 Trucks1940 International Panel Truck At Airport1940 International Tanker Truck ad1940 International Woodie Station Wagon1940 International-police-wagon 19401940 Prospector for International Harvester Dealers1940 SchoolBus1941 IH Models K-8, K-10, and K-11 Trucks1941 International Harvester K-5 Wayne1941 International Harvester Truck Advertising Proof1941 International Harvester woodie wagon1941 International Harvester, D2 Station Wagon1941 International Harvester, D30 Motor Buses, City Road, South Melbourne1941 International Harvester, Reo Speed Wagon Bus,11941 international KandFruehauftrailer1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Poster1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Proof a1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Proof b1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Proof1941 International Modelos K-6, KS-6, K-7 and KS-7 Trucks1941 International Truck Advertising Proof a1941 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1941 International Truck Advertising Proof b1941 International Truck Advertising Proof1942 international 6cyl4spd1942 International Harvester Ambulances1942 International Harvester Maintenance Battalion Poster1942 International K6flatbed1942 International1943 Both Working for Victory1943 International Harvester D series1943 International Trucks Alaska Highway Ad1944 Everything Changed But The Paint1944 International (2)1944 International hc m2-41944 International semi-truck (tractor-trailer) on a road with a hazy view of a bridge1944 International Truck on the Ohio River Boulevard1944 International Truck Operated by Mistletoe Express Service, Inc1944 International1945 International M-5H63611945 International Model K-8-F Truck1945 International

1946 International Product Advertising Proof1946 International Truck Advertising Poster a1946 International Truck Advertising Poster1946 International Truck Advertising Proof Logging1946 International Truck Advertising Proof1946 International West Coast Model Truck1947 International Harvester, K Line Station Wagon1947 International HFA1947 International KB and KBR Truck Advertising Proof1947 International KBR-11 Truck Advertising Proof1947 International Model KB-10 Trucks1947 International Truck Advertising Proof a1947 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1947 International Truck Advertising Proof b1947 International Truck Advertising Proof1947 International Trucks Gatti-Hallicrafter's Expedition to Africa1947 International-kb-2-pickup1947 New International Harvester Logo Advertising Poster1947-52 International carr. Verheul NB-28-271948 International Harvester Dittmar1948 International KB-1-M and KB-3-M Metro Delivery Trucks1948 International KB-8 school bus1948 International KB-81948 International KB-8-1 Truck Advertising Proof1948 International Metro Advertising Proof a1948 International Metro Advertising Proof1948 International Model KB-2 Trucks1948 International Panel van1948 International Products Advertising Proof1948 International Tractor-Trailer & Diesel Crawler Tractor1948 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1948 International Truck Advertising Proof1948 REOschoolbus1949 International Harvester Company's annual report1949 INTERNATIONAL Harvester et Half-Track1949 International Harvester RDC 4051949 International Harvester W1949 International Heavy Duty Truck Advertising Proof1949 International K -2 Special Coach Truck and Airplane1949 International KB-81949 International L-120 Truck with Pickup Body1949 International L-120, L-110, and L-130 Trucks1949 International L-130 Truck with Stake Body1949 International L-160 Truck with Platform Body1949 International Metro Advertising Proof1949 International Model KB-5 Trucks1949 International Model KB-8 Trucks1949 International Truck Advertising Proof a1949 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1949 International Truck Advertising Proof Featuring Commander Gatti1949 International trucks promoting United States government bonds1949 International W-301949 International W-3042-L Truck-Van, Closed Top with Semi-Trailer1949 International-metro-kb1m1949 Internationals Harvester s at work1949 International-Visdalsruten1949-52 International carrosserie Hoogeveen NB-67-751950 Blue Bird1950 International Engine Advertising Proof a1950 International Engine Advertising Proof1950 International Gardner Wood 500-5001950 International Harvester ACO `90 Sightliner V-8 gas1950 international harvester bus a1950 International Harvester Bus1950 International Harvester L series1950 International L and LF Truck Advertising Proof1950 International L-110 Panel Truck1950 International L-120 truck loaded with milk cans1950 International L-120 truck, W-4 tractor and grain drill1950 International L-160 Truck Delivering Chickens1950 International L-160 truck owned by the S.L. Daniel Furniture and Mattress Factory1950 International LB-110 Truck1950 International Metro and dump Truck Advertising Proof1950 International Metro Trans delivery truck for Thalimers' Department Store1950 International Truck Advertising Proof - Metro1950 International Truck Advertising Proof a1950 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1950 International Truck Advertising Proof with Truck Driver and Boy1950 International Truck Advertising Proof1950 International Truck Driver Talking with a Boy on a Bike1950 International truck filled with firewood1950 International Truck Hauling Corn Cobs1950 International truck loaded with sacks1950 Loading Bales of Hay from International L-Series Truck1950 Loading Eggs into International L-120 Pickup Truck1950 Loading trees into an International L-120 truck1950 Planting trees out of an International L-120 truck1950 Two men loading bags into a International L-120 truck1950's International Haukes1951 ECF-International Harvester1951 International Half Ton Pickup Truck Advertising Poster1951 International Harvester L1101951 International Harvester ICHBus21951 International Harvester L160 ECF1951 International Harvester Touringcar L160 ECF Matser 231951 International Harvester Touringcar L160 ECF Matser 23a1951 International Harvester Truck with Pumpkins1951 International L-110 Truck (115-Inch W.B.)1951 International LD-400 Series Truck and Trailer1951 International Truck Advertising Poster ad1951 International Truck Advertising Poster1951 International Truck Advertising Proof1951 International1951+1953 International Harvester Sightliner and DCO1952 International C-254 Cultivator on Super C Tractor1952 International harvester Company Military Construction Equipment Transport1952 International Harvester Company of Australia Pty. Ltd1952 International M-40 Marine Corps Vehicle with Wrecker Body1952 international M-40 Truck on Hillside1952 International M-41 and M-54 Cargo Vehicles1952 International M-51 Dump Truck at Fort Hood1952 International M-61 to spread asphalt at Wolters Air Force Base1952 International M-62 Wrecker Moving Truck1952 International M-62 Wrecker1952 international M-139 Transporting Bridge-Building Unit1952 International M-246 Wrecker with Jet Fighter Wreckage1952 International Model M-51 Dump Truck1952 International R-110 Panel Truck1952 International R-110 Truck with Pickup Body1952 International Truck Advertising Proof1952 Man Using Super C Tractor with Cultivator1952 Retro Vintage Kitsch 50s School Kid Red School Bus1953 American-Indian Youth Fathered Around International truck1953 IHC R-205 Sleeper Cab Truck and Farmall Super M Tractor1953 International Harvester D11001953 International Harvester R-195 semi-truck outfitted with a Space Saver cab1953 International Harvester standard model R-110 truck with a pickup body and ADA-RAK travels down a wooded roa1953 International Harvester Travelall 4x4 2149 AC1953 international L-120 Truck1953 International Model R-120 truck1953 International Model RP-195 roadliner truck with attached trailmobile oil tanker.1953 International R110 pickup1953 International R-110 Station Wagon1953 International R-120 Truck at Nursery1953 International R-120 truck with a stake body1953 International R-150 Truck with Van Body1953 International R-165 Roadliner1953 International R-170 stake-body truck1953 International R-170 Truck with Ladder1953 International R-183 School Bus1953 International R-195 And R-120 Trucks1953 International R-195 truck outfitted with a semi-trailer tank body1953 International RA-140 milk delivery truck1953 International RBA-140 Milk Delivery Truck

1953 International Roadliner Oil Tanker1953 International Truck Advertising Proof1953 International Utility1954 IHC red tractor McCormick Farmall1954 International garbage collection truck parked beside a restaurant1954 International Harvester Farmall Super C1954 International KB7 semi-trailer coach1954 International R110 Front End1954 International R110 Truck1954 International R-160 Truck1954 International RA-140 Stand & Drive a1954 International RA-140 Stand & Drive b1954 McCormick No. 141 harvester-thresher (combine) and an International truck1955 Golden Book with International Trucks1955 International Cab Overs1955 International Harvester DC-405-L PIE1955 International Model SM Mounting Metro-Van1955 International R190 with integrated sleeper1955 International R-400 Series trucks1955 International R-Series trucks1955 International S-110 Light Duty Pickup Truck1955 International S-Line Light-Duty Trucks1955 International S-line Medium-Duty Trucks1955 International trucks coastguard1955 Kenworth-Pacific T-126 school bus1956 international A-100 pickup from local gun-car show1956 International DC-4051956 International KS6 Coach1956 International Metro Pepsi Delivery Truck1956 International Model R-202 Oil Field Truck1956 International model RF-190 oil field truck1956 International pickup1956 International Tractors and Truck1956 International Truck Advertising Proof a1956 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1956 International Truck Advertising Proof1956 International V-line COE Heavy-Duty Trucks1956 Workers service oil field equipment International model RDF-192 Truck1957 International A 100 Golden Jubilee Truck1957 International A-100 Truck Postcard1957 International A-110 Truck Postcard1957 International A-120 4x4 Truck Postcard1957 International A-120 Truck Postcard a1957 International A-120 Truck Postcard1957 International A-130 Truck Postcard1957 International A-150 Truck Postcard1957 International A-160 Truck Postcard a1957 International A-160 Truck Postcard1957 International A-180 Truck Postcard a1957 International A-180 Truck Postcard1957 International golden jubilee custom pickup1957 International H 6x6 Rotterdam1957 International Sightliner Trucks1957 International ХМ409, 8x81958 International R-195 Truck-Tilt Cab with Closed Top Van Body1959 International CO Line1959 International DCO1959 International Fire Truck Brochure1959 International Harvester RDC sleeper1959 International Harvester Sightliner 591959 International Heavy-Duty Trucks1959 International Medium and Heavy-Duty Trucks1959 International Medium-Duty Trucks1959 International Truck and Cofferdam1960 International Harvester Travelall & pickup 601960 International Light-Duty Trucks1960 International Truck Advertising Proof1960 International Trucks with Metroette Dari-Van Bodies1960 Universal Engineer Tractor a1960 Universal Engineer Tractor1961 IHC Scout adv1961 International C-line Travelall Station Wagon

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1961 International Harvester DCOF-404's 250 HP Rolls Royce diesels1961 International Harvester Metro Van1961 International Harvester Travelall1961 International RD-4051961 International Scout 801961 international scout1961 international-englebert1961 Meet the International Scout for all roads, all weather, all uses !!1961+1962 International Light-Duty C-Line Trucks1961–1962 IHC C-120 Travelette1962 1803 Schoolmaster included an International V-345, 8-cylinder, gasoline engine1962 Int Harv product line1962 international 1962 scout1962 International dump truck1962 International Harvester DCOF405 tractor with a day cab1962 International Harvester DCOF405 tractor with a sleeper cab1962 International Loadstar 1600 with Flatbed1962 International Mk-II, 4x41962 International model V220 truck1962 International Scout Diesel Nameplate1962 International Travelall 10001962 International truck1962 International Trucks with Metro Bodies1962-65 International Harvester Scout 80 with the roll-down windows1963 Children with Circus Wagon1963 IH Travelakk Ambulance Conversion1963 International ACO a1963 International ACO b1963 International ACO1963 International Trucks Brochure1963s International DCOF-405 Emeryville1964 100,000 Red Carpet Series Scout Advertisement1964 international 1964 pu1964 international 1964 Scout Line1964 International CD-4051964 International Emeryville Cover1964 International Harvester catalog of working toy models1964 International Harvester Scout 641964 International Harvester Travelall 641964 International R1851964 International R-Line Heavy-Duty Trucks1964 International Scout Champagne Series Scout Advertisement1964 International Scout in front of Horse Stable1964 International Scout Miniature Demonstrator1964 international Travelall1965 International 65 Payhauler in Quarry1965 International CO-4000 Trucks1965 International DCO-400 Series Emeryville1965 International Harvester C-Series Travelall Wagon1965 International Light-Duty Trucks Advertising Brochure1965 International Scout 800 Brochure1965 International Scout pickup pulling an Airstream camper in the Nevada hills1965 international scout1965 International Truck and Tractors1965 Loading Milk On to International Truck1965 Standard and Turbocharged Engines for the Scout1966 Advertisement displaying illustrations of the seven International Scout vehicle models, including five 800 models and two Sportops1966 international 4x4 021966 International D-Line Truck used by Astrodome Groundskeepers1966 International Harvester Company's annual report1966 International Harvester Scout 800 Sportop truck1966 international scout 800 (2)1966 International Scout 800 Advertising Poster1966 International Scout 800 Sportop Booklet Back Cover1966 International Scout 800 Sportop featuring the slogan The best dressed all-wheel drive car on the road1966 International Scout 8001966 International Transtar 4200 Semi-Truck1966 International Transtar Semi-Truck1966 International Travelall Family Wagons1966 International, 36-passenger school bus1966–68 International Harvester Scout 800 Sportop convertible IHC-Scout-21967 Couples in International Scout1967 Couples Watch Tennis Match from International Scout Pickup1967 International CO-4000 sleeper1967 International K5 with the same setup, 4Lk Gardner,1967 International M-1200 Metro School Bus1967 International M-1500 Metro School Bus1967 International Pickups The Year's Smartest Numbers1967 International Scout Painted in University of Illinois Colors1967 International Scout V-8 Advertising Booklet1968 International C-1100 school1968 International C-1200 School Bus1968 International Fleetstar Advertising Poster

1968 International Harvester Loadstar bus at the Egged Museum, of Holon, Israel1968 International Harvester on maltese Chassis 26201968 International Scout pickup at the Teenbeat Club owned by Steve Miller1968 International Scout Pickup1968 International Transtar Advertising Poster1968 International Travelall Wagon - What a Boat!1968 International Travelall1968 International Turbostar Truck1968 international-bus1968 Man Inspects Interior of International Scout 800A Pickup1968 Shindig at the Teenbeat Club1969 Automatic Scout Advertisement1969 Fire Fighters Practice with International Scout Fire Truck1969 International C1500 ex-Kingaroy Australië1969 International C1800 ACCO Butterbox. Ex Auckland NZFS. Open backed cab, APEX coachwork1969 International D-405 (2)1969 International D-4051969 International Loadstar Trucks Brochure1969 International Metro Advertising Poster1969 International Scout 800A Interior1969 International Scout 800A Roadster1969 International scout 800A with the top off1969 International Scout Aristocrat Advertisement1969 International Scout Aristocrat Pickup1969 International Scout pickup truck near a public beach1969 International Scout SR-2 Truck1969 International Transtar Semi Truck1969 International Travelall Station Wagon The Total Wagon1969 International Trucks and Campers Advertising Poster1969 Scout Aristocrat Advertisement1969 Testing the International Transtar Semi1969-1975 Wayne International school bus (retired)1970 Couples in the Snow with an International Scout1970 Family with Toboggan and International Scout1970 Hunting Trip with International Travelall 1000 Pickup1970 International Bus with Marching Band and Cheerleaders1970 International C-O 4070A Transtar truck hauling the metal statue St. Francis of the Guns on a trailer down a San Francisco highway1970 International C-O 4070A Transtar truck moving Statue at Mission San Juan Bautista1970 International Harvester Scout with Lift Platform1970 International Harvester truck model C-OF4070A parked by a sign welcoming visitors to Dalton1970 International Scout 4x4 Pickup1970 International Scout Pickup Emblems1970 International Scout Pickup1970 International Travelall Advertising Poster1970 International Travelall Station Wagon Brochure1970 International truck carrying prepacked airline food to Pan American World Airways Boeing 747 airplane1970 Tail of Boeing 747 and International Scout1971 Camping with an International Travelall1971 Fire Prevention Week Parade Float1971 International Harvester Travelall Wagon Perkins Diesel Conversion1971 International Harvester's Sales Engineering Bulletin featuring color illustrations of the (from top left) Unistar, Transtar 4 ...1971 International Johnnie Reb Truck front1971 International Johnnie Reb Truck1971 International Pickup Truck Brochure1971 International Scout Comanche Pickup1971 International Scout Crossing Rural Creek1971 International Scout II Brochure1971 International Scout II pickup trucks parked on the lot of Gilmore International, Inc. Wow Wagon1971 International Scout II Pickup1971 International Scout II WOW Wagon Advertising Poster1971 International Sno-Star Scout towing a float for Fire Prevention Week1971 International Travelall Tow Wagons1972 Airplane Mechanic Works from International Truck1972 Boy Scouts Raise the Flag at Campground1972 Camping with International 1310 Camper1972 Camping with the International Scout1972 Color photograph of a man unloading cartons of milk from an International truck used by the Carnation Company. The truck appears to be an Internati1972 Couple Boating on Small Pond1972 Couples Square Dancing near International Truck1972 Family Camping with International Pickup and Camper1972 Farmers Refueling International 966 Tractor1972 Groundskeepers Water Golf Course Green1972 IHC Scout Comanche at Golf Course1972 International 4200 Truck at Truck Stop1972 International Bus with Carpenter Body1972 International Camper Pickups1972 International Paystar 5000 Series Truck Brochure1972 International Pickup Truck Brochure1972 International Scout II Pickup in Resort Area1972 International Trail magazine featuring a color photograph of a 1600 Loadstar Seven-Up delivery truck1972 International Travelall Tow Wagon1972 International Truck at Power Plant1972 International Truck on Highway a1972 International Truck on Highway1972 Man Loads Purchases into Scout II Pickup1972 Man with International Transtar 42001972 Picnic with International Scout II Pickup and Camper1973 International Bus with Superior 1703 Body1973 International Fire Truck Brochure1973 International Harvester Toy Catalog1973 International Rear-Engine Drive Bus1973 International Scout Action Wheels for Everyone1973 International Scout Think Young Campagne1973 International Scout, Travelall and Travelette Trucks1973 International Transtar 4300 Truck on Highway1974 A Ward (left) and a Wayne (right).1974 International CO-F4070A Transtar1974 International Scout II Truck1975 air pollution inspector wearing sunglasses is holding his badge near the door emblem on his International Scout II pickup1975 Australian Truck Driver waits for Kangaroo1975 Children Looking at Save Our Cats Mural on Trailer1975 Children with International Bus1975 International 19751975 International Fleetstar truck outfitted with a garbage hauler1975 International Transtar Eagle Truck Advertising Poster1975 International Travelall Station Wagon Brochure1975 International Truck Trailer with Mural of Endangered Animals1975 International V-800 Engine Advertising Poster1975 kids walking through snow while leaving a metal bus shelter to board an International school bus1975 Man Standing Atop Truck Trailer with Big Cat Mural1975 Seven-year-old LuRae Criscione watches the International Harvester United States Armed Forces Bicentennial Caravan1975 Theta Chi fraternity with an International garbage truck1975 Turkish International 1200D pickup advertisement1976 Child Looking at Sculpture of George Washington1976 Child with Sign Looking at Sculpture of George Washington1976 Fisherman Unloads Gear from International Scout II Pickup1976 IHC Scout Parade with Raggedy Andy and Smokey the Bear Floats1976 IHC Scout Truck Pulling Float with Giant Turkey1976 IHC Scout Truck Towing Parade Float1976 IHC Scout Truck Towing Pirate Ship Float in Parade1976 International Harvester model 1700 truck owned by A. Arnold and Son Transfer and Storage Co. by the Ohio River1976 International Harvester Scout 4x4 truck1976 International Harvester1976 International Light-Duty Truck Advertising Poster1976 International Loadstar Truck Advertising Poster1976 International Scout + Man in Costume in Thanksgiving Parade1976 International Scout All Wheel Drive Emblem1976 International Scout II Truck ad1976 International Scout II truck XLC for Olympic Games1976 International Scout II truck1976 International Scout Terra pickup truck1976 International Scout Terra Truck1976 International Scout Truck Towing Colorful Float in Parade1976 International Scout Truck Towing Disney Castle Themed Float1976 International Scout Truck Towing Motorcycle Daredevil Themed Parade Float1976 International Scout Truck Towing Santa Claus Float in Parade1976 International Scout Truck Towing Sesame Street Parade Float1976 International Transtar Eagle Standard and Cabover Trucks Outdoors1976 International Transtar Eagle Truck Driving Off the Assembly Line1976 International Transtar Eagle Trucks1976 International Travelall Station Wagon The Total Wagon1976 International Truck with Trailer Containing Blocks of Stone1976 International Woman, Young Woman, and Man with '76 Flag and Trucks1976 Introducing the International '76 Scout Spirit1976 Man Carrying Chair into House with Children and Dog from IHC model 1700 truck1976 Truck Pulling Thanksgiving Parade Float1976 white International Harvester Scout 4x4 is pulling a float with a Santa Claus theme1976 Workers with Parade Float Balloons Under Nets1976-80 IH Scout II Traveller, with the third row of seats, rear1976-80 IH Scout II Traveller, with the third row of seats1977 Adding Fuel to Scout Diesel Traveler1977 blue International Harvester Loadstar with lift gear in a Florida orange grove1977 IHC Truck and Several Trailers Full of Oranges1977 International Harvester Loadstar COE truck at the Packers Supply Company1977 international mt15634 george sh8261977 International Paystar 5000 Construction Trucks Brochure1977 International Scout II Driving in the Desert1977 International Scout II Pickup1977 International Scout II Truck on Fishing Trip1977 International Transtar Eagle Advertising Poster1977 International Traveler pickup with simulated vinyl roof1977 International Truck Advertising Poster a1977 International Truck Advertising Poster1977 Loading Motorcycles into International Scout Terra Pickup1977 Man Driving Truck with Hi-Lift Equipment1977 Scout Traveler with Terry Camper in the Mountains1977-1979 Canadian Welles International Lifeguard in Toronto, Canada on Ford B700 chassis.1978 Children Boarding S-Series IH School Bus

1978 IH S-Series School Bus1978 International Scout II Truck a1978 International Scout II Truck1978 International Scout II Yellowscout1978 International Scout Rally Truck1978 International Scout SS II1978 International Scout Truck1979 Cub Cadet loader1979 Internatioinal Harvester CO4070B1979 International Gold Concept1979 International Harvester Scout II1979 International normal control type Manilla1979 International Paystar F-5000 WWM Truck Brochure1979 International Scout SSV Concept.1979-89 International Harvester S-Series Schoolmaster1980 Chevrolet School Bus Djelfa , Algeria1980 International Construction Trucks Brochure1980 International Scout Dutch Brochure1980 International Scout II Rallye Edition1980 International Transtar 4300 Eagle Brougham1981 Five International Transtar Eagle Trucks1981 International Transtar 2 truck and trailer. Leamington Ontario1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck a1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck ad1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck Interior back1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck Interior1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck1981 Two International Transtar Eagle Trucks1982 International 1950C1982 International F-2375 Truck on Cross Country Trip1982 International Severe Service Refuse Trucks Brochure1982 International Truck Advertising Poster1984 Australian International T-2600 Series Truck Brochure1984 International Truck Advertising Poster1984 sats international1985 International S-Series Truck Brochure1986 International S-Series Semi Truck Brochure1987 International 8300 Truck with Sailing Ship1987 International 8300 Truck1987 International 9300 Premium Conventional Semi Truck1988 IH School Bus Driving through Wooded Area1988 Virginia Wayne Overland Bus 365 IHC1989 IH School Bus on Coastal Road1989 International 700-900 Series Trucks1989 Thomas-International School Bus

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1990 Cub Scouts Exiting an IH School Bus1990 IH School Bus In Motion1990 IH School Bus on Mountain Road1990 IH School Bus Parked on Residential Street1990 IH School Bus with Youth Football Team1990 International 400-500 Series Trucks1990 International Trucks Great Wall Poster1991 IH School Bus on Mountain Road1991 International Trucks Advertising Brochure1992 International Midnight Eagle Semi Brochure1992 International Semi Trucks Advertising Brochure1992 Thomas Vista International One1992-98 International Blue Bird TC 2000 Rear Engine1993 International 3600 Special Needs Bus with Thomas Built Vista Body1993 International 9700 Lo-Pro Truck1993 International Navistar Annual Report1994 International 3600 Vista School Bus1994 International Eagle Pro Sleeper Semi Truck1995 IH 3400 Commercial Bus at Hotel de la Monnaie1996 International IC RE-300 Fairfax, Virginia1996 International SchoolBus-1Amtran 4381996 International Trucks Advertising Brochure1996 International -Zambesi Articulated Bus Zimbabwe1997 International Trucks Diesel Engine Advertisement1998 International Coe1999 International Coe with sleeper cab1999 Limo Bus Inside Limo Bus International2001 International 3400 T444E coach2002 International 3000RE-Tang Zhong Bus2002 International DuraStar MuncyTruck2002 MODEL International RE2002-present International TranStar tractor2003 IC CE model schoolbus, North Syracuse, New York2003 International 3400 30 Pass Diesel Wheelchair Shuttle Bus2004-08 International CXT Commercial Extreme Truck 12004-15 F-750 Super Duty in use servicing a water pump2005 IC Bus CE-Series with an International 3300 chassis2005 International Navistar2005 international re2005 International Trailer-bus - KR2005-present ICCE Illinois School Bus IC CE2005-present International 3300 HCS bus492006 31-passenger International Krystal Coach2006 IC BE school bus2006 International DuraStar Krystal Koach KK 382006 International MXT-MV HuskyDSCF00082006-present International ProStar2007 IC BE First Student L502007 IC First Student L50 BE 2002007 International 3000-3900 IC RE 300 Of Fairfax County Public Schools Fairfax, Virginia2007-present International MaxxPro MRAP2008 International 3600 Thomas Vista2008 MHV Ford F650 012008 Thomas the International School Bus, Kodiak by Mike Cornwall2008 Type A school bus (Trans Tech Model DW6158) with a 2008 Ford E-450 chassis2008-11-11 Unloading dumspter from a truck

SONY DSC

SONY DSC

2008-present International LoneStar2008-present International WorkStar

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2010 Tatra T815 TERRno22011 Ford Super Duty Ford F-250 XLT2012 AD2012 BusCon Expo

Coca Cola eStar electric truck at Washington D.C.

Coca Cola eStar electric truck at Washington D.C.

2012 International TranStar 8600 with a special single-seat body for carrying long pipes2013 International Durastar 32002013 International Durastar 4400 Bus Base2015 International 4400 6x42015 International Prostar2016-Straszenszenen-Mexico-RalfR-WMA 108414907_426169720786659_36756601_n547110_583621295021567_556670042_n

Delivery of New International 1468 TractorEl-Salvador-BusFEMA - 38851 - County Road crew cleans storm drainage ditchesFord cutaway van chassis with a modular body Ambulance NY CityFord LCF (and its International CF-CityStar counterpart)Group of People with International Scout

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIC BE school busIC LogoICBus logoIH brochureIH Internatinal Harvester Fire en RescuetruckInter-latrun-exhibition-1International 76-inch BBC Transtar 2International 8100 yard tractor in Bataviainternational 01international 02International 660 frontInternational 4090A Super TranstarInternational 4300 pavingInternational 9400 haulingInternational 9400iInternational 9670International aInternational AACO Butter Box, QueenslandInternational ACCO truck With Generator Loaded UpInternational AccoInternational AE Series School 3 QtrInternational AmericarInternational Army MXTInternational bcf 180 spec1International bcf 180 spec2International bcf page01International bcf page02International bcf page03International bcf page04International bcf page05International bcf page06International bcf page07International bcf page08International bcf page09International bcf page10International bcf page11International bcf page12International BE SERIES SCHOOL ROUTE BUSInternational C1600 Tilt Tray - PVU868International CE SERIES SCHOOL ROUTE BUSInternational Central Mat-Su Rescue 65 InternationalInternational Circle of Excellence AwardInternational CO9670International COE vraagtekenInternational cof 220aInternational cof 220bInternational Conco 4100international conventional 1International CXT pickupInternational d 4051aInternational d 4051bInternational dco 4051aInternational dco 4052a1International dco 4052bInternational dcof 405International dcof 405cInternational DeliverysInternational DerixInternational df 405aInternational DuraStar MuncyTruckInternational durastarInternational Eagle yInternational Eggs Truck hs coopinternational Engine Rescue 5 Fairbanks Airport Fire deptInternational Fleetstar 2000International from Minneapolis. A former police truck.International FTTSInternational Gardner 1950 Wood 500-500INTERNATIONAL Harvester (AD-4O367-C)International Harvester AmbulanceInternational Harvester B-120 flatbedInternational Harvester BeautyInternational Harvester C-900 pickupInternational Harvester cab Diamond T conv with a coe on the deckInternational Harvester CO4070B Transtar II Cabover tractorsInternational Harvester coe 12International Harvester coe 105' auto transport INSUREDInternational Harvester Coe GilbertInternational Harvester coe sleeper RDFC-405International Harvester Company 1902- USAInternational Harvester coop fuel ih2International Harvester D15-MInternational Harvester Daf M426 LOHEAC TontonInternational Harvester DCFInternational Harvester Emergency Fire Truck aInternational Harvester Emergency Fire TruckInternational Harvester Emergency SquadInternational Harvester FalckInternational Harvester Fire Truck +INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER GREECE TRUCKinternational harvester h kb6International Harvester harms randolph ih3International Harvester ICHBus2International Harvester jungle yacht 1International Harvester KB8INTERNATIONAL Harvester KR11International Harvester Ladderwagen

International Harvester Loadstar Mobile air traffic control tower

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International Harvester Lorries 18International Harvester lorries Reg No FW 8347.International Harvester M62 WreckerInternational Harvester METRO BrandweerwagenInternational Harvester Metro foodtruckInternational Harvester Metro Panel VanInternational Harvester METROInternational Harvester mexicanInternational Harvester NLInternational Harvester R line Fire TruckInternational Harvester R-210 dumpInternational Harvester Scout with the SSII packageInternational Harvester Scout YellowscoutInternational Harvester Sightliner on the road

TX_1606_Debris

Beaumont, TX, November 2, 2005- A contractor has the value of his load of brush and tree limbs estimated before he dumps it at an Army Corps of Engineers debris site. FEMA funds the Corps of Engineers debris disposal program. Photo by Ed Edahl/FEMA

International Harvester The Big Wagon AdInternational Harvester tilt cab Blatz BeerInternational Harvester Tiltocab LC190International Harvester Transtar II wreckerInternational Harvester Transtar US ArmyInternational Harvester TruckInternational Harvester West Coaster RD -405International Harvester with sleeper cabineInternational HarvesterInternational HC bronzeInternational HC goldInternational HC platinumInternational HCInternational -K2international K11JSInternational KB-12International Loadstar 1700International Logo No BackInternational LoneStarinternational M-1-4international M-3-4International M-5-6International M425International M426International MaxxPro MRAPINTERNATIONAL METROINTERNATIONAL METROaINTERNATIONAL METRObINTERNATIONAL METROcINTERNATIONAL METROdINTERNATIONAL METROeInternational MXT on dealer delivery trailerInternational MXT WaycoInternational MXT-MVInternational mxt-trucks

Remembrance Day 2009

Honourary Colonel’s Dinner at 438 ETAH

International Old Engine 9 Houston Fire dept Alaska

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International Paystar 5000 6x4International Paystar 5000 twin steer

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International PayStar Fire engine in CaliforniaInternational ProStar at Mid America truck show

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International Pump japanInternational r2201aInternational r2201bInternational RD-400 Series CabInternational rdf 405International rdf 405bInternational RDF-405International RE SchoolbusesInternational RE seriesInternational Rescue SAInternational restored img 0922International R-Line mixerInternational R-model sleeperInternational Roadstar img 0927International R-series 6-wheelers aInternational R-SeriesInternational SC162 met van Bergen opbouwInternational Scout AdInternational S-seriesInternational Stage LinesInternational stageInternational tanker old North Pole Fire deptInternational TerraStarInternational tractorInternational Transtar Eagle Truck bInternational Transtar Eagle Truck cInternational Transtar the CO-9670International TranStar TruckInternational transtareagle 4300-11International transtareagle4300-01International truck in Whittier, AlaskaInternational Trucks for Commander GattiInternational Trucks Shows Off Refreshed 9800i with New Mid-roof Cab SAInternational TYTInternational Unistar shows the 73-inch BBC day cabInternational USMC Brush pumper JapanInternational vcof 190aInternational vcof 190bInternational vcot 405 lInternational XT bInternational XTInternational_Harvester_logointernational-cxt-driver-front-side-viewinternational-lonestarinternational-lonestar-front-view ainternational-maxxpro-mrap-wheeled-armoured-vehicle-united-statesInternational-RXT-1 aInternational-RXT-3international-streamlined-metro-truckinternational-truck idInternational-trucks ioMcCormick Deering TractorModec FedEx truck, LAMonteverdo Safari in a ski resort late spring 1978Navistar 7000 seriesNavistar International 4900 dump truckNavistar International bus in Mexico TMoctezuma12Navistar International ProstarNZFS 1969 C1800 Butterbox ACCORestored International School BusRiverside Cement's International TruckTractor 300 Mc Cormick FarmallTractors outside International Harvester DealershipUPSIntl4000Ward President body on International Harvester 1853FC chassisWard President School BusWayne Lifeguard school bus with International 3800 chassis (retired)WayneBuslogo1980sYoung Couples Load Boat onto Trailer at Lake from International Scout Pickup

Posted in ACCO, agri­cul­tural ma­chin­ery, Ambulances, Amtran, Anhui Jianghuai Navistar, Army, Atkinson, Automobiles, Blue Diamond Trucks, Buses, Bushnell, Carpenter, Cars, Caterpillar, Civil, Cummins, Deering Harvester Company, Detroit Diesel, Diesel Trucks, Electrall, Enasa, Fairway, Farmall, Fire & Rescue, Ford, General Electric, Glessner, International, International Corporation, International Durastar, International Harvester, International Harvester Company, International Motor Truck Company (IMTC), J.I. Case, Mahindra, Mahindra Navistar, Marine, Marine Engines, McCormick, Modec, Mogul, MPV's, Navistar Company, Navistar International Corporation, Rolls Royce, Schoolbuses, Scout, Seddon, Superiour, Ten­neco, Inc, Tenneco, Thomas, Thomas Built Buses, Titan, Trucks, USA, Ward | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Navistar International Coorporation -International Harvester Company 1902 – present Lisle Illinois United States of America

International_Harvester_logo

Navistar International Coorporation -International Harvester Company 1902 – present Lisle Illinois United States of America III Pictures

International Harvester The Big Wagon Ad

1908 International highwheel pickup1909 Russian International Harvester Advertising Poster1910 International Harvester vehicle Long Lake Regional Park New Brighton Minnesota Mile 118.51911 IHC Mogul tractor1911 International Harvester Auto Wagon1911 International J30 Touring1912 international highwheel Peddlerswagon1912 StudBus1913 International Harvester Cars Autocar1913 International MW. It is powered by a two cylinder engine rearside1913 International MW. It is powered by a two cylinder engine1916 International Model H Truck1917 International Motor Truck Advertising Poster1917 Model F International Motor Truck1917 Model H International Motor Truck1918 international 2-ton1918 International Fire Truck Advertising Card1920 International Harvester tractor1920 Triumph Medium Weight Truck1920-01 International Truck Calendar1920's McCormick Deering Tractor, 13-33 Model E1921 International-Harvester-six-speed-spezial1922 Ford Model T kid hack bus1922 IHC Saving the World From Starvation Advertisement1923 International Municipal Service Truck Catalog1923 International Red Baby Truck Advertising Poster1923 Red Baby Truck Cartoon1924 International Harvester Repair Service Advertising Poster1924 International Motor Truck Advertising Poster1924 International Motor Trucks Advertising Poster1924 International Truck Advertising Poster1924 Model S for today's Throw-Back Thursday! It featured a 4-cylinder, block cast engine and sliding gear1925 Here's a Good Plan That Succeeds1925 Model S International truck owned by Zieglers Furniture Store1926 IH brochure1926 International Harvester Toy Trucks1926 International Transit THUNDER BAY1927 international 4cyl1927 international 541927 International Harvester toys produced by Arcade Toys1927 international S24 4cyl1927 International stakebed1928 international 1ton 6speed Special1928 International Model 15 with body by Moore1928 International Speed Six Truck1928 international truckdumpbed1928 International Trucks Advertising Poster (Brazil)1929 Deering Farm Equipment and International Truck Advertising Poster1929 International Motor Truck Advertising Poster1929 International Six-Speed Special Truck Advertising Poster1929 International Truck Advertising Poster (Argentina)1929 International Trucks Advertising Poster (Africa and India)1930 Advertisement for International fire-rescue trucks featuring the National Air Races held at Curtiss-Reynolds Airport in Chicago1930 international 6spd1930 International Model A-5 Poster1930 International Model AW-1 Truck Advertising Poster1930 International Six-Speed Special Truck Advertising Poster1930 International SSS Special 1ton6spd4cylflathead3spdtrans2spdrear1930-45 IH dealer in Texas, showing trucks, tractors and refrigeration equipment N.P. Hurst Motor Co. IH1931 International Hainje Heerenveen B-48881931 International o1931 International Truck Advertising Poster1931 McCormick-Deering Corn Sheller and Feed Grinder Poster1932 International A-2 Truck Advertisement1932 International Bread Truck1932 International Harvester Bakeries Poster1932 International Harvester Bottling Truck Poster1932 International Harvester Cordoba-Cruz DE1932 International tractor with sleeper hauling for Golden Age Beer1932 International Trucks for Construction Industry1932 International Trucks Poster1932-1956 international 11932-1956 international 41932-1956 international 51932-1956 international 61932-1956 international 71932-1956 international 81932-1956 international 91932-1956 international 101932-1956 international 111932-1956 international 121932-1956 international 131932-1956 international 141932-1956 international 15

1932-1956 international 161932-1956 international 171932-1956 international 181932-1956 international 191932-1956 international 201932-1956 international 211932-1956 international 221932-1956 international 231932-1956 international 241932-1956 international 251932-1956 international 261932-1956 international 271932-1956 international 281932-1956 international 291932-1956 international 301932-1956 international 311932-1956 international 321932-1956 international 331932-1956 international 341932-1956 international 351932-1956 international 361932-1956 international 371932-1956 international 381932-1956 international 391932-1956 international 401932-1956 international 411932-1956 international 421932-1956 international 431932-1956 international 441932-1956 international 451932-1956 international 461932-1956 international 471932-1956 international 481932-1956 international 491932-1956 international 501932-1956 international 511932-1956 international 521932-1956 international 531932-1956 international 541932-1956 international 551932-1956 international 561933 international 1ton 6cyl1933 International D-1 Trucks Advertising Poster1933 international D1truckbuiltbyWillys1933 Wardbuslogo1934 international 19341935 international 1.1,2ton1935 international 6cyl paddy wagon 41935 International C-1 truck owned by Elsner's Blue Ribbon Bakery1935 International Harvester and Packard1935 International late 6cyl armoured by John C Dix Companyfor Federal Reserve Bank built in MemphisTN WNL1935 International Lawrie ModelCs1935 International Truck Advertisement1935 International Truck Advertising Poster1935 International1935 South African International C-35-CS-35 Truck Brochure1936 international 1936 c1_taxi_norway1936 International C-1 Truck Brochure1936 International C-15 Truck Brochure1936 international C301936 International C-35 B and CS-35-B Bus Flyer1936 International C-40 and CS-40 Ad Flyer1936 International C-300 Truck Brochure1936 International dumptruck1936 International Trucks Ad Proof1937 brochure for heating and defrosting systems used in International trucks1937 international ambulance 19371937 international D21937 International Harvester cab-over-engine (COE) tow truck parked in front of Miller Motors dealership.1937 international harvester-d-21937 International Trail Magazine Cover1937 International Truck Ad Proof1937 McCormick-Deering tractor1937 Two specially designed International trucks connected with an awning at an African camp site1937-40 International milk delivery truck owned by Carnation Milk1938 I H Superior1938 international 6cyl deluxe paneltruck1938 International Builds Trucks for Every Class of Hauling1938 International Carr. Buca Born.1938 International D-40 Truck Brochure1938 International Harvester Ad1938 International Harvester D Series Panel Van1938 International Harvester D-DS-30, D-DS-35, D1938 International Industrial Power Advertising Poster1938 International model D-400, Coca Cola1938 International Trail Magazine Cover of Gatti Expedition1938 International Trail Magazine Cover1938 International Truck Advertising Poster a1938 International Truck Advertising Poster1938 International Trucks Advertisement1938-1975 Preserved International Harvester Metro Van in Portland in 20121939 dodge school bus1939 International Air Mail Delivery Truck Advertising Poster1939 International België1939 International D-301939 International D-300 delivery trucks owned by Golden Age Beer1939 International Harvester carr. Renkema Middelstum B-225141939 International harvester rapid ihc1939 International Harvester woodie wagon 19391939 International Jungle Yacht Truck, Commander Gatti1939 International Models D-500 and DR-700 Trucks1939 International Woodies1939 International-d-series-sedan1939IH1940 international 1940 d-2 woody sw1940 International D-400 Truck Advertising Poster1940 International De Luxe Delivery Truck Advertising Poster1940 International D-Line Truck Advertising Poster1940 International Harvester, D5 Panel Van, 'Weddell's Bread', Aberdeen Street, Geelong1940 International madel D-300, owned by Richfield Petroleum1940 International METRO Delivery Trucks1940 International model D International owned by Standard Oil1940 International model D-151940 International Model D-40 and DS-40 Trucks1940 International Panel Truck At Airport1940 International Tanker Truck ad1940 International Woodie Station Wagon1940 International-police-wagon 19401940 Prospector for International Harvester Dealers1940 SchoolBus1941 IH Models K-8, K-10, and K-11 Trucks1941 International Harvester K-5 Wayne1941 International Harvester Truck Advertising Proof1941 International Harvester woodie wagon1941 International Harvester, D2 Station Wagon1941 International Harvester, D30 Motor Buses, City Road, South Melbourne1941 International Harvester, Reo Speed Wagon Bus,11941 international KandFruehauftrailer1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Poster1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Proof a1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Proof b1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Proof1941 International Modelos K-6, KS-6, K-7 and KS-7 Trucks1941 International Truck Advertising Proof a1941 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1941 International Truck Advertising Proof b1941 International Truck Advertising Proof1942 international 6cyl4spd1942 International Harvester Ambulances1942 International Harvester Maintenance Battalion Poster1942 International K6flatbed1942 International1943 Both Working for Victory1943 International Harvester D series1943 International Trucks Alaska Highway Ad1944 Everything Changed But The Paint1944 International (2)1944 International hc m2-41944 International semi-truck (tractor-trailer) on a road with a hazy view of a bridge1944 International Truck on the Ohio River Boulevard1944 International Truck Operated by Mistletoe Express Service, Inc1944 International1945 International M-5H63611945 International Model K-8-F Truck1945 International

1946 International Product Advertising Proof1946 International Truck Advertising Poster a1946 International Truck Advertising Poster1946 International Truck Advertising Proof Logging1946 International Truck Advertising Proof1946 International West Coast Model Truck1947 International Harvester, K Line Station Wagon1947 International HFA1947 International KB and KBR Truck Advertising Proof1947 International KBR-11 Truck Advertising Proof1947 International Model KB-10 Trucks1947 International Truck Advertising Proof a1947 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1947 International Truck Advertising Proof b1947 International Truck Advertising Proof1947 International Trucks Gatti-Hallicrafter's Expedition to Africa1947 International-kb-2-pickup1947 New International Harvester Logo Advertising Poster1947-52 International carr. Verheul NB-28-271948 International Harvester Dittmar1948 International KB-1-M and KB-3-M Metro Delivery Trucks1948 International KB-8 school bus1948 International KB-81948 International KB-8-1 Truck Advertising Proof1948 International Metro Advertising Proof a1948 International Metro Advertising Proof1948 International Model KB-2 Trucks1948 International Panel van1948 International Products Advertising Proof1948 International Tractor-Trailer & Diesel Crawler Tractor1948 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1948 International Truck Advertising Proof1948 REOschoolbus1949 International Harvester Company's annual report1949 INTERNATIONAL Harvester et Half-Track1949 International Harvester RDC 4051949 International Harvester W1949 International Heavy Duty Truck Advertising Proof1949 International K -2 Special Coach Truck and Airplane1949 International KB-81949 International L-120 Truck with Pickup Body1949 International L-120, L-110, and L-130 Trucks1949 International L-130 Truck with Stake Body1949 International L-160 Truck with Platform Body1949 International Metro Advertising Proof1949 International Model KB-5 Trucks1949 International Model KB-8 Trucks1949 International Truck Advertising Proof a1949 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1949 International Truck Advertising Proof Featuring Commander Gatti1949 International trucks promoting United States government bonds1949 International W-301949 International W-3042-L Truck-Van, Closed Top with Semi-Trailer1949 International-metro-kb1m1949 Internationals Harvester s at work1949 International-Visdalsruten1949-52 International carrosserie Hoogeveen NB-67-751950 Blue Bird1950 International Engine Advertising Proof a1950 International Engine Advertising Proof1950 International Gardner Wood 500-5001950 International Harvester ACO `90 Sightliner V-8 gas1950 international harvester bus a1950 International Harvester Bus1950 International Harvester L series1950 International L and LF Truck Advertising Proof1950 International L-110 Panel Truck1950 International L-120 truck loaded with milk cans1950 International L-120 truck, W-4 tractor and grain drill1950 International L-160 Truck Delivering Chickens1950 International L-160 truck owned by the S.L. Daniel Furniture and Mattress Factory1950 International LB-110 Truck1950 International Metro and dump Truck Advertising Proof1950 International Metro Trans delivery truck for Thalimers' Department Store1950 International Truck Advertising Proof - Metro1950 International Truck Advertising Proof a1950 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1950 International Truck Advertising Proof with Truck Driver and Boy1950 International Truck Advertising Proof1950 International Truck Driver Talking with a Boy on a Bike1950 International truck filled with firewood1950 International Truck Hauling Corn Cobs1950 International truck loaded with sacks1950 Loading Bales of Hay from International L-Series Truck1950 Loading Eggs into International L-120 Pickup Truck1950 Loading trees into an International L-120 truck1950 Planting trees out of an International L-120 truck1950 Two men loading bags into a International L-120 truck1950's International Haukes1951 ECF-International Harvester1951 International Half Ton Pickup Truck Advertising Poster1951 International Harvester L1101951 International Harvester ICHBus21951 International Harvester L160 ECF1951 International Harvester Touringcar L160 ECF Matser 231951 International Harvester Touringcar L160 ECF Matser 23a1951 International Harvester Truck with Pumpkins1951 International L-110 Truck (115-Inch W.B.)1951 International LD-400 Series Truck and Trailer1951 International Truck Advertising Poster ad1951 International Truck Advertising Poster1951 International Truck Advertising Proof1951 International1951+1953 International Harvester Sightliner and DCO1952 International C-254 Cultivator on Super C Tractor1952 International harvester Company Military Construction Equipment Transport1952 International Harvester Company of Australia Pty. Ltd1952 International M-40 Marine Corps Vehicle with Wrecker Body1952 international M-40 Truck on Hillside1952 International M-41 and M-54 Cargo Vehicles1952 International M-51 Dump Truck at Fort Hood1952 International M-61 to spread asphalt at Wolters Air Force Base1952 International M-62 Wrecker Moving Truck1952 International M-62 Wrecker1952 international M-139 Transporting Bridge-Building Unit1952 International M-246 Wrecker with Jet Fighter Wreckage1952 International Model M-51 Dump Truck1952 International R-110 Panel Truck1952 International R-110 Truck with Pickup Body1952 International Truck Advertising Proof1952 Man Using Super C Tractor with Cultivator1952 Retro Vintage Kitsch 50s School Kid Red School Bus1953 American-Indian Youth Fathered Around International truck1953 IHC R-205 Sleeper Cab Truck and Farmall Super M Tractor1953 International Harvester D11001953 International Harvester R-195 semi-truck outfitted with a Space Saver cab1953 International Harvester standard model R-110 truck with a pickup body and ADA-RAK travels down a wooded roa1953 International Harvester Travelall 4x4 2149 AC1953 international L-120 Truck1953 International Model R-120 truck1953 International Model RP-195 roadliner truck with attached trailmobile oil tanker.1953 International R110 pickup1953 International R-110 Station Wagon1953 International R-120 Truck at Nursery1953 International R-120 truck with a stake body1953 International R-150 Truck with Van Body1953 International R-165 Roadliner1953 International R-170 stake-body truck1953 International R-170 Truck with Ladder1953 International R-183 School Bus1953 International R-195 And R-120 Trucks1953 International R-195 truck outfitted with a semi-trailer tank body1953 International RA-140 milk delivery truck1953 International RBA-140 Milk Delivery Truck

1953 International Roadliner Oil Tanker1953 International Truck Advertising Proof1953 International Utility1954 IHC red tractor McCormick Farmall1954 International garbage collection truck parked beside a restaurant1954 International Harvester Farmall Super C1954 International KB7 semi-trailer coach1954 International R110 Front End1954 International R110 Truck1954 International R-160 Truck1954 International RA-140 Stand & Drive a1954 International RA-140 Stand & Drive b1954 McCormick No. 141 harvester-thresher (combine) and an International truck1955 Golden Book with International Trucks1955 International Cab Overs1955 International Harvester DC-405-L PIE1955 International Model SM Mounting Metro-Van1955 International R190 with integrated sleeper1955 International R-400 Series trucks1955 International R-Series trucks1955 International S-110 Light Duty Pickup Truck1955 International S-Line Light-Duty Trucks1955 International S-line Medium-Duty Trucks1955 International trucks coastguard1955 Kenworth-Pacific T-126 school bus1956 international A-100 pickup from local gun-car show1956 International DC-4051956 International KS6 Coach1956 International Metro Pepsi Delivery Truck1956 International Model R-202 Oil Field Truck1956 International model RF-190 oil field truck1956 International pickup1956 International Tractors and Truck1956 International Truck Advertising Proof a1956 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1956 International Truck Advertising Proof1956 International V-line COE Heavy-Duty Trucks1956 Workers service oil field equipment International model RDF-192 Truck1957 International A 100 Golden Jubilee Truck1957 International A-100 Truck Postcard1957 International A-110 Truck Postcard1957 International A-120 4x4 Truck Postcard1957 International A-120 Truck Postcard a1957 International A-120 Truck Postcard1957 International A-130 Truck Postcard1957 International A-150 Truck Postcard1957 International A-160 Truck Postcard a1957 International A-160 Truck Postcard1957 International A-180 Truck Postcard a1957 International A-180 Truck Postcard1957 International golden jubilee custom pickup1957 International H 6x6 Rotterdam1957 International Sightliner Trucks1957 International ХМ409, 8x81958 International R-195 Truck-Tilt Cab with Closed Top Van Body1959 International CO Line1959 International DCO1959 International Fire Truck Brochure1959 International Harvester RDC sleeper1959 International Harvester Sightliner 591959 International Heavy-Duty Trucks1959 International Medium and Heavy-Duty Trucks1959 International Medium-Duty Trucks1959 International Truck and Cofferdam1960 International Harvester Travelall & pickup 601960 International Light-Duty Trucks1960 International Truck Advertising Proof1960 International Trucks with Metroette Dari-Van Bodies1960 Universal Engineer Tractor a1960 Universal Engineer Tractor1961 IHC Scout adv1961 International C-line Travelall Station Wagon

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1961 International Harvester DCOF-404's 250 HP Rolls Royce diesels1961 International Harvester Metro Van1961 International Harvester Travelall1961 International RD-4051961 International Scout 801961 international scout1961 international-englebert1961 Meet the International Scout for all roads, all weather, all uses !!1961+1962 International Light-Duty C-Line Trucks1961–1962 IHC C-120 Travelette1962 1803 Schoolmaster included an International V-345, 8-cylinder, gasoline engine1962 Int Harv product line1962 international 1962 scout1962 International dump truck1962 International Harvester DCOF405 tractor with a day cab1962 International Harvester DCOF405 tractor with a sleeper cab1962 International Loadstar 1600 with Flatbed1962 International Mk-II, 4x41962 International model V220 truck1962 International Scout Diesel Nameplate1962 International Travelall 10001962 International truck1962 International Trucks with Metro Bodies1962-65 International Harvester Scout 80 with the roll-down windows1963 Children with Circus Wagon1963 IH Travelakk Ambulance Conversion1963 International ACO a1963 International ACO b1963 International ACO1963 International Trucks Brochure1963s International DCOF-405 Emeryville1964 100,000 Red Carpet Series Scout Advertisement1964 international 1964 pu1964 international 1964 Scout Line1964 International CD-4051964 International Emeryville Cover1964 International Harvester catalog of working toy models1964 International Harvester Scout 641964 International Harvester Travelall 641964 International R1851964 International R-Line Heavy-Duty Trucks1964 International Scout Champagne Series Scout Advertisement1964 International Scout in front of Horse Stable1964 International Scout Miniature Demonstrator1964 international Travelall1965 International 65 Payhauler in Quarry1965 International CO-4000 Trucks1965 International DCO-400 Series Emeryville1965 International Harvester C-Series Travelall Wagon1965 International Light-Duty Trucks Advertising Brochure1965 International Scout 800 Brochure1965 International Scout pickup pulling an Airstream camper in the Nevada hills1965 international scout1965 International Truck and Tractors1965 Loading Milk On to International Truck1965 Standard and Turbocharged Engines for the Scout1966 Advertisement displaying illustrations of the seven International Scout vehicle models, including five 800 models and two Sportops1966 international 4x4 021966 International D-Line Truck used by Astrodome Groundskeepers1966 International Harvester Company's annual report1966 International Harvester Scout 800 Sportop truck1966 international scout 800 (2)1966 International Scout 800 Advertising Poster1966 International Scout 800 Sportop Booklet Back Cover1966 International Scout 800 Sportop featuring the slogan The best dressed all-wheel drive car on the road1966 International Scout 8001966 International Transtar 4200 Semi-Truck1966 International Transtar Semi-Truck1966 International Travelall Family Wagons1966 International, 36-passenger school bus1966–68 International Harvester Scout 800 Sportop convertible IHC-Scout-21967 Couples in International Scout1967 Couples Watch Tennis Match from International Scout Pickup1967 International CO-4000 sleeper1967 International K5 with the same setup, 4Lk Gardner,1967 International M-1200 Metro School Bus1967 International M-1500 Metro School Bus1967 International Pickups The Year's Smartest Numbers1967 International Scout Painted in University of Illinois Colors1967 International Scout V-8 Advertising Booklet1968 International C-1100 school1968 International C-1200 School Bus1968 International Fleetstar Advertising Poster

1968 International Harvester Loadstar bus at the Egged Museum, of Holon, Israel1968 International Harvester on maltese Chassis 26201968 International Scout pickup at the Teenbeat Club owned by Steve Miller1968 International Scout Pickup1968 International Transtar Advertising Poster1968 International Travelall Wagon - What a Boat!1968 International Travelall1968 International Turbostar Truck1968 international-bus1968 Man Inspects Interior of International Scout 800A Pickup1968 Shindig at the Teenbeat Club1969 Automatic Scout Advertisement1969 Fire Fighters Practice with International Scout Fire Truck1969 International C1500 ex-Kingaroy Australië1969 International C1800 ACCO Butterbox. Ex Auckland NZFS. Open backed cab, APEX coachwork1969 International D-405 (2)1969 International D-4051969 International Loadstar Trucks Brochure1969 International Metro Advertising Poster1969 International Scout 800A Interior1969 International Scout 800A Roadster1969 International scout 800A with the top off1969 International Scout Aristocrat Advertisement1969 International Scout Aristocrat Pickup1969 International Scout pickup truck near a public beach1969 International Scout SR-2 Truck1969 International Transtar Semi Truck1969 International Travelall Station Wagon The Total Wagon1969 International Trucks and Campers Advertising Poster1969 Scout Aristocrat Advertisement1969 Testing the International Transtar Semi1969-1975 Wayne International school bus (retired)1970 Couples in the Snow with an International Scout1970 Family with Toboggan and International Scout1970 Hunting Trip with International Travelall 1000 Pickup1970 International Bus with Marching Band and Cheerleaders1970 International C-O 4070A Transtar truck hauling the metal statue St. Francis of the Guns on a trailer down a San Francisco highway1970 International C-O 4070A Transtar truck moving Statue at Mission San Juan Bautista1970 International Harvester Scout with Lift Platform1970 International Harvester truck model C-OF4070A parked by a sign welcoming visitors to Dalton1970 International Scout 4x4 Pickup1970 International Scout Pickup Emblems1970 International Scout Pickup1970 International Travelall Advertising Poster1970 International Travelall Station Wagon Brochure1970 International truck carrying prepacked airline food to Pan American World Airways Boeing 747 airplane1970 Tail of Boeing 747 and International Scout1971 Camping with an International Travelall1971 Fire Prevention Week Parade Float1971 International Harvester Travelall Wagon Perkins Diesel Conversion1971 International Harvester's Sales Engineering Bulletin featuring color illustrations of the (from top left) Unistar, Transtar 4 ...1971 International Johnnie Reb Truck front1971 International Johnnie Reb Truck1971 International Pickup Truck Brochure1971 International Scout Comanche Pickup1971 International Scout Crossing Rural Creek1971 International Scout II Brochure1971 International Scout II pickup trucks parked on the lot of Gilmore International, Inc. Wow Wagon1971 International Scout II Pickup1971 International Scout II WOW Wagon Advertising Poster1971 International Sno-Star Scout towing a float for Fire Prevention Week1971 International Travelall Tow Wagons1972 Airplane Mechanic Works from International Truck1972 Boy Scouts Raise the Flag at Campground1972 Camping with International 1310 Camper1972 Camping with the International Scout1972 Color photograph of a man unloading cartons of milk from an International truck used by the Carnation Company. The truck appears to be an Internati1972 Couple Boating on Small Pond1972 Couples Square Dancing near International Truck1972 Family Camping with International Pickup and Camper1972 Farmers Refueling International 966 Tractor1972 Groundskeepers Water Golf Course Green1972 IHC Scout Comanche at Golf Course1972 International 4200 Truck at Truck Stop1972 International Bus with Carpenter Body1972 International Camper Pickups1972 International Paystar 5000 Series Truck Brochure1972 International Pickup Truck Brochure1972 International Scout II Pickup in Resort Area1972 International Trail magazine featuring a color photograph of a 1600 Loadstar Seven-Up delivery truck1972 International Travelall Tow Wagon1972 International Truck at Power Plant1972 International Truck on Highway a1972 International Truck on Highway1972 Man Loads Purchases into Scout II Pickup1972 Man with International Transtar 42001972 Picnic with International Scout II Pickup and Camper1973 International Bus with Superior 1703 Body1973 International Fire Truck Brochure1973 International Harvester Toy Catalog1973 International Rear-Engine Drive Bus1973 International Scout Action Wheels for Everyone1973 International Scout Think Young Campagne1973 International Scout, Travelall and Travelette Trucks1973 International Transtar 4300 Truck on Highway1974 A Ward (left) and a Wayne (right).1974 International CO-F4070A Transtar1974 International Scout II Truck1975 air pollution inspector wearing sunglasses is holding his badge near the door emblem on his International Scout II pickup1975 Australian Truck Driver waits for Kangaroo1975 Children Looking at Save Our Cats Mural on Trailer1975 Children with International Bus1975 International 19751975 International Fleetstar truck outfitted with a garbage hauler1975 International Transtar Eagle Truck Advertising Poster1975 International Travelall Station Wagon Brochure1975 International Truck Trailer with Mural of Endangered Animals1975 International V-800 Engine Advertising Poster1975 kids walking through snow while leaving a metal bus shelter to board an International school bus1975 Man Standing Atop Truck Trailer with Big Cat Mural1975 Seven-year-old LuRae Criscione watches the International Harvester United States Armed Forces Bicentennial Caravan1975 Theta Chi fraternity with an International garbage truck1975 Turkish International 1200D pickup advertisement1976 Child Looking at Sculpture of George Washington1976 Child with Sign Looking at Sculpture of George Washington1976 Fisherman Unloads Gear from International Scout II Pickup1976 IHC Scout Parade with Raggedy Andy and Smokey the Bear Floats1976 IHC Scout Truck Pulling Float with Giant Turkey1976 IHC Scout Truck Towing Parade Float1976 IHC Scout Truck Towing Pirate Ship Float in Parade1976 International Harvester model 1700 truck owned by A. Arnold and Son Transfer and Storage Co. by the Ohio River1976 International Harvester Scout 4x4 truck1976 International Harvester1976 International Light-Duty Truck Advertising Poster1976 International Loadstar Truck Advertising Poster1976 International Scout + Man in Costume in Thanksgiving Parade1976 International Scout All Wheel Drive Emblem1976 International Scout II Truck ad1976 International Scout II truck XLC for Olympic Games1976 International Scout II truck1976 International Scout Terra pickup truck1976 International Scout Terra Truck1976 International Scout Truck Towing Colorful Float in Parade1976 International Scout Truck Towing Disney Castle Themed Float1976 International Scout Truck Towing Motorcycle Daredevil Themed Parade Float1976 International Scout Truck Towing Santa Claus Float in Parade1976 International Scout Truck Towing Sesame Street Parade Float1976 International Transtar Eagle Standard and Cabover Trucks Outdoors1976 International Transtar Eagle Truck Driving Off the Assembly Line1976 International Transtar Eagle Trucks1976 International Travelall Station Wagon The Total Wagon1976 International Truck with Trailer Containing Blocks of Stone1976 International Woman, Young Woman, and Man with '76 Flag and Trucks1976 Introducing the International '76 Scout Spirit1976 Man Carrying Chair into House with Children and Dog from IHC model 1700 truck1976 Truck Pulling Thanksgiving Parade Float1976 white International Harvester Scout 4x4 is pulling a float with a Santa Claus theme1976 Workers with Parade Float Balloons Under Nets1976-80 IH Scout II Traveller, with the third row of seats, rear1976-80 IH Scout II Traveller, with the third row of seats1977 Adding Fuel to Scout Diesel Traveler1977 blue International Harvester Loadstar with lift gear in a Florida orange grove1977 IHC Truck and Several Trailers Full of Oranges1977 International Harvester Loadstar COE truck at the Packers Supply Company1977 international mt15634 george sh8261977 International Paystar 5000 Construction Trucks Brochure1977 International Scout II Driving in the Desert1977 International Scout II Pickup1977 International Scout II Truck on Fishing Trip1977 International Transtar Eagle Advertising Poster1977 International Traveler pickup with simulated vinyl roof1977 International Truck Advertising Poster a1977 International Truck Advertising Poster1977 Loading Motorcycles into International Scout Terra Pickup1977 Man Driving Truck with Hi-Lift Equipment1977 Scout Traveler with Terry Camper in the Mountains1977-1979 Canadian Welles International Lifeguard in Toronto, Canada on Ford B700 chassis.1978 Children Boarding S-Series IH School Bus

1978 IH S-Series School Bus1978 International Scout II Truck a1978 International Scout II Truck1978 International Scout II Yellowscout1978 International Scout Rally Truck1978 International Scout SS II1978 International Scout Truck1979 Cub Cadet loader1979 Internatioinal Harvester CO4070B1979 International Gold Concept1979 International Harvester Scout II1979 International normal control type Manilla1979 International Paystar F-5000 WWM Truck Brochure1979 International Scout SSV Concept.1979-89 International Harvester S-Series Schoolmaster1980 Chevrolet School Bus Djelfa , Algeria1980 International Construction Trucks Brochure1980 International Scout Dutch Brochure1980 International Scout II Rallye Edition1980 International Transtar 4300 Eagle Brougham1981 Five International Transtar Eagle Trucks1981 International Transtar 2 truck and trailer. Leamington Ontario1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck a1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck ad1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck Interior back1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck Interior1981 International Transtar Eagle Truck1981 Two International Transtar Eagle Trucks1982 International 1950C1982 International F-2375 Truck on Cross Country Trip1982 International Severe Service Refuse Trucks Brochure1982 International Truck Advertising Poster1984 Australian International T-2600 Series Truck Brochure1984 International Truck Advertising Poster1984 sats international1985 International S-Series Truck Brochure1986 International S-Series Semi Truck Brochure1987 International 8300 Truck with Sailing Ship1987 International 8300 Truck1987 International 9300 Premium Conventional Semi Truck1988 IH School Bus Driving through Wooded Area1988 Virginia Wayne Overland Bus 365 IHC1989 IH School Bus on Coastal Road1989 International 700-900 Series Trucks1989 Thomas-International School Bus

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1990 Cub Scouts Exiting an IH School Bus1990 IH School Bus In Motion1990 IH School Bus on Mountain Road1990 IH School Bus Parked on Residential Street1990 IH School Bus with Youth Football Team1990 International 400-500 Series Trucks1990 International Trucks Great Wall Poster1991 IH School Bus on Mountain Road1991 International Trucks Advertising Brochure1992 International Midnight Eagle Semi Brochure1992 International Semi Trucks Advertising Brochure1992 Thomas Vista International One1992-98 International Blue Bird TC 2000 Rear Engine1993 International 3600 Special Needs Bus with Thomas Built Vista Body1993 International 9700 Lo-Pro Truck1993 International Navistar Annual Report1994 International 3600 Vista School Bus1994 International Eagle Pro Sleeper Semi Truck1995 IH 3400 Commercial Bus at Hotel de la Monnaie1996 International IC RE-300 Fairfax, Virginia1996 International SchoolBus-1Amtran 4381996 International Trucks Advertising Brochure1996 International -Zambesi Articulated Bus Zimbabwe1997 International Trucks Diesel Engine Advertisement1998 International Coe1999 International Coe with sleeper cab1999 Limo Bus Inside Limo Bus International2001 International 3400 T444E coach2002 International 3000RE-Tang Zhong Bus2002 International DuraStar MuncyTruck2002 MODEL International RE2002-present International TranStar tractor2003 IC CE model schoolbus, North Syracuse, New York2003 International 3400 30 Pass Diesel Wheelchair Shuttle Bus2004-08 International CXT Commercial Extreme Truck 12004-15 F-750 Super Duty in use servicing a water pump2005 IC Bus CE-Series with an International 3300 chassis2005 International Navistar2005 international re2005 International Trailer-bus - KR2005-present ICCE Illinois School Bus IC CE2005-present International 3300 HCS bus492006 31-passenger International Krystal Coach2006 IC BE school bus2006 International DuraStar Krystal Koach KK 382006 International MXT-MV HuskyDSCF00082006-present International ProStar2007 IC BE First Student L502007 IC First Student L50 BE 2002007 International 3000-3900 IC RE 300 Of Fairfax County Public Schools Fairfax, Virginia2007-present International MaxxPro MRAP2008 International 3600 Thomas Vista2008 MHV Ford F650 012008 Thomas the International School Bus, Kodiak by Mike Cornwall2008 Type A school bus (Trans Tech Model DW6158) with a 2008 Ford E-450 chassis2008-11-11 Unloading dumspter from a truck

SONY DSC

SONY DSC

2008-present International LoneStar2008-present International WorkStar

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2010 Tatra T815 TERRno22011 Ford Super Duty Ford F-250 XLT2012 AD2012 BusCon Expo

Coca Cola eStar electric truck at Washington D.C.

Coca Cola eStar electric truck at Washington D.C.

2012 International TranStar 8600 with a special single-seat body for carrying long pipes2013 International Durastar 32002013 International Durastar 4400 Bus Base2015 International 4400 6x42015 International Prostar2016-Straszenszenen-Mexico-RalfR-WMA 108414907_426169720786659_36756601_n547110_583621295021567_556670042_n

Delivery of New International 1468 TractorEl-Salvador-BusFEMA - 38851 - County Road crew cleans storm drainage ditchesFord cutaway van chassis with a modular body Ambulance NY CityFord LCF (and its International CF-CityStar counterpart)Group of People with International Scout

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIC BE school busIC LogoICBus logoIH brochureIH Internatinal Harvester Fire en RescuetruckInter-latrun-exhibition-1International 76-inch BBC Transtar 2International 8100 yard tractor in Bataviainternational 01international 02International 660 frontInternational 4090A Super TranstarInternational 4300 pavingInternational 9400 haulingInternational 9400iInternational 9670International aInternational AACO Butter Box, QueenslandInternational ACCO truck With Generator Loaded UpInternational AccoInternational AE Series School 3 QtrInternational AmericarInternational Army MXTInternational bcf 180 spec1International bcf 180 spec2International bcf page01International bcf page02International bcf page03International bcf page04International bcf page05International bcf page06International bcf page07International bcf page08International bcf page09International bcf page10International bcf page11International bcf page12International BE SERIES SCHOOL ROUTE BUSInternational C1600 Tilt Tray - PVU868International CE SERIES SCHOOL ROUTE BUSInternational Central Mat-Su Rescue 65 InternationalInternational Circle of Excellence AwardInternational CO9670International COE vraagtekenInternational cof 220aInternational cof 220bInternational Conco 4100international conventional 1International CXT pickupInternational d 4051aInternational d 4051bInternational dco 4051aInternational dco 4052a1International dco 4052bInternational dcof 405International dcof 405cInternational DeliverysInternational DerixInternational df 405aInternational DuraStar MuncyTruckInternational durastarInternational Eagle yInternational Eggs Truck hs coopinternational Engine Rescue 5 Fairbanks Airport Fire deptInternational Fleetstar 2000International from Minneapolis. A former police truck.International FTTSInternational Gardner 1950 Wood 500-500INTERNATIONAL Harvester (AD-4O367-C)International Harvester AmbulanceInternational Harvester B-120 flatbedInternational Harvester BeautyInternational Harvester C-900 pickupInternational Harvester cab Diamond T conv with a coe on the deckInternational Harvester CO4070B Transtar II Cabover tractorsInternational Harvester coe 12International Harvester coe 105' auto transport INSUREDInternational Harvester Coe GilbertInternational Harvester coe sleeper RDFC-405International Harvester Company 1902- USAInternational Harvester coop fuel ih2International Harvester D15-MInternational Harvester Daf M426 LOHEAC TontonInternational Harvester DCFInternational Harvester Emergency Fire Truck aInternational Harvester Emergency Fire TruckInternational Harvester Emergency SquadInternational Harvester FalckInternational Harvester Fire Truck +INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER GREECE TRUCKinternational harvester h kb6International Harvester harms randolph ih3International Harvester ICHBus2International Harvester jungle yacht 1International Harvester KB8INTERNATIONAL Harvester KR11International Harvester Ladderwagen

International Harvester Loadstar Mobile air traffic control tower

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International Harvester Lorries 18International Harvester lorries Reg No FW 8347.International Harvester M62 WreckerInternational Harvester METRO BrandweerwagenInternational Harvester Metro foodtruckInternational Harvester Metro Panel VanInternational Harvester METROInternational Harvester mexicanInternational Harvester NLInternational Harvester R line Fire TruckInternational Harvester R-210 dumpInternational Harvester Scout with the SSII packageInternational Harvester Scout YellowscoutInternational Harvester Sightliner on the road

TX_1606_Debris

Beaumont, TX, November 2, 2005- A contractor has the value of his load of brush and tree limbs estimated before he dumps it at an Army Corps of Engineers debris site. FEMA funds the Corps of Engineers debris disposal program. Photo by Ed Edahl/FEMA

International Harvester The Big Wagon AdInternational Harvester tilt cab Blatz BeerInternational Harvester Tiltocab LC190International Harvester Transtar II wreckerInternational Harvester Transtar US ArmyInternational Harvester TruckInternational Harvester West Coaster RD -405International Harvester with sleeper cabineInternational HarvesterInternational HC bronzeInternational HC goldInternational HC platinumInternational HCInternational -K2international K11JSInternational KB-12International Loadstar 1700International Logo No BackInternational LoneStarinternational M-1-4international M-3-4International M-5-6International M425International M426International MaxxPro MRAPINTERNATIONAL METROINTERNATIONAL METROaINTERNATIONAL METRObINTERNATIONAL METROcINTERNATIONAL METROdINTERNATIONAL METROeInternational MXT on dealer delivery trailerInternational MXT WaycoInternational MXT-MVInternational mxt-trucks

Remembrance Day 2009

Honourary Colonel’s Dinner at 438 ETAH

International Old Engine 9 Houston Fire dept Alaska

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International Paystar 5000 6x4International Paystar 5000 twin steer

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International PayStar Fire engine in CaliforniaInternational ProStar at Mid America truck show

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International Pump japanInternational r2201aInternational r2201bInternational RD-400 Series CabInternational rdf 405International rdf 405bInternational RDF-405International RE SchoolbusesInternational RE seriesInternational Rescue SAInternational restored img 0922International R-Line mixerInternational R-model sleeperInternational Roadstar img 0927International R-series 6-wheelers aInternational R-SeriesInternational SC162 met van Bergen opbouwInternational Scout AdInternational S-seriesInternational Stage LinesInternational stageInternational tanker old North Pole Fire deptInternational TerraStarInternational tractorInternational Transtar Eagle Truck bInternational Transtar Eagle Truck cInternational Transtar the CO-9670International TranStar TruckInternational transtareagle 4300-11International transtareagle4300-01International truck in Whittier, AlaskaInternational Trucks for Commander GattiInternational Trucks Shows Off Refreshed 9800i with New Mid-roof Cab SAInternational TYTInternational Unistar shows the 73-inch BBC day cabInternational USMC Brush pumper JapanInternational vcof 190aInternational vcof 190bInternational vcot 405 lInternational XT bInternational XTInternational_Harvester_logointernational-cxt-driver-front-side-viewinternational-lonestarinternational-lonestar-front-view ainternational-maxxpro-mrap-wheeled-armoured-vehicle-united-statesInternational-RXT-1 aInternational-RXT-3international-streamlined-metro-truckinternational-truck idInternational-trucks ioMcCormick Deering TractorModec FedEx truck, LAMonteverdo Safari in a ski resort late spring 1978Navistar 7000 seriesNavistar International 4900 dump truckNavistar International bus in Mexico TMoctezuma12Navistar International ProstarNZFS 1969 C1800 Butterbox ACCORestored International School BusRiverside Cement's International TruckTractor 300 Mc Cormick FarmallTractors outside International Harvester DealershipUPSIntl4000Ward President body on International Harvester 1853FC chassisWard President School BusWayne Lifeguard school bus with International 3800 chassis (retired)WayneBuslogo1980sYoung Couples Load Boat onto Trailer at Lake from International Scout Pickup

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International Harvester Company – NAVISTAR INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION I

International Logo No Back

International Harvester – NAVISTAR INTERNATIONAL Corporation 1901 – present Warrenville Illinois USA

International Harvester Company
Industry AgriculturalAutomotive
Fate renamed as Navistar International Corporation
Predecessor McCormick Harvesting Machine Company
Deering Harvester Company
Warder, Bushnell, and Glessner etc.
Successor Navistar International
Founded 1901
Founder Cyrus Hall McCormick
Headquarters Warrenville, Illinois
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Cyrus Hall McCormick,J.P. Morgan
Products Farm Machinery, Vocational Trucks, Household Appliances, Passenger Vehicles, Construction and Industrial Equipment

1939 International Jungle Yacht Truck, Commander Gatti
 1939 Advertisement for International “Jungle Yacht” Tractor-trailer, for a luxury tour of the Belgian Congo.
1940 International Tanker Truck ad
 Advertisement for 1940 International Tanker Truck

The In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Company (ab­bre­vi­ated first IHC and later IH) (now known as  Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Cor­po­ra­tion) was a United States man­u­fac­turer of agri­cul­tural ma­chin­ery, con­struc­tion equip­ment, trucks, and house­hold and com­mer­cial prod­ucts. In 1902, J.P. Mor­gan merged the Mc­Cormick Har­vest­ing Ma­chine Company and Deer­ing Har­vester Com­pany, along with three smaller agri­cul­tural equip­ment firms, to form In­ter­na­tional Har­vester. In 1985, In­ter­na­tional Har­vester sold off most of its agri­cul­tural di­vi­sion to Ten­neco, Inc., who merged it into its sub­sidiary J.I. Case under the Case IH brand. Fol­low­ing the terms of IH’s agree­ment with Ten­neco, In­ter­na­tional Har­vester re­named it­self Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Cor­po­ra­tion in 1986.

  • INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER DURING WORLD WAR II “THE STRONG SHALL BE FREE” 74342
  • INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER Dealerships through the years.
  • THE DAY INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER DIED IN MEMPHIS
  • International Harvester 3444 Diesel Backhoe / Loader for Sale

History

Cyrus McCormick engraving
Cyrus Hall McCormick patented an early mechanical reaper

Founding of the company

The roots of In­ter­na­tional Har­vester run to the 1830s, when Cyrus Hall Mc­Cormick, an in­ven­tor from Vir­ginia, fi­nal­ized his ver­sion of a horse-drawn reaper, which he field-demon­strated through­out 1831, and for which he re­ceived a patent in 1834. To­gether with his brother Le­an­der J. Mc­Cormick (1819–1900), Mc­Cormick moved to Chicago in 1847 and started the Mc­Cormick Har­vest­ing Ma­chine Com­pany. The Mc­Cormick reaper sold well, par­tially as a re­sult of savvy and in­no­v­a­tive busi­ness prac­tices. Their prod­ucts came onto the mar­ket just as the de­vel­op­ment of rail­roads of­fered wide dis­tri­b­u­tion to dis­tant mar­ket areas. He de­vel­oped mar­ket­ing and sales tech­niques, de­vel­op­ing a vast net­work of trained sales­men able to demon­strate op­er­a­tion of the ma­chines in the field.

Mc­Cormick died in 1885, with his com­pany pass­ing to his son, Cyrus Mc­Cormick, Jr., whose an­tipa­thy and in­com­pe­tence to­ward or­ga­nized labor sparked the Hay­mar­ket af­fair, the ori­gin of May Day as a labor hol­i­day. In 1902 the Mc­Cormick Har­vest­ing Ma­chine Com­pany and Deer­ing Har­vester Com­pany, along with three smaller agri­cul­tural equip­ment firms (Mil­wau­kee; Plano; and Warder, Bush­nell, and Gless­ner—man­u­fac­tur­ers of Cham­pion brand) merged to cre­ate the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Com­pany. In 1919, the Par­lin and Oren­dorff fac­tory in Can­ton, Illi­noiswas a leader in the plow man­u­fac­tur­ing in­dus­try. In­ter­na­tional Har­vester pur­chased the fac­tory call­ing it the Can­ton Works; it con­tin­ued pro­duc­tion for many decades.

1920 International tractor
 An International Harvester tractor built in 1920
1954 International R110 Truck
 1954 R-110 series pickup

The golden years of IH

In 1926 IH’s Far­mall Works began pro­duc­tion in a new plant in Rock Is­land, Illi­nois, built solely to pro­duce the new Far­mall trac­tor. By 1930, the 100,000th Far­mall was pro­duced. IH next set their sights on in­tro­duc­ing a true ‘gen­eral-pur­pose’ trac­tor de­signed to sat­isfy the needs of the av­er­age US fam­ily farmer. The re­sult­ing ‘let­ter’ se­ries of Ray­mond Loewy-de­signed Far­mall trac­tors in 1939 proved a huge suc­cess, and IH en­joyed a sales lead in trac­tors and re­lated equip­ment that con­tin­ued through much of the 1940s and 1950s, de­spite stiff com­pe­ti­tion from Ford, John Deere and other trac­tor manufacturers.

IH ranked 33rd among United States cor­po­ra­tions in the value of World War II pro­duc­tion contracts. In 1946 IH ac­quired a de­fense plant in Louisville, Ken­tucky, which was en­larged, ex­panded, and re-equipped for pro­duc­tion of the Far­mall A, B, and the new 340 trac­tors. Then in 1948 IH ac­quired the Met­ro­pol­i­tan Body Com­pany of Bridge­port, Connecticut. This was the man­u­fac­tur­ing fa­cil­ity for the bod­ies of the com­mer­cially suc­cess­ful Metro line of for­ward con­trol vans and trucks from 1938 until roughly 1964.

In 1974, the 5 mil­lionth IHC trac­tor was pro­duced at the Rock Is­land Far­mall plant.

Through­out the 1960s and 1970s, de­spite good sales, IH’s profit mar­gins re­mained slim. The con­tin­ual ad­di­tion of un­re­lated busi­ness lines cre­ated a some­what un­wieldy cor­po­rate or­ga­ni­za­tion, and the com­pany found it dif­fi­cult to focus on a pri­mary busi­ness, be it agri­cul­tural equip­ment, con­struc­tion equip­ment, or truck pro­duc­tion. An overly con­ser­v­a­tive man­age­ment, com­bined with a rigid pol­icy of in-house pro­mo­tions tended to sti­fle new man­age­ment strate­gies as well as tech­ni­cal in­no­va­tion. Prod­ucts with in­creas­ingly an­cient tech­nol­ogy con­tin­ued in pro­duc­tion de­spite their mar­ginal ad­di­tion to sales. Worse, IH not only faced a threat of strong com­pe­ti­tion in each of its main busi­nesses, but also had to con­tend with in­creased pro­duc­tion costs, pri­mar­ily due to labor and gov­ern­ment-im­posed en­vi­ron­men­tal and safety regulations.

Downfall

In 1979 IH named a new CEO, who was de­ter­mined to im­prove profit mar­gins and dras­ti­cally cut bal­loon­ing costs. Un­prof­itable model lines were ter­mi­nated, and fac­tory pro­duc­tion cur­tailed. By the end of the year, IH prof­its were at their high­est in 10 years, but cash re­serves were still too low. Union mem­bers be­came in­creas­ingly irate over pro­duc­tion cut­backs and other cost-cut­ting mea­sures. In the spring and sum­mer of 1979, IH began short-term plan­ning for a strike that seemed in­evitable. Then on No­vem­ber 1, IH an­nounced fig­ures show­ing that pres­i­dent and chair­man Archie Mc­Cardell re­ceived a $1.8 mil­lion (in 1979 val­ues) bonus. Mc­Cardell sought over­time, work rule, and other changes from the UAW, which led to a strike on No­vem­ber 2, 1979.

ICBus logo

Soon after, the econ­omy turned un­fa­vor­able, and IH faced a fi­nan­cial cri­sis. The strike lasted ap­prox­i­mately six months. When it ended, IH had lost al­most $600 mil­lion (in 1979 value; over $2 bil­lion today).

By 1981 the com­pany’s fi­nances were at their low­est point ever. The strike, ac­com­pa­nied by the econ­omy and in­ter­nal cor­po­rate prob­lems, had placed IH in a hole that had only a slim way out. Things only got worse until 1984, when the bit­ter end came.

In­ter­na­tional Har­vester, fol­low­ing long ne­go­ti­a­tions, agreed to sell se­lected as­sets of its agri­cul­tural prod­ucts di­vi­sion to Ten­neco, Inc. on No­vem­ber 26, 1984. Ten­neco had a sub­sidiary, J.I. Case, that man­u­fac­tured trac­tors, but lacked the full line of farm im­ple­ments that IH pro­duced (com­bines, cot­ton pick­ers, tillage equip­ment etc.)

Fol­low­ing the merger, trac­tor pro­duc­tion at Har­vester’s Rock Is­land, Illi­nois Far­mall Works ceased in May 1985. Pro­duc­tion of the new Case IH trac­tors moved to the J.I. Case Trac­tor Works in Racine, Wis­con­sin. Pro­duc­tion of IH Ax­ial-Flow com­bines con­tin­ued at the East Mo­line, Illi­nois com­bine fac­tory. Har­vester’s Mem­phis Works in Mem­phis, Ten­nessee was closed and cot­ton picker pro­duc­tion was moved.

The truck and en­gine di­vi­sions re­mained, and in 1986 Har­vester changed the cor­po­rate name to Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Cor­po­ra­tion (Har­vester had sold the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester name and the IH sym­bol to Ten­neco Inc. as part of the sale of its agri­cul­tural prod­ucts di­vi­sion). Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional Cor­po­ra­tion con­tin­ues to man­u­fac­ture medium- and heavy-duty trucks, school buses, and en­gines under the In­ter­na­tional brand name.

Divisions and products

International 660 front
 International 660 in rural Saskatchewan

Agriculture

The In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Agri­cul­tural Di­vi­sion was 2nd to the Truck Di­vi­sion but was the best-known IH sub­sidiary. When IH sold the agri­cul­tural prod­ucts di­vi­sion to Ten­neco in 1985, the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester name and “IH” logo, went with it.

One of the early prod­ucts (be­sides the har­vest­ing equip­ment that Mc­Cormick and Deer­ing had been mak­ing prior to the merger) from the newly cre­ated In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Com­pany was the Trac­tion Truck: a truck frame man­u­fac­tured by Mor­ton Trac­tion Truck Com­pany (later bought by IHC) with an IHC en­gine installed.

From 1902, when IH was formed, to the early 1920s, the Mc­Cormick and Deer­ing deal­er­ships kept their orig­i­nal brands unique, with Mogul trac­tors sold at Mc­Cormick deal­ers, and Titan trac­tors at Deer­ing deal­er­ships, due to the still pre­sent com­pet­i­tive­ness of the for­mer rivals.

The early tractors

1911 IHC Mogul tractor
 1911 one-cylinder 25 hp (19 kW) Type C Mogul
1937 McCormick-Deering tractor
 1937 McCormick-Deering tractor on display at the Cole Land Transportation Museum in Bangor, Maine

IH pro­duced a range of large gaso­line-pow­ered farm trac­tors under the Mogul and Titan brands. Sold by Mc­Cormick deal­ers, the Type C Mogul was lit­tle more than a sta­tion­ary en­gine on a trac­tor chas­sis, fit­ted with fric­tion drive (one speed for­ward, one reverse). Be­tween 1911 and 1914, 862 Moguls were built. These trac­tors had var­ied suc­cess but the trend going into the mid-1910s was “small” and “cheap”.

The first im­por­tant trac­tors from IH were the model 10-20 and 15-30. In­tro­duced in 1915, the trac­tors (which were smaller than their pre­de­ces­sors) were pri­mar­ily used as trac­tion en­gines to pull plows and for belt work on thresh­ing ma­chines. The 10-20 and 15-30 both had sep­a­rate, but sim­i­lar, Mogul and Titan versions.

International_Harvester_logo

Around this time, IHC pur­chased a num­ber of smaller com­pa­nies to in­cor­po­rate their prod­ucts into the IH dealer ar­se­nal. Par­lin & Oren­dorff aka P&O Plow and Chat­tanooga Plow were pur­chased in 1919. Other brand names they in­cor­po­rated in­clude, but are not lim­ited to, Key­stone, D.M. Os­borne, Kemp, Mead­ows, Ster­ling, Weber, Plano and Cham­pion.

In 1924 IH in­tro­duced the Far­mall trac­tor, a smaller gen­eral-pur­pose trac­tor, to fend off com­pe­ti­tion from the Ford Motor Com­pany‘s Ford­son trac­tors. The Far­mall was a leader in the emerg­ingrow-crop trac­tor cat­e­gory.

1954 International Harvester Farmall Super C
 1954 IH Farmall Super C

Fol­low­ing the in­tro­duc­tion of the Far­mall, IH in­tro­duced sev­eral sim­i­lar look­ing “F Se­ries” mod­els that of­fered im­prove­ments over the orig­i­nal de­sign (the orig­i­nal model be­came known as the “Regular”).

In 1932 IH pro­duced their first diesel en­gine, in the Mc­Cormick-Deer­ing TD-40 crawler. This en­gine started on gaso­line, then switched over to diesel fuel. Diesel en­gines of this era were dif­fi­cult to start in cold weather, and using gaso­line al­lowed the en­gine to start eas­ily and thor­oughly warm up be­fore mak­ing the switch to diesel in all weather con­di­tions. In 1935 this en­gine was put in the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester WD-40, be­com­ing the first diesel trac­tor on wheels in North America (the world’s first diesel trac­tor was the Ger­man Benz-Sendling BS 6, in­tro­duced in 1922).

The letter and standard series

1954 IHC red tractor McCormick Farmall
 A McCormick Farmall tractor.

For model year 1939, in­dus­trial de­signer Ray­mond Loewy was hired to de­sign a new line of trac­tors. The sleek look, com­bined with other new fea­tures, cre­ated what is known as the Far­mall “let­ter se­ries” (A, B, BN, C, H, and M) and the Mc­Cormick-Deer­ing “stan­dard se­ries” (W-4, W-6, and W-9). Model year 1941 saw the in­tro­duc­tion of the model “MD”, the first row­crop diesel pow­ered trac­tor; it would be over a decade be­fore IH’s largest com­peti­tor, John Deere, would in­tro­duce a diesel op­tion on their row­crop trac­tors. The let­ter se­ries trac­tors were up­dated to the “super” se­ries in 1953 (with the ex­cep­tion of the A, which had be­come a “super” in 1947, and the B and BN, which were dis­con­tin­ued in 1948) and re­ceived sev­eral im­prove­ments. Many of these trac­tors (es­pe­cially the largest: the H, M, and W mod­els) are still in op­er­a­tion on farms today. Es­pe­cially de­sir­able are the diesel-pow­ered MD, WD-6, and WD-9. These trac­tors car­ried for­ward the unique gaso­line start diesel con­cept of the WD-40.

The let­ter and stan­dard se­ries of trac­tors was pro­duced until 1954, and was a defin­ing prod­uct in IH history.

In 1947, the small­est trac­tor in the Far­mall line was in­tro­duced, the Cub. With a 60 cu. in. four-cylin­der en­gine and a 69-inch wheel­base, the Cub was aimed at small farms such as truck farms, horse farms, and other small acreages that had pre­vi­ously con­tin­ued to rely on horse-drawn equip­ment. Like the var­i­ous John Deere L/LA/LI mod­els, one of the “mech­a­niza­tion-re­sis­tant” mar­kets it hoped to pen­e­trate was the small, poor, one-mule fam­ily farms of the rural Amer­i­can Deep South. But the Cub also sold to own­ers of larger farms who re­quired a sec­ond trac­tor. Pro­duc­tion of the Cub com­menced at the newly ac­quired Far­mall Works-Louisville plant (for­merly the wartime Cur­tiss-Wright Air­craft fac­tory in Louisville, Ken­tucky) which was ex­panded, re­mod­eled, and re-equipped. Sell­ing for $545.00 in 1947, the Cub proved ex­tremely pop­u­lar, and the orig­i­nal de­sign con­tin­ued in pro­duc­tion with­out sig­nif­i­cant al­ter­ation until 1979.

WayneBuslogo1980s

For 1955 in IH trac­tors, the num­bered “hun­dred-se­ries” was of­fered. Al­though given slightly dif­fer­ent looks and few new fea­tures, they were still up­dates to the mod­els in­tro­duced in 1939. The only new trac­tor in the 1955 lineup was the 300 Util­ity. In 1957 IH gave the trac­tor lineup an­other up­date by in­creas­ing power in some mod­els, adding a new 230 Util­ity model, and adding new white paint to the grill and sides, and giv­ing new num­ber des­ig­na­tions. This im­proved sales at the time, but IH’s in­abil­ity to change and up­date was al­ready showing.

60 Series recall

In July 1958, IH launched a major cam­paign to in­tro­duce a new line of trac­tors to re­vi­tal­ize slump­ing sales. At the Hins­dale, Illi­nois, Test­ing Farm, IH en­ter­tained over 12,000 deal­ers from over 25 coun­tries. IH showed off their new “60” se­ries of trac­tors: in­clud­ing the big, first-of-its-kind, six-cylin­der 460 and 560 trac­tors. But the joy of the new line of trac­tors was short lived. One of the first events that would even­tu­ally lead to the down­fall of IH pre­sented it­self in 1959. In June of that year, IH re­called the 460, 560, and 660 trac­tors: final drive com­po­nents had failed. IH, who wanted to be the first big-power man­u­fac­turer, had failed to dras­ti­cally up­date the final dri­ves on the new six-cylin­der trac­tors. These final dri­ves were es­sen­tially un­changed from 1939 and would fail rapidly under the stress of the more pow­er­ful 60-se­ries en­gines. IH’s com­peti­tors took ad­van­tage of the re­call, and IH would lose cus­tomers in the en­su­ing months, with many cus­tomers mov­ing to John Deere‘s New Gen­er­a­tion of Power trac­tors in­tro­duced in 1960.

1960s

Through­out the 1960s IH in­tro­duced new trac­tors and new sales tech­niques. As pro­duc­ing trac­tors was the lifeblood of the com­pany, IH would have to re­main com­pet­i­tive in this field. They both suc­ceeded and failed at this goal. But farm­ing was about to change, and IH and its com­peti­tors were in for a bumpy ride. In 1963 IH in­tro­duced the 73 hp (54 kW) 706 and 95 hp (71 kW) 806 trac­tors. In 1964 IH made its 4 mil­lionth trac­tor, an 806. In 1965 IH in­tro­duced its first 100 hp (75 kW) two-wheel-drive trac­tor, the 1206. An­other op­tion be­came avail­able in 1965 for the 706, 806, and the new 1206: a fac­tory-in­stalled cab (made by Sto­pler Allen Co.). This cab is often called the “Ice Cream Box” cab due to its shape. The cab could be equipped with a fan and heater. By 1967, over 100,000 mod­els 706, 806, and 1206 were built. The 276 In­ter­na­tional har­vester was also built at this pe­riod of time be­com­ing pop­u­lar for smaller farms with tighter lanes and fields due to mo­bil­ity and weight mak­ing the 276 a pop­u­lar seller boost­ing In­ter­na­tional Har­vester’s slim profits.

IC Logo

1967 saw the in­tro­duc­tion of the “56” se­ries trac­tors as re­place­ments for the suc­cess­ful and pop­u­lar “06” se­ries. These new “56s” were big­ger and more pow­er­ful than the “06s”. The new mod­els in­cluded the 65 hp (48 kW) 656, 76 hp (57 kW) 756, the 101 hp (75 kW) 856, and the 116 hp (87 kW) 1256. The “ice cream box” cab was still an op­tion. In 1969 IH in­tro­duced the 1456 Turbo at 131 hp (98 kW). Also that year, the 91 hp (68 kW) 826 was in­tro­duced with the op­tion of gearshift or hy­dro­sta­tic trans­mis­sions. The “ice cream box” cab was dropped and re­placed with the new “cus­tom” cab made by Exel In­dus­tries, which could be equipped with fac­tory air-con­di­tion­ing, heat, and an AM radio. An­other mile­stone for IH was the 1970 in­tro­duc­tion of the 1026 Hydro which was ba­si­cally a hy­dro­sta­tic ver­sion of the 1256, at that time the most pow­er­ful hy­dro­sta­tic trans­mis­sion trac­tor made in the US at 114 hp (85 kW).

1970s

In 1971 IH in­tro­duced the 66 se­ries line. The new mod­els in­cluded the 85 hp (63 kW) 766, the 101 hp (75 kW) 966, the 125 hp (93 kW) 1066 turbo, the 145 hp (108 kW) 1466 Turbo, and the 145 hp (108 kW) 1468 V-8. The 130 hp (97 kW) 4166 4WD was also in­tro­duced. The 966 and 1066 were avail­able with Hydro or gearshift trans­mis­sions and the choice of two-post ROPs or two dif­fer­ent cabs, the “cus­tom” and the “deluxe”. Both could be equipped with A/C, heat, and AM-FM radios.

In 1972 the 666 re­placed the long-run­ning 656, the 150 hp (110 kW) 1568 V8 re­placed the 1468, and the 160 hp (120 kW) 1566 and the 163 hp (122 kW) 4366 4WD were in­tro­duced. Also later that year, four-post ROPs re­placed two-post; The “cus­tom” cab was dropped and the “deluxe” cab was now painted red in­stead of white. Due to horse­power con­fu­sions the 966 and 1066 Hydro mod­els were re­striped; the Hydro 100 and the 666 Hydro be­came the Hydro 70. On Feb­ru­ary 1, 1974 at 9:00 am, the 5 mil­lionth trac­tor came off the as­sem­bly line at the Far­mall Plant in Illi­nois. IH was the first trac­tor man­u­fac­turer to ac­com­plish this. Also in 1973, IH of­fi­cially dropped the “Far­mall” name from its trac­tor. This ended an era that began with the first Far­mall “Reg­u­lar” back in 1924.

The 230 hp (170 kW) 4568 V8 4WD was in­tro­duced in 1975. In 1976 the en­tire trac­tor line got a new paint job and decal pat­tern. No longer were the side pan­els all white with chrome and black de­cals: they were now all red with a black striped sticker. This was done to clear in­ven­tory for the forth­com­ing “Pro Ag Line”.

International_Harvester_logo

In Sep­tem­ber 1976 IH re­leased their 86 se­ries “Pro Ag Line”. The mod­els in­cluded the 80 hp (60 kW) 786, the 90 hp (67 kW) 886, the 101 hp (75 kW) 986, the 104 hp (78 kW) 186 Hydro, the 135 hp (101 kW) 1086, the 146 hp (109 kW) 1486 and the 161 hp (120 kW) 1586. These new trac­tors had a new cab dubbed the “Con­trol Cen­ter” that came stan­dard with A/C, heat, and sev­eral radio/CB op­tions. The dri­ver sat well ahead of the rear axle and the fuel tank was mounted be­hind the cab over the rear axle. This in­creased bal­ance and ride. Also in 1976, the 62 hp (46 kW) 686 along with the “86” se­ries four-wheel-dri­ves were in­tro­duced, in­clud­ing the 4186, 4586, and 4786.

In 1977 In­ter­na­tional Har­vester in­tro­duced the first Ax­ial-Flow ro­tary com­bine. This ma­chine, pro­duced at East Mo­line, Illi­nois, was the first gen­er­a­tion of over 30 years of Ax­ial-Flow combines.

In 1979 IH in­tro­duced two all-new trac­tors: the 3388 and 3588, known as the 2+2 4wd line. These trac­tors were the re­sult of tak­ing two 1086 rear ends and hook­ing them to­gether with a trans­fer case. A year later, the 3788 was in­tro­duced. De­spite the fact these trac­tors per­formed well in the field, they never sold well.

1980s

As the 1980s began, IH was ready to climb from its own de­pres­sion and be­come a leader once more. IH would face a sta­ble econ­omy, yet it would face an un­known fate. In Sep­tem­ber 1981, IH an­nounced at a deal­er­ship meet­ing the new “50 Se­ries” of trac­tors, which in­cluded the 136 hp (101 kW) 5088, the 162 hp (121 kW) 5288 and the 187 hp (139 kW) 5488. IH also re­leased the “30 se­ries”, which in­cluded the 81 hp (60 kW) 3088, the 90 hp (67 kW) 3288 the 112 hp (84 kW) 3488Hy­dro and the 113 hp (84 kW) 3688. These new trac­tors would prove once again that IH had the in­no­va­tion to come out on top. De­signed and styled by IH in­dus­trial de­signer Gregg Mont­gomery, whose firm (Mont­gomery De­sign In­ter­na­tional) later de­signed the Case IH “Mag­num” se­ries trac­tors, the new styl­ish de­sign of the “50 Se­ries and 30 se­ries would change the look of trac­tors from that time for­ward. IH spent over $29 mil­lion to de­velop this new se­ries, and the re­sult was the last great lineup of trac­tors from In­ter­na­tional Harvester.

International_Harvester_logo

There were many tech­nol­ogy-re­lated in­no­va­tions in the new se­ries. A com­puter mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem (“Sen­try”) was de­vel­oped, and IH be­came the first man­u­fac­turer to add a com­puter to a farm trac­tor. Other in­no­va­tions in­cluded a “z” shift pat­tern, an 18-speed syn­chro­nized trans­mis­sion, a for­ward air flow cool­ing sys­tem which sucked air from above the hood and blew it out the front grille, “Power Pri­or­ity” 3-pump hy­draulic sys­tem, color-coded hy­draulic lines and con­trols, and a new rear-hitch sys­tem. The 50 Se­ries had an un­prece­dented three-year or 2,500-hour en­gine and drive-train war­ranty, which would later be­come an in­dus­try stan­dard. Al­though no new sales records were set, IH sold a re­spectable amount of these trac­tors dur­ing its short pro­duc­tion time. IH also re­leased the “60 se­ries 2+2s” and planned on mak­ing the “Su­per70 se­ries” 2+2s but only a hand­ful of these exist today. On May 14, 1985 the last IH trac­tor rolled off the fac­tory line, a 5488 FWA.

IH was well into the de­vel­op­ment of a new line of trac­tors that would rev­o­lu­tion­ize the ways of farm­ing when the sale of the agri­cul­tural prod­ucts di­vi­sion was an­nounced. Many of these new fea­tures would find their way into the new se­ries of MAG­NUM trac­tors in­tro­duced by Case IH in 1987.

In the late 1970s IH en­tered a deal with Spain’s Enasa to build diesel en­gines there as In­ter­na­cional de Motores. After a down­turn in the mar­ket cou­pled to prob­lems with Spain’s entry into the EEC threat­ened the prof­itabil­ity of this pro­ject, In­ter­na­tional Har­vester with­drew in 1982. In re­turn for being al­lowed to es­cape all con­di­tions of the joint ven­ture, IH lost their up front in­vest­ment in the en­gine plant and ended up sell­ing British truck man­u­fac­turer Sed­don Atkin­son (which had be­longed to IH since 1974) to Enasa in 1983.

Brand names of the Ag division

McCormick Deering Tractor
 McCormick Deering Tractor

IH over the years used a num­ber of brand names to mar­ket their trac­tor and har­vest­ing products:

  • International (1902–1985)
  • Titan (1910–1924)
  • Mogul (1911–1924)
  • McCormick–Deering (1922–1947)
  • McCormick (1947–1958)
  • Farmall (1924–1973)
  • Fairway (1924–1938)
  • Electrall (1954–1956)

Other agricultural products

Along with the promi­nent trac­tor di­vi­sion, IH also sold sev­eral dif­fer­ent types of farm-re­lated equip­ment, such as balers, cul­ti­va­tors, com­bines (self-pro­pelled and pull be­hind), com­bine heads, corn shellers, cot­ton pick­ers, ma­nure spread­ers, hay rakes, crop dusters, disk har­rows, el­e­va­tors, feed grinders, ham­mer mills, hay con­di­tion­ers, milk­ing ma­chines, planters, mills, discs, plows and var­i­ous mis­cel­la­neous equipment.

Also pro­duced were twine, sta­tion­ary en­gines, load­ers, and wagons.

Electrall

The Elec­trall sys­tem was in­tro­duced in 1954; it was a short-lived at­tempt to mar­ket elec­tri­cally op­er­ated farm equip­ment and ac­ces­sories. The sys­tem, co-de­vel­oped with Gen­eral Elec­tric, con­sisted of a 208Vthree phaseal­ter­nat­ing cur­rent gen­er­a­tor con­nected with elec­tric ca­bles to the de­vice to be pow­ered. The gen­er­a­tor could even power a house­hold. A 10 kW Elec­trall gen­er­a­tor was an op­tion on the Far­mall 400 tractor, and there also was a 12.5 kW PTO-dri­ven ver­sion. The pos­si­ble ap­pli­ca­tions of Elec­trall power were many, but few made it to mar­ket. IH mar­ket­ing ma­te­ri­als showed a hay­baler being Elec­trall pow­ered. One of the more novel ap­pli­ca­tions of the Elec­trall was a de­vice to elec­tro­cute in­sects in the field at night (ba­si­cally like a mod­ern-day bug zap­per, but on a larger scale).

Vehicles

Light duty trucks

1911 International Harvester Auto Wagon
 1911 International Harvester Auto Wagon
1927 International stakebed
 1927 International one-ton stakebed
1954 International R110 Front End
 1954 R-110 series pickup
1956 International pickup
 1957 A-series pickup
1961–1962 IHC C-120 Travelette
 1961–1962 IHC C-120 Travelette
1979 International Gold Concept
 1956 international pickup.jpg.

IH is often re­mem­bered as a maker of rel­a­tively suc­cess­ful and in­no­v­a­tive “light” lines of ve­hi­cles, com­pet­ing di­rectly against the Big 3. The most com­mon were pickuptrucks. IH made light trucks from 1907 to 1975, be­gin­ning with the Model A Auto Wagon (some­times called the “Auto Buggy”). Pro­duc­tion com­menced in Feb­ru­ary 1907 at IH’s Mc­Cormick Works in Chicago, al­though pro­duc­tion was moved to Akron, Ohio in Oc­to­ber that year. Pow­ered by a hor­i­zon­tally op­posed air-cooled twin of around 15 hp (11 kW), it was a right-hand-drive model pop­u­lar in rural areas for high ground clear­ance on the poor roads typ­i­cal of the era. It fea­tured a rear seat con­vert­ible to a car­rier bed. The Auto Wagon was re­named the Motor Truck in 1910, and was a fore­run­ner to the suc­cess­ful mod­ern pickup truck. They were called IHC until 1914, when the ‘In­ter­na­tional’ name was first applied. The final light line truck was made on May 5, 1975.

IH also had early suc­cess with the “Auto Buggy”, which started pro­duc­tion in Feb­ru­ary 1907. In the mid-1940s, In­ter­na­tional re­leased their K and KB se­ries trucks, which were more sim­plis­tic than other trucks re­leased in that era. This was fol­lowed by the L Se­ries in 1949, which was re­placed by the R Se­ries in 1952, fol­lowed by the S line in 1955. In 1957, to cel­e­brate IH’s golden an­niver­sary as a truck man­u­fac­turer, this was re­placed by the new A line. ‘A’ stands for anniver­sary. With light mod­i­fi­ca­tions to its ap­pear­ance but more se­ri­ous changes under the shell (and a num­ber of new names), this de­sign con­tin­ued in pro­duc­tion until re­placed by the 1100D in late 1969, which looked very sim­i­lar to the Scout.

Cor­re­spond­ing with the truck “let­ter lines” was the Metro line of step (de­liv­ery) vans. Start­ing in 1938 and man­u­fac­tured through 1975, the Metro se­ries was pro­duced and up­dated with each it­er­a­tion of IH’s truck lines. There were also spe­cial use vari­ants such as the Metro Coach (a bus ver­sion with win­dows and pas­sen­ger seats) and Metro front-end sec­tion and chas­sis for full com­mer­cial cus­tomiza­tion. Ad­di­tional vari­ants were based on the medium duty en­gine and chas­sis lines.

One of the com­pany’s light-duty ve­hi­cles was the Trav­e­lall, which was sim­i­lar in con­cept to the Chevro­let Sub­ur­ban. The Trav­elette was a crew cab, avail­able in 2 or 4 wheel drive. A 3-door ver­sion was avail­able start­ing in 1957, and a 4-door ver­sion was avail­able start­ing in 1961. The 1961 Trav­elette 4-door (crew­cab) was the first 6-pas­sen­ger, 4-door truck of its time. The Scout, first in­tro­duced in 1961, is a small two-door SUV, sim­i­lar to a Jeep. In 1972 the Scout be­came the Scout II, and in 1974 Dana 44 axles, power steer­ing and power disk brakes be­came stan­dard. After the Light Line pick­ups and Trav­e­lall were dis­con­tin­ued in 1975, the Scout Trav­eler and Terra be­came avail­able, both with a longer wheel­base than a stan­dard Scout II.

IH would aban­don sales of pas­sen­ger ve­hi­cles in 1980 to con­cen­trate on com­mer­cial trucks and school buses. Today the pick­ups, Trav­e­lalls, and Scouts are minor cult or­phaned ve­hi­cles. All were also avail­able as rugged four-wheel driveoff-road ve­hi­cles.

The Scout and Light Truck parts busi­ness was sold to Scout/Light Line Dis­trib­u­tors, Inc. in 1991.

Medium/heavy duty

IH was an early man­u­fac­turer of medium/heavy duty trucks. Al­though based upon truck chas­sis, IH also be­came the lead­ing man­u­fac­turer of the chas­sis por­tion of body-on-chas­sis con­ven­tional (type C) school buses. In 1962 IH of­fered the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Load­star which be­came the pre­mier medium-duty truck. In 1978 IH of­fered the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester S-Se­ries, which re­placed the Load­star in 1979.

With the truck and en­gine di­vi­sions re­main­ing fol­low­ing the 1985 sale of the agri­cul­tural di­vi­sion, In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Com­pany changed their cor­po­rate name to Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional in 1986. Today Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional’s sub­sidiary, In­ter­na­tional Truck and En­gine Cor­po­ra­tion, man­u­fac­tures and mar­kets trucks and en­gines under the In­ter­na­tional brand name.

The Power Strokediesel en­gine, which is a trade name of Ford Motor Com­pany, was man­u­fac­tured by In­ter­na­tional Truck and En­gine Cor­po­ra­tion in In­di­anapo­lis, Ind., for use in Ford heavy-duty trucks, vans and SUVs.

Military

IH man­u­fac­tured light, medium, and heavy ve­hi­cles for mil­i­tary use. Ex­am­ples in­clude a Metro van sold to the Czecho­slo­va­kian Army in 1938, as M5 Trac­tors and 2.5-ton M-5H-6 trucks for the US Navy & Marines in 1942, and ap­prox­i­mately 3,500 2.5 ton M-5-6-318 cargo trucks pro­vided mostly to So­viet Union and China.

Motorhomes

In the 1970s, mo­torhomes were man­u­fac­tured using IHC en­gines and bare chas­sis. Most of the bod­ies were con­structed of fiber­glass.

Overseas subsidiaries

Australia

Utility

1953 International Utility
 1953 International Utility

Australian Army designs

In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Aus­tralia, a sub­sidiary of the US Man­u­fac­turer, had a long re­la­tion­ship with the Aus­tralian Army with the US de­signed AS se­ries trucks in the early 1950s. The AS164 2X4 used as a trac­tor unit and the 2X4 AS161 used as a tray­back troop transport

The as­so­ci­a­tion be­tween In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Aus­tralia and the Aus­tralian Army de­vel­oped and in con­junc­tion with the Army De­sign Es­tab­lish­ment of the Aus­tralian Com­mon­wealth De­part­ment of Sup­ply, de­signed and con­structed a range of trucks for the Aus­tralian Army. With body loosely based upon the de­sign of cab 13 of the Cana­dian Mil­i­tary Pat­tern truck the first pro­to­type built in 1959 was the In­ter­na­tional Truck Cargo 2½ Ton Gen­eral Ser­vice, Aus­tralian No.1 Mk1. which was fol­lowed by the Mk2 pro­to­type. A vari­ant with a mid mounted 20,000 pound winch, re­sulted in the first pro­duc­tion model, the Mk3 en­ter­ing ser­vice in 1963 – just in time for Aus­tralia’s entry into the Viet­nam War.

A 5 Ton 6X6 ver­sion was to fol­low with 3 major vari­ants the Truck Cargo 5 Ton with winch F1 which re­placed the Mk3 in Viet­nam service.

The F2 a tip­per version that re­placed the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester AB160 “tea­spoon Tipper” in both Viet­nam and Bor­neo the­atres of operations.

The F5 wrecker with a lack of 4X4 2 1/2 ton trucks avail­able be­cause of the Viet­nam War, the Mk3 was sup­ple­mented with fur­ther 4X4 pro­duc­tion with the up­dated Mk4 version which shared the cab with the 6X6 vari­ants Pro­duc­tion of The Aus­tralian No.1. range of trucks were pro­duced until 1973. The Mk3, Mk4, F1, F2 and F5 saw ser­vice until the late 1980s.

NZFS 1969 C1800 Butterbox ACCO
 NZFS 1969 C1800 Butterbox ACCO.

ACCO

International ACCO truck With Generator Loaded Up
 International ACCO

The Aus­tralian-de­signed and built In­ter­na­tional ACCO [Aus­tralian con­structed cab over] was first pro­duced in the late 1960s. The ACCO is a cab over en­gine type truck and has been of­fered in 4×2, 4×4, 6×2, 6×4, 8×4 and 10×4 con­fig­u­ra­tions. En­gines used have been Cum­mins, Cater­pil­lar, De­troit Diesel or GMC with Road-Ranger or Al­li­son trans­mis­sions and Rock­well dif­fer­en­tials. The ACCO range were built to order, serv­ing pri­vate op­er­a­tors, fire de­part­ments, mil­i­tary ser­vices and mu­nic­i­pal de­part­ments across Aus­tralia and New Zealand. The ACCO be­came the most pop­u­lar prod­uct of In­ter­na­tional Har­vester in Aus­tralia. The ACCO con­tin­ues to be man­u­fac­tured to date, under the own­er­ship of Iveco.

Brazilian subsidiary

“In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Máquinas S.A.” was es­tab­lished with Brazil­ian gov­ern­ment sup­port as part of a pro­ject to de­velop a ve­hi­cle in­dus­try there. Their first prod­uct was the In­ter­na­tional S-184 heavy truck. In 1966 Chrysler pur­chased In­ter­na­tional’s Brazil­ian plant.

U.S. Truck series since 1960

Loadstar (1962–1979)

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER loadstar as an airport fire GREECE TRUCK
 IHC Loadstar as an airport fire truck in Greece.
1968 International Harvester Loadstar bus at the Egged Museum, of Holon, Israel
 1968 International Harvester Loadstar bus at the Egged Museum, of Holon, Israel.

The first gen­er­a­tion Load­star was pri­mar­ily used for local de­liv­ery, in­clud­ing school buses and fire en­gines. It was also used ex­ten­sively in the agri­cul­tural and con­struc­tion in­dus­tries. It was widely rec­og­niz­able by its grey grill and “but­ter­fly” hood, but some late mod­els had one piece tilt­ing hoods. Most had a medium-duty 4×2 chas­sis, but some 6×4 heavy-duty mod­els were built. This se­ries was re­placed by the S-Se­ries in the 1970s.

Mod­els 1600, 1650, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1850, 2050

Pow­er­train

Gasoline

IHC V-304 V8

  • IHC V-345 V8
  • IHC V-461 V8
  • IHC V-549 V8
Diesel
  • IHC DV-462 V8
  • IHC DV-550 V8
  • IHC DV-550B V8
    • IHC D-150/170/190 V8
    • IHC DT466 I6
  • Caterpillar 1160 V8
  • Caterpillar 3208 V8
  • Detroit Diesel 6V53N V6

Navistar 7000 series (2005-)

The Nav­is­tar 7000 se­ries is a line of mil­i­tary heavy lift ve­hi­cles based on Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional‘s Work­Star truck chas­sis, and pro­duced by Nav­is­tar De­fense. The truck is avail­able in a va­ri­ety of wheel (4×2, 4×4, 6×4, and 6×6) and en­gine configurations.

In 2005, the US Army or­dered 2900 7,000-MV for the Afghan Na­tional Army and Iraqi Min­istry of De­fense and an ad­di­tional order of 7,000 was added in 2008.

The Cana­dian ForcesCana­dian Army had adopted the Nav­is­tar De­fence LLC Medium Lo­gis­tics truck. The ve­hi­cle ful­fills the MSVS Mil­COTS (Mil­i­ta­rized Com­mer­cial-Off-The-Shelf) re­quire­ment. As of mid-2011, the MSVS SMP (Stan­dard Mil­i­tary Pat­tern) ve­hi­cle has not been cho­sen. By June 2010, 1,300 Nav­is­tar units have re­placed part of the MLVW fleet. The civil­ian des­ig­na­tion of the 7000-MV is Nav­is­tar 7400 SFA 6×6.

In July 2012 the order for 1500 MSVS SMP trucks was can­celled and being re-evaluated.

Op­er­a­tors

S series (1977–2001)

The In­ter­na­tional Har­vester S-Series was a medium and heavy-duty truck line. In April 1977, at the New Or­leansSu­per­dome, the all-new S-se­ries medium-duty trucks were introduced. as a re­place­ment for the In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Fleet­star. In 1979, other ver­sions of the S-Se­ries were in­tro­duced to suc­ceed the Load­star-se­ries. Like the Load­star, the S-Se­ries were straight trucks com­monly used for local de­liv­ery; the ver­sions re­plac­ing the Fleet­star were semi-trac­tors or se­vere-ser­vice straight trucks. Ad­di­tion­ally, the S-Se­ries (and its re­place­ment, the 3800) proved pop­u­lar in the school bus in­dus­try. The S-Se­ries was the last prod­uct line de­signed from the ground up by In­ter­na­tional Har­vester them­selves; it was pro­duced in its orig­i­nal form until the end of the 1980s. Pro­duc­tion of the S-Se­ries ended in 2001.The six-wheeled ver­sions of the “S” were called F-se­ries.

In 1987, to re­flect the cor­po­rate change from In­ter­na­tional Har­vester to Nav­is­tar In­ter­na­tional, the S-Se­ries re­ceived new badg­ing. The IHC logo seen on the steer­ing wheel was re­placed by the Nav­is­tar di­a­mond logo. On the out­side, the In­ter­na­tional name was moved from the top to the bot­tom of the grille. In­stead of match­ing the grille color, all S-Se­ries trucks wore a red In­ter­na­tional badge.Navistar International 4900 dump truck

 Navistar International 4900 dump truck

In a 1989 facelift most of the com­po­nents were car­ried over into an up­dated line of medium duty trucks (the straight trucks were re-branded In­ter­na­tional 4000 Se­ries, while the trac­tors be­came the In­ter­na­tional 8000 Se­ries) with a re­designed hood and in­te­rior in 1989. These prod­ucts un­der­went in­te­rior up­dates in 1992 and 1995, re­main­ing in pro­duc­tion until the end of the 2001 model year.

Mod­els

Wayne Lifeguard school bus with International 3800 chassis (retired)
 Wayne Lifeguard school bus with International 3800 chassis (retired)
Navistar International bus in Mexico TMoctezuma12
 Navistar International bus in Mexico.
Trucks (International Harvester)
  • S-1600
  • S-1700
  • S-1800
  • S-1900
  • S-2000
  • S-2200 (short hood, wide cab)
  • S-2500 (long hood)
  • S-2600 (long hood, set back front axle)
Trucks (Navistar International)
  • 4600
  • 4700
  • 4900
  • 8100
  • 8200
Buses
  • 1853FC front-engine forward control
  • S-Series ”Schoolmaster” conventional
  • 3400 cutaway cab
  • 3600 semi-forward control
  • 3700 conventional
  • 3800 conventional (replaced “Schoolmaster” with 3700)

Pow­er­train

Gasoline Engines
International Harvester
    • 345 cubic-inch V8 (1979–1986)
    • 392 cubic-inch V8 (1979–1986)
    • MV-404 6.6 liter V8 (1979–1981)
    • MV-446 7.3 liter V8 (1979–1981) (gasoline ancestor of the International Harvester IDI engine)
Diesel Engines
V8

  • International Harvester 9.0 L (551 cu in) V8 (1979–1987)
  • D-150/170/190 (September 1978 – December 1979)
  • 9.0L (January 1980 – 1987)
  • International Harvester IDI 6.9 L (420 cu in) (1983–1987)
  • International Harvester IDI 7.3 L (444 cu in) (1986–1989)
  • Caterpillar 3208 10.4 L (636 cu in) (1979–1981)
Inline-6

  • International Harvester DT360 5.9 L (360 cu in) (1987–1989)
  • International Harvester DT466 7.6 L (466 cu in) (1979–1989)
  • Cummins M11

TranStar 8000 series (1989–)

2012 International TranStar 8600 with a special single-seat body for carrying long pipes
 International TranStar 8600 with a special single-seat body for carrying long pipes

The In­ter­na­tional 8000 Series, also known as the In­ter­na­tional TranStar line, is a re­gional-haultrac­tor. It is avail­able in two variants. They dif­fer in en­gines, dri­ve­trains, and axle configurations.

The 8500 is pow­ered by an In­ter­na­tional HT 570 310 hp (230 kW), 1,050 lbf·ft (1,420 N·m) en­gine with ei­ther a Fuller 10-speed man­ual, Spicer 7-speed man­ual, or Al­li­son 5-speed/6-speed automatic. With a wheel­base from 128 to 201 in (3.3 to 5.1 m), its front axle ca­pac­ity is 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) or 12,000 lb (5,400 kg). Rear sin­gle axle has a ca­pac­ity of 23,000 pounds (10,000 kg). Rear tan­dem axle has a ca­pac­ity of 40,000 lb (18,000 kg). Both axles are ei­ther Mer­i­tor or Dana Spicer and are avail­able with a dri­ver-con­trolled lock­ing dif­fer­en­tial. Ap­pli­ca­tions in­clude bev­er­age, city trac­tor, and re­gional haul.

The heav­ier-duty 8600 model is pow­ered by ei­ther a Cater­pil­lar or Cum­mins diesel. With a wheel­base from 128 to 315 inches (3.25 to 8.00 m), its front axle is ei­ther a Mer­i­tor with a ca­pac­ity of 10,000 lb (4,500 kg), 12,000 lb (5,400 kg), or 13,200 lb (6,000 kg) or a Dana Spicer with a ca­pac­ity of 10,000 lb (4,500 kg), 12,000 lb (5,400 kg), 13,200 lb (6,000 kg), or 14,000 lb (6,400 kg). Rear sin­gle axle ca­pac­ity is 23,000 lb (10,000 kg). Rear tan­dem axle ca­pac­ity is 40,000 lb (18,000 kg). Both axles are ei­ther Mer­i­tor or Dana Spicer and are avail­able with a dri­ver-con­trolled lock­ing dif­fer­en­tial. Ap­pli­ca­tions in­clude bev­er­age, city trac­tor, liq­uid or dry bulk, and re­gional haul.

Home

1979 Cub Cadet loader
 A 1979 Cub Cadet loader, made two years before the line was sold to Modern Tool and Die Company.
1930-45 IH dealer in Texas, showing trucks, tractors and refrigeration equipment N.P. Hurst Motor Co. IH
 IH dealer in Texas, showing trucks, tractors and refrigeration equipment

Lawn and garden

IH branched out into the home lawn and gar­den busi­ness in the 1960s with its line of Cub Cadet equip­ment, which in­cluded rid­ing and walk-be­hind lawn mow­ers and snow blow­ers. Also pro­duced were com­post shred­ders, ro­tary tillers, Cadet gar­den trac­tors, and power washers.

The Cub Cadet line was sold to MTD Prod­ucts in 1981.

Home appliances

Al­though best known for farm equip­ment, IH pro­duced home ap­pli­ances for farm­ers and non-farm­ers alike. This in­cluded re­frig­er­a­tion equip­ment such as re­frig­er­a­tors, air con­di­tion­ers andfreez­ers. IH had a re­frig­er­a­tion di­vi­sion of its own, as did other ve­hi­cle man­u­fac­tur­ers of the time: Ford had Philco, Chrysler had Airtemp, Gen­eral Mo­tors had Frigidaire, Nash-Kelv­ina­tor Cor­po­ra­tion (and then Amer­i­can Mo­tors) had Kelv­ina­tor, Stude­baker had the Franklin Ap­pli­ance Com­pany, Crosley had Crosley.

The IH ap­pli­ance di­vi­sion had orig­i­nally been de­vel­oped to man­u­fac­ture com­mer­cial-grade items to farm­ers, most of whom had just re­ceived elec­tric­ity by way of the many elec­tri­fi­ca­tion pro­jects in the U.S. be­fore and after World War II. Among the of­fer­ings were milk cool­ers and walk-in freez­ers for pro­duce and meat. Later on, IH courted the farmer’s wife with kitchenre­frig­er­a­tors avail­able in the lat­est de­signer styles. The IH spokes­woman for these prod­ucts was Irma Hard­ing, a fac­tory trade­mark. These prod­ucts were in­tro­duced in 1947 and sold for less than 10 years. The re­frig­er­a­tion di­vi­sion was sold to Whirlpool Cor­po­ra­tion in 1955. Since the time of pro­duc­tion was short, IH ap­pli­ances are rare today.

Other products

Weapons

In early 1951, the United States Army through the Spring­field Ar­mory con­tracted In­ter­na­tional Har­vester to pro­duce M1 Garand ri­fles, and from 1953 to 1956 pro­duced 337,623 ri­fles in total, ac­cord­ing to the Army Ord­nance Department.

HT-341

In 1959, In­ter­na­tional Har­vester cre­ated a Jet-Tur­bine pow­ered trac­tor called the In­ter­na­tional HT-341. It was do­nated to the Smith­son­ian In­sti­tu­tion in 1967.

See also

1908 International highwheel pickup1909 Russian International Harvester Advertising Poster1910 International Harvester vehicle Long Lake Regional Park New Brighton Minnesota Mile 118.51911 IHC Mogul tractor1911 International Harvester Auto Wagon1911 International J30 Touring1912 international highwheel Peddlerswagon1912 StudBus1913 International Harvester Cars Autocar1913 International MW. It is powered by a two cylinder engine rearside1913 International MW. It is powered by a two cylinder engine1916 International Model H Truck1917 International Motor Truck Advertising Poster1917 Model F International Motor Truck1917 Model H International Motor Truck1918 international 2-ton1918 International Fire Truck Advertising Card1920 International Harvester tractor1920 Triumph Medium Weight Truck1920-01 International Truck Calendar1920's McCormick Deering Tractor, 13-33 Model E1921 International-Harvester-six-speed-spezial1922 Ford Model T kid hack bus1922 IHC Saving the World From Starvation Advertisement1923 International Municipal Service Truck Catalog1923 International Red Baby Truck Advertising Poster1923 Red Baby Truck Cartoon1924 International Harvester Repair Service Advertising Poster1924 International Motor Truck Advertising Poster1924 International Motor Trucks Advertising Poster1924 International Truck Advertising Poster1924 Model S for today's Throw-Back Thursday! It featured a 4-cylinder, block cast engine and sliding gear1925 Here's a Good Plan That Succeeds1925 Model S International truck owned by Zieglers Furniture Store1926 IH brochure1926 International Harvester Toy Trucks1926 International Transit THUNDER BAY1927 international 4cyl1927 international 541927 International Harvester toys produced by Arcade Toys1927 international S24 4cyl1927 International stakebed1928 international 1ton 6speed Special1928 International Model 15 with body by Moore1928 International Speed Six Truck1928 international truckdumpbed1928 International Trucks Advertising Poster (Brazil)1929 Deering Farm Equipment and International Truck Advertising Poster1929 International Motor Truck Advertising Poster1929 International Six-Speed Special Truck Advertising Poster1929 International Truck Advertising Poster (Argentina)1929 International Trucks Advertising Poster (Africa and India)1930 Advertisement for International fire-rescue trucks featuring the National Air Races held at Curtiss-Reynolds Airport in Chicago1930 international 6spd1930 International Model A-5 Poster1930 International Model AW-1 Truck Advertising Poster1930 International Six-Speed Special Truck Advertising Poster1930 International SSS Special 1ton6spd4cylflathead3spdtrans2spdrear1930-45 IH dealer in Texas, showing trucks, tractors and refrigeration equipment N.P. Hurst Motor Co. IH1931 International Hainje Heerenveen B-48881931 International o1931 International Truck Advertising Poster1931 McCormick-Deering Corn Sheller and Feed Grinder Poster1932 International A-2 Truck Advertisement1932 International Bread Truck1932 International Harvester Bakeries Poster1932 International Harvester Bottling Truck Poster1932 International Harvester Cordoba-Cruz DE1932 International tractor with sleeper hauling for Golden Age Beer1932 International Trucks for Construction Industry1932 International Trucks Poster1932-1956 international 11932-1956 international 41932-1956 international 51932-1956 international 61932-1956 international 71932-1956 international 81932-1956 international 91932-1956 international 101932-1956 international 111932-1956 international 121932-1956 international 131932-1956 international 141932-1956 international 15

1932-1956 international 161932-1956 international 171932-1956 international 181932-1956 international 191932-1956 international 201932-1956 international 211932-1956 international 221932-1956 international 231932-1956 international 241932-1956 international 251932-1956 international 261932-1956 international 271932-1956 international 281932-1956 international 291932-1956 international 301932-1956 international 311932-1956 international 321932-1956 international 331932-1956 international 341932-1956 international 351932-1956 international 361932-1956 international 371932-1956 international 381932-1956 international 391932-1956 international 401932-1956 international 411932-1956 international 421932-1956 international 431932-1956 international 441932-1956 international 451932-1956 international 461932-1956 international 471932-1956 international 481932-1956 international 491932-1956 international 501932-1956 international 511932-1956 international 521932-1956 international 531932-1956 international 541932-1956 international 551932-1956 international 561933 international 1ton 6cyl1933 International D-1 Trucks Advertising Poster1933 international D1truckbuiltbyWillys1933 Wardbuslogo1934 international 19341935 international 1.1,2ton1935 international 6cyl paddy wagon 41935 International C-1 truck owned by Elsner's Blue Ribbon Bakery1935 International Harvester and Packard1935 International late 6cyl armoured by John C Dix Companyfor Federal Reserve Bank built in MemphisTN WNL1935 International Lawrie ModelCs1935 International Truck Advertisement1935 International Truck Advertising Poster1935 International1935 South African International C-35-CS-35 Truck Brochure1936 international 1936 c1_taxi_norway1936 International C-1 Truck Brochure1936 International C-15 Truck Brochure1936 international C301936 International C-35 B and CS-35-B Bus Flyer1936 International C-40 and CS-40 Ad Flyer1936 International C-300 Truck Brochure1936 International dumptruck1936 International Trucks Ad Proof1937 brochure for heating and defrosting systems used in International trucks1937 international ambulance 19371937 international D21937 International Harvester cab-over-engine (COE) tow truck parked in front of Miller Motors dealership.1937 international harvester-d-21937 International Trail Magazine Cover1937 International Truck Ad Proof1937 McCormick-Deering tractor1937 Two specially designed International trucks connected with an awning at an African camp site1937-40 International milk delivery truck owned by Carnation Milk1938 I H Superior1938 international 6cyl deluxe paneltruck1938 International Builds Trucks for Every Class of Hauling1938 International Carr. Buca Born.1938 International D-40 Truck Brochure1938 International Harvester Ad1938 International Harvester D Series Panel Van1938 International Harvester D-DS-30, D-DS-35, D1938 International Industrial Power Advertising Poster1938 International model D-400, Coca Cola1938 International Trail Magazine Cover of Gatti Expedition1938 International Trail Magazine Cover1938 International Truck Advertising Poster a1938 International Truck Advertising Poster1938 International Trucks Advertisement1938-1975 Preserved International Harvester Metro Van in Portland in 20121939 dodge school bus1939 International Air Mail Delivery Truck Advertising Poster1939 International België1939 International D-301939 International D-300 delivery trucks owned by Golden Age Beer1939 International Harvester carr. Renkema Middelstum B-225141939 International harvester rapid ihc1939 International Harvester woodie wagon 19391939 International Jungle Yacht Truck, Commander Gatti1939 International Models D-500 and DR-700 Trucks1939 International Woodies1939 International-d-series-sedan1939IH1940 international 1940 d-2 woody sw1940 International D-400 Truck Advertising Poster1940 International De Luxe Delivery Truck Advertising Poster1940 International D-Line Truck Advertising Poster1940 International Harvester, D5 Panel Van, 'Weddell's Bread', Aberdeen Street, Geelong1940 International madel D-300, owned by Richfield Petroleum1940 International METRO Delivery Trucks1940 International model D International owned by Standard Oil1940 International model D-151940 International Model D-40 and DS-40 Trucks1940 International Panel Truck At Airport1940 International Tanker Truck ad1940 International Woodie Station Wagon1940 International-police-wagon 19401940 Prospector for International Harvester Dealers1940 SchoolBus1941 IH Models K-8, K-10, and K-11 Trucks1941 International Harvester K-5 Wayne1941 International Harvester Truck Advertising Proof1941 International Harvester woodie wagon1941 International Harvester, D2 Station Wagon1941 International Harvester, D30 Motor Buses, City Road, South Melbourne1941 International Harvester, Reo Speed Wagon Bus,11941 international KandFruehauftrailer1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Poster1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Proof a1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Proof b1941 International K-Line Truck Advertising Proof1941 International Modelos K-6, KS-6, K-7 and KS-7 Trucks1941 International Truck Advertising Proof a1941 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1941 International Truck Advertising Proof b1941 International Truck Advertising Proof1942 international 6cyl4spd1942 International Harvester Ambulances1942 International Harvester Maintenance Battalion Poster1942 International K6flatbed1942 International1943 Both Working for Victory1943 International Harvester D series1943 International Trucks Alaska Highway Ad1944 Everything Changed But The Paint1944 International (2)1944 International hc m2-41944 International semi-truck (tractor-trailer) on a road with a hazy view of a bridge1944 International Truck on the Ohio River Boulevard1944 International Truck Operated by Mistletoe Express Service, Inc1944 International1945 International M-5H63611945 International Model K-8-F Truck1945 International

1946 International Product Advertising Proof1946 International Truck Advertising Poster a1946 International Truck Advertising Poster1946 International Truck Advertising Proof Logging1946 International Truck Advertising Proof1946 International West Coast Model Truck1947 International Harvester, K Line Station Wagon1947 International HFA1947 International KB and KBR Truck Advertising Proof1947 International KBR-11 Truck Advertising Proof1947 International Model KB-10 Trucks1947 International Truck Advertising Proof a1947 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1947 International Truck Advertising Proof b1947 International Truck Advertising Proof1947 International Trucks Gatti-Hallicrafter's Expedition to Africa1947 International-kb-2-pickup1947 New International Harvester Logo Advertising Poster1947-52 International carr. Verheul NB-28-271948 International Harvester Dittmar1948 International KB-1-M and KB-3-M Metro Delivery Trucks1948 International KB-8 school bus1948 International KB-81948 International KB-8-1 Truck Advertising Proof1948 International Metro Advertising Proof a1948 International Metro Advertising Proof1948 International Model KB-2 Trucks1948 International Panel van1948 International Products Advertising Proof1948 International Tractor-Trailer & Diesel Crawler Tractor1948 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1948 International Truck Advertising Proof1948 REOschoolbus1949 International Harvester Company's annual report1949 INTERNATIONAL Harvester et Half-Track1949 International Harvester RDC 4051949 International Harvester W1949 International Heavy Duty Truck Advertising Proof1949 International K -2 Special Coach Truck and Airplane1949 International KB-81949 International L-120 Truck with Pickup Body1949 International L-120, L-110, and L-130 Trucks1949 International L-130 Truck with Stake Body1949 International L-160 Truck with Platform Body1949 International Metro Advertising Proof1949 International Model KB-5 Trucks1949 International Model KB-8 Trucks1949 International Truck Advertising Proof a1949 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1949 International Truck Advertising Proof Featuring Commander Gatti1949 International trucks promoting United States government bonds1949 International W-301949 International W-3042-L Truck-Van, Closed Top with Semi-Trailer1949 International-metro-kb1m1949 Internationals Harvester s at work1949 International-Visdalsruten1949-52 International carrosserie Hoogeveen NB-67-751950 Blue Bird1950 International Engine Advertising Proof a1950 International Engine Advertising Proof1950 International Gardner Wood 500-5001950 International Harvester ACO `90 Sightliner V-8 gas1950 international harvester bus a1950 International Harvester Bus1950 International Harvester L series1950 International L and LF Truck Advertising Proof1950 International L-110 Panel Truck1950 International L-120 truck loaded with milk cans1950 International L-120 truck, W-4 tractor and grain drill1950 International L-160 Truck Delivering Chickens1950 International L-160 truck owned by the S.L. Daniel Furniture and Mattress Factory1950 International LB-110 Truck1950 International Metro and dump Truck Advertising Proof1950 International Metro Trans delivery truck for Thalimers' Department Store1950 International Truck Advertising Proof - Metro1950 International Truck Advertising Proof a1950 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1950 International Truck Advertising Proof with Truck Driver and Boy1950 International Truck Advertising Proof1950 International Truck Driver Talking with a Boy on a Bike1950 International truck filled with firewood1950 International Truck Hauling Corn Cobs1950 International truck loaded with sacks1950 Loading Bales of Hay from International L-Series Truck1950 Loading Eggs into International L-120 Pickup Truck1950 Loading trees into an International L-120 truck1950 Planting trees out of an International L-120 truck1950 Two men loading bags into a International L-120 truck1950's International Haukes1951 ECF-International Harvester1951 International Half Ton Pickup Truck Advertising Poster1951 International Harvester L1101951 International Harvester ICHBus21951 International Harvester L160 ECF1951 International Harvester Touringcar L160 ECF Matser 231951 International Harvester Touringcar L160 ECF Matser 23a1951 International Harvester Truck with Pumpkins1951 International L-110 Truck (115-Inch W.B.)1951 International LD-400 Series Truck and Trailer1951 International Truck Advertising Poster ad1951 International Truck Advertising Poster1951 International Truck Advertising Proof1951 International1951+1953 International Harvester Sightliner and DCO1952 International C-254 Cultivator on Super C Tractor1952 International harvester Company Military Construction Equipment Transport1952 International Harvester Company of Australia Pty. Ltd1952 International M-40 Marine Corps Vehicle with Wrecker Body1952 international M-40 Truck on Hillside1952 International M-41 and M-54 Cargo Vehicles1952 International M-51 Dump Truck at Fort Hood1952 International M-61 to spread asphalt at Wolters Air Force Base1952 International M-62 Wrecker Moving Truck1952 International M-62 Wrecker1952 international M-139 Transporting Bridge-Building Unit1952 International M-246 Wrecker with Jet Fighter Wreckage1952 International Model M-51 Dump Truck1952 International R-110 Panel Truck1952 International R-110 Truck with Pickup Body1952 International Truck Advertising Proof1952 Man Using Super C Tractor with Cultivator1952 Retro Vintage Kitsch 50s School Kid Red School Bus1953 American-Indian Youth Fathered Around International truck1953 IHC R-205 Sleeper Cab Truck and Farmall Super M Tractor1953 International Harvester D11001953 International Harvester R-195 semi-truck outfitted with a Space Saver cab1953 International Harvester standard model R-110 truck with a pickup body and ADA-RAK travels down a wooded roa1953 International Harvester Travelall 4x4 2149 AC1953 international L-120 Truck1953 International Model R-120 truck1953 International Model RP-195 roadliner truck with attached trailmobile oil tanker.1953 International R110 pickup1953 International R-110 Station Wagon1953 International R-120 Truck at Nursery1953 International R-120 truck with a stake body1953 International R-150 Truck with Van Body1953 International R-165 Roadliner1953 International R-170 stake-body truck1953 International R-170 Truck with Ladder1953 International R-183 School Bus1953 International R-195 And R-120 Trucks1953 International R-195 truck outfitted with a semi-trailer tank body1953 International RA-140 milk delivery truck

1953 International Roadliner Oil Tanker1953 International Truck Advertising Proof1953 International Utility1954 IHC red tractor McCormick Farmall1954 International garbage collection truck parked beside a restaurant1954 International Harvester Farmall Super C1954 International KB7 semi-trailer coach1954 International R110 Front End1954 International R110 Truck1954 International R-160 Truck1954 International RA-140 Stand & Drive a1954 International RA-140 Stand & Drive b1954 McCormick No. 141 harvester-thresher (combine) and an International truck1955 Golden Book with International Trucks1955 International Cab Overs1955 International Harvester DC-405-L PIE1955 International Model SM Mounting Metro-Van1955 International R190 with integrated sleeper1955 International R-400 Series trucks1955 International R-Series trucks1955 International S-110 Light Duty Pickup Truck1955 International S-Line Light-Duty Trucks1955 International S-line Medium-Duty Trucks1955 International trucks coastguard1955 Kenworth-Pacific T-126 school bus1956 International DC-4051956 International KS6 Coach1956 International Metro Pepsi Delivery Truck1956 International Model R-202 Oil Field Truck1956 International model RF-190 oil field truck1956 International pickup1956 International Tractors and Truck1956 International Truck Advertising Proof a1956 International Truck Advertising Proof ad1956 International Truck Advertising Proof1956 International V-line COE Heavy-Duty Trucks1956 Workers service oil field equipment International model RDF-192 Truck1957 International A 100 Golden Jubilee Truck1957 International A-100 Truck Postcard1957 International A-110 Truck Postcard1957 International A-120 4x4 Truck Postcard1957 International A-120 Truck Postcard a1957 International A-120 Truck Postcard1957 International A-130 Truck Postcard1957 International A-150 Truck Postcard1957 International A-160 Truck Postcard a1957 International A-160 Truck Postcard1957 International A-180 Truck Postcard a1957 International A-180 Truck Postcard1957 International golden jubilee custom pickup1957 International H 6x6 Rotterdam1957 International Sightliner Trucks1957 International ХМ409, 8x81958 International R-195 Truck-Tilt Cab with Closed Top Van Body1959 International CO Line1959 International DCO1959 International Fire Truck Brochure1959 International Harvester RDC sleeper1959 International Harvester Sightliner 591959 International Heavy-Duty Trucks1959 International Medium and Heavy-Duty Trucks1959 International Medium-Duty Trucks1959 International Truck and Cofferdam1960 International Harvester Travelall & pickup 601960 International Light-Duty Trucks1960 International Truck Advertising Proof1960 International Trucks with Metroette Dari-Van Bodies1960 Universal Engineer Tractor a1960 Universal Engineer Tractor1961 IHC Scout adv1961 International C-line Travelall Station Wagon

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

1961 International Harvester DCOF-404's 250 HP Rolls Royce diesels1961 International Harvester Metro Van1961 International Harvester Travelall1961 International RD-4051961 International Scout 801961 international scout1961 international-englebert1961 Meet the International Scout for all roads, all weather, all uses !!1961+1962 International Light-Duty C-Line Trucks1961–1962 IHC C-120 Travelette1962 1803 Schoolmaster included an International V-345, 8-cylinder, gasoline engine1962 Int Harv product line1962 international 1962 scout1962 International dump truck1962 International Harvester DCOF405 tractor with a day cab1962 International Harvester DCOF405 tractor with a sleeper cab1962 International Loadstar 1600 with Flatbed1962 International Mk-II, 4x41962 International model V220 truck1962 International Scout Diesel Nameplate1962 International Travelall 10001962 International truck1962 International Trucks with Metro Bodies1962-65 International Harvester Scout 80 with the roll-down windows1963 Children with Circus Wagon1963 IH Travelakk Ambulance Conversion1963 International ACO a1963 International ACO b1963 International ACO